Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
308 documents - page 1 of 16

Alexander Archipenko papers, 1904-1986, bulk 1930-1964

Creator:
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Subject:
Spies, Walter  Search this
Archipenko, Frances  Search this
Archipenko, Angelica  Search this
Archipenko Art School (Woodstock, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Topic:
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Sculpture -- Technique  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Cubism  Search this
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography  Search this
Art Movements and Schools  Search this
American Art and Artists in a Global Context  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7025
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209158
AAA_collcode_archalex
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Art Movements and Schools
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209158
Online Media:

NCFA records relating to Synchroma machine, 1969-1972

Creator:
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.)  Search this
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.)  Search this
Subject:
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme  Search this
Elliott, Stanley B.  Search this
Guilbeau, Honore (Honore Cooke)  Search this
National Museum of American Art (U.S.)  Search this
Topic:
Synchroma  Search this
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8222
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210393
AAA_collcode_naticoll
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210393

Kahlil Gibran papers, circa 1945-2008

Creator:
Gibran, Kahlil, 1922-2008  Search this
Gibran, Kahlil, 1922-2008  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Steel sculpture -- 20th century -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Lebanese American art  Search this
Lebanese American artists  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Asian American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8971
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211158
AAA_collcode_gibrkahl
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Asian American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211158

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
The Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Alexander Archipenko papers

Creator:
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Names:
Archipenko Art School (Woodstock, N.Y.)  Search this
Archipenko, Angelica  Search this
Archipenko, Frances  Search this
Spies, Walter  Search this
Extent:
19.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1904-1986
bulk 1930-1964
Summary:
The Alexander Archipenko papers measure 19.5 linear feet and date from 1904 to 1986, with the bulk of materials dating from 1930 to 1964. The sculptor's personal and professional life is documented by correspondence, financial records, scrapbooks, printed matter, and photographs documenting his art, exhibitions, travel, teaching activities, and the Archipenko Art School. Archipenko wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophies of art and the relationship between art and nature. The papers include drafts, notes, and final manuscripts of published and unpublished writings, and notes, outlines, transcripts, and audio recordings of some of his lectures.
Scope and Content Note:
The Alexander Archipenko papers measure 19.5 linear feet and date from 1904 to 1986, with the bulk of materials dating from 1930 to 1964. The sculptor's personal and professional life is documented by correspondence, financial records, scrapbooks, printed matter, and photographs documenting his art, exhibitions, travel, teaching activities, and the Archipenko Art School. Archipenko wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophies of art and the relationship between art and nature. The papers include drafts, notes, and final manuscripts of published and unpublished writings, and notes, outlines, transcripts, and audio recordings of some of his lectures.

Correspondence concerns both personal and professional matters. Among Archipenko's personal correspondents are relatives and friends in the Ukraine, his wife Angelica during her extended stays in Mexico and California, and other women. Professional correspondence is with dealers, curators, scholars, collectors, colleges and universities concerning exhibitions, sales and commissions, loans, and teaching and lecture engagements.

Archipenko wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophy of art, art in nature, and theories concerning creativity and the universe. His papers include manuscripts, drafts, notes and supporting materials for his book published in 1960, Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years, 1908-1958. Similar documentation of unpublished writings, as well as notes, outlines, and some transcripts of lectures and talks are also in the series.

Records concerning the Archipenko Art School are sparse, with only one photograph of students in Berlin, 1921. Surviving records include printed matter, a cashbook, student roster, and scrapbook containing photographs, printed matter, and a typescript copy of a statement by Archipenko, "How I Teach." Most of this material focuses on the New York and Woodstock schools, with only a few items concerning Chicago. In addition, files regarding Archipenko's teaching activities at schools other than his own include course descriptions, student rosters, grades, and printed matter.

Financial records consist of banking records, paid bills, and miscellaneous items. Paid bills include invoices and receipts for art supplies, shipping, and storage. Among the miscellaneous items are price lists, royalties paid by the Museum of Modern Art for Woman Combing Her Hair, and sales records.

Nine scrapbooks contain clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, lecture notices, advertisements and brochures of the Archipenko Art School, and a small number of photographs. Printed matter consists primarily of clippings about Archipenko and exhibition catalogs with related announcements and invitations. Miscellaneous items include books about Archipenko, catalogs of museum collections containing works by Archipenko, and reproductions. Of special interest is a brochure about the Multiplex Advertising Machine that bears a similarity to the Archipentura, an "apparatus for displaying Changeable Pictures" Archipenko invented circa 1924 and patented in 1927.

Photographs are of people, Archipenko's travels and miscellaneous places, exhibitions, works of art, events, and miscellaneous subjects. Five photograph albums mainly document travels. Slides and transparencies include black and white lantern slides probably used to illustrate lectures.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series. Lantern slides and glass plates are housed separately and closed to researchers, but listed where they fall intellectually within the collection.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1908-1964 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1, OV 28)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1970 (4.1 linear feet; Boxes 1-5)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1940-1958 (6 folders; Box 5)

Series 4: Writings, 1923-1971 (3.2 linear feet; Boxes 5-8, Film can FC 30)

Series 5: Teaching, 1921-1952 (0.8 linear feet; Box 9, Film cans FC 31-33)

Series 6: Financial Records, 1923-1971 (1.5 linear feet; Box 9-10)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1910-1961 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 22-25)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1913-1987 (3.7 linear feet; Boxes 11-14, 26, OV 29)

Series 9: Miscellaneous, 1916-1966 (0.5 linear feet; Box 14, 16, Film can FC 34)

Series 10: Photographic Material, 1904-1964 (3.6 linear feet; Boxes 14-15, 17-21, 26-27)
Biographical Note:
Alexander Archipenko (1887-1964) was the son of an engineer/inventor and grandson of an icon painter. Among the first modern sculptors of the 20th century to be associated with the Cubist movement, Archipenko was known for his innovative use of concave space. His major contribution was the realization of negative form through use of a hole to create a contrast of solid and void. His sculpto-paintings united form and color; begun in 1912, these polychromed constructions are among the earliest mixed-media works known, and sometimes incorporated objects. Eventually, his Cubist-inspired work evolved into the simplified, abstract shapes for which he is best known. Although known primarily as a sculptor, Archipenko produced paintings, drawings, and prints as well.

