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.047, Advertisement for P.T. Barnum's Museum, featuring an Esquimaux [Inuit] family, brought from Greenland by Hall

Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1862 November 3
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85be5d5e4-49d7-4ae5-9540-26e1ba08215c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref54

Rope to Our Roots

Collection Collector:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Office of Education  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (color sound; 900 feet, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1981
Scope and Contents:
Edited film produced by Bo Boudart Films documents the 1980 Inuit Circumpolar Conference, an international organization of Inuit from Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Film includes interviews relating the current status of Inuit peoples and land claims action in each of the countries.
Local Number:
HSFA 2008.20.25
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
National Museum of Natural History Office of Education and Outreach film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
National Museum of Natural History Office of Education and Outreach film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc91aa21370-4fdf-47cb-ae0e-6ad03da3cd54
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2008-20-ref1

Basque Archaeology and the Wider World: An Emerging Legacy

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (digital audio file)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
2016 July 10
Scope and Contents:
John Bieter (presenter); Lorea Bilbao; Asier Madarieta; Xabier Berroeta (participants) During their time in Canada, the Basque people had a unique history of confrontation and collaboration with the Inuit people. Traces of this relationship can be seen in the artifacts found in the whaling stations where Inuit technology is found. The principle target of the Basque whaling endeavors was the Greenland right whale due to the plentiful oil and baleen that this species could provide. By the nineteenth century, the Greenland right whales were nearly extinct, which decimated the whaling industry. Between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Basques in St. Lawrence turned to cod fishing, and trade with the Native Indian communities. The combination of remnants of Basque and Inuit cultures suggests new perspectives on the early encounters and relationships between Native communities and European peoples. This unforeseen Basque history has emerged from the discoveries of archeologists within their work on Basque whaling sites in Canada.
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2016 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2016, Item SFF2016_0710_Basque_Euskaldunak_Dialogues_0007
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2016 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2016 Smithsonian Folklife Festival / Series 2: Basque: Innovation by Culture / 2.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk58692e8c9-c585-409e-a73a-1beea73c373b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2016-ref937

Eskimos of Greenland

Creator:
Underwood and Underwood  Search this
Collection Collector:
Allen, George V.  Search this
Extent:
1 Stereograph (7 x 3.5 in.)
Culture:
Kalaallit (Greenland Eskimo)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Stereographs
Scope and Contents:
The item is number 43-4697 of an unidentified series. The description is printed on the back in several languages. The Eskimo are gathered around their summer tents.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09920600
Other Title:
Works and Studios
"The world's most unique inhabitants, Esquimaux and their toupiks (summer tents), Greenland."
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Eskimo Inuit  Search this
East Greenland Inuit/Tunumiit  Search this
Collection Citation:
Photo Lot 90-1, George V. Allen collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3b7174c8f-01da-4ef8-a5df-777779f5b53d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-90-1-ref1509

Album of photographs and sketches relating to arctic voyages

Collector:
Cox, Robert S.  Search this
Extent:
7 Drawings (pencil on paper)
0.21 Linear feet (1 box)
113 Photographic prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Inuit (Canadian Eskimo)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Greenland
Baffin Island (Canada)
Pond Inlet (Inuit Community)
Date:
1908-1917
Scope and Contents:
Album of photographs and sketches relating to voyages, primarily in the arctic. Includes photographs from the steamer Neptune's 1917 rescue of Donald MacMillan and other members of the Crocker Land Relief Expedition, as well as the Northern Ventures Expedition, ca 1912. Photographs depict Inuit men, women, and children from Greenland and Baffin Island, sailors, sea ice, arctic and marine mammals, and walrus and narwhal ivory. Sketches are portraits, most likely of other sailors or expedition members.
Provenance:
The Album was donated by Benton and Elizabeth Cox Leach in 2015.
Topic:
Crocker Land Expedition (1913-1917)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1920
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2016-09
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34b519a8b-b005-49ca-a05a-a7bc9b41202f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2016-09

