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Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection

Creator:
McNamara, Norris  Search this
Moon, Moses  Search this
Names:
Freedom Singers  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Anderson, Marian, 1897-1993  Search this
Baez, Joan  Search this
Baker, Ella, 1903-1986  Search this
Baker, Josephine, 1906-1975  Search this
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Barry, Marion, 1936-  Search this
Bikel, Theodore  Search this
Carawan, Guy  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Donaldson, Ivanhoe  Search this
Dylan, Bob, 1941-  Search this
Ferebee, Dorothy Boulding , 1898?-1980  Search this
Forman, James, 1928-2005  Search this
Gregory, Dick  Search this
Guyot, Lawrence, 1939-  Search this
Hamer, Fannie Lou  Search this
Height , Dorothy I. (Dorothy Irene), 1912-2010  Search this
Horne, Lena  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Lewis, John  Search this
Moses, Robert  Search this
Moses, Robert Parris  Search this
Odetta, 1930-2008  Search this
Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005  Search this
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 1942-  Search this
Reagon, Cordell  Search this
Robinson , Amelia Boynton, 1911-2015  Search this
Robinson, Jackie  Search this
Rustin, Bayard, 1912-1987  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Sherrod, Charles, 1937-  Search this
Shuttlesworth, Fred L., 1922-2011  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Sound recordings
Date:
1963-1964
Summary:
Recorded by Moses Moon (known at the time as Alan Ribback) and assisted by Norris McNamara during 1963 and 1964, the collection includes audio recordings of interviews with civil rights leaders and participants as well as free-style recordings of mass meetings, voter registration events, and other gatherings organized by Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). This collection provides a mostly unfiltered documentation of significant moments in the civil rights movement.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 115 reel to reel audio recordings containing interviews, mass meetings, demonstrations, and conversations concerning the civil rights movement, and in particular the voter registration drives organized by SNCC in Alabama and Mississippi in 1963 and 1964. Mass meetings were recorded in Greenwood, Mississippi; Americus, Georgia; Selma, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Danville, Virginia; Washington, D.C.; Hattiesburg, Mississippi; and Indianola, Mississippi. Major demonstrations recorded include the March on Washington in August of 1963, Freedom Day in Selma, Alabama in October of 1963, and Freedom Day in Hattiesburg, Mississippi in January of 1964. Interviews with SNCC workers include Julian Bond, John Lewis, James Forman, Bruce Gordon, Prathia Hall, Ivanhoe Donaldson, Bob Moses, Avery Williams, Willie Peacock, Bruce Boynton and his mother, as well as dozens of others involved in the movement, who are named in the collection inventory. Many of those interviewed were actively involved in strategizing and carrying out SNCC demonstrations and political actions, and many were victims of death threats, beatings, unlawful arrest, police brutality, and torture and abuse in prison. These interviews contain detailed eyewitness accounts and personal testimony regarding these experiences, as well as personal history and thoughts about the movement, the South, and the future.

It is clear from what we know of the dates and locations of these recordings, as well as from documentation of these events in other sources, that many of these recordings are unique documents of important events in American history, which may also contain the commentary of important political and cultural figures who were involved in the movement. For example, an article by Howard Zinn recounts how an unidentified man recorded James Baldwin on October 7, 1963, Freedom Day in Selma, on the steps of the courthouse. Baldwin was furious at the lack of support from nearby federal agents as state troopers advanced on peaceful demonstrators. One of the tapes dated October 7, 1963, originally labeled "courthouse interviews," appears to be this recoding, although Baldwin is not named. The same article (available in The Howard Zinn Reader) recounts the mass meetings which led up to that demonstration, at which actor Dick Gregory gave a rousing sermon as his wife sat in jail for demonstrating in Selma. The Moses Moon Collection may be the only existing audio recording of that sermon as well as many other sermons and speeches.

Moses Moon changed his name after these recordings were made. He is referred to in the finding aid as Alan Ribback because that name is used on the recordings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.Series 1 is in chronological order to the degree recording dates can be determined, and is based on the locations and dates provided by Moon in his description or gleaned from the recordings themselves and other secondary sources. Series 1 contains 17 groups of recordings.

Moon's original numbers are recorded in the column next to the descriptions. Following the first four Greenwood tapes, which are numbered sequentially, Moon's numbering system took the first two letters of the town in which the recordings were made, a one (1), a decimal, and then a tape number. Numbers preceding the town code refer to the recording day. "N" numbers were later assigned by Moon to the 7" reels only, after the original recordings were made, possibly during editing or when the tapes were made available to the Program in African American Culture.