At age 15, Archipenko began studying art at the University of Kiev in his native city; he was expelled three years later for criticizing the teachers. He then went to Moscow where he worked on his own and exhibited in several group shows; his first solo exhibition was held in the Ukraine in 1906.

Archipenko made Paris his home from 1908 until the outbreak of World War I. Soon after his arrival, he enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts; this association lasted but two weeks, and marked the end of Archipenko's formal training. He continued to study art by spending large amounts of time visiting art museums and painting on his own. During this period, he began exhibiting in the Salon des Independents with the Cubists, and as a member of the "Section d'Or" participated in that group's exhibitions. His first one-man exhibition in Germany was held at the Folkwant Museum (1912) and his work was featured in the Armory Show (1913).

In 1912, at the age of 25, Archipenko established his first art school in Paris. He spent the war years working quietly outside of Nice, and soon afterwards circulated an extensive exhibition of his works throughout Europe. In 1921, Archipenko settled in Berlin, opened an art school there, and married sculptor Angelica Bruno-Schmitz, who was known professionally as Gela Forster.

Archipenko's reputation was solidly established and the majority of his ground-breaking work - adaptation of Cubist ideas to sculpture, sculpto-paintings and incorporation of negative space in sculpture - was accomplished prior to his 1923 arrival in the United States. One of his most innovative works executed in America was the Archipentura, invented circa 1924 and patented in 1927, a machine with rolling cylinders that displayed "animated paintings" using motion and light. Other creations of note are carved Lucite sculptures, illuminated from within, that were executed in the mid-1940s.

Upon settling in the United States in 1923, Archipenko opened his art school in New York City; a summer school was established in Woodstock, New York the following year. Within a few years, Archipenko purchased land near Woodstock and began construction of a home, personal studio, and buildings for the school. At various times during the 1930s, Archipenko resided in Chicago and Los Angeles, and operated schools while living in those cities. For many years during the 1940s, Angelica served on the sculpture faculty at the Escuela de Belles Artes in San Miguel Allende, Mexico.

In addition to running his own schools, Archipenko taught at a number of colleges and universities, where he ran workshops, and served as a visiting professor. He wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophy of art and theories of creativity, publishing several articles and a book, Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years, 1908-1958 (1960).

Angelica Archipenko died in 1957. Three years later Archipenko married sculptor Frances Gray, a former student. During the early 1960s, the couple traveled extensively on a lecture tour that accompanied a solo exhibition to several German cities. Archipenko died in New York City, February 25, 1964.

The following chronology is excerpted from Alexander Archipenko: A Centennial Tribute by Katherine Janszky Michaelsen and Nehama Guralnik (National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1986) and Archipenko: The Sculpture and Graphic art, Including a Print Catalogue Raisonne by Donald Karshan, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag (Tubingen, Germany, 1974).

1887 -- Born to Porfiry Antonovich and Poroskovia Wassilievna Machova Archipenko in Kiev, Ukraine, Russia. Father a mechanical engineer, professor of engineering, and inventor; grandfather an icon painter.

1900 -- Studied and copied Michelangelo drawings from a book given him by his grandfather during a long confinement following a leg injury.

1902-1905 -- Painting and sculpture student in Kiev art school; expelled for criticizing his teachers.

1906 -- First one-man show in the Ukraine. Worked in Moscow and exhibited in several group shows.

1908 -- Moved to Paris and enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Quit formal art instruction after two weeks, continued to study art on his own by visiting museums.

1910 -- Exhibited in the Salon des Independants with the cubists (also in 1911-1914 and 1919).

1912 -- Opened art school in Paris. "Section d'Or" formed in Paris with Archipenko among its members. The group exhibited until 1914, and briefly after World War I. First solo exhibition in Germany, Folkwant Museum, Hagen.

1913 -- Represented in the Armory Show. Executed first prints (lithographs).

1914 -- Began making sculpto-paintings.

1914-1918 -- Spent the war years working near Nice.

1919-1920 -- Began extensive tour exhibiting his works in various European cities (Geneva, Zurich, Paris, London, Brussels, Athens, Berlin, Munich, etc.).

1920 -- One-man exhibition in the Venice Biennale.

1921 -- First solo exhibition in the United States at the Societe Anonyme, Inc., New York; a symposium, Psychology of Modern Art and Archipenko, was held during the course of the show. Moved to Berlin and opened art school. Married sculptor Angelica Bruno-Schmitz [known professionally as Gela Forster]. First print commission.

1923 -- Moved to the United States and opened art school in New York City.

1924 -- Established a summer school at Woodstock, New York.

1927 -- "Archipentura" patented ("Apparatus for displaying Changeable Pictures and methods for Decorating Changeable Display Apparatus," nos. 1,626, 946 and 1,626,497).

1928 -- Became an American citizen.

1929 -- Bought land near Woodstock, New York, and began construction of school and studio buildings.

1932 -- Lectured on his theories of creativeness at colleges and universities throughout the United States.

1933 -- Taught summer session at Mills College, Oakland, California, and Chouinard School, Los Angeles.

1935 -- Moved to Los Angeles and opened art school.

1935-1936 -- Taught summer sessions at the University of Washington, Seattle.

1936 -- Moved to Chicago and opened art school. Associate instructor at New Bauhaus School, Chicago.

1938 -- Returned to New York; reopened art school and Woodstock summer school.

1944 -- Taught at the Dalton School, New York City.

1946-1947 -- Returned to Chicago; taught at the Institute of Design.

1947 -- Began making carved plastic sculptures with internal illumination.

1950 -- Taught at University of Kansas City, Missouri.

1950-1951 -- Lecture tour of the southern cities of the United States.

1951 -- Taught at Carmel Institute of Art, California, University of Oregon, and University of Washington, Seattle.

1952 -- Taught at University of Delaware, Newark.

1953 -- Elected Associate Member of International Institute of Arts and Letters.

1955-1956 -- One-man exhibition tours in Germany (Dusseldorf, Darmstadt, Mannheim, and Recklinghausen).

1956 -- Taught at University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

1957 -- Death of Angelica.