Paul and Astrid Oscanyan photograph collection relating to Iceland and Greenland

Collector:
Oscanyan, Paul  Search this
Oscanyan, Astrid  Search this
Names:
Jón Helgason, 1866-1942 (author)  Search this
Artist:
Petersen, Emanuel A. (Emanuel Aage), 1894-1948  Search this
Extent:
10 Prints (silver gelatin)
1 Volume
6 Colored prints
7 Prints (color halftone)
Culture:
Inuit  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Volumes
Colored prints
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Greenland
Reykjavík (Iceland)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Collection of photographs made or collected by Paul and Astric Oscanyan relating to Iceland and Greenland. They include Jon Helgason's work on Reykjavik between 1786 and 1936, with photographic plates and copies of drawings; reproductions of paintings by Emanuel A. Petersen of Eskimo or Inuit settlements and boats on or near the coast of Greenland; and photographs of Greenland, possibly made or collected by Paul Oscanyan during the Michigan Greenland Expeditions. One photograph mount has a handwritten letter on its verso, from November 1939.
Biographical/Historical note:
Paul Oscanyan was a member of the University of Michigan Greenland Expeditions in 1927-1928.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 89-2, USNM ACC 356736
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Artifacts donated by the Oscanyans can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accession 356736.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Dogsledding  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 89-2, Paul and Astrid Oscanyan photograph collection relating to Iceland and Greenland, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.89-2
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d5b0fbd8-252a-4e2a-bde9-7fee776482fc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-89-2

William Babcock Hazen Papers

Creator:
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Culture:
Inuit -- Greenland  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cartes-de-visite
Correspondence
Diplomas
Legal documents
Military commissions
Place:
Greenland -- Exploration
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Date:
1855-1909
Summary:
Papers document General William Babcock Hazen's military career, primarily through correspondence, photographs, and publications.
Scope and Contents:
The General William Babcock Hazen Collection, 1856-1905, consists of approximately four cubic feet of material. Collection materials include biographical, correspondence (military and family), documents on the Greely Arctic Expedition, photographs, stereographs, and material on General Hazen's book, A Narrative of Military Service.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1885-1867

Series 2, Correspondence and Military Forms 1856-1886 and undated

Series 3, Correspondence to General William Babcock Hazen, 1861-1887

Series 4, Correspondence of Hazen Family, 1858-1909

Series 5, Photographs, 1864-1881

Series 6, Publications, 1865-1886
Biographical / Historical:
General William Babcock Hazen was born September 27, 1830 in West Hartford, Vermont. Four years later, the family moved to a farm outside Hiram, Portage County, Ohio where he attended school with James A. Garfield. Hazen's goal was service in the Army, and he wrote his congressman for admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point. Hazen graduated in 1855, twenty-eighth out of a class of thirty-four.

After graduation, General Hazen was assigned as Brevet Second Lieutenant, Company D, Fourth Infantry, Redding, California. After arriving in California, he was ordered to Fort Lane in the Oregon Territory. Lieutenant Hazen was authorized to establish a command at Grand Ronde and build a blockhouse that became the post Fort Yamhill, located west of Portland, Oregon. On April 20, 1857, he was transferred to Fort Jones, California, and then ordered to join the Eighth Infantry, Fort Davis, Texas. Hazen was transferred to Fort Inge, Texas, to protect a road from San Antonio to Eagle Pass. During a chase, Hazen was wounded by a bullet that was not removed. The lingering effect of the bullet wound would cause him frequent pain.

During the period of service in Texas, Hazen reportedly gained leadership experience, practical military knowledge, and considerable confidence in his own abilities. Following twelve months of convalescence, Hazen was nominated assistant instructor of military tactics at West Point on January 28, 1861. He was promoted to First Lieutenant on April 1861 and captain on May 14, 1861. Colonel James A. Garfield influenced the appointment of Hazen as colonel in command of the newly organized forty-first Ohio Volunteer Regiment. Hazen quickly transformed the regiment's inexperienced personnel into a firmly disciplined body. The intensive training paid large dividends later in the war, and he always held the regiment in high regard.