Series 1, Original Tapes

1. Greenwood, Mississippi; Spring 1963; 4 7" reels

2. Chicago, Illinois; August 9, 12, 1963; 2 5" reels

3. Americus, Georgia; August 17, 1963; 5 5" reels, 1 7" reel

4. Atlanta, Georgia; August 21, 1963; 1 5" reel

5. Washington, D.C.; August 26-28, 1963; 6 5", 8 7" reels

6. Atlanta, Georgia; September 8, 1963; 4 5" reels

7. Selma, Alabama; September 29-October 7, 1963; 11 5" reels, 16 7" reels

8. Gadsden, Alabama; October 23, 1963; 2 5" reels

9. Jackson, Mississippi; Fall/Winter 1963; 11 7" reels

10. Greenwood, Mississippi; c. November 3, 1963; 3 5" reels, 4 7" reels

11. Danville, Virginia; 1963; 6 7" reels

12. Washington, D.C.; soon after November 22, 1963; 6 7" reels

13. Washington, D.C.; late 1963, or possibly during MOW; 10 7" reels

14. Hattiesburg, Mississippi; January 1964; 9 7" reels

15. Indianola, Mississippi; Summer 1964; 2 7" reels

16. Monroe County, Mississippi; August 1, 1964; 4 5" reels

17. Milton, Mississippi; August 16, 1964; 3 5" reels

Series 2, Preservation Masters consists of data DVDs for a portion of the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Moses Moon was born Alan Ribback in 1928. During the 1950s until 1962, Ribback was the proprietor of the Gate of Horn, Chicago's premier folk music club, which featured performers including Bob Gibson, Odetta, Judy Collins, Joan Baez, Jo Mapes, Peter, Paul and Mary, Lenny Bruce, and Shelley Berman. On December 5, 1962, Lenny Bruce was arrested during a performance at the Gate of Horn along with Ribback, George Carlin, and others. As a result of the arrest and Bruce's subsequent conviction for obscenity, the club was closed by the City of Chicago, and Ribback left Chicago with Norris McNamara, an audio technician, to record folk concerts taking place in the South as part of the growing civil rights movement. From the spring of 1963 until the summer of 1964, Ribback and McNamara recorded demonstrations and mass meetings and interviewed civil rights activists, primarily those involved in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Later, Ribback moved to New York and edited his recordings into an album called Movement Soul. Ribback married Delia Moon in 1971, took her last name and changed his first name to Moses. In 1979, Bernice Reagon Johnson, working with the Program on African American Culture at the Smithsonian, contacted Moon and borrowed the recordings of mass meetings for a 1980 program on the voices of the civil rights movement. In the late 1980s, Moon was stricken with a severe case of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which left him paralyzed. Moon donated the entire collection of original recordings shortly before his death in 1993.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The papers of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee are held by the King Library and Archives in Atlanta, Georgia; archives@thekingcenter.org.
Provenance:
Donated by Moses and Delia Moon in 1995.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies must be used. Tapes noted in the container list have digital reference copies in the Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but copyright status unknown. Contact Archives Center staff for additional information. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American civil rights workers.  Search this
African American preaching.  Search this
Mississippi Freedom Project  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Voter registration  Search this
African Americans -- Civil rights  Search this
African American student movements.  Search this
Folk music  Search this
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, D.C., 1963  Search this
Gospel music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Sound recordings
Audiotapes
Citation:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection, 1963-1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0556
See more items in:
Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0556

Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection

Creator:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters  Search this
Names:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection  Search this
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church (Birmingham, Ala.)  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Extent:
159 Video recordings (U-matic 3/4" video recordings)
1 Video recording (VHS 1/2" video recording)
15 Linear feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Videocassettes
Place:
United States -- Race relations
United States -- Rural conditions
Date:
1989-1994
Scope and Contents note:
The collection, which dates from 1989 to 1994 and measures 15 linear feet, documents the reminiscences of elderly members of various African-American churches in the Atlanta area, as well as individual church histories, outstanding personalities of the South, religious expression in the South, and styles of singing and worship. The collection is comprised of audiovisual materials.
Biographical/Historical note:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters, Inc. is the nation's largest regional interfaith cable network. AIB has been providing faith-based communities and nonprofit service organizations access to a larger audience since 1969. AIB remains a destination for international dignitaries and media representatives due to its unique programming platform, which promotes dialogue between all faiths, cultures and socioeconomic backgrounds. Seen in over 1,000,000 homes across 19 metro area counties, AIB is a self-supporting organization and does not allow the solicitation of funds or attacks on other faiths. Viewers can find Christians, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and others presenting their views.
Provenance:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Negro leagues  Search this
Spirituals (Songs)  Search this
Women clergy  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- African Americans  Search this
Choirs (Music)  Search this
Civil rights movements -- United States  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
African American churches  Search this
African American journalists  Search this
African American educators  Search this
African American poets  Search this
African American lawyers  Search this
African American soldiers  Search this
African American social reformers  Search this
African Americans -- Religious life  Search this
African Americans -- Music  Search this
African Americans -- Social life and customs  Search this
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Videocassettes
Citation:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters oral history collection exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.09-001
See more items in:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-09-001

Erna Weill papers

Creator:
Weill, Erna, 1904-  Search this
Names:
Bernstein, Leonard, 1918-1990  Search this
Buber, Martin, 1878-1965  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Meir, Golda, 1898-1978  Search this
Pauling, Linus, 1901-  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
[ca. 1934-1983]
Scope and Contents:
Letters from sitters for Weill portrait busts, including several prominent political figures; sculpture; inventories; photographs; exhibition catalogs; and clippings.
A resume; a New Jersey Senate resolution honoring Weill and a photocopy of a certificate of appreciation from the Teaneck Township Council; correspondence with American Friends of the Hebrew University, Leonard Bernstein, philosopher Martin Buber, Coretta Scott King, Martin Luther King, Fiorello H. La Guardia, Golda Meir, National Portrait Gallery, Linus Pauling, Kalman Yaron of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and others; a handwritten draft of Weill's speech given at a 1983 reception in her honor; lists of Weill's sculpture and the collectors who own her works; exhibition catalogs; news releases; and magazine and newspaper clippings.
Also includes photographs of Martin Buber, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rudolph Serkin, and Elie Wiesel, and of Weill in her studio, as well as photos of her portrait busts of Rabbi Leo Baeck, Leonard Bernstein, Buber, Abraham Heschel, Fiorello H. La Guardia, King, Golda Meir, Linus Pauling, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Wiesel and others, and her figural, architectural and ceremonial sculpture.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor, educator; Teaneck, N.J.
Provenance:
Donated 1983 by Erna Weill.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Sculptors  Search this
Educators -- New Jersey -- Teaneck  Search this
Topic:
Portrait sculpture, American  Search this
Women sculptors -- New Jersey -- Teaneck  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.weilerna
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-weilerna

William Christopher papers

Artist:
Christopher, William R, 1924-1973  Search this
Names:
Selma to Montgomery Rights March (1965 : Selma, Ala.)  Search this
Archer, Osceola  Search this
Crapo, Henry H.  Search this
French, Margaret  Search this
Howard, Charles, 1899-1978  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Perlin, Bernard, 1918-  Search this
Tooker, George, 1920-2011  Search this
Von Mohrenschildt, Dimitri Sergius, 1902-2002  Search this
Extent:
8.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Diaries
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Date:
circa 1920s-circa 1973
Summary:
The William Christopher papers measure 8.2 linear feet and date from circa 1920s to circa 1973. Materials include biographical materials, correspondence, writings and notes, five diaries, subject/project files, printed materials, photographs, numerous sketches and eleven sketchbooks, and five short film reels containing amateur footage of New York City. The subject/project files include correspondence, printed materials, and two additional diaries about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the 1965 civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
Scope and Contents:
The William Christopher papers measure 8.2 linear feet and date from circa 1920s to circa 1973. Materials include biographical materials, correspondence, writings and notes, five diaries, subject/project files, printed materials, photographs, numerous sketches and eleven sketchbooks, and five reels of motion picture films, consisting of amateur footage of New York City. The subject/project files include correspondence, printed materials, and two additional diaries about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the 1965 civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.

