These papers document Visscher's investigations on marine fouling of ship bottoms and include general correspondence, 1922-1945; photographs of ship fouling; manuscripts;
and research notes and reports on ship fouling.
John Paul Visscher (1895-1950) was born in Holland, Michigan. He received his A.B. degree from Hope College, Holland, Michigan, 1917, and his A.M. and Ph.D. degrees
from Johns Hopkins University, 1920 and 1924. Visscher served with the United States Army during World War I, as Lieutenant in the Chemical Warfare Service. His first teaching
position was at Washington University, St. Louis, where he served as Instructor of Zoology from 1920 to 1922. In 1924, he joined the staff of Western Reserve University as
Assistant Professor of Biology. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1926, Professor in 1931, and Head of the Biology Department in 1937. Visscher remained at Western
Reserve University until his death in 1950.
Visscher's primary interest was protozoology. He also did extensive research on marine fouling of ships' bottoms. From 1922 to 1925, Visscher spent his summers as a special
investigator for the United States Bureau of Fisheries, examining marine fouling on United States Navy and commercial ships. This research led to the publication of The
Nature and Extent of Fouling of Ships' Bottoms in 1928. During 1935 and 1936, Visscher served as special investigator for the United States Navy's Division of Construction
and Repair. In 1945 and 1946, he acted as a consultant at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C.
United States. National Marine Fisheries Service Search this
4 cu. ft. (4 record storage boxes)
Isabel C. Pérez Farfante (married name Canet) was born in Havana, Cuba on July 24, 1916. She received her Ph.D. from Radcliffe College in 1948. She was a professor
and researcher at the University of Havana; director of the Cuban Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras; and associate in Invertebrate Zoology, Museum of Comparative Zoology,
Harvard University. She worked at the United States National Marine Fisheries Service, National Systematics Laboratory until her retirement in 1986 when she became Carcinologist
Emeritus. She has authored zoology textbooks and numerous papers on the systematics of penaeoid shrimps. This accession consists of her correspondence and subject files while
working at the National Systematics Laboratory. Materials include black and white photographs, color photographs, color slides, correspondence, and newspaper clippings.
9.5 cu. ft. (9 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
1908-1947 and undated
These papers consist of Vaughan's professional correspondence with American and foreign scientists concerning descriptions of fossil localities; the identification,
description and exchange of specimens; research in coral foraminifera and oceanography; research conditions in Europe around the time of World War II; and the activities of
scientific committees on which Vaughan served. Correspondence with detailed locality information has been flagged. Also included are writings, reports, correspondence, and
notes by Vaughan and other scientists concerning specimen collections, analyses of core bottom samples, descriptions and lists of new species, activities of the Committee
of Sedimentation of the National Research Council, and field notebooks, including photographs, of corals of the Bahamas and the Pacific Ocean. Additional field notebooks on
corals are located in the Department of Invertebrate Zoology.
T. Wayland Vaughan (1870-1952), geologist and oceanographer, was educated at Tulane University, B.S., 1889; and Harvard University, A.B., 1893, A.M., 1894, and Ph.D.,
1903. He began collecting fossils when he was an Instructor at Mount Lebanon College, Tennessee, from 1889 to 1892. From 1894 to 1903, he was an Assistant Geologist with the
United States Geological Survey (USGS). Between 1901 and 1923, Vaughan participated in several geological investigations of the West Indies and Puerto Rico which were sponsored
by the USGS, the Smithsonian Institution, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the United States Navy. The USGS and the Carnegie Institution also helped to finance
his investigations of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast states in cooperation with several state geological surveys and his investigations of the corals and coral reefs of the Bahamas.
In 1924, Vaughan became Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, a position which he held until his retirement in 1936. In addition, he was an Associate in Marine
Sediments, 1924-1942, and Associate in Paleontology, 1942-1952, at the United States National Museum.