As brigade and division commander, General Hazen led troops in many important battles and campaigns: Shiloh (Place of Peace), Stones River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, Resaca, Picketts Mill, Jonesboro, Fort McAllister, and Bentonville. On December 13, 1864, Hazen was appointed a major general of volunteers in recognition of long and faithful service and the capture of Fort McAllister. It was after the performance of his troops at Fort McAllister that a friendly relationship developed with General William T. Sherman. With the capitulation of the Confederate armies in spring of 1865, Hazen's division and the Army of the Tennessee left North Carolina where they saw their last fighting. The destination was Washington, D.C., site of a two-day grand review of the victorious Union Armies. On May 19, 1865 Hazen was elevated to commander of the Fifteenth Corps. After a thirty day furlough, he held command of the District of Middle Tennessee until the following summer. In July 1866, Hazen returned west.

In August 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant granted Hazen indefinite leave to observe the Franco-Prussian War. He viewed several battles and personally interviewed Otto von Bismarck and General Helmut von Moltke. Observations and research convinced Hazen that the United States Army was mismanaged and lacked tactical and logistical organization.

Before returning to the Sixth Infantry command, Hazen married Mildred McLean, the twenty-one year-old daughter of prominent Cincinnati Enquirer owner Washington McLean. A son John was born in 1876, but died at the age of twenty-two in 1898.

In June 1877, Hazen was appointed military attaché to the United States Legation in Vienna, Austria, and assigned as military observer of the Russo-Turkish War that had started in April 1877.

In 1878 Colonel Stanley accused Colonel Hazen of perjury and cowardice in the Civil War and requested a court-martial. Colonel Hazen retaliated by formally requesting that Stanley be arraigned by a court-martial on charges of publishing and circulating libelous material against him. On March 19, 1879, General Sherman reluctantly recommended that both generals be arraigned by the same court-martial. The New York Tribune reported "inasmuch as by the decisions of the court-martial Hazen has secured a substantial vindication." Hazen returned to Fort Buford.

While on detached service in Washington, D.C., Hazen actively campaigned for James A. Garfield for president. On August 24, 1880, General Albert James Myer, Chief of the Army Signal Corps, died, opening up a staff position subject to presidential appointment. President Rutherford B. Hayes, after consulting with President-elect Garfield, announced the promotion of Hazen to the rank of brigadier general and appointment as chief signal officer. One of Hazen's lasting legacies in this new role was advancing the development of meteorological science in the Army Signal Corps.

In May 1880, Lady Franklin Bay in northern Canada was chosen as the site for a signal service polar station, one of several conducted by eleven nations for the first International Polar Year (1882-1883). The initial two-year expedition set out in 1881 under the command of Regular Army First Lieutenant Adolphus W. Greely, a Civil War veteran from Massachusetts. The twenty-five man party did not get relief from the long winter in 1882, and a second rescue attempt was disrupted by ice. In September 1883, Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln, decided it was too late to send another relief party and they were left to spend a third winter in the Arctic. The demoralized party was forced to march south in search of supplies and landed at Cape Sabine, spending the next eight months in desperate circumstances. In June 1884, rescuers finally reached them and found only Greely and seven others alive. The remaining expedition members froze or starved to death.

Hazen never forgave Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln for his inaction with the Greely Arctic Expedition, and in 1884 Lincoln censured Hazen for his criticism. Hazen replied to Lincoln by letter, which was returned with a warning to keep the matter private. Hazen went to the press and stated in a published account that he wrote such a letter. He immediately found himself ordered before another court-martial, resulting in a reprimand by President Chester A. Arthur for "unwarranted and captious criticism." Greely supported Hazen's position. In 1885, Hazen produced A Narrative of Military Service, a report devoted to the defense of his Civil War record and personal reputation.