Biographical materials include address books, annotated memorabilia, awards and certificates, curriculum vitae and resume materials, and identification materials. Correspondence is with friends and fellow artists, including actress Osceola Archer and Henry Crapo, galleries, and others. Writings and notes include eleven notebooks, miscellaneous undated notes and papers, annotated drafts and writings by William Christopher, and writings by others. There are five diaries written by William Christopher from the 1940s to the 1960s.

Subject files document miscellaneous projects in which Christopher was involved and/or interested, and include several about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. containing correspondence, printed material, and two diaries written by Christopher during his attendance of the Civil Rights march from Selma to Montgomery.

Scattered personal business papers concern artwork sold and loaned and personal finances. Printed materials include clippings, exhibition catalogs and materials, magazines and programs, and posters. Photographs are of William Christopher, Henry Crapo, Margaret French, Charles Howard, Bernard Perlin, George Tooker, male models and figures, furniture, landscapes, buildings, and artwork.

Christopher's papers include over one hundred sketches and watercolors, eleven sketchbooks, an artwork by Dimitri Von Mohrenshildt, and one sketch by George Tooker. Also found among the papers are five film reels made by Christopher for an unfinished project, containing footage of New York City cityscapes and street scenes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1940s-circa 1973 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1947-circa 1973 (1.9 linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1947-1970 (0.4 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 4: Diaries, circa 1940s-circa 1960s (0.2 linear feet; Boxes 3-4)

Series 5: Subject Files, 1943-1972 (0.7 linear feet; Boxes 4, 9)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, circa 1950-circa 1972 (0.3 linear feet; Box 4)

Series 7: Printed Material, circa 1950s-circa 1972 (1.4 linear feet; Boxes 4-5, 9, OV12)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1920s-circa 1970s (0.7 linear feet; Boxes 6, 8, MGP 4)

Series 9: Artwork and Sketchbooks, circa 1940s-circa 1970s (1.6 linear feet; Boxes 6-8, OV10-11, 13-18)

Series 10: Unidentified Project, Motion Picture Films, 1961 (0.5 linear feet; FC 19-23)
Biographical / Historical:
William Christopher was a painter, art instructor, and Civil Rights activist living and working in New York, New Hampshire, and Vermont. He was born in Columbus, Georgia on March 4, 1924, and served in the U. S. Navy from 1941 to 1943.

Aided by grants and scholarships, Christopher studied in France at the Sorbonne, Academie Julian, and the Ecoles d'Art Americaines between 1946-1948. While there, he also studied with Ossip Zadkine. He returned to New York and studied with Amedee Ozenfant and Hans Hofmann between 1948 and 1950.

Christopher's painting was greatly influenced by his time spent in Paris and New York, and his later involvement with the Civil Rights movement, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the march in Selma in 1965. His first U. S. solo exhibition was in 1952 at the Roko Gallery in New York, and he exhibited widely in New York, Boston, Washington, D.C. at the Nexus Gallery, the Boston Arts Festival, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Joan Peterson Gallery, Galeria Juana Mordo, and the Whitney Museum of American Art, among others. In 1964, Christopher was invited to present his paintings to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. during the presentation of Dr. King's papers to Boston University. This is where Christopher met King.

Christopher moved to Hartland, Vermont in 1960, with his partner painter George Tooker. He remained there for the rest of his life. Christopher died in 1973.
Provenance:
William Christopher donated his papers to the Archives of American Art in 1972.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.

Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Civil rights demonstrations -- Alabama -- Selma  Search this
Civil rights -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Diaries
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Citation:
William Christopher papers, circa 1920s-circa 1973. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.chriwill
See more items in:
William Christopher papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-chriwill
Online Media:

Rev. H. Rhett James papers

Creator:
James, H. Rhett, Rev.  Search this
Names:
Connally, John Bowden, 1917-1993  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert H. (Hubert Horatio), 1911-1978  Search this
James, H. Rhett, Rev.  Search this
Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Taylor, Hobart, 1920-  Search this
Extent:
1.18 Linear feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color photographs
Newsletters
Audiocassettes
Books
Photographic prints
Oral histories (document genres)
Awards
Signatures (names)
Videocassettes
Resumes
Ephemera
Invitations
Correspondence
Clippings
Place:
Dallas (Tex.)
Date:
circa 1961-2004
Summary:
The collection, which measures 1.18 linear feet and dates from circa 1961-2004, documents the personal life and professional activities of Rev. H. Rhett James. The collection is comprised of awards, photographs, books, newspaper clippings, correspondence, invitations, newsletters, oral histories, resumes, audio- and videocassettes, and ephemera.
Scope and Contents note:
The Reverend H. Rhett James papers, which date from 1961 to 2004, document the personal and professional life of Reverend H. Rhett James. Very notable are the letters and correspondence between Reverend H. Rhett James and the United States of America President, Lyndon B. Johnson, and his cabinet. The papers include an oral history, a C.V., letters and correspondence, awards, black-and-white photographs, books, clippings. color photographs, ephemera, invitations, newsletters, photographic prints, signatures, audio cassettes, and videocassettes.
Arrangement note:
The collection is organized into four series: Series 1, Biographical, Series 2, Correspondence, Series 3, Writings, Series 4, Sound Recordings, and Series 5, Photogrpahs. One box contains Series 1, 2, and 3. Box 2 contains Series 3, and Box 4 contains Series 5.

Series 1, Biographical, 1961-2004, is comprised of a typed oral history interview with Dr. H. Rhett James, on December 21, 2002, for the Dallas Public Library's Oral History Project (Box 1/Folder 1), a typed C.V. (Box 1/Folder 2), and other biographical information in the form of newsletters, booklets, certificates, visitor passes, and card invitations.

Series 2, Correspondence, 1962-1999, is arranged alphabetically by correspondent's last name. It is comprised of typed correspondence and letters on various political and community issues. Members of Lyndon b. Johnson's administration figure prominently in this series. The miscellaneous folders contain reproduced correspondence and letters from the Lyndon B. Johnson museum. A set of original envelopes are at the end of folder 15.

Series 3, Writings, 1972, 1992, 1997, is comprised of two books and a NAACP position paper on Dallas Public Schools by Reverend H. Rhett James. The books are titled, The Audacity to Survive and Stamp your own Passport.

