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Grayce Uyehara Papers

Topic:
Social Justice
Creator:
Uyehara, Grayce  Search this
Donor:
Uyehara, Paul M.  Search this
Uyehara, Paul M.  Search this
Names:
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Culture:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence)
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports
Slides
Speeches
Videocassettes
Date:
1929-2008
Summary:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.
Content Description:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The collection materials span different social justice topics that Uyehara was involved with outside of Japanese American communities. Geographically, the materials are primarily from her time in Stockton, California; Rohwer, Arkansas; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C., as well as other places.

The papers include materials relating to Uyehara's own incarceration; her lobbying work with the Japanese American Citizens League; other activism and grass roots activities; speeches; campaign materials; articles; memos; financial reports; work journals; photographs of the Uyeharas; community newspapers; film slides of redress; personal letters; internal correspondence; leadership conference notes; educational materials; interviews; awards; student theses; pamphlets; booklets; oral histories; maps; meeting minutes; newsletters; directories; and congressional records.
Arrangement:
The collection is unarranged.
Biographical:
Grayce Uyehara was a social worker and pivotal Redress Movement activist who helped lead the reparations campaign for the wrongful incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. Uyehara was born Ritsuko Kaneda on July 4th, 1919, in Stockton, California. Her parents named her Ritsu, which roughly translates to notions of law and independence, informed by their understanding of the significance of Independence Day. Her father, Tsuyanoshi Kaneda, worked in agriculture and business and performed domestic tasks. Through this, he developed a reliable business working for lawyers, doctors, and school administrators. Her mother, Tome Kaneda, raised their children. Her mother was strict but also encouraged her children to excel at whatever they did. She enrolled them in Japanese and music classes and expected them to help out at church and in the community. Uyehara was the second of seven children, and as the eldest daughter was expected to be a role model for her younger siblings.

In high school, Uyehara belonged to a Japanese student club, excelled in her schoolwork, and was part of the marching band, playing the bassoon. She also played piano for Sunday school at church, which had both English and Japanese services. She became involved in the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), participating in its oratorical contests. Because of her community service, the elders and her peers in the Japanese American community respected Uyehara.

Uyehara majored in music at the University of the Pacific. She believed music would allow her to start a career as a local Japanese American piano teacher and church organist. She worked many jobs to pay for tuition while her parents helped cover her costs. While in college, she became involved in the Japanese American Young People's Christian Conference (YPCC) in Northern California. Uyehara continued to be recognized for her leadership and competence by becoming the chairperson of the Sacramento YPCC as a college senior.

In January 1942, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Uyehara was asked by the university president to become an instructor to teach Japanese to young men in military service at the local army base. Citing her patriotic duty, she accepted the position. She was able to finish school before being incarcerated, partly because her mother pushed her to do well and to stay in school. When the Uyehara family prepared to leave their home in April, one of her professors offered to hold their household belongings. Although she satisfied her graduation requirements, she received her degree in absentia. Two of her siblings were also in college when their academic careers were interrupted. She was very upset that her parents did not get to see her graduate because they had sacrificed so much.

The Kaneda family was forcibly relocated to the Stockton Temporary Detention Center in May 1942. At the Stockton Center, she put her service skills to work and assisted other Nisei inmates in organizing a makeshift school for Japanese American youth. Located on the site of the county fairgrounds, the school was forced to hold classes in the grandstands. Through one of her father's contacts, she was able to secure a donation of books, and she became the supervisor in charge of elementary education. Some of the young soldiers that she taught at the base also came to visit her. She spent four months there, and in September of 1942, her family was notified that they would be forcibly moved to Rohwer, Arkansas. While her family traveled ahead, she stayed behind to help close the Stockton Temporary Detention Center.

At Rohwer, Uyehara remained active and continued to hone her leadership and organizational skills. She helped create church services for young people, played the piano at various events, and taught music in junior high-level classes. During this time, she realized that her previous career path as a piano teacher was not realistic. She discovered that the Minnesota State Teachers College was offering scholarships to eligible camp inmates and decided to pursue the opportunity. She left the camp in January 1943 with three other young Nisei. She lived at a boarding house with another Nisei student from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. She had an active social life but found the classes to be unchallenging. During the summer in St. Paul, she stayed with a woman who was active with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, a liberal group who spoke out against war. Unsure of what to do next, she then returned to Rohwer where she worked at the camp hospital, continually checking for jobs. She found a job listing in Virginia where one of her younger sisters was attending school, and she left Rohwer for the last time. In Virginia, she worked as an editorial secretary. She was grateful that it was not a service job, which was the norm for young Japanese American women. Uyehara's brother, Ben, was attending Temple University in Philadelphia during this time. He assured her that the Quakers would help the Kaneda family with moving from the camp. Convinced, she packed up again and moved further north.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara found an apartment in the Fellowship House, an organization providing workshops on race relations in the city. She began working for Family Services, a social service agency in the Germantown area of Philadelphia as a receptionist and typist, but she also conducted intake interviews with the clients of the agency. She further continued her role as a community leader by becoming involved with the International Institute which assisted immigrants settling in Philadelphia, and became concerned with the needs of the Japanese American population moving in. Working closely with the Institute, she helped form the Philadelphia Nisei Council, which coordinated with the War Relocation Authority. She was the Nikkei representative of the Philadelphia Committee of Social Service Agencies whose role was to assist with relocation problems. Uyehara developed a handbook that detailed practical issues such as the cost of living in the city, how to rent an apartment, and where to find jobs. The Council began a newsletter, so the community could be aware of new people moving in to the area and of community events. She also started youth groups to provide activities and social interaction for high school and college-age youth coming out of the camp experience.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara became re-acquainted with Hiroshi Uyehara, whose mother knew Grayce's mother. They briefly met in Rohwer. He worked at a nearby Westinghouse factory as a draftsman. He had to receive an Army and Navy clearance, and during the wait went on strike. He became a volunteer at the International Institute where they reconnected. They married in 1946. Later, she and her husband were among those who formed the Philadelphia Chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) to influence more people on social issues affecting Japanese Americans in a national context. Afterwards, the director of the International Institute arranged for the board to pay her graduate school tuition at the University of Pennsylvania while she worked as a social worker for the agency. She graduated in 1947 with a Masters in Social Work. Within two years of working in the community, she was asked to serve on the Philadelphia Fellowship Commission. She used this opportunity to highlight the perspectives of Japanese Americans.