1959 -- Awarded gold medal, XIII Biennale de'Arte Triveneta, III Concorso Internationale del Bronzetto, Padua, Italy.

1960 -- Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years, 1908-1958 by Alexander Archipenko and Fifty Art Historians published by Tekhne (a company established by Archipenko for the purpose). Married Frances Gray, a sculptor and former student. Recovered plasters of early work stored by French friends since the end of World War I. Traveling exhibition in Germany (Hagen, Münster, and Dusseldorf).

1962 -- Elected to the Department of Art, National Institute of Arts and Letters.

1964 -- Dies in New York City.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives are the Donald H. Karshan papers relating to Alexander Archipenko, originally accessioned as part of the Alexander Archipenko papers, but later separated to form a distinct collection.

The Archives also has the National Collection of Fine Arts records relating to Alexander Archipenko.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels NA11-NA12, NA16-NA18, and NA 20-NA22) including biographical material, correspondence, exhibition records, writings, printed material and photographs. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
In 1967, the Alexander Archipenko papers, previously on deposit at Syracuse University, were loaned to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by his widow Frances Archipenko Gray. In 1982, Ms. Gray donated most of the material previously loaned and microfilmed to the Archives of American Art, along with additional items.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Lantern slides and glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Sculpture -- Technique  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Cubism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Alexander Archipenko papers, 1904-1986, bulk 1930-1964. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.archalex
See more items in:
Alexander Archipenko papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-archalex
Online Media:

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Addenda
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but Series 11 and films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audiovisual materials. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Daedalus, an Extraordinary Master and Inventor of a Magnificent Art

Artist:
Dehnes  Search this
Medium:
Print, Etching on Paper
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 34.6 × 21.3cm (1 ft. 1 5/8 in. × 8 3/8 in.)
Type:
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
Germany
Credit Line:
Donor: Found in collection. Donor unknown at this time. Found on NASM premises.
Inventory Number:
A19820070000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv984e94fb8-45b7-4718-981b-49fe57c943b6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19820070000
Online Media:

Rocket, Liquid Fuel, 4 May 1926, Goddard

Manufacturer:
Dr. Robert H. Goddard  Search this
Materials:
Aluminum alloy, steel, asbestos wrapping around pipes
Dimensions:
Overall: 195.6 × 14cm (6 ft. 5 in. × 5 1/2 in.)
Type:
CRAFT-Missiles & Rockets
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1926
Credit Line:
Gift of Daniel & Florence Guggenheim Foundation
Inventory Number:
A19850176000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Boeing Milestones of Flight Hall
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9c41fe215-917c-469e-8786-2371a867e44e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19850176000
Online Media:

Freddie Lund's Air Circus

Pilot:
Elizabeth Elkins Lund  Search this
Freddie Lund, 1897-1931  Search this
Lyman Voelpel  Search this
Sponsor:
Freddie Lund's Air Circus  Search this
Medium:
Poster, Advertising, Air Shows and Races
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 60.8 × 40.6cm (1 ft. 11 15/16 in. × 1 ft. 4 in.)
Type:
ART-Posters, Original Art Quality
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
circa 1930
Inventory Number:
A19900388000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv975889a8b-5334-4afa-8675-20f24343712b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19900388000

M. Garnerin

Artist:
Edward Hawke Locker  Search this
Medium:
Print, Lithograph on Paper
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 18.4 x 12.4cm (7 1/4 x 4 7/8 in.)
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 47.6 x 36.8cm (18 3/4 x 14 1/2 in.)
Type:
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
United Kingdom
Credit Line:
Gift of Harry F. Guggenheim
Inventory Number:
A19680088000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv93e177d4a-8798-4c25-b668-e12668e41906
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19680088000

Delaware and Hudson Railroad Engineering Drawings

Donor:
Brosterman, Norman  Search this
Nahem, Edward T.  Search this
Sasson, Maurice  Search this
Smith, Sanford  Search this
Creator:
Delaware and Hudson Railway Company  Search this
Muhlfeld, John E.  Search this
Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
240 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Photographs
Design drawings
Engineering drawings
Ledgers (account books)
Periodicals
Date:
1900-1955
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of this collection consists of approximately 26,500 original ink and pencil drawings from which blueprints were later made. The drawings depict not only the rolling stock but the components of the railroad equipment, from the largest to the smallest. The drawings are indexed, titled, numbered, dated and annotated with dimensions and other information. In addition to the drawings, the collection also includes thousands of blueprints, photographs, ledgers, books, and periodicals.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Delaware and Hudson Railway Company grew out of the former Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, which had been chartered in Northeastern Pennsylvania in 1823. The canal was last used in 1891. The company's first rail line ran between Carbondale, Pennsylvania and New York, beginning in 1872. After numerous mergers and purchases, it became the Delaware and Hudson Company and later Delaware and Hudson Railway. It was purchased by Guilford Rail System in 1984, and went bankrupt in 1988. Its lines were purchased in 1991 by the Canadian Pacific Railway. During its most successful years, Delaware and Hudson was the inventor, manufacturer and user of some of the most important innovations in steam locomotive design. One of its most important designers, John E. Muhlfeld, is well represented in this collection.
Provenance:
Donated in 1991 by Sanford L. Smith, Maurice Sasson, Edward T. Nahem, and Norman Brosterman.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Photographs -- 20th century
Design drawings
Engineering drawings
Ledgers (account books)
Periodicals
Citation:
Delaware and Hudson Railroad Engineering Drawings, 1900-1955, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1169
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1169

Alexander Binder Company Records

Creator:
Alexander, Clinton B.  Search this
Clinton B. Alexander Binder Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Former owner:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Brochures
Advertisements
Samples
Sales records
Date:
1903-1965
bulk 1921-1955
Summary:
Collection documents the business records of the Alexander Binder Company, as well as the inventions and creations of Clinton B. Alexander. The collection includes business receipts and forms, pamphlets, drawings, trade literature, notes, patents, correspondence, and material samples.
Scope and Contents:
The Alexander Binder collection consists of 7.5 cubic feet of records and business materials which were created between the 1910s and 1965. Most of the collection deals with the binders sold under the Autoset Company and the Autolock Company names. There is also material covering the inventions created and sold under the Alexander Instrument Company. Business and sales information and materials from competitor companies are also included. The vast majority of this collection is textual material, especially business ephemera used to improve the business or sales records between Mr. Alexander and his suppliers and customers. The biggest customer of the Alexander Binder Company was the Aluminum Company of America, now known as Alcoa. However, the Alexander Binder Company sold frequently to companies outside of the United States as well. Along with these sales and business documents, there are material samples, such as grommets, extenders, fabric samples, printing plates, and sample binders from both the Autoset Company and its competitors.