Series 4, Sound Recordings, 1972, 1975, 1981, undated, is comprised of 60 audio cassettes in a box. Three notable cassettes in the box contain Jesse Jackson sermons on Civil Rights, "Silver" Rights, social justice, the black church's role in Black Amerca, and religion's role in America. A majority of the tapes are sermons by H. Rhett James on mind consciousness, spiritual regeneration, empowerment, the Gospel, civil rights, social justice, and ecomonic betterment.

Series 5, Photographs, is comprised of autographed photographs by political personage, family photographs, and other photographs including H. Rhett James with prominent figures, notably one with Martin Luther King Jr. Autographed photographs include Lyndon B Johnson, Benjamin Hoover, ans Hubert Humphrey.
Biographical/Historical note:
Reverend H. Rhett James was an ardent pastor,African-American educator, and community activist, who played a role in Dallas and the larger Texas community during the Civil Rights era.

Reverend H. Rhett James (1928-2004) was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on December 1, 1928. He received his early education in the public schools of Topeka, Kansas, Nashville, Tennessee and San Antonio, Texas, he enrolled at Virginia Union University, Richomond Virginia. Upon graduation (Bachelor's 1950), he accepted a teaching position in San Antonio, and became the first African American to receive the Masters of Education Degree from Our Lady of the Lake College (1951).

Returning to his Alma Mater, Virginia Union, he taught in the Department of Education and Psychology and received his Masters of Divinty Degree (1958). Moving to Dallas to accept the pastorate of New Hope Baptist church, he enrolled in the Brite College, T.C.U. and became the first African American to receive the Masters of Theology Degree (1961). He rceived his Ph.D. degree in Urban Administration frm the University of Texas at Arlingotn (1981). He served as pastor of New Hope Baptist church until his retirement in 1986.

As a political and community activist, he headed scores of local organizations working for desegregation and human rights causes. He headed the N.A.A.C.P through severe local desegregation and human rights causes; founder and twelve year Board President of the Dallas O.I.C. (Opportunities Industrialization Center); the first black president of the Dallas War on Poverty (DCCAC); founding Board member of the Dallas Urban League and Board and Budget committee member for the Dallas United Way, ACLU, Southern Historical Association, UNCF and YMCA boards.

Rverend H. Rhett James died on March 14, 2004. He left one daughter and three sons.
Rights:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans -- Education  Search this
African American religious leaders  Search this
African American political activists  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
African Americans -- Employment  Search this
School integration  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color photographs
Newsletters
Audiocassettes
Books
Photographic prints
Oral histories (document genres)
Awards
Signatures (names)
Videocassettes
Resumes
Ephemera
Invitations
Correspondence
Clippings
Citation:
Rev. H. Rhett James papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Gregory James.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-037
See more items in:
Rev. H. Rhett James papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-037

Susie Paige Afro-American Greeting Card Collection

Collector:
Paige, Susie (bookseller)  Search this
Names:
Corey, Russell C.  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Diplomas
Greeting cards
Date:
1900-1984
bulk 1960-1984
Summary:
Collection primarily consists of greeting cards and postcards but also includes political literature and a high school diploma relating to African Americans and their history and culture in American society.
Scope and Contents:
31 greeting cards, 76 postcards, and other items, such as political literature, a Martin Luther King greeting card, and a high school diploma. All of the material has images or information concerning African Americans. The bulk of the material was produced after 1960, but some events and personalities portrayed date back to the turn of the 20th century.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Susie Paige, a Philadelphia bookseller, collected these materials over three decades. She sold them to the National Museum of American History in 1985. The collection is notable for the wide range of African American personalities, holidays and events depicted.

The collection includes a single card (circa 1918) and a rhyme book donated by Mr. Russell C. Carey.
Related Materials:
National Museum of American History, Archives Center

Program in African American Culture NMAH.AC0408

African American Portrait Tintypes NMAH.AC0515

African American Snapshots NMAH.AC0732

African American Cosmetic and Food Label Collection NMAH.AC0480

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, subject Afro-Americana NMAH.AC0060

African American Family Photograph Collection NMAH.AC1127

Scurlock Studio Records NMAH.AC0618

David Hoffman/Boaz Postcard Collection NMAH.AC0281
Provenance:
National Museum of American History purchased the collection from Susie Paige, of the Corner Store, in 1985.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Political literature  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Diplomas
Greeting cards
Citation:
Susie Paige Afro-American Greeting Card Collection, 1900-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0263
See more items in:
Susie Paige Afro-American Greeting Card Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0263
Online Media:

[Martin Luther King, Jr. at Howard University : photonegative.]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 1950-1960  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
November 1957
Scope and Contents:
No ink on negative. Martin Luther King, Jr. standing in front of a congregation, at Rankin Memorial Hall, Howard University, holding the Bible. Kodak -- Safety Film" edge imprint. No Scurlock number.
General:
Scan much too dark.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Clergy -- United States  Search this
Chapels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2562
Online Media:

[Martin Luther King, Jr. with a group of other men : photonegative.]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 77
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
November 1957
Scope and Contents:
Martin Luther King, Jr. with a group of men in suits. "Kodak -- Safety Film" edge imprint. No Scurlock number.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Clergy -- United States  Search this
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2564
Online Media:

[Martin Luther King, Jr. shaking hands : black-and-white photonegative.]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
November 1957
Scope and Contents:
[Martin Luther King, Jr. shaking hands with a woman in the Howard University chapel.] No ink on negative. No Scurlock number. "Kodak -- Safety Film" edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Clergy -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2566
Online Media:

[Martin Luther King, Jr., from the back : black-and-white photonegative.]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
November 1957
Scope and Contents:
No ink on negative. Martin Luther King, Jr., looking out on the congregation from the lectern at the Howard University chapel, from the back. "Kodak--Safety Film" edge imprint. No Scurlock number.
General:
Scan much too dark: to be re-scanned.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Clergy -- United States  Search this
Chapels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2568
Online Media:

Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. at Howard University [black-and-white photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 77
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
December 1956
Scope and Contents:
No ink on negative, no Scurlock number. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. standing in the chapel at Howard University. " Kodak -- Safety -- Film" edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Clergy -- United States  Search this
Chapels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2586
Online Media:

Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. at Howard University [photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 77
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
December 1956
Scope and Contents:
No ink on negative, no Scurlock number. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. at the pulpit in the Howard University chapel. [Unrecorded edge imprint.]
Exhibitions Note:
Reproduction print exhibited in "The Scurlock Studio and Black Washington: Picturing the Promise," NMAAHC Gallery, NMAH, January 30 - November 15, 2009; image print reproduced in exhibit's companion book.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Clergy -- United States  Search this
Chapels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2588
Online Media:

Rev[erend] Martin Luther King at H[oward] U[niversity] (Chapel & Luncheon), Nov[ember] 1957. [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Howard University  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5".)
Container:
Box 94
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
New coccine (or crocein scarlet) dye
Retouching
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
November 1957
Scope and Contents:
Group of men and women seated at a long dining table laid with crockery and silverware. Martin Luther King Jr. is seated in the middle of the right side of the table. A man in a white jacket, possibly a waiter, stands to the side. No ink on negative, no Scurlock number. "KODAK -- SAFETY -- FILM" edge imprint. Retouched with red coccine.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dinners and dining  Search this
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Clergy -- United States  Search this
African American clergy -- 20th century.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
New Coccine (or Crocein Scarlet) dye
Retouching -- Dye
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2928
Online Media:

What would Martin say? / Clarence B. Jones and Joel Engel

Author:
Jones, Clarence B  Search this
Engel, Joel 1952-  Search this
Subject:
King, Martin Luther Jr. 1929-1968 Political and social views  Search this
King, Martin Luther Jr. 1929-1968 Assassination  Search this
Physical description:
xvi, 232 p. ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2008
C2008
21st century
Topic:
African Americans--Social conditions  Search this
Illegal aliens--Social conditions  Search this
Antisemitism  Search this
Terrorism--Government policy  Search this
Iraq War, 2003-2011--Social aspects  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Undocumented immigrants  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_895460

Stephen Somerstein Selma to Montgomery March Photographs

Photographer:
Somerstein, Stephen  Search this
Names:
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (U.S.)  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
Baez, Joan  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Lewis, John  Search this
Extent:
12 Photographic prints
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1965
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the march of many Americans from Selma to Montgomery Alabama in 1965 during the Civil Rights March. It focuses mainly on photographs and an original book cover from Stephen Somerstein. There are twelve black and white images, 11" x 14", documenting the 1965 Selma to Montgomery Civil Rights March. Some of the photographs include Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Other images include John Lewis of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, minister and civil rights leader Ralph D. Abernathy, and singer Joan Baez.

This collection is arranged into two folders.

Folder 1: Photographs, 1965 A collection of 12 black and white images showcasing what life was like for the marchers headed to Montgomery to Selma.

Folder 2: Book Cover, 1965

An original book cover which served as the enclosure for the images.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Stephen Somerstein was born in 1941 in New York City, Somerstein is best known for his photographic work capturing the march from Selma to Montgomery. He began his passion for photography while studying at the City University of New York while pursuing a degree in physics. In college Stephen ultimately became the managing editor for the university newspaper entitled "Main Events". In 1965, with the rise in public consciousness in the importance of the civil rights movement and Dr. King's pursuit of equal opportunity and voting rights, Stephen decided to journey to Alabama to cover the Selma to Montgomery civil rights march for his collegiat newspapper. Stephen was 24 years old when he shot the iconic images of the march on Selma.

It was an historic occasion that greatly tested his ability to shape beautiful and meaningful images, while on a short film quota, with rapidly evolving photo-opportunities. The 1965 Selma to Montgomery Civil Rights March (actually three separate marches) was the culmination of a multi-year protest against alleged discriminatory voting registration practices in Dallas County, Alabama. Images in the news media of violence that took place in response to the march shocked Americans and influenced civil rights legislation and enforcement. His body of work spans a continuous thread from the 1960's to the present, covering cultural, social and political subjects.
Provenance:
Stephen Somerstein
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
Stephen Somerstein Selma to Montgomery March Photographs, 1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1300
See more items in:
Stephen Somerstein Selma to Montgomery March Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1300
Online Media:

Ed King Collection of Civil Rights Material

Creator:
King, Ed  Search this
Names:
Council of Federated Organizations.  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cartoons (humorous images)
Civil court records
Affidavits
Comic books
Place:
Mississippi -- 1960-1970
Date:
1961-1970.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of this collection contains affidavits and legal papers filed in civil action suits which document acts of violence committed against Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) workers between 1961 and 1964. All activity documented occurred in Mississippi, and much of the violence that occurred was inflicted by police and white civilians. Also contained in this collection are materials relating to COFO, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, comprising a mission statement, and a document sent to the SNCC organization pertaining to voter registration of African-Americans living in Mississippi, all of which reflect the effort of the MFDP to have African-American Congressmen elected in Mississippi.

The last item in the half document box is a pamphlet entitled "Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story." Created in cartoon format, it appears to target a younger audience. The oversize box contains Civil Rights newspapers published in Mississippi. Included are issues of "The Kudzu," the "Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Newsletter," and the AMississippi Free Press."

This primary source material from COFO and MFDP help document the massive, non-violent struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi in the early 1960's. The collection confirms evidence of backlash demonstrated by intolerance and violence that occurred as a result of this struggle.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) arose from the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), founded in 1960 to coordinate student sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina and elsewhere. COFO, was organized by Robert Moses in 1961, to secure the release of Freedom Riders in Mississippi. Many COFO workers were originally members of SNCC. COFO's goal was to increase the percentage of registered African-American voters in Mississippi, from the low 7% that existed in 1964.

In the summer of 1964, COFO was a key player in the organization of the Mississippi Summer Project. Prior to the summer, many white and African-American students, primarily from the South and the Northeast, organized to lead demonstrations, and to create political awareness among the large African-American population in Mississippi. During the summer, COFO was successful in setting up "freedom schools" and community centers throughout the state. This encouraged the emergence of young leaders who would teach African-Americans to articulate their needs and discontents within the existing socio-political structure in Mississippi. This activity, however, produced a severe white backlash, and many acts of violence occurred against COFO workers. These actions, many of them police instigated, are documented in this collection through affidavits and other legal documents on civil action.

