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Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection

Creator:
Kallmann-Bijl, Hildegard Korf, Dr., 1908-1968.  Search this
Names:
Project RAND  Search this
Rand Corporation  Search this
Extent:
2.8 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Charts
Publications
Correspondence
Maps
Date:
1949-1980
bulk 1949-1968
Summary:
This collection consists of Kallmann-Bijl's professional files, The material consists of correspondence, photographs, and newspaper and magazine articles, as well as research files covering her professional career (1949-68). The collection also includes copies of a number of Kallmann-Bijl's publications.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection contains copies of published and unpublished technical papers written by Dr. Kallmann-Bijl and other scientists dealing with the atmosphere and space exploration. There are also correspondence, awards, handwritten notes, calculations, newspaper articles, photographs, negatives and two slides. In addition, there is some material regarding Dr. Kallmann-Bijl's involvement with various professional organizations such as the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This material includes copies of technical papers, programs and proceedings from these organizations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as follows:

Series 1

Dr. Kallman-Bijl's personal papers

Biographical information

Series 2

Technical papers written by other scholars

Technical papers by unknown authors

Series 3

Organizations

Series 4

Miscellaneous materials
Biographical Note:
Dr. Hildegard Gertrud Helen Korf Kallmann-Bijl (1908-1968) was one of the most active pioneers in her examination of the physics of high atmosphere for the flight calculations of satellites. Before the first satellite reached its orbit, she had calculated a theoretical extrapolation of a model of the atmosphere which gave physicists a whole year's lead. The lifespan of the satellite could be predicted with the "Kallmann Atmosphere." Dr. Kallmann then made satellite measurements in relation to this atmospheric model, again to perfection. In 1961, she published a paper on the International Reference Atmosphere. With this foundation, she was able to forecast the landing spot with accurate precision for the astronauts and cosmonauts.

Hildegard Korf was born on September 18, 1908 in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. She was raised in the Catholic faith and educated in Catholic boarding schools. By 1929, Ms. Korf had earned the equivalent of her bachelor's degree at the University of Berlin, in Philosophy. She then enrolled in classes at the Technische Hoch Schule and majored in Metallurgy. While attending school, Ms. Korf volunteered her free time to work for the Journalism Institute at the University of Berlin where she gained experience in the editorial business. She later worked three years as an editor for the Deutscher Press Publishers.

While at the university, Hildegard Korf became friends with Julie Braun. It was she who developed in Ms. Korf a sensitivity for Goethe and the worlds of science and art. However, Julie Braun was forced to leave Germany because of her Jewish faith. The Korfs were not persecuted because they were considered three quarters "Aryan" and one quarter "non-Aryan," but by the 1930's the Korfs were not allowed full political freedom. Julie Braun left her estate in Zehlendorf in the care of Ms. Korf and her attorney, Curt Kallmann. There was little Curt Kallmann could do to protect Julie's property because he too was Jewish. One evening in 1939, Kallmann called Hildegard Korf and told her that the Gestapo was on their way to arrest him. With the help of Dr. Benno Hahn, Ms. Korf was able to get herself and Curt Kallmann out of Germany and on their way to Sweden. The Dresden Zeiss Works, where Ms. Korf had worked since 1936, asked her to return and "guaranteed" that no action would be taken against her, but Hildegard Korf felt that she had burned her bridge behind her and never went back to Germany. Kallman suffered a nervous breakdown while in Sweden, and since he was unable to travel alone to the United States, the American Council suggested to Ms. Korf that she travel as his wife. Because of laws existing then, it took an intervention of a Catholic Bishop in Sweden to bring about their marriage. They made the journey to America and their marriage lasted until 1958. Dr. Hildegard Kallmann divorced Curt Kallman but continued to support him until her death.