The Uyehara's first son, Chris, was born in May of 1948. In 1950, they had a second child, Lisa. The International Institute asked her to return as a volunteer, and she started a program to help American servicemen and Japanese brides returning from Japan to adjust to a new life. She worked directly with Japanese women in teaching American customs, including etiquette and cooking lessons. She also provided individual counseling. She was very active with the local Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and became president, creating parent education programs and raising funds for the local school library. Uyehara was also very active in the National Association of Social Workers, the Cub Scouts, the local Presbyterian church, the West Chester Human Relationships Council, and the League of Women Voters. Later, she had two more children, Larry, in 1952, and Paul, in 1955. During this time, she was asked to help in establishing the first day care center for working mothers in West Chester. Despite the low pay, she was instrumental in establishing the center. In addition, she got involved in civil rights issues for African Americans, especially for school desegregation and upgrading placement rates for African American students.

In 1972, Uyehara served as the governor for the Eastern District Council of the JACL. She was on the National Board, and was the vice-president for General Operations, Chapter President, the National Civil Rights Committee, and the National Scholarship Committee. In 1974, Uyehara was the first woman to hold a JACL elected office. From 1973 to 1974, she was on the National Education Committee. She used her organizational skills to rearrange some existing educational programs so that the history of Japanese Americans could become more well known throughout the country. She also prioritized projects within the committee to make the programs more attractive to potential funders. Her ability to effectively organize with the JACL was influenced by the lessons learned in reading Years of Infamy by Michi Weglyn, and in the organizing lessons within African American communities after Brown v. Board of Education was passed.

In 1978, Uyehara was present at the 1978 Salt Lake City Convention when JACL decided to pursue redress, and was asked to be on the National Committee for Redress. Using her experience in improving school districts for African Americans, she worked hard to generate educational materials, bombard congressional offices and speak at various events and community organizations. She was also effective in gaining support from the Presbyterian Church and Jewish organizations. By 1985 she devised a plan to reach people on the East Coast, since there weren't many JACL chapters in major cities there. She retired from her job as a school social worker in order to help the JACL achieve redress. In the spring, she transferred to the Legislative Education Committee (LEC). Her philosophy was "If you're going to do it, you do it right. You just don't talk about it".

Uyehara did a lot of traveling between Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. Her husband was very supportive during this time. The leadership in Washington consisted of JACL officials and four Nikkei congressmen, who recognized Uyehara's work in coalition building and developing political relationships. Whenever a new member of Congress signed on to the Civil Liberties Act, she would send out a press statement, and any significant chapter events would be announced through her "Action Alerts." She also led congressional meetings with people like Senator Inouye, Ralph Neas, and Mike Masaoka because she was very familiar with the legislative process.

Uyehara sent information "vernaculars" to newspapers and newsletter organizations in New York and Los Angeles as well as the Pacific Citizen, so that people could see progress taking place within the redress effort. She urged people to initiate contacts in states like Florida and North Carolina to ensure votes were not lost. If an area had lower numbers of Japanese American constituents, she would ask different contacts to support the redress effort and lobby congress to vote for it. She also used her existing relationships with the American Friends Service Committee, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Jewish war veterans, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'irth and the American Jewish Committee. Greatly aided by her efforts, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 was passed. It issued a formal apology from the government and $20,000 to each surviving incarceree. This act also required monuments, museums, and classrooms to teach the history of Japanese American incarceration so similar discrimination would never happen again to others.

After redress was passed, Uyehara was still actively involved in community organizing. She chaired the JACL Legacy Fund campaign, which raised over $5 million to support other JACL programs. She engaged with the Japanese House and Garden in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, speaking at educational engagements about redress and organizing efforts for residents in her retirement community through the Diversity Committee and the Mental Health Committee. She also helped coordinate the Philadelphia area fundraising effort for the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation. In addition, she enjoyed spending more time with family, gardening, and playing the piano.

In 2014, Uyehara was honored by Asian Americans United with its Standing Up for Justice Award. Uyehara passed away on June 22, 2014, at Virtual Memorial Hospital in Mount Holly, New Jersey. Japanese Americans remember Uyehara for her effectiveness and dedication as an activist, community leader, and the mother of Redress. Her experiences of being discriminated against and having to work to support the family at a young age sensitized her to the plight of working women and the economically disadvantaged. This greatly informed her service not only for Japanese Americans, but for all communities in America.

Sources

Susan Nakaoka. "Nisei Political Activists: The Stories of Five Japanese American Women Master of Arts., (University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 1999) found in Grayce Uyehara Papers, Box 1, Folder N, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.

Gammage, Jeff. "Grayce Uyehara, fought for interned Japanese-Americans." The Philadelphia Inquirer, https://www.inquirer.com/philly/obituaries/20140624_Grayce_Uyehara fought_for_interned_Japanese-Americans.html June 23, 2014. Last Accessed March 18, 2019.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center in 2019 by Paul M. Uyehara.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights movements  Search this
Concentration camps -- United States  Search this
Newspapers -- 20th century  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports -- 20th century
Slides
Speeches -- 20th century
Videocassettes
Citation:
Grayce Uyehara Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1480
See more items in:
Grayce Uyehara Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1480
Online Media:

Kubla Khan Frozen Food Company Records

Creator:
Kubla Khan Frozen Food Company (Portland, Oregon)  Search this
Loy, Percy W.  Search this
Wong, Robert  Search this
Extent:
20.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Packaging
Clippings
Advertising
Correspondence
Recipes
Business records
Photographs
Labels
Articles
Date:
1931-2006
Summary:
The collection documents Kubla Khan Frozen Food Company, a Portland, Oregon company that manufactures, packages and distributes frozen Chinese food from 1950-present.
Scope and Contents:
The records of a Portland, Oregon company that made, packaged and distributed frozen Chinese food. The collection includes the incorporation papers of the business, correspondence, photographs, product packaging, advertising and marketing materials, and business records.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Background and Biographical Materials, 1946-2005

Series 2: Business Records, 1931-2006

Series 3: Advertising, Packaging and Promotional Materials, 1956-[1995?]