Another accomplishment of COFO was the establishment of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. The MFDP enrolled the majority of African-Americans who were systematically denied access to the delegate selection process of the regular Mississippi Democratic Party (MDP). The MFDP organized itself along the same lines, contained many of the same rules, and divided into the same Congressional districts as the MDP. MFDP's goal, however, was to contest seats in Congress traditionally held by white Mississippians, in order to create a more equal representation of the state as a whole.

Edwin King was a white Methodist minister originally from Vicksburg, MI. Although raised with a traditional Mississippi upbringing, he had the opportunity, while attending Milsap College, to work with black students from Tougaloo College. This had a profound influence on his life. When he and his wife were graduated from Milsap College in the early '50's, they attended Boston University for graduate studies in seminary and social work, respectively, and decided that they could no longer live in the South. They were conscientious objectors to the racist attitudes of their neighbors and did not want to confront them (the neighbors or the attitudes). However, this was changed by a serendipitous dinner with Reverend Abernathy. Reverend King and several others were having dinner at a black restaurant in Montgomery, Alabama when everyone in the party was arrested. From that time, Reverend King and his wife were deeply involved in the Civil Rights Movement.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Ed King on September 17, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements -- 1960-1970 -- Mississippi  Search this
Race relations -- 1960-1970 -- Mississippi  Search this
Violence -- 1960-1970 -- Mississippi  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Civil court records -- 1960-1970
Affidavits
Comic books
Citation:
Ed King Collection of Civil Rights Material, 1961-1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0559
See more items in:
Ed King Collection of Civil Rights Material
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0559
Online Media:

Untitled: School building, MLK poster, Dakar,Senegal

Creator:
Coppin, Kerry Stuart  Search this
Names:
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Collection Creator:
Coppin, Kerry Stuart  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (giclée print , b&w, 13 x 19 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Iris prints
Place:
Senegal -- Social life and customs
Date:
2001 (printed 2006)
Scope and Contents:
A painting of Martin Luther King, Jr. on the wall of a school in Dakar, Senegal.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Photographs
Iris prints
Collection Citation:
Kerry Stuart Coppin photographs, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Kerry Stuart Coppin.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-053, Item ACMA 2006.7029.42
See more items in:
Kerry Stuart Coppin photographs
Kerry Stuart Coppin photographs / Photographs / Prints
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-053-ref554

James A. Baldwin Collection

Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Names:
Baldwin, Daniel  Search this
Baldwin, David  Search this
Dandridge, Frank  Search this
Evers, Charles  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Whaley, Paula Baldwin  Search this
Extent:
4.29 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
France
Turkey
Venice (Italy)
Date:
1935-1988
Summary:
James Baldwin was a writer and an activist and is one of the most prominent voices from his generation to bring light to issues of racial and sexual discrimination. This collection contains correspondence, photographs, manuscripts, and awards. The collection provides insight into his family, writing process, and travels during his lifetime.
Scope and Contents:
The James Baldwin Collection provides insight into Baldwin's life as a writer and activist. The collection contains correspondence, photographs, manuscripts, and awards. A significant portion of the collection are photographs by photojournalist Frank Dandridge. The collection focuses on Baldwin's grade school educational career, his writing process, as well as his thoughts about social equality and civil rights.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into six series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content. Series 6 has been broken down into a smaller subseries dedicated to the Frank Dandridge photographic prints. Series 8: Oversize Materials acts as an extension of the first five series, with materials that could not be housed with their corresponding materials due to size constraints. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Biographical Sketch:
James Arthur Baldwin (1924–1987) was born in Harlem, New York, on August 2, 1924, to Emma Berdis Jones, originally from Princess Anne, Maryland. He was reared by his mother and stepfather David Baldwin, whom Baldwin referred to as his father and whom he describes as extremely strict. He did not know his biological father. As the oldest of nine children, Baldwin took seriously the responsibility of being a big brother and his mother's right hand. He cared for and protected his three younger brothers and five sisters in a household governed by the rigid rules of their father, a Baptist preacher, originally from New Orleans, Louisiana.

Between the ages of fourteen and sixteen, Baldwin, himself, became a preacher at the Fireside Pentecostal Assembly, where he developed a celebrated preaching style. Baldwin's brief experience in the church would have a sustained impact on his rhetorical style and on the themes, symbols, and biblical allusions in his writings. Baldwin's Pentecostal experience is, in fact, essential to understanding his complex views on Christianity, which he espoused in his speeches and publications. His experience would also serve in part as the underpinnings of his stance on religion. In The Fire Next Time, Baldwin proclaims, "If the concept of God has any validity or any use, it can only be to make us larger, freer, and more loving. If God cannot do this, it is time we got rid of Him." During his early teen years, Baldwin attended Frederick Douglass Junior High School, where he met his French teacher and mentor Countee Cullen, who achieved prominence as a poet of the Harlem Renaissance. Baldwin went on to DeWitt Clinton High School, where he edited the school newspaper The Magpie and participated in the literary club, just as Cullen had done when he was a student there. By high school graduation, he had met his close friends at DeWitt Clinton—Richard Avedon, Emile Capouya, and Sol Stein.

The 1940s marked several turning points in Baldwin's life. In 1942, he graduated from high school, and a year later he witnessed the New York Race Riots and experienced the death of his father. After this emotional loss, Baldwin felt more than ever it was important to play father figure to his siblings. He worked at menial jobs during the day, and at night he played guitar in Greenwich Village cafes and wrote long hours, trying to fulfill his dream of becoming a writer.

In 1944, Baldwin met Richard Wright, whose written work spoke to his heart and who would also become a mentor. Baldwin appreciated Wright's strong opinions about race in America, and he greatly valued their intellectual exchange. Wright helped Baldwin to obtain a fellowship to write his first novel, which enabled him to leave for Paris in 1948, where the older writer had relocated a few years earlier. However, the two were often at odds about the ways in which they approached race in their work. Baldwin wrote three essays explicating his critique of Wright's "protest art." This conflict eventually led to the demise of their friendship.

In 1948, at age twenty-four, Baldwin left the United States to live in Paris, France, as he could not tolerate the racial and sexual discrimination he experienced on a daily basis. Professor Kendall Thomas of Columbia Law School explains that Baldwin left his country because of racism and Harlem because of homophobia--two aspects of his identity that made him a frequent target of beatings by local youth and the police. Years later, when asked about his departure, Baldwin explained in a Paris Review interview: "My luck was running out. I was going to go to jail, I was going to kill somebody or be killed" (1984). In Paris, Baldwin began to interact with other writers. He reconnected with Richard Wright, and for the first time, he met Maya Angelou, with whom he maintained a close relationship.