Dr. Hildegard Kallmann later married Jan Bijl, a Dutchman who had spent several years in a German concentration camp for acting as a Dutch courier while in exile in London. At the time of their marriage, Bijl was the Vice-President of Fokker Aviation at Shiphol near Amsterdam. Unfortunately, Jan Bijl died on December 9, 1963. Dr. Hildegard Kallmann-Bijl died suddenly of a heart attack on November 7, 1968.

Between the years of 1949-1963, Dr. Kallmann-Bijl published approximately 35 papers on ionospheric research, meteor research, high altitude research, solid propellant research, national space research and international space research. Dr. Kallmann-Bijl will always be remembered for her contributions in early astrophysical studies at national and international laboratories.
Provenance:
Frank Korf, gift, 1989, 1989-0042
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Astrophysics  Search this
Geophysics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Charts
Publications
Correspondence
Maps
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0042
See more items in:
Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0042
Online Media:

"Recent Work on the Conductivity of the Ionosphere" by S. Fred Singer, Technical Report ONRL-30-52, Office of Naval Research, London, England

Collection Creator:
Kallmann-Bijl, Hildegard Korf, Dr., 1908-1968.  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 31
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
April 14, 1952
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
See more items in:
Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection
Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection / Series 2: Other Authors' Technical Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0042-ref133

"The Elementary Theory of Viscosity and Related Phenomena in the Higher Atmosphere" by Donald G. Yerg, Ionospheric Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State College, Scientific Report No. 45

Collection Creator:
Kallmann-Bijl, Hildegard Korf, Dr., 1908-1968.  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 34
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
April 25, 1953
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
See more items in:
Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection
Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection / Series 2: Other Authors' Technical Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0042-ref136

"Excitation of VLF Waves by an Electron Beam Injected into the Ionosphere," V. Pivovarov, A. Burke, V. D Shapiro, and Ride, 1995

Collection Creator:
Ride, Sally, 1951-2012  Search this
Container:
Box 24, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Sally K. Ride Papers, Acc. 2014-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Sally K. Ride Papers
Sally K. Ride Papers / Series 4: Academia / 4.1: Physics Research Papers by Ride
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2014-0025-ref335

"Laboratory Modeling of Ionospheric Whistler Excitation in a Plasma" Funding Proposal

Collection Creator:
Ride, Sally, 1951-2012  Search this
Container:
Box 25, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Sally K. Ride Papers, Acc. 2014-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Sally K. Ride Papers
Sally K. Ride Papers / Series 4: Academia / 4.2: Ride's Physics Research Proposals and Projects
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2014-0025-ref349

HILAT (High Latitude Ionospheric Research Satellite) 27 JUN 83 (Scout)

Collection Creator:
Desind, Herbert Stephen.  Search this
Container:
Box 60, Folder 21
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Documents
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Citation:
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection, Accession 1997-0014, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection / Series 1: Unmanned Space Programs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1997-0014-ref12251

HILAT (High Latitude Ionospheric Research Satellite) 27 JUN 83 (Scout)

Collection Creator:
Desind, Herbert Stephen.  Search this
Container:
Box 60, Folder 22
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents note:
B&W Photos
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Citation:
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection, Accession 1997-0014, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection / Series 1: Unmanned Space Programs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1997-0014-ref12253

HILAT (High Latitude Ionospheric Research Satellite) 27 JUN 83 (Scout)

Collection Creator:
Desind, Herbert Stephen.  Search this
Container:
Box 60, Folder 23
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents note:
Color Photos
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Citation:
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection, Accession 1997-0014, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection
Herbert Stephen Desind Collection / Series 1: Unmanned Space Programs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1997-0014-ref12255

SI-618 - Advanced Development Laboratories, Inc. - Design, development, fabrication and testing of a prototype receiving system to be used in a multistatic radar devoted to meteor research and aeronomic measurements in the lower ionosphere, 1963. (3 fo...