Series 4: United States Department of Agriculture and Federal Food Administration Materials, 1959-2003

Series 5: Food Industry Materials, 1949-2006
Biographical / Historical:
Percy Wallace Loy (1920-2006) was born in Vancouver, Washington, to Kong (1867-1951) and Rose Loy (nee Fong), Chinese immigrants who were in the dairy business. Loy attended the Providence Academy in Portland, Oregon graduating in 1937. Loy enlisted in the Army (1943-1949) and became a navigator, bombardier, and pilot, serving during World War II. He retired as a lieutenant colonel, but was unable to find work with an airline after the war. He and his brother-in-law, Robert Wong, started the Kubla Khan Food Company, selling frozen Chinese entrees at a time when frozen foods had not yet caught on and the infrastructure to store, transport and distribute them didn't yet exist. The company popularized both frozen foods and Chinese food in the Northwest region of the United States. He was very active in the frozen foods industry in the Northwest, campaigning for the industry and working at convincing grocers of their profitability. He sold the manufacturing part of the company in the mid-2000s and died in 2006.

Though most food preservation practices (curing, smoking and canning) have their origins in Europe, the practice of freezing foods for consumer use was, for the most part, started and developed in America. Even today, frozen convenience foods are considered an American oddity and are not widely embraced in other countries.

In the 1920s Clarence Birdseye experimented with freezing food in small quantities, enabling them to reach a lower temperature faster. In the decades that followed, Birdseye tested and developed better packaging and ways of packing food more tightly inside the packaging. However, consumers remained skeptical about the safety and quality of this novelty, as were grocers about its profitability, in addition to concerns about the effects of the industrialization of food. It took about twenty more years to turn this situation around and to resolve problems with distribution and transport. Birdseye had to take huge risks to get there, beginning with enlisting the aid of a small number of stores, to which he supplied free freezers containing a variety of frozen foods sold on consignment, and hiring demonstrators to convince consumers that frozen foods were the future. Very slowly, frozen foods began to catch on. It wasn't until the 1950s, when frozen TV dinners were introduced, that frozen foods became popular with consumers.

Against this background, Percy Loy and Robert Wong started Kubla Khan in 1950 in the basement of a Chinese restaurant in Portland. Wong died a few years after the company was started. He supported his family by selling insurance for a short while, and then opened a small Japanese restaurant, eventually starting the Kubla Khan Company as a sideline, when he saw a hole in the market for frozen foods, the convenience of which he thought would appeal to consumers. He was active in getting freezers in stores that had not had them before.

While they were not the first to offer frozen Chinese food—Breyer's Ice Cream had its "Golden Pagoda" brand including frozen chow mein and chop suey—Kubla Khan had little other competition at the time, and most stores stored their frozen products in their ice cream cases. The introduction and popularity of TV dinners helped Kubla Khan's business thrive, as groceries added freezer cases to accommodate the TV dinners, and they now had space to add more frozen products. Kubla Khan kept up with the changing technology, but they held onto their cooking techniques, continuing to cook much of their food in woks or with steam, eschewing the automated, large batch vat cooking that other makers used. Loy said that this ensured uniform heating and an authentic taste. Mr. Loy built some of the equipment himself, with frozen food being so new that the machinery was not readily available in the Northwestern states. Kubla Khan exported its products to Asia, enabling the company to boast that it was so authentic it was served in the Orient. They also bottled their own sauces using their own recipes.

The Kubla Khan Company was not the largest Chinese food manufacturer, but it was a pioneer. They helped popularize something previously considered foreign and exotic—Chinese food. They helped popularize frozen food, something taken for granted now with probably (an unscientific estimate) 10% of the space in most grocery stores being devoted to frozen food. They did this not only with their products but with Mr. Loy's activism in promoting frozen foods. La Choy, by comparison, did not start making frozen foods until the 1960s.

Loy was a tireless activist in promoting frozen foods, campaigning for the industry and working at convincing grocers of their profitability. His goals were building consumer trust and making Chinese food accessible. He was also active in his community, trying to help other minorities start businesses. A strong believer in giving back to his community, he helped several colleges (Lewis and Clark, Willamette University and others) start up foreign exchange programs. He helped several former employees start their own businesses. He led the first trade delegation to China after Nixon's visit.

The Kubla Khan Company is still in business, but Mr. Loy sold the manufacturing part of the company in the mid-2000s. Loy married Irene F. Lee in 1949. The couple had six children children, Martin (d. 1958), David (d. 1965), Michael, Deborah, Marilyn, and Daria. Loy's daughter, Marilyn Loy now runs the company, which is limited to the import/export aspect.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Michael Loy and Daria Loy-Goto, 2013.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Restaurants -- Oregon  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
Cooking, Chinese  Search this
Ethnic food industry  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Frozen foods -- Oregon  Search this
Food -- Oregon  Search this
Food industry and trade -- Oregon  Search this
Genre/Form:
Packaging
Clippings -- 20th century
Advertising -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Recipes
Business records -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Labels -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Citation:
Kubla Khan Frozen Food Company Records, 1931-2006, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1316
See more items in:
Kubla Khan Frozen Food Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1316
Online Media:

Richard Adlard Collection

Creator:
Adlard, Richard (Ithel Richard), 1915-1997  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Japan -- 1930-1940
Date:
1936 - 1998
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of some correspondence, extensive agricultural notes, photographs, maps and a scrapbook from Adlard's time as a student at Lingnan University. Adlard's photographs, commentary, and notes on rural life in both China and the Phillipines are extremely detailed and insightful. The collection includes articles written by Adlard, that were inspired by his time in the Orient, on Philippine cocoanut production, Chinese village life, the farmers of China, soybeans as food and pre-war China. The collection also includes Adlard's later articles for various publications and his correspondence with Julia Needham of the Troy-Bilt Owner News about Adlard's work with drip system irrigation and design as well as his use of Chinese farming practices in his own home garden. The collection also includes some brief biographical information on Adlard, some related gardening and agricultural pamphlets and two copies of the Garden Way Inc. publication, Gardening Beyond the Plow. This collection is valuable in its view of rural China and the Phillipines just prior to World War II and the domination of East Asia by Japan. The collection is arranged chronologically.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged chronologically.
Biographical / Historical:
Ithel Richard Adlard (1915-1997) was born to Walter and Elizabeth Burrows Adlard on October 14th, 1915 in Condon, Oregon. His interest in agriculture was formed early on and continued into his highschool years. The following is an autobiographical note assembled by Julia Needham, editor of the Troy-Built Owner News and a long time correspondent of Adlard, from several of Adlard's letters. This biography was corrected and approved by him in 1995.