Baldwin would spend the next forty years abroad, where he wrote and published most of his works. Between 1960 and 1970, Baldwin lived regularly in Istanbul, Turkey. Still, the violence and assassinations in the United States during the politically turbulent 1960s took an emotional toll on Baldwin. After the assassination of his three friends—Medgar Evers in 1963, Malcolm X in 1965, and Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968—Baldwin suffered an emotional breakdown and eventually moved to the South of France to recuperate. In 1970, he settled in a house in the village of St. Paul de Vence, where he would live the rest of his life.

During his years abroad, Baldwin returned to the United States frequently and considered himself a "transatlantic commuter." In 1955, he signed a lease for an apartment at 63 West 97th Street in New York, and from the mid 1960s on, he maintained a home at 137 West 71st Street in Manhattan. When Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in 1968, Baldwin was actually living in California. Many of Baldwin's extended visits were to spend time with his large and beloved family and to participate in Civil Rights Movement events. He attended the March on Washington in 1963 and the Selma to Montgomery March in 1965. Baldwin also participated in literary events, such as the 1965 conference titled "The Negro Writer's Vision of America" sponsored by the New School of Social Research in New York. During his presentation, Baldwin addressed the conference theme, stating, "I know a story which America denies. And it denies it for the very good reason that my story, once told, confronts it with the truth about itself. In fact, my story, once told, will liberate America. The possibility of liberation—the necessity of becoming responsible for one's own life—is what most people most profoundly fear."

Baldwin passed away on November 30, 1987, in his house in St. Paul de Vence after a short battle with stomach cancer. A week later, he was laid to rest at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City and buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in New York. Family members and friends participated in a large service during which Toni Morrison, Amiri Baraka, and Maya Angelou delivered touching remarks about their friend and brother. Angelou stated that Baldwin's love "opened the unusual door for me, and I am blessed that James Baldwin was my brother."

Literary and Civil Rights Timeline

1924 -- Born August 2nd

1938 -- Graduates from Frederick Douglass Junior High School, where his early ambitions in writing were encouraged by his teacher Countee Cullen, the Harlem Renaissance poet

1942 -- Graduates from DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was a member of the literary club and edited the school newspaper The Magpie

1944 -- Meets writer Richard Wright, who refers Baldwin's first draft of Go Tell It On The Mountain to Harper and Brothers publishing house

1945 -- Receives a $500.00 Saxton Fellowship from Harper and Brothers; the first draft of Go Tell It On The Mountain is rejected by Harper and Doubleday; Baldwin begins writing reviews for The Nation and The New Leader

1947 -- Publishes essay "History as Nightmare" in The New Leader

1948 -- Publishes essay "The Harlem Ghetto" and short story "Previous Condition" in Commentary; Baldwin moves to Paris

1949 -- Publishes "Everybody's Protest Novel," in which he critics Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and Richard Wright's Native Son; jailed in Paris for eight days for theft (falsely accused of stealing hotel bed sheets)

1951 -- Publishes "Many Thousands Gone" in the Partisan Review; attack on Richard Wright leads to breakup; Baldwin completes Go Tell It On the Mountain in Switzerland, where he stayed three months with Swiss friend and lover Lucien Happersberger

1953 -- Publishes "Stranger in the Village" in Harper's Magazine; the essay is based on his stay in Switzerland

1954 -- Wins Guggenheim Fellowship; attends MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire

1955 -- Attends Yadao, an artists' community in Sarasota Springs, New York; revises Amen Corner during Howard University rehearsals and publishes it the same year; also publishes the collection of essays Notes of a Native Son and an autobiographical narrative "Equal in Paris," about being jailed in Paris in 1949, originally published in Commentary magazine

1956 -- Publishes Giovanni's Room with Dial Press; accepts National Institute of Arts and Letters Award and a Partisan Review fellowship; covers First Conference of Negro and African Writers and Artists at the Sorbonne, sponsored by Presence Africanize

1957 -- Publishes "Sonny's Blues" in the Partisan Review; Travels to the South on assignment for the Partisan Review, where he interviews student protests and meets with Martin Luther King, Jr.

1959 -- Awarded a two-year Ford Foundation grand to complete Another Country; Interviews film director Ingmar Bergman in Sweden; publishes essay "A Letter From the South: Nobody Knows My Name" in the Partisan Review ; apprentice on Elia Kazan's productions of Sweet Bird of Youth and J.B.

1960 -- Covers sit-ins in Tallahassee, Florida; interviews student at Florida A & M; published "They Can't Turn Back" in Mademoiselle Magazine; Richard Wright dies suddenly

1961 -- Publishes second collection of essays Nobody Knows My Name, Dial Press; publishes the essay "Alas, Poor Richard," another scathing critic of Richard Wright's work; appears on radio and television to promote Nobody Knows My Name and to speak about civil rights; meets Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X; completes Another Country; Swiss television produces "Stranger in the Village"; publishes the "Black Boy Looks at the White Boy"; makes first visit to Turkey at the invitation of Turkish actor Engin Cezzar

1962 -- Publishes Another Country, Dial Press, and it becomes a national best seller; Baldwin travels to West Africa; "Letter from a Region in My Mind" published in The New Yorker, later printed in The Fire Next Time as "Down at the Cross"

1963 -- Publishes The Fire Next Time to national acclaim; appears on the cover of May 17th issue of Time magazine; NAACP Field Secretary and friend Medgar Evers is assassinated on June 12 outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi; starts lecture tour for CORE in the South and the North; registers voters in Alabama for SNCC; wins Polk Memorial Award for outstanding magazine journalism; participates in March on Washington; travels to Nairobi, Kenya, with Harry Belafonte and Sidney Poitier to celebrate Kenya's independence

1964 -- Elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters; publishes the play Blues for Mr. Charlie, Dial Press, and theater production of Blues for Mr. Charlie appears at the historic American National Theater and Academy (ANTA) in New York; publishes Nothing Personal with photographer and high school friend Richard Avedon, Atheneum Books

1965 -- Debates William F. Buckley at Cambridge and receives standing ovation for his response to "Is the American Dream at the Expense of the American Negro?"; Malcolm X is assassinated in the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity; Baldwin attends Selma to Montgomery March; publishes Going to Meet the Man, Dial Press; The play The Amen Corner is performed in New York, Israel, and Europe