Health problems-diabetes and recurring pain from his bullet wound-forced Hazen to obtain a 12-month leave of absence from his military service. On January 13, 1887, he attended a White House reception where he caught a cold. He died on January 16, 1887, at the age of fifty-six.
Provenance:
In 1985, the Smithsonian received from the Estate of Fredrick McLean Bugher, grandnephew of General Hazen's wife Mildred McLean Hazen, manuscripts and letters concerning General Hazen. Part of the collection was rescued by a private individual from a Lorton, Virginia land fill and sold to the Smithsonian in 1987 in two sections. The first section contained material about the career of General William Babcock Hazen as chief signal officer of the United States Army. The second section contained manuscript materials related to Hazen's duties on the frontier and Indian tribes covering the period of 1855 to 1860, and from 1866 to 1880. Also included are family letters and land holdings in the Midwest.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration -- 1880-1890  Search this
Eskimos -- Greenland  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartes-de-visite
Correspondence -- 1850-1900
Diplomas
Legal documents
Military commissions
Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0427
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep867016537-49d3-4a96-8de1-9147aeba33c3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0427
Online Media:

Inuit--Greenland Families, 1881

Collection Creator:
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
William Babcock Hazen Papers / Series 5: Photographs / 5.2: Greenland, July-August 1881 G.W. Rice
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82259d953-7831-4b2e-bcfb-1939e4aca679
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref152

Inuit [Greenland] Kayaks and Skinboat, 1881

Collection Creator:
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
William Babcock Hazen Papers / Series 5: Photographs / 5.2: Greenland, July-August 1881 G.W. Rice
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep835be35d7-c6c4-49d3-b70b-3b6996ac6c39
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref153

Willie Knutsen photographs of caches and a grave in Nunavut

Creator:
Knutsen, Willie, d. 1992  Search this
Extent:
Film roll : (35 mm)
Culture:
Inuit  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Nunavut
Date:
circa 1940-1948
Scope and Contents note:
Images of caches and an Inuit grave near Iqaluit, Baffin Island, Nunavut.
Biographical/Historical note:
Willie Knutsen (circa 1912-1992) was born in Brooklyn but grew up in Oslo, Norway. In 1936, he started a career as arctic explorer and leader of scientific enterprises. Highlights of Knutson's work include the Norwegian-French Germania Land Expedition of 1938-1939 and his discovery and initial excavation of archeological sites in Greenland. One of the sites discovered by Knutsen on the Silvia Grinnell River was later excavated by Henry Bascom Collins.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2005-13, USNM ACC 183098
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Willie Knutsen photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24 and the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers.
Artifacts donated by Knutsen held in the collections of the anthropology department, National Museum of Natural History in accession 183098.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2005-13, Willie Knutsen photographs of caches and a grave in Nunavut, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2005-13
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34357d5f6-f032-4c36-9ba1-ae19e36387c2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2005-13

MS 2092 Eskimo Diary by Haserak

Creator:
Haserak  Search this
Translator:
Rink, Signe  Search this
Extent:
50 Pages
Culture:
Eskimos  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Inuit  Search this
Inuit -- Greenland  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Journals (accounts)
Date:
circa 1898
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2092
Topic:
Diaries -- Haserak  Search this
Genre/Form:
Journals (accounts)
Citation:
Manuscript 2092, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2092
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ab685533-d8f6-4568-8f07-89ecac051e04
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2092