As a high-school student during the Depression days in Salem, Oregon, I operated a five-acre fruit and vegetable garden on shares. I raised my own plants, using horse manure for heat and a cover made of cheap muslin impregnated with wax. The vegetables were sold house to house and I netted virtually nothing, but kept busy.

At a Methodist youth meeting, I heard a missionary from Allahabad, India, and set my sights on becoming an agricultural missionary. This idea was further reinforced when I studied biology and learned of Mendel's Law. I had a most inspirational biology teacher, Martin Elle, who encouraged me, even though I had little financially.

I got to Oregon State University (then college) where I worked part-time in the greenhouse through a government program for students. This was part of President Roosevelt's New Deal, intended to help college students during the national Depression. We had meaningful jobs at 25 cents per hour.

One morning my roommate read about an opening for an exchange student to Canton, China. I didn't know where Canton was, but checked it out and submitted my application along with several written recommendations. Much to my surprise, I won the Phi Kappa Phi scholarship and in 1937, at age 21, became a student at Lingnan University.

I was the first exchange student in agriculture; the others over the preceding three years had been in the social science and humanities. I was fortunate enough to study under Dr. Floyd A. McClure, a Rhodes scholar and world authority on bamboo, with whom I had biweekly conferences or field trips by bicycle to observe the methods used by local farmers. My textbook was Farmers of Forty Centuries by F.H. King (1848-1911), now available from Rodale Press.

In 1937, the year of my arrival, the Japanese bombed our university, thus disrupting our studies. Four exchange students stayed on while seventeen returned home.

When the American ship on which we sailed docked at Yokohama in 1938, the Japanese authorities came into my stateroom looking for pictures. They had probably seen my article predicting that Japan would take over the Philippines, which my roommate had translated for the Canton paper. Anticipating trouble while at sea, however, I had hidden my bamboo basket of negatives and other materials in a lifeboat along with a broadsword used in executions. After leaving Yokohama, I was relieved to find my belongings still in the boat.

After returning from China, I worked for Oregon State Department of Agriculture when not attending intermittent terms at Oregon State, thus prolonging the completion of my degree in crop science. I devoted all my spare time to the national, "stop war supplies to Japan", movement under the leadership of Dr. Walter Judd, former missionary to China and Senator for Minnesota, whom I met on the boat-trip home. In fact, I spent too much time on this effort and became quite bitter over Americans' "not our business" attitude and the reluctance of colleges and churches to take a stand.

When the draft for one-year training began, I drew Number 17 locally, one year short of finishing college. No draft board appeal process had yet been set up , so I was drafted into the Army in March, 1941, and discharged in August, 1945. I finished my senior year at OSC after returning home. Thereafter, I went to work for the US Soil Conservation Service, and later became an Extension Agent.

What I had learned of traditional Chinese agriculture was all but forgotten during many years of my working life. In the late 1960s, however, the environmental movement and the growing interest in organic food production recalled them to my mind, and I realized that much of modern organic practice was what I had observed in China under an agricultural system that has been used for 4,000 years.

With my interest reawakened, I began to undertake some of the traditional Chinese techniques in my own garden in Stevenson, Washington, located in the Columbia River Gorge about 30 miles east of Vancouver, Washington. I have continued to experiment in retirement, as time and health permit." Adlard Biographical Information, Adlard Collection, Archives CenterAdlard married his wife Evelyn in 1947, they had two sons. Adlard died on August 22, 1997 in Vancouver, Washington.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Julia Needham in 1998.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Agriculture -- China  Search this
Agriculture -- Philippines  Search this
Agriculture -- 1930-1940 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Richard Adlard Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0692
See more items in:
Richard Adlard Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0692
Online Media:

Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection

Creator:
Mundel, Marvin Everett, 1916-1996 (industrial engineer)  Search this
Names:
A.O. Smith Company  Search this
Aji-no-moto Corporation  Search this
Albert Trostel and Sons  Search this
Aluminum Goods Manufacturing Comp  Search this
American Colortype  Search this
American Institute of Industrial Engineers  Search this
Asian Productivity organization  Search this
Barbar and Coleman  Search this
Bridgestone  Search this
Briggs and Stratton  Search this
Buffalo China Company  Search this
Cindahy Brothers Company  Search this
College of Technology Birmingham, England  Search this
E.I. DuPont De Nemours  Search this
Gardner Board and Carton Company  Search this
Hamilton Manufacturing Company  Search this
Herbst Shoe Manufacturing Company  Search this
Japan Productivity Center  Search this
Japanese Management Association  Search this
Kanaki Gear Plant  Search this
Kanebo Spinning Co.  Search this
Kawasake Dockyard  Search this
Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Comp  Search this
Milwaukee Dental Research Group  Search this
Milwaukee Gas Company  Search this
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.  Search this
Nihon Denso  Search this
Nippon Electric Company  Search this
Nippon Kokan Tsurumi  Search this
Pillsbury Mills  Search this
Purdue University  Search this
S.C. Johnson and Son  Search this
Society for the Advancement of Management  Search this
Stephan A. Young Company  Search this
Sumitomo  Search this
Walgreen's  Search this
Western Printing and Lithography Corp  Search this
Westover Engineers  Search this
Yanmar Diesel Engine Company  Search this
Deming, Edwards  Search this
Gambrell, C.B.  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (36 boxes)
75 motion picture films
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Photographs
Field notes
Motion photographs
Diagrams
Loop films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Transparencies
Correspondence
Charts
Place:
United States Navy Long Beach Naval Shipyard
United States Rock Island Arsenal
Date:
1937-1996
Summary:
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel, a well-known expert in the field of work management and productivity enhancement.
Scope and Contents:
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel and demonstrate his work practices and teaching techniques.

The collection is organized chronologically into eleven series: Biographical Materials, Writings, Industrial Engineering, Work Methods, Purdue University, Time and Motion Study, Government Work, Japanese Consulting, Asian Productivity Organization, Dupont Case Study, and Films and Videos. While the years in each series may overlap, the separation of series demonstrates the evolution of Mundel's work and teachings. Photographs can be found throughout the collection. Information about the film and video series is located in Appendix A.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996, consists of documentation about Mundel and his career. The series contains bibliographies and curriculum vitae, correspondence, documentation on his memberships in Industrial Engineering groups, photographs, and certificates.

Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994, brings together Mundel's papers, speeches, books, and publications. When possible, the writings are arranged chronologically. The remaining writings are arranged by topic. This series should not be considered a definitive bibliography of Mundel's writings.

Series 3, Industrial Engineering, 1954-1995, combines Mundel's research with correspondence to and from other Industrial Engineers. It also includes Mundel's contributions to the Encyclopedia Britannica on "Industrial Engineering," "Work Measurement," and "Memomotion."

Series 4, Work Methods, undated, contains documents such as forms, office procedure manuals, visual aids, and printed matter about office equipment that offer insight into Mundel's work methods and innovative methods of making his own office more efficient.

Series 5, Purdue University, 1951-1957, documents his teaching career at the Industrial Engineering Department as well correspondence from his trip to England where he taught classes on industrial engineering.

Series 6, Time and Motion Study, 1952-1984, includes notes, data, printed matter, correspondence, charts, and photographs from his consultant work for various companies. This series contains seven subseries: Subseries 1, Consulting Work, 1954-1966; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960; Subseries 3, Course work, undated; Subseries 4, Equipment, undated; Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984; Subseries 6, Memberships, 1970-1977; and Subseries 7, Research, 1957.

Subseries 1, Consulting work, 1954-1966, contains correspondence and data from the corporations that hired Mundel as a consultant. Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960, the contains letters to and from people with diverse interests in time and motion study. Many people wrote to Mundel asking for advice with projects. Visual aids and handouts make up Subseries 3, Course work. In order to create memomotion, Mundel needed to refine certain electrical and motor parts on the cameras and projectors with which he worked. Subseries 4, Equipment, undated, have brochures on many different kinds of motors and switches. Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984, contains most of the documentation that relates directly to films and video cassettes in this collection. Mundel was active in many organizations related to industrial engineering that shared his interests in time and motion study. Finally, copies and clippings make up the research subseries, 1957.

Series 7, Government Work, 1952-1971, documents Mundel's work for the government, from his work at Rock Island Arsenal to seminars for NASA. This series contains correspondence, data, reports, course work, visual aids, and photographs. The consulting work is arranged in a chronological manner and, in some instances, alphabetically.

Series 8, Japanese Consulting, 1959-1987, documents Mundel's consulting work for Japanese corporations. The files are arranged alphabetically by company and contain research, data, charts, notes, reports, and correspondence about each manufacturing firm. His notebooks and trip files give insight into his cultural understanding of Japanese firms and his teaching practices. Of special interest are the notebooks that contain photographs and firsthand experiences of adapting to Japanese culture and understanding Japanese work practices.

Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994, consists of year and country files of Mundel's seminars throughout the Far East. The course work, notes, visual aids, reports, and photographs demonstrate Mundel's shift in emphasis from work measurement to managerial organization. This series also contains books published by the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) that give a context to Mundel's work and writings.

Series 10, Dupont Case Study, 1978-1984, contains correspondence, data, notes, reports, research, and visual aids concerning one of the many American companies where Mundel consulted. Dupont was selected because of its prominence in the American business world.

Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973, is comprised of 16mm films and 1⁄2" VHS videocassette tapes. The bulk of the series is 16mm films. The films relate to the documents in Series 6: Time and Motion Studies. There are six subseries: Rating Films, 1939-1973; Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959; Multi-Image Loops, circa, 1956-1958; Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962; Travel Films, circa 1955-1958 and Papers, undated.

Films are labeled either OF, RF, OV, or RV, for Original Film, Reference Film, Original Video, and Reference Video, respectively. [Example: For "676.24 OF Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc, circa 1960 (REF. FILM 676.24 and REF. VIDEO 676.70)," 676 is the collection number; 24 is the item number; OF means original film; "Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc" is the title; 1960 is the date followed by any reference copies. In this case there are both a reference film and a reference video. The Archives Center will eventually have reference copies for all of the films. for researchers to view.

Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973, represents Mundel's work with rating or pace films. This technique films a worker doing a repetitive work unit and allows trained motion study analysts to establish time standards. These films show a wide variety of jobs held by both men and women, American workers and Japanese workers. There are three groups of films:

Demonstration Rating Films: These films have the same format as titles with 10 scenes of workers doing a work unit at different paces. The films are arranged according to Mundel's numerical system and retain the original titles. These films should be projected at 1000 frames per minute.

Poultry Rating Films: These are rating films that Mundel did for the USDA and the Consumer Protection Programs.

Miscellaneous Films: These are Mundel's rating films for Tung Sol, ASF, Woods Veterans Hospital, and Montfort. There is also a rating film taken by an English company.

Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959, includes memomotion examples that were incorporated into instructional films. Memomotion is a filming technique created by Mundel. Time and motion analysts film a non-repetitive or extended crew activity at one frame per second and then project the film at normal speed. In this manner, the analyst can record a longer work period at a fraction of the cost and be able to analyze the film much more quickly. Memomotion is often used in conjunction with work flow diagrams.

Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958, combines seven of Mundel's multi-image loops onto one film core. The films display twelve images of rating films at the same time. The worker in each image is working at a different pace (fastest in the top left-hand corner and the slowest in the bottom right-hand corner). Time and motion study analysts could watch the loops for as long as they needed to get an idea of what the range of paces for a certain job could be. The loops were disassembled and spliced together for preservation and viewing purposes.

Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962, includes Mundel's attempts to educate others about his filming techniques and overall industrial engineering themes. The films teach ways to improve productivity through motion studies, how to make memomotion films, and the College of Technology, Birmingham, England's method of making microscope slides.

Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958, includes films that combine Mundel's love for travel and different cultures with film documentation of Japanese seminars.