Series 1, Correspondence, 1920-1935,contains correspondence by the Alexander Binder Company about loose leaf binders as well as correspondence with suppliers that the Alexander Binder Company worked with, such as G.H Mansfield and Company, Murphy Specialty Company, and United Screw & Bolt Corporation.

Series 2, Company Forms and Printing Plates, 1921-1954, undated,contains both business letters and information sent out concerning the investment account book, one of the more heavily publicized uses for the loose-leaf binders. It also contains the printing plates and associated materials that were used by the company for all of the various products sold by the company, ranging from the Plummet Adjustor to the Crescent Accounting System.

Series 3, Advertising and Sales Materials, 1912-1965,is divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1912-1941; Subseries 2, Catalogs, 1916-1921, undated; Subseries 3, Orders, Receipts, Shipments, 1913-1964; and Subseries 4, Sales Materials, 1916-1966. Materials include various marketing books and sales ephemera that Clinton B. Alexander collected to improve the sales and marketing of his products as well as orders, receipts, and shipments that the Alexander Binder Company or one of its subsets received from customers.

Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1912-1941, consists of documents that Clinton B. Alexander used to advertise his products. To increase sales, Alexander collected both advertising materials from his suppliers and his competitors as well as books that pertained to business marketing. Also included in this subseries are advertisements that Alexander used for his own products, such as the Crescent Accounting System.

Subseries 2, Catalogs, 1916-1921, includes catalogs from suppliers such as the Lantham Machinery Company and the Dietzgen Supply Company, as well as the Autoset Company. Clinton B. Alexander collected catalogs of various companies, particularly those of his suppliers in order to create catalogs of his own that could successfully market his products.

Subseries 3, Orders, Receipts, Shipments, 1913-1964, consists of all of the orders and sales made by the Alexander Binder Company and its subsets during the period of its existence. This includes not only sales of loose-leaf binders, but also sales of plumb adjusters and tape splices.

Subseries 4, Sales Materials, 1916-1966, contains sales materials that Clinton B. Alexander procured and to improve marketing his products. Included are various sales strategies as well.

Series 4, Drawing, Patterns, and Instructions, 1916-1959, consists of Clinton B. Alexander's drawings, patterns, and instructions concerning his inventions. These materials focus mostly on his loose leaf binder inventions, but also deal with how to create shipping boxes and parts for the machines used to create his products.

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Materials, 1912-1941, consists of all of the patent and trademark materials that Clinton B. Alexander used while inventing. Included is a certificate of copyright for his book, The Crescent Accounting System for Investments and Income Tax (1936) as well as trade names that he considered while starting his company.

Series 6, Competitors, 1931-1939, contains samples and related material for the creation of loose leaf binders as well as correspondence with the supplying companies. The samples are mostly fasteners and screws that were used in loose leaf binders.

Series 7, Binder Samples, 1918, 1931, 1933, 1956, undated, contains samples of binders created by the Alexander Binder Company under the Autoset Company and AutoSet Company names. It also includes binders that were created by competitor binder companies, such as the Walcott-Taylor Company and the Cesco Company.

Series 8, Articles and Publications, 1909-1947,consists of articles and publications pertaining to business development, in particular, documents such as "how to" guides, knowledge journals, and printed material from the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Arrangement:
Collection organized into eight series.

Series 1, Correspondence, 1920-1935

Series 2, Company Forms and Printing Plates, 1921-1954, undated

Series 3, Advertising and Sales Materials, 1912-1965, undated

Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1912-1941

Subseries 2, Catalogs, 1916-1921, undated

Subseries 3, Orders, Receipts, Shipments, 1913-1964

Subseries 4, Sales Materials, 1916-1966

Series 4, Drawings, Patterns, and Instructions, 1916-1959

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Materials, 1912-1941

Series 6, Competitors, 1931-1939

Series 7, Binder Samples, 1918, 1931, 1933, 1956, undated

Series 8, Articles and Publications, 1909-1947
Biographical / Historical:
Clinton B. Alexander was an inventor and entrepreneurial businessman from Washington, D.C. during the twentieth-century. He was born in 1873 in Clearfield, Pennsylvania, where he worked as a mining engineer, moving to Washington D.C. after 1900. From 1915 to 1965, he began to patent and sell various items for businesses and record keeping, such as a plumb adjuster, paper puncher, tape splice, as well as the loose leaf binder. The loose-leaf binder was his most successful invention improvement and was sold under the name Autoset Company and Autolock Company. He also sold his other inventions under the company name The Alexander Instrument Company. Both of these companies—The Autoset Company/Autolock Company and the Alexander Instrument Company—formed part of the Alexander Binder Company. The Alexander Binder Company was located at 467 C St. NW, Washington, D.C. It was a small family business for its entire existence. Both Clinton Alexander's wife (Maria Dixon Alexander) and son (William B. Alexander) are recorded as helping with the business and the patenting process. In February of 1966, Clinton B. Alexander died, and the Alexander Binder Company ceased to exist.
Provenance:
Collection was donated at some time before 1980 and has no acquisition information, thus rendering this archive as "found in collection."
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineers  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Office equipment and supplies  Search this
Office equipment and supplies industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Brochures
Advertisements
Samples
Sales records
Citation:
Alexander Binder Company Records, 1921-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1100
See more items in:
Alexander Binder Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1100
Online Media:

G. P. Herrick Collection

Creator:
Herrick, Gerard Post, 1873-1955  Search this
Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Clippings
Brochures
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
New York
Date:
1842-1912
Scope and Contents note:
The collection documents Herrick's blast furnace and rotary steam engine business, including business correspondence, patent documents, drawings, machine operations data, and publications.
Arrangement:
One series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Gerardus Post Herrick, an attorney in New York City who turned inventor, graduated from Princeton in 1895. He improved the original design of the blast furnace, and later invented a rotary steam engine.
General Note:
Originally M&CE #51. Duplicate SIRIS record, Bib. # 234612, deleted 4/24/08.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. G. P. Herrick.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steam-engines  Search this
Rotary steam engines  Search this
Blast furnaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Brochures
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
G. P. Herrick Collection, 1842-1912, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1058
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1058

Peter Paul Haring Papers

Creator:
Haring Cotton Machine Company.  Search this
Haring, Peter Paul, -1935  Search this
Haring, Grace  Search this
Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Correspondence
Financial records
Business records
Legal records
Photographs
Patents
Date:
1895-1977
Summary:
Papers relating to Haring's development of cotton picking machines, 1894-1930.
Scope and Contents note:
Papers relating to Haring's development of cotton picking machines, and to the cotton industry overall: correspondence, photographs, patents, legal records, financial records, articles and printed material, and trade literature.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1; Haring Cotton Machine Company

Series 2: Patents

Series 3: Publications
Biographical/Historical note:
Peter Paul Haring (-1935) was an inventor, based in Texas, who created, improved, and patented several cotton picking machines between 1897-1935. He was head of Haring Cotton Machine Company.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Grace Haring in 1973.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cotton  Search this
Cotton picking  Search this
Cotton picking machinery  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Correspondence -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Financial records
Business records -- 20th century
Legal records
Photographs -- 20th century
Patents
Citation:
Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1895-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1014
See more items in:
Peter Paul Haring Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1014
Online Media:

John Souther Collection

Creator:
Souther, John  Search this
Globe Iron Works (Boston, Massachusetts)  Search this
Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Donor:
Souther, Marguerite  Search this
Souther, Marguerite  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Invoices
Correspondence
Receipts
Legal records
Date:
1867-1918
Summary:
The collection documents entrepreneur and inventor John Souther and his manufacturing companies Globe Works and American Steam Locomotive. Much of the collection consists of documentation and correspondence related to Globe Works' legal affairs.
Scope and Contents:
Papers relating to the Globe Iron Works. The collection includes a handwritten transcript of testimony in the case of Monument Bank vs. Globe Works, 1868; correspondence relating to payment for work with the Navy; 1895-1918; and invoices for transactions with other companies Globe Works had business with, 1871-1872.

The correspondence consists of documentation related to Globe Works and other businesses associated with John Souther. Much of the correspondence is between Souther and his lawyer John S. Blair, often discussing Globe Works' legal case against the federal government regarding payment for construction on the USS Suncook. Other legal correspondence concerns the role of Nathaniel McKay and Globe Works treasurer Daniel N. Pickering in the federal legal case of the construction of the USS Masaoit and USS Losco, civil lawsuits, and matters of the Souther estate, and Souther's inheritance of the company from his father.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Marguerite Souther, circa 1969.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Iron and steel industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1850-1900
Invoices
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Receipts
Legal records
Citation:
John Souther Collection, 1867-1918, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0953
See more items in:
John Souther Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0953

Kevin M. Tuohy Papers

Collector:
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Tuohy, Kevin M., 1921-1968 (optometrist, inventor)  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Donor:
Wolver, Anita Tuohy  Search this
Names:
Solex Laboratories  Search this
Extent:
1.2 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Audiocassettes
Clippings
Flip books
Color prints (photographs)
Patents
Articles
Course outlines
Reprints
Pamphlets
Manuals
Lecture notes
Date:
1897-1959
Scope and Contents:
Technical information on contact lenses, including manuals, brochures, etc. from Solex Laboratories, and articles from professional journals and other publications. Numerous photographs, including a set of color prints, illustrate techniques of fitting, inserting, and removing contact lens. Medical problems, legal cases involving patent infringement and other aspects of contact lenses are described. Includes an interesting thumb-flip "Movette" movie book demonstrating insertion of contact lenses, and a cassette tape recording.
Biographical / Historical:
Tuohy, a partner at Solex Laboratories, developed the corneal contact lens in the 1940s, which quickly supplanted the scleral lens.
Related Materials:
The Tuohy Corneal Lens Collection in the Division of Medicine and Science contains objects, such as contact lens samples, received as part of the same gift.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Anita Tuohy Wolver.
Restrictions:
Researchers must use researcher copy of audio tape (not yet available).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Optometrists -- 1940-1970  Search this
Contact lenses  Search this
Optometry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Audiocassettes
Clippings
Flip books
Color prints (photographs)
Patents
Articles -- 20th century
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Course outlines
Reprints
Pamphlets
Manuals
Lecture notes
Citation:
Collection donated by Anita Tuohy Wolver. Exhibit labels: Gift of Anita Tuohy Wolver.

Reproduction and print citation: Kevin M. Tuohy Papers, 1897-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Anita Tuohy Wolver.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0317
See more items in:
Kevin M. Tuohy Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0317
Online Media:

Charles H. Land Papers

Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Science, Medicine, and Society  Search this
Creator:
Land, Charles H., 1847-1922  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Science, Medicine, and Society  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box, 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Patents
Financial records
Letters (correspondence)
Writings
Sermons
Articles
Date:
1860-1957
Summary:
The collection documents inventor and dentist Charles H. Land and consists of correspondence, financial records, patent records, articles, printed material, writings, sermons and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence, financial records, patent records, articles, printed material, writings, sermons and photographs documenting the inventor and dentist Charles H. Land. The correspondence includes one letter written to Dr. Land, but the majority were written after Dr. Land's death and deal primarily with honors bestowed upon him and the Charles H. Land Museum. Two letters are in German. The financial materials consist of dental fees information and invoices from Baker & Company Gold, Silver and Platinum Refiners and Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Company. The patent records contain United States, Canadian, and French patents issued to Dr. Land. The writings deal exclusively with notes and letters written by Charles H. Land, Jr. in 1957. The notes describe issues surrounding the dental field. The sermons, 1860-1863, have no identified author, but three of the six sermons have titles:A.U. The Memory of a Christian Departed , P.U. Godly Sorrow , andNational Thanksgiving . There are four photographs, two of which show Dr. Land working.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1909-1915