Edmund Snow Carpenter papers

Creator:
Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011  Search this
Names:
De Menil, Adelaide  Search this
Flaherty, Robert Joseph, 1884-1951  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
McLuhan, Marshall, 1911-1980  Search this
Schuster, Carl, 1904-1969  Search this
Extent:
26.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Iglulingmiut Inuit (Iglulik/Iglulirmiut Eskimo)  Search this
Inuit  Search this
Inuit -- Canada  Search this
Inuit -- Greenland  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Canada
Greenland
New Guinea (Territory)
Papua New Guinea
Date:
circa 1938-2011
Summary:
Edmund Snow Carpenter (1922-2011) was an archaeologist and visual anthropologist who worked extensively with the indigenous peoples of the Canadian Arctic as well as Papua New Guinea. With his colleague and close collaborator Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), he laid the groundwork for modern media theory. Carpenter is also known for his work as an ethnographic filmmaker and as a collector of Paleo-Eskimo art. The Papers of Edmund Carpenter, circa 1938-2011, document the research interests and projects undertaken by Carpenter in the fields of cultural anthropology, ethnographic filmmaking, media theory, archaeology, and indigenous art.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Edmund Carpenter, 1940-2011, document the research interests and projects undertaken by Carpenter in the fields of cultural anthropology, ethnographic filmmaking, media theory, archaeology, and indigenous art. Specific research projects and interests documented are: his 1950s fieldwork among the Aivilik Inuit in the Canadian Arctic as well as his studies into Inuit concepts of space, time, and geography; his partnership and collaboration with media theorist Marshall McLuhan and his ethnographic studies of Papua New Guinean tribal communities; his early-career archaeological digs at Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) burial mounds in Sugar Run, Pennsylvania, as well as later archaeological interest in Arctic peoples, Siberia, and the Norwegian artifact dubbed the "Norse Penny"; his reflections on the disciplines of anthropology and media studies; his editing and completion of the work of art historian Carl Schuster at the Museum der Kulturen (Museum of Ethnology) in Basel, Switzerland; his editing of The Story of Comock the Eskimo, as told to Robert Flaherty; and his museum exhibitions compiled on the topics of surrealist and tribal art. The collection also documents Carpenter's correspondence with fellow scholars, ethnographers, filmmakers, and colleagues; his published writings; and elements of his personal life, such as obituaries and personal photographs.

Materials in this collection include artifact and burial records; correspondence; drawings and illustrations; essays; interviews and oral histories; inventories and catalogues; manuscripts and drafts, and fragments of drafts; maps; memoranda and meeting minutes; notes, notebooks, and data analysis; obituaries and memorials; photographic prints, slides, and negatives, including personal photographs and portraits; proposals and plans for museum exhibits; reports; resumes and bibliographies; reviews; and sound recordings on CD-Rs and audio cassettes. Additional materials include books and book chapters; journal copies and journal excerpts; magazine, newspaper, and article clippings and excerpts; museum and gallery catalogues, brochures, and guides; pamphlets; and reprints. A portion of the material collected here consist of consolidated research into specific topics, gathered from archival repositories, museums, correspondence, and published works. This material consists of research reprints and archival reference photocopies and photographic prints from various repositories.

Items worthy of special mention in this collection include: annotated draft chapters from Marshall McLuhan's seminal work on media theory, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (Series 2); a 1957 letter from e. e. cummings to Carpenter, written in verse (Series 3); an undated thank-you note addressed to "Sadie" from Helen Keller (Series 3); and a transcript of an interview of Carpenter by his former student, Harald Prins (Series 2).
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into the following 6 series:

Series 1. Fieldwork and drafts, 1940-2011 (bulk 1940-1959)

Series 2. Research and project files, 1940-2011

Series 3. Correspondence, circa 1938-2011

Series 4. Publications and lectures, circa 1942-circa 2006

Series 5. Personal, 1942-2011

Series 6. Writings by others, 1960-2009, undated
Biographical Note:
Edmund Snow Carpenter (1922-2011) was an archaeologist and visual anthropologist who worked extensively with the indigenous peoples of the Canadian Arctic and Papua New Guinea. With his colleague and close collaborator Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), he laid the groundwork for modern media theory. Carpenter is also known for his work as an ethnographic filmmaker and as a collector of Paleo-Eskimo art.

Born in 1922 in Rochester, New York, Edmund (nicknamed "Ted") Carpenter served in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II before receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1950 under Frank Speck for work on Iroquoian prehistoric archaeology. Carpenter began teaching at the University of Toronto in 1948 while simultaneously working as a programmer for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). In the 1950s, he undertook fieldwork in the Canadian Arctic among the Aivilik (an Inuit Igloolik subgroup). This fieldwork resulted in several publications in the field of cultural anthropology, including Time/Space Concepts of the Aivilik (1955), Anerca (1959), and Eskimo (1959, republished as Eskimo Realities in 1973).