Subseries 6, Papers, undated, contains papers directly related to the films. Of importance are the rating sheets which associate different percentages of efficiency to the paces in the film.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into eleven series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996

Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994

Subseries 1, Books, 1942-1994

Subseries 2, Papers, 1959-1989, undated

Subseries 3, Publications, 1937-1993, undated

Subseries 4, Speeches, undated

Subseries 5, University of Iowa Studies, 1938-1940

Series 3, Industrial Engineering, 1954-1995

Series 4, Work Methods, undated

Series 5, Purdue University, 1951-1957

Series 6, Time and Motion Study, 1952-1984

Subseries 1, Consulting Work, 1954-1966

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960

Subseries 3, Course Work, undated

Subseries 4, Equipment, undated

Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984

Subseries 6, Memberships-Industrial Management Society, 1970-1977

Subseries 7, Research, 1957

Series 7, Government Work, 1952-1971

Subseries 1, General, 1955-1967, undated

Subseries 2, Rock Island Arsenal, 1952-1958

Subseries 3, Consulting, 1959-1971

Subseries 4, Seminars, 1963-1969

Series 8, Japanese Consulting, 1959-1987

Subseries 1, Consulting, 1961-1980

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1959-1980

Subseries 3, Keio University, 1960-1961

Subseries 4, Memberships, 1959-1987

Subseries 5, Notes, undated

Subseries 6, Photographs, undated

Subseries 7, Scrapbooks, 1960-1965

Subseries 8, Seminars, 1959-1967

Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994

Subseries 1, Annual Reports, 1973-1994

Subseries 2, Books, 1985-1989

Subseries 3, General, 1976-1995, undated

Subseries 4, Seminars, 1973-1989

Subseries 5, Presentation Album of Jakarta Seminar, 1973

Series 10, DuPont Case Study, 1978-1984

Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973

Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973

Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959

Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958

Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962

Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958

Subseries 6, Papers, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Marvin Everett Mundel, born April 20, 1916, was a major figure in the fields of industrial engineering and time and motion studies. He is known particularly for his consulting work, seminars and teaching, as well as numerous publications based on his expertise in work management and productivity enhancement. He began his engineering career in 1936 with a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from New York University (1936), followed by an M.S. and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering earned in 1938 and 1939, respectively, from the State University of Iowa.

In the late 1930s and 1940s, work measurement studies were considered the state-of-the-art method for improving industrial production. Mundel continued and built upon the achievements of pioneers Frank and Lillian Gilbreth during his teaching career at both Bradley and Purdue Universities. He also conducted seminars at Marquette University Management Center and the University of Wisconsin's Extension Center in Milwaukee. In addition to his American teaching career, Mundel was a visiting professor at both the University of Birmingham in England and Keio University in Tokyo, Japan.

In 1952, Mundel started a consulting firm which aided corporations and governments in either work measurement consulting or, later in his career, industrial engineering consulting. His first clients were United States government agencies that wanted to gain control over lost revenue or manpower. His position from 1952 to 1953 at the Rock Island Arsenal in Illinois, as the first Director of the Army Management Engineering Training Program, transformed management techniques in the Army.

After his employment at Rock Island, Mundel began a series of consultant roles with corporations eager to standardize labor practices and make production more efficient. From 1953 to 1963, Mundel conducted time and motion studies at various manufacturing companies and developed techniques to measure work units. His most important contribution to the field of time and motion study was the development of memomotion, a stop-action filming technique used to determine time standards for work tasks.

Following his refinements of time and motion study, Mundel took his expertise to Japan where he offered his consultant services to various Japanese manufacturing firms during the 1960s. His interests evolved from time and motion studies to include work management and overall management organization consulting. During the 1960s and 1970s, Mundel also returned to government consulting in the United States with these new techniques, in offices such as the Bureau of the Budget and United States Department of Agriculture. This period marked an important evolution in Mundel's career, from time and motion study to work measurement and then to industrial consulting. Mundel was among the first consultants to export American management techniques to Japan, and, in his later career, to other Asian countries. He became an integral part of the Asian Productivity Organization, a group that helped developing Asian countries learn how to increase productivity. His seminars sought to provide corporations and governments with efficient management techniques so that Asia would become a strong economic center. Mundel was sensitive to cultural differences as well as varied methods of management and standards of productivity.

Mundel won the Gilbreth Award in 1982. He continued conducting seminars and writing books and articles well into the 1980s, until failing health prevented him from traveling. When Mundel died in 1996, he was well respected in the field of industrial engineering for his many contributions.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History by Marvin Mundel's wife, Takako Mundel, in January, 1999.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hospitals -- Materials management  Search this
Food processing plants  Search this
Industrial productivity -- measurements  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Government consultants -- Asia -- Japan  Search this
Government productivity -- Japan  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Slaughtering and slaughter-houses  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Punched card systems -- Machinery  Search this
Steel founding  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Plant layout  Search this
Diesel motor industry  Search this
Meat -- Packing  Search this
Shipbuilding industry  Search this
Meat inspection  Search this
Meat industry and trade  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Materials handling  Search this
Poultry -- Inspection  Search this
Dental offices  Search this
Box making  Search this
Greeting cards industry  Search this
United States Department of Agriculture  Search this
Refuse collection  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Shoe industry  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus  Search this
Methods engineering  Search this
Industrial engineering -- 1930-2000  Search this
Chronophotography  Search this
Drafting table  Search this
Organizational effectiveness  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Work measurement  Search this
Motion study  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Field notes
Motion photographs
Diagrams
Loop films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Transparencies
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Charts
Citation:
Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection, 1937-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0676
See more items in:
Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0676
Online Media:

Pulling up young rice ready for transplanting--spring work on a Japanese farm. 9775 Interpositive

Topic:
JAPAN TOUR-Nagasaki
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Japan
Nagasaki (Japan)
Local Numbers:
RSN 27550
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.56 [134].
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Agriculture -- Japan  Search this
Farming -- Japan  Search this
Fields -- Japan  Search this
Planting -- Japan  Search this
Rice -- Japan  Search this
Women laborers -- Japan  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 27530-27632
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref25308

Honolulu -- Spalding Garden

Provenance:
The Garden Club of Honolulu  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Spalding Garden (Honolulu, Hawaii)
United States of America -- Hawaii -- Honolulu County -- Honolulu
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photographs of the property undergoing renovation.
General:
Located on less than an acre, Spalding Garden in Honolulu was transformed in 1999 from a barren, dreary plot into a colorful explosion of perennials and an organic garden of fruits and vegetables. The owner has been interested in gardens from childhood in the 1920s on the island of Kaui where her father was the manager of the Makaweli Sugar Plantation. The owner gained extensive experience raising vegetables Diamond Head community garden for over seven years and visiting with Master Gardeners and volunteers at the Oahu Urban Garden Center. The owner has made refinements to the soil based on the soil analysis by the College of Tropical Agriculture at the University of Hawaii. some of the techniques she has employed in the garden include adding alkaline to the soil, mounding the soil in the vegetable beds, using lights to deter Japanese Beetles and using rain water only for her vegetables to avoid chemicals in city water.
The front porch dining area is embraced by fragrant lavender, hibiscus, lantana, gardenas, mandevilia, vinca, penta, plumbago and pakalana vine. The terrace in the back has views of the orchard of fig, avocado, mango, banana, papaya and citrus as welll as raised beds of asparagus, beans, beets, carrots, peas, collards, shard, spinach, parsley and okra.
The owner enjoys all the work that the garden requires including toting bags of compost, peat moss, pails of rain water, pruning, weeding, harvesting as well as arranging flowers and dining on her organic fruits and vegetables.
Persons associated with the garden include Steve Sawyer (former owner, n.d.).
Related Materials:
Spalding Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (5 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Hawaii -- Honolulu  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File HI036
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Hawaii
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref6377