Vaughan's research focused on three areas of science: the study of corals and coral reefs; the investigation of larger foraminifera; and oceanography. He was an authority
on the corals of the United States, eastern Mexico, the West Indies, and Panama. As an oceanographer, Vaughan was interested in sedimentology and physical and chemical oceanography.
With his work on oceanography, Vaughan served as Chairman, 1919 to 1923, of the Committee on Sedimentation of the National Research Council's Division of Geology and Geography;
Chairman, 1926 to 1935, of the Pacific Science Association's International Committee on the Oceanography of the Pacific; and member of the National Academy of Science's Committee
on Oceanography. This last committee was largely responsible for the founding of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Vaughan held membership in numerous scientific and professional societies. In 1897 he was a delegate to the International Geological Congress in Russia, and between 1920
and 1936 he served as a delegate from the United States to six Pan-Pacific Science Congresses.
14.73 cu. ft. (7 record storage boxes) (1 document box) (3 12x17 boxes) (10 tall document boxes) (7 microfilm reels)
These papers include original logbooks for the Fish Commission vessels Albatross, Fish Hawk, Grampus, Halcyon, Yvonne, and Danglade
containing hydrographic and dredging data; transcribed records of some of that data; accession records, transmittal records, lists, and correspondence concerning specimens
taken by the Commission; material concerning expositions in which the Commission participated; material concerning the scientific work of the Commission; material on oyster
surveys conducted by the Commission; records relating to the distribution of fishes carried out as part of the Commission's fish propagation work; and microfilm copies of
some logbooks, tag records, and catalogues.
In the early 1870's, a fierce debate raged within the fishing industry of New England concerning the supply of food fishes in coastal waters. The use of efficient traps
for the large-scale capture of fish was blamed for an alarming decline in the catch, especially by those who depended on traditional fishing methods. In some states, the controversy
was carried to the legislature but, though endlessly debated, little action was taken.
The dispute soon caught the attention of Spencer Fullerton Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Baird had already begun to nurture a growing interest
in the rapidly expanding field of marine biology by summer field trips to Wood's Hole, Massachusetts, when the fisheries controversy arose. The debate provided Baird with
an opportunity to show that science could make a real contribution to the solution of a problem of economic importance as well as to generate an immense amount of basic scientific
data on marine life.
Authorization and appropriations for the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries were passed by Congress in 1871 and Baird was appointed the first Commissioner.
The congressional mandate was broader than Baird had originally sought. The Commission was not limited to investigations on the New England coast and no time limit was placed
on its existence. This lack of specificity greatly aided the Commission's later expansion.
For the first nine years of the Commission's existence, it relied on other executive agencies, particularly the Revenue Service and the Navy for vessels with which to conduct
dredging and cruising operations. In 1880, construction was completed on the first Commission vessel, the Fish Hawk, and in 1883, the Albatross began operations.
Most of the Fish Hawk's operations were on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, while the Albatross ranged as far as the Pacific coast, Bering Sea, and Japan.
Other Fish Commission vessels included the Grampus, Halcyon, Danglade, and Yvonne.
The original duties of the Commission were eventually extended to include fish culture, further studies of fisheries and fishery industries, and studies in fresh-water
and marine biology. The Commission became part of the Department of Commerce and Labor in 1903 and its name was changed to the Bureau of Fisheries. In 1939, the Bureau was
transferred to the Department of the Interior, and in 1940 was merged with the Bureau of Biological Survey to form the Fish and Wildlife Service.
The U. S. Fish Commission and its successors have always maintained close ties with the Smithsonian and the United States National Museum. Baird was Assistant Secretary
and Secretary of the Smithsonian while serving as Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, and often assigned Smithsonian people to Fish Commission duties. In a number of cases,
there was considerable overlap between Commission and Smithsonian work. A number of Commission staff, including Tarleton Hoffman Bean and Barton Warren Evermann, served as
honorary curators for the Museum's Division of Fishes. The Museum has also served as depository for specimens collected by the Fish Commission and its successors.