Series 2, Correspondence, 1898-1956

Series 3, Financial Materials, 1872-1891

Series 4, Patent Records, 1877-1914

Subseries 4.1, United States Patents, 1877-1914

Subseries 4.2, Canadian and French Patents, 1887-1894

Series 5, Articles and Printed Materials, 1905-1956

Series 6, Writing of C.H. Land, Jr., 1957

Series 7, Sermons, 1860-1863

Series 8, Photographs, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Charles H. Land (1847-1922) was born in Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. Educated in New York, Land studied dentistry under J.B. Meacham of Canada and from 1864-1866 joined the offices of Drs. Sherwood, Haskell and Allport in Chicago, Illinois. From 1871 until his death in 1922, Land practiced dentistry in Detroit, Michigan. In 1875, he married Evangeline Lodge of Detroit and had two children, Charles H., Jr., and Evangeline. Land originated the "Land System of Dentistry" which included many of his patented processes, especially the adaptation of porcelain to dental restorations. Many of his patents deal with devices to aid porcelain work.
Provenance:
Gift of Charles A. Lindbergh, 1965.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The Division of Science, Medicine and Society transferred the collection to the Archives Center in 2003.
Occupation:
Dentists  Search this
Topic:
Opium  Search this
Inventors -- 19th century  Search this
Inventions -- 19th century  Search this
Dentistry -- History  Search this
Dental technology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 19th century
Patents
Financial records -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 1880-1890
Financial records -- 19th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Writings
Sermons
Articles
Citation:
Charles H. Land Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0834
See more items in:
Charles H. Land Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0834

Frick Company Records

Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Former owner:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Frick, George, 1826-1892  Search this
Extent:
26 Cubic feet (49 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Payrolls
Photographs
Purchasing records
Scrapbooks
Commercial correspondence
Clippings
Account books
Date:
1852-1961
bulk 1860-1920
Summary:
This collection documents, in correspondence, publications, forms, paperwork, drawings, newspaper clippings, diplomas and photographs, the operations and products of the Frick Company of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of steam-powered engines (portable, stationary, and traction), sawmills, threshing machines, grain separators and other mechanized agricultural harvesting implements, refrigeration, mechanical cooling systems, and ice making plants, from its founding in 1852 through 1961.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the founding and business operations of the Frick Company* of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of portable, stationary, and traction engines, threshing machines, sawmills, and refrigeration and ice making machinery. The collection covers the period from 1852 to 1961, with the bulk of the material dating from 1860-1873 and from 1880 through the 1920s and illuminates the evolution of mechanized agriculture and refrigeration technology from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.

The largest portion of the collection contains photographs of Frick engines and refrigeration machinery, taken both in the foundry and in various installations worldwide, as well as original drawings of Frick machines, parts, and components used to illustrate catalogs and trade publications. Another large portion of the collection is correspondence, containing communication from clients ordering Frick products for their farms or businesses, as well as receipts and correspondence from local and regional suppliers of raw materials and components for the construction of Frick products.

The collection also contains numerous examples of operational paperwork from the 1880s-1890s, such as letterheads, order forms, contracts, test logs, and timesheets, as well as a significant amount of trade literature largely from 1880-1920, such as price lists, catalogs, product pamphlets, and advertising material.

There are several published company histories, technical drawings/blueprints of Frick products, diplomas awarded to Frick machinery presented at expositions and fairs (including the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893), full-color posters advertising Frick & Co., agent supplies (including telegraph cipher code books), accounting paperwork, payroll records, communications with shareholders, and significant documentation of the highly publicized labor dispute/strike at Frick in 1946.

This collection would be of interest to researchers in the areas of: agricultural machination and invention in the nineteeth century, steam and horse-powered engines, the development of refrigerating and ice making equipment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, business operations and financial transactions in the nineteenth century, Pennsylvania history and companies, industrial photography, and nineteenth and twentieth centuries industrial trade literature.

*The name of the company was modified several times over the history of its operation, variations including George Frick, Frick & Bowman, Frick & Co., and Frick Company, depending on the time period in question. Efforts have been made to align the description of the materials throughout the collection with the correct company name at the time of their creation.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series:

Series 1: Publications, 1852, 1874-1875; 1880-1932; 1942-1943; 1953; 1961

Subseries 1.1 Company History, 1928; 1953

Suseries 1.2 Trade Literature, 1874-1875; 1880-1926; 1930; 1932; 1943; 1952-1953; 1960-1961

Subseries 1.3 Advertising Material, 1852; 1880-1899; 1905; 1909-1929; 1942

Series 2: Correspondence, Receipts, and Ledger Books, 1852-1873; 1890-1902; 1914; 1924-1925

Subseries 2.1 Receipts and Business Correspondence: by company, 1855-1873

Subseries 2.2 Receipts and Business Correspondence: miscellaneous, 1852-1873; 1890; 1895

Subseries 2.3 Ledger Books, 1872; 1896-1898; 1892-1894; 1900-1902

Subseries 2.4 Other Correspondence, 1861-1873; 1898-1901; 1914; 1917; 1924-1925

Series 3: Company Management, 1856-1873; circa 1880s-1890s; 1917; 1927-1929; 1945-1946

Subseries 3.1 Accounting, 1856-1897

Subseries 3.2 Sales, circa 1880s; 1917; 1927

Subseries 3.3 Communications, 1860-1917

Subseries 3.4 Public Relations, 1928-1929; 1945-1946

Series 4: Foundry Operations, 1859-1872; 1877-1879; circa 1880s-1890s; 1900-1903; 1911; 1921; 1929

Subseries 4.1 Orders, 1859-1872; circa 1880s-1890s;1900-1902

Subseries 4.2 Drawings/Blueprints, 1871-1911; 1921; 1929

Subseries 4.3 Shipping and Receiving, 1860-1873; circa 1880s-1890s

Subseries 4.4 Timesheets and Testing, 1860; 1868; 1877-1879; circa 1880s-1890s; 1903

Series 5: Photographs and Artistic Renderings, circa 1880-1950

Subseries 5.1 Frick Buildings, Offices, and Operations, circa 1880-1910

Subseries 5.2 Portable, Stationary, and Traction Engines, 1889; 1893-1896; 1906-1908; 1912-1915; 1925