Chanhassen -- Minnesota Landscape Arboretum

Garden designer:
Hare & Hare  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (Chanhassen, Minnesota)
United States of America -- Minnesota -- Chanhassen
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet, brochure, and copies of articles.
General:
The Minnesota State Horticulture Society conceived the idea of the Arboretum in 1955. Started in 1958, The Minnesota Landscape Arboretum is part of the Department of Horticultural Science within the College of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences at the University of Minnesota. The mission of the Arboretum is to: "provide a community and a national resource for horticultural and environmental information, research and public education; to develop and evaluate plants and horticultural practices for cold climates; and to inspire and delight all visitors with quality plants in well-designed and maintained displays, collections, model landscapes, and conservation areas." The initial designs for the Arboretum were done by Hare and Hare of Kansas City. Today the Arboretum offers more than 1,000 acres, with a wide variety of gardens and natural spaces including a Hosta Glade, the Sisui Fei Japanese Garden of Pure Water, Rose Gardens, a Sensory Garden, Wetlands, Prairies and many other perennial/annual display gardens.
Person(s) and/or organization(s) related to the property include(s): Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota (owner, 1958-present); and Hare and Hare (designers).
Related Materials:
Minnesota Landscape Arboretum related holdings consist of 1 folder (37 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Minnesota -- Chanhassen  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MN017
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Minnesota
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref8805

Theodore Roosevelt and his Cabinet

Alternate Title:
Roosevelt and his Cabinet
Artist:
Harris & Ewing Studio, active 1905 - 1977  Search this
Sitter:
Theodore Roosevelt, 27 Oct 1858 - 6 Jan 1919  Search this
Leslie Mortimer Shaw, 1848 - 1932  Search this
William Henry Moody, 1853 - 1917  Search this
Charles Joseph Bonaparte, 1851 - 1921  Search this
James Wilson, 16 Aug 1835 - 26 Aug 1920  Search this
Victor Howard Metcalf, 1853 - 1936  Search this
Ethan Allen Hitchcock, 19 Sep 1835 - 9 Apr 1909  Search this
George Bruce Cortelyou, 1862 - 1940  Search this
William Howard Taft, 15 Sep 1857 - 8 Mar 1930  Search this
Elihu Root, 15 Feb 1845 - 7 Feb 1937  Search this
Medium:
Brown-toned gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 25.7 x 42.3 cm (10 1/8 x 16 5/8")
Mount: 29.2 x 45.6 cm (11 1/2 x 17 15/16")
Mat: 55.9 x 71.1 cm (22 x 28")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1906
Topic:
William Henry Moody: Male  Search this
William Henry Moody: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\US Attorney General  Search this
William Henry Moody: Military\Navy\Secretary of the Navy  Search this
William Henry Moody: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\US Supreme Court Justice  Search this
Victor Howard Metcalf: Male  Search this
Victor Howard Metcalf: Military\Navy\Secretary of the Navy  Search this
Ethan Allen Hitchcock: Male  Search this
Ethan Allen Hitchcock: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Interior  Search this
George Bruce Cortelyou: Male  Search this
George Bruce Cortelyou: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
George Bruce Cortelyou: Politics and Government\Government Official\Postmaster\Postmaster General\US Postmaster General  Search this
George Bruce Cortelyou: Politics and Government\Government Official\Postmaster\Postmaster General  Search this
Elihu Root: Male  Search this
Elihu Root: Politics and Government\US Senator\New York  Search this
Elihu Root: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Elihu Root: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War  Search this
Elihu Root: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of State  Search this
Elihu Root: Visual Arts\Administrator\Art Museum\Trustee  Search this
Elihu Root: Nobel Prize  Search this
Elihu Root: Society and Social Change\Administrator\Think Tank  Search this
William Howard Taft: Male  Search this
William Howard Taft: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Howard Taft: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War  Search this
William Howard Taft: Politics and Government\Government Official  Search this
William Howard Taft: Education\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
William Howard Taft: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
William Howard Taft: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\US Supreme Court Justice\Chief Justice of US  Search this
William Howard Taft: Education\Administrator\College\Dean  Search this
William Howard Taft: Education\Educator\Professor\Law  Search this
James Wilson: Male  Search this
James Wilson: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Agriculture  Search this
Leslie Mortimer Shaw: Male  Search this
Leslie Mortimer Shaw: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Male  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Literature\Writer  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Military\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Natural Resources\Explorer  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\Governor\New York  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Humanities and Social Sciences\Historian  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Environmentalist  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Rancher  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Nobel Prize  Search this
Charles Joseph Bonaparte: Male  Search this
Charles Joseph Bonaparte: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\US Attorney General  Search this
Charles Joseph Bonaparte: Military\Navy\Secretary of the Navy  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Aileen Conkey
Object number:
S/NPG.84.308
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
America's Presidents (Reinstallation September 2017)
On View:
NPG, West Gallery 210
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm452beb7cd-efb2-4d54-a5a0-8bc42a29984a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_S_NPG.84.308

Acoma War Dancer

Artist:
Awa Tsireh, born San Ildefonso Pueblo, NM1898-died San Ildefonso Pueblo, NM ca. 1955  Search this
Medium:
watercolor, ink, and pencil on paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 10 3/4 x 7 1/8 in. (27.4 x 18.1 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
ca. 1920-1925
Topic:
Figure female\full length  Search this
Dress\ceremonial\Indian dress  Search this
Ceremony\dance\War Dance  Search this
Ethnic\Indian\Acoma  Search this
Object\musical instrument\castinets  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Corbin-Henderson Collection, gift of Alice H. Rossin
Object number:
1979.144.21
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7fb40ae50-9007-43d7-a207-80d1b497af03
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1979.144.21