Also in the 1950s, Carpenter began a working relationship with media theorist Marshall McLuhan. Together, they received a Ford Foundation grant (1953-1955) for an interdisciplinary media research project into the impact of mass communications and mass media on culture change. Carpenter and McLuhan's partnership resulted in the Seminar on Culture and Communication (1953-1959) and the journal series Explorations. In 1957, Carpenter was the founding chair in the interdisciplinary program "Anthropology and Art" at San Fernando Valley State College (now California State University, Northridge). There, he collaborated with Bess Lomax Hawes and other colleagues in the production of several ethnographic films, including Georgia Sea Island Singers about Gullah (or Geechee) songs and dances. During this period, Carpenter worked with McLuhan on the latter's seminal book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). The article published as "Fashion is Language" in Harper's Bazaar under McLuhan's name (1968) was actually written by Carpenter. It was later published in book form under Carpenter's name, with the title They Became What They Beheld (1970).

In 1969, Carpenter took a research professorship at the University of Papua and New Guinea sponsored by the government of Australia. Alongside photographer Adelaide De Menil (whom he would later marry), he applied many of the ideas about media literacy and culture change to indigenous communities of Papua New Guinea. These activities led to developments in the field of media ecology, as well as the publication of Carpenter's best-known work, Oh, What a Blow the Phantom Gave Me! (1976).

Carpenter taught intermittently at various universities throughout his career, including Fordham University, the University of California-Santa Cruz, Adelphi University, Harvard University's Center for Visual Anthropology, the New School for Social Research, and New York University. He spent eight years associated with the Museum of Ethnology in Basel, Switzerland (1973-1981), editing art historian Carl Schuster's research.

In addition to his teaching and research, Carpenter, with his wife Adelaide De Menil, collected tribal art, eventually amassing the largest private collection of Paleo-Eskimo art in the United States. In the 1990s and early 2000s, Carpenter curated various exhibitions on art and visual culture, including the Menil Collection's Witness to a Surrealist Vision and the Musée du Quai Branly's Upside Down (later reconstructed at the Menil Collection). In later years, Carpenter resumed his archaeological interest in Arctic peoples, researching and collaborating on the Zhokhov Island Mesolithic site in the Russian Arctic with Russian scientists from the Institute for the History of Material Culture and archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.

Carpenter died on July 1, 2011 at his home in New York.

Sources consulted:

"Edmund Snow Carpenter." https://edmundsnowcarpenter.com/about

Grimes, William. "Edmund Carpenter, Archaeologist and Anthropologist, Dies at 88." The New York Times. 2011 July 7. https://www.nytimes.com

Prins, Harald E. L. and John Bishop. "Edmund Carpenter: Explorations in Media and Anthropology." Visual Anthropology Review 17:2 (Fall-Winter 2001-2002): 110-140.

Chronology

1922 September 2 -- Born in Rochester, New York

circa 1940-1941 -- Archaeological field work, Sugar Run mounds, Pennsylvania

1942-1946 -- Served in the United States Marine Corps

1948-1957 -- Anthropology Department, University of Toronto

circa 1950 -- Began work for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)

1950 -- Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania (Anthropology)

1950s -- Fieldwork among the Aivilik Inuit

1953-1959 -- Ran the Seminar on Culture and Communication with Marshall McLuhan

1957-1967 -- "Anthropology and Art" program at San Fernando Valley State College (California State University, Northridge)

1967-1968 -- Schwitzer Chair, Fordham University (with Marshall McLuhan)

1968-1969 -- Carnegie Chair in Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz

1969-1970 -- Research Professor, University of Papua and New Guinea

1973-1981 -- Associated with the Museum of Ethnology in Basel, Switzerland for Carl Schuster papers project

circa 1989-2005 -- Collaboration regarding Zhokov Island archaeological site

2011 July 1 -- Died in East Hampton, New York
Separated Materials:
Film and video recordings are retained by the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA) as the Edmund Carpenter-Adelaide de Menil Collection (HSFA 2004-04).
Provenance:
The Edmund Snow Carpenter papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in 2017 by Adelaide de Menil on behalf of the Rock Foundation.
Restrictions:
The Edmund Snow Carpenter papers are open for research.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.