Subseries 5.3 Other Machinery, circa 1890s

Subseries 5.4 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Vertical Compressors, 1883-1906; circa 1920s

Subseries 5.5 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Horizontal Compressors, circa 1910-1920

Subseries 5.6 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: CO2 Compressors and Later Models, circa 1920-1950; 1940-1941

Subseries 5.7 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Ice Plants, 1889; 1904; 1920-1927

Subseries 5.8 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Cold Storage Units, 1889; 1925; 1933; undated

Subseries 5.9 Installations: Ice Plants, 1892-1896; 1900-1933; 1945

Subseries 5.10 Installations: Refrigeration and Cold Storage Units, circa 1890-1905; circa 1915-1920

Series 6: Trade Shows and Exhibitions, 1877-1885; 1893; 1895; 1904; 1926

Subseries 6.1 Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas, 1877-1884; 1893; 1895; 1904

Subseries 6.2 Promotional Material, 1884-1885; 1926
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in 1852 by engineer and inventor George Frick (1826-1892), Frick Company has been an innovative machinery design leader in many areas of the agricultural and refrigeration industries over the last 160 years. Frick began building steam engines and threshing machines in a small shop in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

Frick quickly gained a reputation for quality in the growing field of mechanized agriculture. His designs for early portable engines--transported and driven by horsepower--soon evolved into self-propelling, steam-powered vehicles that could be driven into the fields and then used to run the grain separating, cleaning and bagging machines that were revolutionizing the farming industry, increasing production at exponential rates.

In addition, Frick's stationary engines were put to use in mills of all kinds (grist, flour, paper, and woolen) to augment or replace their dependence on unreliable natural water power, including sawmills, of which Frick was soon building a line of portable, steam-driven versions. Between the mid-1850s and the early 1870s, the company continued to expand, outgrowing three different shops before building the final location of the works in Waynesboro. George Frick himself was continuously active in the company through the end of the nineteenth century as a mechanical engineer and product designer, as well as a frequent consultant, traveling to confer with clients on specifications for their orders.

Beginning in 1872, George Frick's business and personal life took a downturn with the deaths in quick succession of both his oldest son Frank and his new business partner C.F. Bowman, as a result of a typhoid fever epidemic that swept through the area. Additionally, the financial Panic of 1873 nearly closed Frick's company along with thousands of other American businesses that year, but thirteen local businessmen formed a partnership, putting forth the necessary capital to keep the manufacturing plant afloat. George Frick sold his controlling interest to the partnership, but remained as general manager of the company.

After this brief period of struggle, Frick and Company began again to expand its product line as well as its reputation. The new works in Waynesboro were modern and efficient, enough to warrant a feature article in Scientific American in 1881. The following year, the company built its first refrigeration machine, and a whole new direction of production opened up. Automatic and traction engines were still in demand, being constantly improved and updated, but refrigeration was the new frontier. Frick rose to become one of the leaders in development of high quality, durable, and functional refrigeration machinery. George's son A.O. Frick, now an engineer with the company, partnered with Edgar Penney, another design engineer, to develop the Corliss engine line, which would run the large ammonia compressors, creating what was called a refrigeration machine. They were intially used to power ice plants, which were being built all over the world after the mild winter of 1890 tipped the natural ice industry into decline. They also used cold storage/mechanical cooling units, of which breweries and meat packing plants were the earliest adopters, followed by cold food stores, florist shops, and fur storage, as well as the dairy and shipping industries. The Armour Packing Plant in Kansas City, Missouri was the proud owner of "The Largest Ice Machine in the World," built by Frick and shipped by train via specially-reinforced rails in 1896. At the turn of the twentieth century, hotels, restaurants, hospitals and industrial plants soon began to rely on refrigeration units for daily operations, and Frick's business was booming.

As gas-powered engine technology began taking over in the first decades of the twentieth century, Frick moved away from steam engines and focused on more specialized farm equipment such as dehydrators, peanut pickers, combines, balers and silo fillers. Their line of sawmills was also still in high demand. But increasingly, Frick was focused on steadily refining and improving its refrigeration equipment. Ammonia, while highly efficient as a coolant, had its dangerous downsides: it could be fatal if leaked, and could contaminate plant ice easily. Although many of Frick's ammonia compression refrigeration machines were still in use forty or more years after installation and were still preferred for industrial use, the technology needed to improve in order to be viable for the general public. Several publicized accidents led eventually to the preferred use of chloroflorocarbons as a coolant, and Frick developed enclosed-type CO2 compressors and eventually freon units. Other Frick refrigeration products included machinery for making dry ice, air conditioning units, and temperature controls for test plants, as well as marine refrigeration (developed during the First World War) for shipping food between continents. Frick did contract work for the US military during and following World War II, and was a major company involved in the development of quick-freezing systems to support the growing frozen food industry starting in the late 1940s.

Frick Company positioned itself as a permanent leader in the food production and distribution industry by the 1950s. The company is still in operation today, though it has been purchased several times, most recently by Johnson Controls, which maintains a product line bearing the name Frick.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center holds several collections that may be of interest to researchers in relation to the Frick Company Collection.

For related material on Corliss engines, see the following collections:

Chuse Engine and Manufacturing Company Records (AC 1088)

Corliss Steam Engine Album (AC 1016)

Corliss Steam Engine Reference Collection (AC 1329)

Nagle Engine and Boiler Works Records (AC 1083)

Providence Engineering Works Records (AC 1076)

Skinner Engine Company Records (AC 1087)

Robert Weatherill Company Records (AC 0992)

For related material on threshing machines and agricultural machinery, see the following collections:

John K. Parlett Collection (AC 3066)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC 0060)

For related material on refrigeration machinery, see the following collections:

Madison Cooper Papers (AC 1105)

Nickerson and Collins Photography (AC 1044)

Southwork Foundry and Machine Company Records (AC 1107)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts related to this collection. See acquisition numbers AG79A09.1, MC 319243.12 and .13, and 58A9.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Frick Company, through Terry Mitchell in 1961.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Harvesting machinery  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery -- 1860-1960  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Payrolls
Photographs -- 20th century
Purchasing records
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Commercial correspondence
Clippings
Account books
Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0293
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0293
Online Media:

PhoneTel Collection

Collector:
Information, Technology and Society, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Information, Technology and Society, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Hashimoto, Kazuo  Search this
Kilby, Jack  Search this
Hashimoto Corporation  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Patents
Date:
1954-1994.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of material documenting early telephone answering devices.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The first digital telephone answering device was invented by Kazuo Hashimoto in mid-1983.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
telephone -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
telephone -- History  Search this
Telephone answering and recording equipment industry  Search this
Inventors -- 1950-2000  Search this
Patent practice  Search this
Caller ID telephone service  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Patents
Citation:
PhoneTel Collection, 1954-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0874
See more items in:
PhoneTel Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0874

ITT Industrial Research Laboratories Electron Tube Research Records

Creator:
Papp, George  Search this
International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation  Search this
Lott, H.J.  Search this
Salinger, Hans W.G.  Search this
Hirsch, Robert L.  Search this
Farnsworth, Philo Taylor, b. 1906  Search this
Information, Technology and Society, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Cawein, Madison  Search this
Essig, Sanford  Search this
Eberhardt, Edward  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (9 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical reports
Technical drawings
Project files
Photographs
Laboratory notes
Certificates
Date:
1934-1984
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains a diverse selection of materials that address a variety of aspects of the ITT Industrial Laboratories in Fort Wayne, Indiana. There are research and development notebooks from various scientists and engineers, reports and articles on products being developed and research being conducted, technical drawings, a large body of product information, and photographs of products and research projects. People represented in the collection include: George Papp, Hans W.G. Salinger, Philo T. Farnsworth, Madison Cawein, Robert L. Hirsch, Sanford F. Essig, H.J. Lott, and Edward H. Eberhardt. When these materials came to the Archives Center a portion of them were housed in envelopes with captions written on them. The envelopes were photocopied to preserve the information and the contents were incorporated into the above series in order to facilitate intellectual access to the materials.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series

Series 1: Company Records, 1937-1984

Series 2: George Papp, 1938-1964

Series 3: Hans W.G. Salinger, 1944-1945

Series 4: Research Records, 1934-1969

Series 5: Product Information, 1955-1979

Series 6: Photographs, 1960-1965
Biographical / Historical:
The ITT Corporation Industrial Research Laboratories, Electron Tube Division's laboratories in Fort Wayne, Indiana conducted research and product development in the field of special purpose vacuum tubes and sensors. Their history in the research and development of these special purpose devices originated in Fort Wayne in 1939, when Philo T. Farnsworth, the inventor of television, moved there. What brought him there was that his company, Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation, purchased the Capehart Incorporated plant in Fort Wayne.

Rather than build a plant of their own, Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation decided to purchase the plant, which had a reputation for building quality phonographs, and retool it to build radio and television receivers. Farnsworth and his engineers' research at the plant lead to the invention of numerous devices, including amplifier tubes, cathode-ray tubes, vacuum tubes, electron multipliers, and photoelectric materials.

The laboratories in Fort Wayne were responsible for developing new technical concepts, methods and designs of tubes, sensors and devices for application in industrial, government and commercial markets. Laboratory activities included applied research, advanced development and product design, and development and fabrication. They concentrated their efforts on designing and developing components which operated in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Their various areas of research and development led to a diverse offering of products, including: multiplier phototubes (for stellar observation, star tracking, laser detection, vibration analysis, scintillation counting); vacuum photodiodes (for laser detection, scintillation detection, high speed switching, solar radiation monitoring, interference detection); image dissectors (for slow scan TV systems, slide projector readers, industrial process control, electronic star trackers, electronic scanning spectrometers); electron multipliers (for space research, radiation detection, vacuum monochromators, single particle counting, demountable vacuum systems), image converters (for high-speed photography, infrared viewing and surveillance, optical correlation, pulsed light systems, ultraviolet detection and viewing), correlation devices (for motion compensation, area correlation, map reading, document reading, tracking), and accessories (for focusing magnets, image dissector cameras, focusing and deflection coil assemblies and yokes, phototube holders, power supplies).

The Tube and Sensor Laboratories were world leaders in the areas of photometric quantum detectors, image devices, camera tubes, and optical pattern correlators. Some of their major developments included the Star Tracker sensors used in the Lunar Orbiter Program, Vidissector camera tubes used in several observational satellites, and the cockpit display storage tubes used in the F105 Thunderchief and A4D Skyhawk fighter planes.

They were innovators in developing a number of specialized high vacuum devices including: image dissectors, star tracking dissectors and multiplier phototubes, single quantum counting photomultipliers, grid-controlled photomultipliers, biplanar and laser monitoring photodiodes, windowless electron multipliers and single particle detectors, ultraviolet sensitive photodiodes, image converters, image storage and image correlation tubes, and spectral response information.

Throughout the collection there are numerous names that the laboratories were known as that reflects different stages in the company's development. What follows is a chronology of the names of the laboratories in Fort Wayne, Indiana:

1929 – Capehart Corporation 1936 – Capehart, Inc. 1938 – Farnsworth Television & Radio Corporation 1949 – Capehart-Farnsworth Corporation 1953 – Capehart-Farnsworth Company, Division of ITT 1954 – Farnsworth Electronics Company, Division of ITT 1958 – ITT Laboratories, Division of ITT 1960 – ITT Federal Laboratories 1962 – ITT Industrial Laboratories 1969 – ITT Electron Tube Division, Tube and Sensor Laboratories 1973 – ITT Electro-Optical Products Division, Tube and Sensor Laboratories
Related Materials:
130 vacuum tubes, many related to Philo Farnsworth were donated to the Division of Information Technology & Society, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
ITT donated the collection to the Division of Information, Technology & Society, National Museum of American History through Elaine Tuttle, Vice President of Director of Contracts on September 4, 1992. The collection was transferred to the Archives Center on September 13, 2002.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Vacuum-tubes  Search this
Television  Search this
Electron tubes  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical reports
Technical drawings
Project files
Photographs -- 20th century
Laboratory notes
Certificates
Citation:
ITT Industrial Laboratories Electron Tube Research Records, 1934-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0822
See more items in:
ITT Industrial Research Laboratories Electron Tube Research Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0822

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By