Buffalo Dance

Artist:
Awa Tsireh, born San Ildefonso Pueblo, NM1898-died San Ildefonso Pueblo, NM ca. 1955  Search this
Medium:
watercolor and ink on paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 11 1/4 x 14 1/4 in. (28.5 x 36.2 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
ca. 1925-1930
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Dress\ceremonial\Indian dress  Search this
Ceremony\dance\Buffalo Dance  Search this
Ethnic\Indian\Hopi  Search this
Object\musical instrument\drum  Search this
Object\musical instrument\castinets  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Corbin-Henderson Collection, gift of Alice H. Rossin
Object number:
1979.144.31
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk733f1c6a9-244e-4251-bb97-5a100b71a92e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1979.144.31

Dolores Huerta with siblings

Artist:
Unidentified Artist  Search this
Sitter:
Dolores Huerta, born 10 Apr 1930  Search this
Medium:
Framed photograph
Dimensions:
Frame: 38.1 × 33cm (15 × 13")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1937
Topic:
Exterior\Street  Search this
Dolores Huerta: Female  Search this
Dolores Huerta: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Labor leader  Search this
Dolores Huerta: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Activist\Civil rights activist  Search this
Dolores Huerta: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Dolores Huerta: Society and Social Change\Civic Leader  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Lori de León
Object number:
EXH.DH.24
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm42c15133b-05a9-426e-89d2-5a21d1eff266
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.DH.24

Norman Borlaug

Artist:
Arthur B. Rickerby, 15 Mar 1921 - 2 Aug 1972  Search this
Sitter:
Norman Borlaug, 25 Mar 1914 - 12 Sep 2009  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 19.8 x 22.9 cm (7 13/16 x 9")
Sheet: 20.4 x 25.4 cm (8 1/16 x 10")
Mat: 40.6 x 55.9 cm (16 x 22")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
México
Date:
1970
Topic:
Exterior\Landscape\Rural  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat\Cap  Search this
Exterior\Agricultural  Search this
Nature & Environment\Plant\Wheat  Search this
Norman Borlaug: Male  Search this
Norman Borlaug: Education\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
Norman Borlaug: Science and Technology\Scientist\Agricultural  Search this
Norman Borlaug: Nobel Prize  Search this
Norman Borlaug: Education\Educator\Professor\Horticulture  Search this
Norman Borlaug: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Norman Borlaug: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; acquired through the generosity of Ronald and Judith Phillips, Jeanie Borlaug Laube, and William Borlaug
Object number:
NPG.2010.3
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Arthur Rickerby/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4b0141d45-8add-4791-9701-16dc7fc9b574
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2010.3

The Crisis Vol. 18 No. 3

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Illustrated by:
Frank Walts, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 3/4 x 6 3/4 x 1/8 in. (24.8 x 17.1 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
July 1919
Topic:
African American  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.3
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5fc5d2f1a-22f1-42b5-bb5b-bed2a76d8689
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.3
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Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Subject of:
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Continental Societies, Inc., American, founded 1956  Search this
Rose Morgan, American, 1912 - 2008  Search this
William Otis Walker, American, 1896 - 1981  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Church, American, founded 1816  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National Association of Black Accountants, Inc., American, founded 1969  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
People United to Save Humanity, American, founded 1971  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association of University Women, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Vernon Jordan, American, born 1935  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Arthur Ashe Jr., American, 1943 - 1993  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Percy Ellis Sutton, American, 1920 - 2009  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Joe Louis, American, 1914 - 1981  Search this
Clarence D. King, American, 1888 - 1981  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
National Black Veterans Association, American, founded 1974  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1982
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Film  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
United States--History--1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.16
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd595b77a5e-4524-45a5-90d3-81855fc7528c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.16
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The Negro Worker Vol. 4 No. 5

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
Charles Woodson  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 15/16 x 5 7/8 in. (20.2 x 15 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Africa
Japan, Asia
Date:
1934
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.34
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b2ac91e6-97e3-4b5b-99c4-17b0b2c8f9ac
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.34
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The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 4

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 6 in. (21.9 x 15.2 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
China, Asia
South Africa, Africa
Scottsboro, Jackson County, Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Justice  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
United States--History--1919-1933  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.37
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd53754633a-9141-40b3-ab5c-edc94ee2671a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.37
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  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 4</I> digital asset number 1

The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 7/8 x 6 5/16 in. (22.5 x 16 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Africa
Place made:
Hamburg, Germany, Europe
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5dfd877c2-c600-4962-995e-594a795e9f8c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.6
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Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?

Published by:
Workers Library Publishers, Inc., American, founded 1930  Search this
Written by:
Theodore Bassett  Search this
A. W. Berry  Search this
Cyril Briggs, Nevisian, 1888 - 1966  Search this
James W. Ford, American, 1893 - 1957  Search this
Harry Haywood, American, 1898 - 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Harlem Section of the Communist Party, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 11/16 x 5 1/8 in. (19.5 x 13 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Japan, Asia
China, Asia
Rome, Italy, Europe
Berlin, Germany, Europe
Date:
1938
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.9
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52dff215a-6d61-43f5-ad96-e6a991f2e2cf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.9
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Agriculture

Designer:
Henry Dreyfuss, American, 1904–1972  Search this
Medium:
B&W, Color Printed Material
Type:
archive
Archive folder
Object Name:
Archive folder
Date:
1971-1972
Credit Line:
Henry Dreyfuss Archive, gift of Various Donors
Accession Number:
Dreyfuss Symbol Sourcebook Working Papers Folder 183
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Archives Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4dd160404-4f6a-45a0-8992-4dc24efc35c2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_Dreyfuss_Symbol_Sourcebook_Working_Papers_Folder_183

Mazus pumilus (Burm. f.) Steenis

Biogeographical Region:
38 - Eastern Asia  Search this
Collector:
Egbert Hamilton Walker  Search this
S. Tawada  Search this
Tetsuo Amano  Search this
Place:
X. Naha, near Yogi Agricultural Institute., Okinawa, Japan, Asia-Temperate
Collection Date:
24 Jun 1951
Common name:
Japanese mazus
mazus
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae (mazaceae)
Published Name:
Mazus pumilus (Burm. f.) Steenis
Barcode:
03884208
USNM Number:
2093225
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/318b8f10f-7c35-45a6-8c08-8d261bc3fe62
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15687345

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