Digital media in the collection is restricted for preservation reasons.

Access to the Edmund Snow Carpenter papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Cartography  Search this
Ethnographic films  Search this
Indigenous art  Search this
Inuit art  Search this
Menil Collection (Houston, Tex.)  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Paleo-Eskimos  Search this
Visual anthropology  Search this
Citation:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2017-27
See more items in:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d15a171a-af5d-4b66-914f-55bc819d7b76
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2017-27
Online Media:

Fieldwork and drafts

Collection Creator:
Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011  Search this
Extent:
2.09 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940-2011
bulk 1940-1959
Scope and Contents:
Series 1 documents aspects of Carpenter's ethnographic and archaeological field research, focusing specifically on geographic sites of research in the Canadian Arctic, Papua New Guinea, Iceland and Greenland, and western Pennsylvania. This series is topically related to, but distinct from, Series 2, which focuses on archival and museum research into thematic ethnographic and media studies projects.

The bulk of the field research documented in this series relates to Carpenter's 1950s research into the Aivilik Inuit of the Canadian arctic, as well as to his pre-doctoral archaeological dig at the Sugar Run mounds in western Pennsylvania from 1940-1941. Among the Aivilik, Carpenter studied various cultural and cosmological aspects of Inuit society; this series contains his notes as well as narrative observations and analysis, as well as a handwritten reproduction of the diary of Aivilik man Ohnainewk (Harry Gibbons). From Sugar Run, Carpenter's records document Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) artifact and burial sites uncovered during a pre-World War II Works Progress Administration (WPA) archaeological excavation. Other material in this series relates to Carpenter's travel to and interest in the settlements of Iceland and Greenland, as well as some of his ethnographic and historical research into Papua New Guinea. A sub-series of miscellaneous research notes is included at the end of this series (sub-series 1.5).

Material in this series consists of handwritten and typewritten notes as well as notebooks; artifact and burial records (from Sugar Run); correspondence; drawings; maps; reports; photographs; and drafts of analysis reflecting on his collected notes and research.
Arrangement:
Series 1 is divided into the following 5 sub-series: (1.1) Arctic: Inuit/Aivilik, circa 1948-1959; (1.2) Papua/New Guinea, circa 1969-circa 1971, undated; (1.3) Arctic: Iceland and Greenland, circa 1993; (1.4) Sugar Run, Pennsylvania, 1940-1969 (bulk 1940-1941); (1.5) Miscellaneous, 1950-2011.
Collection Restrictions:
The Edmund Snow Carpenter papers are open for research.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.

Digital media in the collection is restricted for preservation reasons.

Access to the Edmund Snow Carpenter papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2017-27, Series 1
See more items in:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d1764b24-cbc6-480c-a8cf-be069b99e01c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2017-27-ref1

Arctic: Iceland and Greenland

Collection Creator:
Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1993
Scope and Contents:
This sub-series contains two notebooks documenting Carpenter's archaeological research and ethnographic field notes relating to Icelandic and Greenland settlement and exploration. The bulk of the archaeological notes document his research in museum and library collections and archives containing relevant artifacts and materials.

Of note in this sub-series are notes related to a 1993 ceremony at Qaanaaq (Thule), Greenland, in which the remains of four indigenous Inuit were interred after having been repatriated from the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Related photographs can be found in Series 5: Personal: "Burial at Qaanaaq photos, 1993."
Arrangement:
The material in this sub-series is arranged alphabetically.
Collection Restrictions:
The Edmund Snow Carpenter papers are open for research.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.

Digital media in the collection is restricted for preservation reasons.