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Contracts and Procurement Office  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 530, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Contracts and Procurement Office, Trust Fund Subcontracts
See more items in:
Trust Fund Subcontracts
Trust Fund Subcontracts / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0530-refidd1e164

SI-646 - Advanced Development Laboratories, Inc. Fabrication of two receivers and one basic frequency synthesizer to be used in a multistatic radar for meteor research and aeronomic measurements in the lower ionosphere, 1964.

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Contracts and Procurement Office  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 530, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Contracts and Procurement Office, Trust Fund Subcontracts
See more items in:
Trust Fund Subcontracts
Trust Fund Subcontracts / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0530-refidd1e209

Richard Silberstein: "Proposal for the Use of Rockets for the Study of the Ionosphere," 1945

Collection Creator::
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Container:
Box 13 of 21
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Until the death of the Donor, SIA will notify the Donor prior to, or within 7 days after, the materials have been accessed for research, Transferring office; 9/5/2007 Deed of Gift; Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-376, David H. DeVorkin Papers
See more items in:
David H. DeVorkin Papers
David H. DeVorkin Papers / Box 13
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa16-376-refidd1e5579

Causes of the Ionosphere

Collection Creator::
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Container:
Box 13 of 21
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Until the death of the Donor, SIA will notify the Donor prior to, or within 7 days after, the materials have been accessed for research, Transferring office; 9/5/2007 Deed of Gift; Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-376, David H. DeVorkin Papers
See more items in:
David H. DeVorkin Papers
David H. DeVorkin Papers / Box 13
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa16-376-refidd1e5713

"Science With A Vengeance" Collection

Topic:
Science with a Vengeance
Creator:
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Names:
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic Feet (1 legal document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
[ca. 1930s-1950s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the photographs used in the book.
Biographical / Historical:
David DeVorkin, a Space History Curator at the National Air and Space Museum, completed Science With A Vengeance in 1992. This book traces the exploration of the upper atmosphere with ballistic missiles systems, particularly the V-2. The first part of the book deals with the military context of upper atmospheric research: the military interest in seeing that such work was being done, the formation of appropriate groups in military labs capable of doing the work, and the development of the technical and managerial infrastructure required to get the work done. The later half of the book examines the specific problems each scientific group addressed, including the technical, professional and managerial obstacles they faced as they explored the use of rockets for studying the sun, cosmic rays, the upper atmosphere, and the ionosphere.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
David H. DeVorkin, Transfer, 1994, 1994-0054, NASM/David DeVorkin
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
V-2 rocket  Search this
Ballistic missiles  Search this
Atmosphere, Upper -- Rocket observations  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Rocketry  Search this
Ionosphere  Search this
Ionosphere -- Research  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1994.0054
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1994-0054

Remote Atmospheric & Ionospheric Detection System (Raids)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Reading Room at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Research Request.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History / Series O: Space History
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref16735

Remote Atmospheric & Ionospheric Detection System (Raids)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Container:
Drawer OR, Folder 262000-01
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Documents
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Reading Room at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Research Request.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History / Series O: Space History / Remote Atmospheric & Ionospheric Detection System (Raids)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref16736

Ionosphere Beacon Satellites (S-45 I & S-45 II)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Reading Room at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Research Request.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History / Series O: Space History
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref10189

Ionosphere Beacon Satellites (S-45 I & S-45 II)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Container:
Drawer OI, Folder 603000-01
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Documents
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Reading Room at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Research Request.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History / Series O: Space History / Ionosphere Beacon Satellites (S-45 I & S-45 II)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref10190

Ionosphere Direct Measurement Satellite (S-30)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Reading Room at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Research Request.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History / Series O: Space History
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref10193

Ionosphere Direct Measurement Satellite (S-30)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Container:
Drawer OI, Folder 607000-01
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Documents
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Reading Room at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Research Request.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History / Series O: Space History / Ionosphere Direct Measurement Satellite (S-30)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref10194

Isis (International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Reading Room at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Research Request.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History / Series O: Space History
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref10224

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