1968 -- Publishes the novel Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone, Dial Press; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee; Baldwin speaks at the World Council of Churches in Sweden against apartheid in South Africa; testifies at a Congressional hearing in support of a commission to establish a national museum of African American history and culture; receives personal attacks from Soul on Ice author Eldridge Cleaver

1969 -- Publishes New York Times article "The Price May Be Too High" about black writers in a white publishing industry; directs John Herbert's "Fortune and Men's Eyes" in Istanbul, Turkey

1970 -- Becomes the subject of photographs and a short film From Another Place , both by Sedat Pakay in Istanbul; holds conversations with anthropologist Margaret Mead titled "A Rap On Race"

1971 -- Baldwin and anthropologist Margaret Mead publish the transcript of conversations held in New York in 1970 in a co-authored book titled A Rap On Race; publishes "An Open Letter to My Sister Angela Davis" in New York Times Review of Books; moves to a house in St. Paul de Vence in the South of France

1972 -- Publishes No Name In The Street, Dial Press; publishes the screenplay One Day When I Was Lost, based on Alex Haley's bestselling classic The Autobiography of Malcolm X .

1973 -- Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates secures rare interview with James Baldwin and Josephine Baker together in James Baldwin's house in St. Paul de Vence, France; Baldwin appears with television host and poet Nikki Giovanni on "Soul," and the transcript is published as a dialogue

1974 -- Publishes If Beale Street Could Talk, Dial Press; becomes the third recipient (after writer Tennessee Williams and dancer Martha Graham) of the prestigious Centennial Medal awarded to "The Artist As Prophet" by the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York

1976 -- Publishes what would be his only children's book Little Man, Little Man: A Story of Childhood, with illustrations by Yoran Cazac, Dial Press; publishes the book-length essay The Devil Finds Work

1978 -- Teaches a spring course in contemporary literature at Bowling Green State University in Ohio (returns in the fall of 1979 and 1981); awarded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Medal

1979 -- Publishes Just Above My Head, his sixth and last novel, Dial Press; goes into seclusion after friend and mentor Beauford Delaney dies in March; teaches at UC Berkeley in the spring and speaks in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Santa Barbara; begins writing and lecturing on black English; publishes "Open Letter to the Born Again" in The Nation; meets Chinua Achebe at the University of Florida, African Literature Association; travels throughout the South

1982 -- Film makers Dick Fontaine and Pat Harley release television documentary of Baldwin' trip through the South "I Heard It Through The Grapevine"

1983 -- Publishes selected poems in Jimmy's Blues, St. Martin's Press; teaches Afro American Studies at University of Amherst in the fall

1984 -- Hospitalized for exhaustion; works on the play The Welcome Table

1985 -- Publishes "Freaks and the American Ideal of Manhood" in Playboy; American Playhouse dramatizes Go Tell It On The Mountain; publishes The Evidence of Things Not Seen, Holt, Rinehart & Winston Publishing; publishes The Price of the Ticket: Collected Non-Fiction, 1948–1985, St. Martin's Press

1986 -- Receives France's highest civilian recognition, the Legion of Honor; travels to the Soviet Union for an international conference and to London for a production of Amen Corner ; suffers fatigue and becomes ill

1987 -- Returns to St. Paul de Vence and is diagnosed with cancer of the esophagus, which spreads to the stomach; grants his last interview to poet and journalist Quincy Troop in mid-November in bed at his home; dies November 30 and his friend and assistant publicly announces his death December 1; memorials are held in St. Paul de Vence and Harlem; is eulogized by Maya Angelou, Toni Morrison, and Amiri Baraka at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York; body buried at Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, New York
Provenance:
Acquired as a purchase from Baldwin's sister, Paula Baldwin Whaley in 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Literature  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Theater  Search this
LGBTQ  Search this
Activism  Search this
Awards  Search this
Education  Search this
Communication  Search this
Families  Search this
finance  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Justice  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Politics  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Sexuality  Search this
Travel  Search this
Identity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2017.47
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47
Online Media:

ABC News Broadcast: Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King

Creator:
ABC News  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Ebenezer Baptist Church (Atlanta, Ga.)  Search this
Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Collection Creator:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Speeches
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1968
Scope and Contents:
ABC News Washington broadcast covers riots, civil rights, and other news post-assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King (MLK). The focus of the broadcast is the spirit of Dr. King's optimism and a tribute to MLK via songs, speeches, prayer by others. The recording also includes coverage from Morehouse College and of Dr. King's funeral at Ebenezer Baptist Church (Atlanta, GA), including sermon delivered by Rev. Ralph Abernathy.
News broadcast. Part of Broadcast Programs. Undated.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Speeches
Citation:
ABC News Broadcast: Tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King, Record Group 09-037, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.09-037, Item ACMA AV003516-1
See more items in:
Broadcast Programs
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-09-037-ref11

Martin Luther King Speaks: Birthday Tribute

Creator:
Southern Christian Leadership Conference  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Collection Creator:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
3 Sound recordings (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Radio programs
Speeches
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1969
Scope and Contents:
The radio broadcast program - Martin Luther King Speaks - consists of clips from speeches delivered by Martin Luther King; the program broadcasted weekly. This particular episode of Martin Luther King Speaks contains clips of speeches which highlight MLK's calls for nonviolent, revolutionary change, including questioning the whole of society and seeing the work of Jesus Christ as revolutionary; love over hate; and truth and justice over fear. The episode broadcasted on Martin Luther King Sunday and was specifically produced as a birthday tribute with information on how listeners can make Martin Luther King's birthday - January 15 - a national holiday. One of the recordings includes, after full broadcast of Martin Luther King Speaks, a portion of MLK's Drum Major speech about what MLK would like to be said at his funeral.
Radio broadcast program. Part of Broadcast Programs. Broadcast date (from contents of recording): 19690112. AV003516, AV003533: same content, undated. AV003481: includes a portion of MLK's Drum Major speech from 003010-003348, undated.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003481

ACMA AV003533
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Christianity  Search this
Social justice  Search this
Social change  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Radio programs
Speeches
Citation:
Martin Luther King Speaks: Birthday Tribute, Record Group 09-037, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.09-037, Item ACMA AV003516-2
See more items in:
Broadcast Programs
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-09-037-ref12

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