Access to the Edmund Snow Carpenter papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2017-27, Subseries 1.3
See more items in:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers / Series 1: Fieldwork and drafts
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw392ef3476-0b23-4956-a1b8-cf039f412e27
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2017-27-ref39

Personal

Collection Creator:
Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011  Search this
Extent:
1.15 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1942-2011
Scope and Contents:
Series 5 consists of material related to Carpenter's life. It includes bibliographies and resumes; obituaries and memorials; personal photographs and portraits; directories; interviews; and reviews of Carpenter's published work.

Of note in this series is a 1947 photograph of Carpenter with the archaeologist William Ritchie, as well as photos documenting the interment of four Inuit remains in Qaanaaq (Thule), Greenland (1993). Also of note are two art pieces by artist Scott Kilgour.
Arrangement:
The material in this series is arranged alphabetically.
Restrictions:
Use of archival sound recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2017-27, Series 5
See more items in:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3466333e2-2558-4610-8cde-2f68efc86ab5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2017-27-ref6

Dowel

Collector:
James A. Ford  Search this
Donor Name:
James A. Ford  Search this
Site Name:
Birnirk  Search this
Maximum Length - Dowel:
23 cm
Minimum Thickness - Dowel:
0.33 cm
Maximum Thickness - Dowel:
0.81 cm
Weight - Dowel:
6.3 g
Culture:
Eskimo, Inuit, Greenland Inuit  Search this
Object Type:
Dowel
Place:
Barrow Quad, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Mar 1958
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
242284
USNM Number:
A399464-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30b8a75e8-11dc-4e3e-800a-e55d3861f50f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8146272

Dowel

Collector:
James A. Ford  Search this
Donor Name:
James A. Ford  Search this
Site Name:
Birnirk  Search this
Maximum Length - Dowel:
25.2 cm
Maximum Thickness - Dowel:
1.14 cm
Weight - Dowel:
9.2 g
Culture:
Eskimo, Inuit, Greenland Inuit  Search this
Object Type:
Dowel
Place:
Barrow Quad, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Mar 1958
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
242284
USNM Number:
A399464A-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cfe00970-535a-421e-b5ac-d5afb79787fd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8146273

Shaft

Collector:
James A. Ford  Search this
Donor Name:
James A. Ford  Search this
Site Name:
Birnirk  Search this
Maximum Length - Shaft:
38.2 cm
Maximum Width - Shaft:
1.63 cm
Maximum Thickness - Shaft:
1.31 cm
Weight - Shaft:
28.5 g
Culture:
Eskimo, Inuit, Greenland Inuit  Search this
Object Type:
Shaft
Place:
Barrow Quad, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Mar 1958
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
242284
USNM Number:
A399464B-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3bc72ebe7-4c76-4610-bfab-f00ded1ba033
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8146274

Feather Cutting? Board

Collector:
James A. Ford  Search this
Donor Name:
James A. Ford  Search this
Site Name:
Birnirk  Search this
Maximum Length - Board:
16.6 cm
Maximum Width - Board:
4.1 cm
Maximum Thickness - Board:
0.53 cm
Weight - Board:
13.5 g
Culture:
Eskimo, Inuit, Greenland Inuit  Search this
Object Type:
Cutting Board
Place:
Barrow Quad, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Mar 1958
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
242284
USNM Number:
A399465-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3de7809df-dcc3-4331-ab7e-996fe78db828
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8146275

Bucket Base Fragment

Collector:
James A. Ford  Search this
Donor Name:
James A. Ford  Search this
Site Name:
Birnirk  Search this
Maximum Length - Bucket:
29 cm
Maximum Width - Bucket:
6.45 cm
Maximum Thickness - Bucket:
0.62 cm
Weight - Bucket:
19.1 g
Culture:
Eskimo, Inuit, Greenland Inuit  Search this
Object Type:
Bucket
Place:
Barrow Quad, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Mar 1958
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
242284
USNM Number:
A399466-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3bca45952-b761-4b8d-8308-abbf5d98064c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8146276

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