Vignetted portraits of Cree, Ojibwa (Chippewa), and Inuit people made by Walton B. Haydon, while he was stationed at Moose Factory on James Bay in Ontario, Canada. The prints are annotated with identifications and other information.
Walton B. Haydon (1854-) was a surgeon and clerk for the Hudson's Bay company from 1878-1883, stationed in Moose Factory on James Bay in Northern Ontario. Haydon was also a photographer and collector of natural history specimens and Indigenous material culture, some of which he donated to the Smithsonian Institution.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 150
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The British Museum has duplicates of items 01101300, 00289300, 00289800, 00289900, and 00289400, which came to them when the Blackmore Museum closed. All are digitized and available on the British Museum's website.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo Lot 150, Walton B. Haydon photographs of Cree, Ojibwa, and Inuit peoples, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The collection documents Hall's Arctic exploration.
Scope and Contents:
Diaries, journals, notebooks, scrapbooks, business cards, correspondence, ships' logs, navigation charts and documents on Hall's Arctic exploration. The correspondence includes letters to and from Henry Grimmell, William Grimmell, J. Carson Brevoont, John Barrow, Cyrus Field, Edward Everett, Clement Markham, Joseph Henry, and the Royal Geographic Society.
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall was born about 1821, either Vermont or New Hampshire; there are very few details about his early life. He is most notable for spending over ten years in the Arctic among the Inuit, initially focused on locating evidence of the lost British Expedition under Sir John Franklin, and then, in two later expeditions, searching for the Northwest Passage and the North Pole.
Before becoming a polar explorer, Hall began as a blacksmith's apprentice at a young age in Rochester, NH. Sometime in the 1840's he married and moved westward eventually coming to Cincinnati, where Charles opened a business making engraving plates and seals, in 1849. Later he published a small newspaper in Cincinnati, The Cincinnati Occasional.
While publishing news stories of arctic expeditions related to the Franklin expedition, Hall became enamored with the idea of polar exploration. In 1857 he began collecting any material he could gather on the landscape and survival in the Arctic, previous expeditions, and John Franklin's expedition itself, while at the same time seeking financial support for his expedition.
After detailed preparation and a small amount of financial backing, Hall boarded a ship for Greenland, and then on to the "Terra Incognita" of the Arctic. Despite being an amateur explorer with very little support for his first expedition, Hall believed that by living amongst the indigenous Inuit people, a non-native could survive long periods living in the arctic. In May 1860, Hall arrived in Frobisher Bay, Canada and with not much more than a small boat and basic supplies, Hall met befriended local Inuit who took him in for the next two years.
Over those two years, Hall found little evidence of the Franklin expedition, but what he did find proved to be more valuable. While an avid and writer, Hall lived, learned and daily documented in his journals more about the Inuit people that any visitor before him. His journals describe Inuit society, traditions, oral histories, language and culture, as well as the skills necessary to survive in such an unforgiving climate. He also travelled and mapped much of the unknown Frobisher Bay area, correcting many previously incorrect maps that depicted area as an open strait, rather than a closed bay.
Once Hall returned to the United States, he began working on publishing his writings and preparing for a second expedition to Frobisher Bay. In 1864, he left for his second trip spending almost five years living amongst the Inuit, searching for the Franklin expedition and mapping unknown portions of the Arctic.
As soon as he arrived home in 1869, Hall began again planning his next and bigger expedition, but times had changed in the U.S. The Civil War was over and the United States government was now interested in polar exploration and the race to the North Pole. Gaining the attention of President Grant, Hall was appointed as joint commander of the Polaris Expedition.
Departing in 1871, the expedition began with critical problems. The "joint-command" of the expedition put Hall in direct conflict with the other two expedition commanders, each one believing they should have been appointed as sole commander. This eventually led to incredible disasters throughout the expedition, resulting in the total failure of the mission, loss of the ship, as well as the death of Charles Francis Hall. Hall died on the expedition in November 1871, possibly from poisoning by one of his co-commanders. His body was exhumed in 1969 and tested, revealing the presence of arsenic. While Hall claimed on his deathbed he had been poisoned by a crew member, many 19th century medicines contained arsenic.
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
This collection of copy negatives was taken approximately between 1896 and 1920 by the Lomen Brothers Studio among Inuit communities in Canada and Inupiaq communities in Alaska. Photographers include the Lomen brothers and Albert D. Kinne (1835-1925).
Scope and Contents:
This collection is currently unprocessed. Copy negatives include N35405–N35477.
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
The Lomen Brothers Co. Was a photography studio founded in Nome, Alaska in 1908 by brothers Carl, Harry, Alfred, and Ralph Lomen. Gudbrand J. Lomen originally came to Nome, Alaska with his son George as part of the 1900 gold rush. G.J. Lomen soon established a profitable law practice in Nome. In 1903, G.J. Lomen's wife, daughter Helen, and sons Ralph, Harry and Alfred moved from Minnesota to join him in Nome. G.J. Lomen's son George arrived in Nome in 1906, opening a men's furnishing store in 1907. The family was involved in many commercial and civic interests including law, the Lomen Reindeer Corporation, lighterage, and retail.
In 1908, the brothers bought a photographic studio. Carl, Harry, Alfred, and Ralph Lomen were partners in the business. Harry managed the studio, and all four took photographs; however, Alfred became the most avid photographer. As part of their photography business, the Lomens regularly purchased the negatives of several other photographers including Dobbs, Nowell, Goetze and Kinne to be reissued under the Lomen Brothers Co. studio name. Their photographs focused on a variety of subjects related to Nome and the surrounding areas, including Nome mining operations, business in Nome, dogsled teams, ships and boats, aviation, and indigenous communities throughout Alaska and Canada.
In September 1934, a fire destroyed their studio along with 25,000-30,000 negatives and 50,000 commercial prints. Approximately 3,000 negatives were salvaged. The Lomens never reopened their photography business. By the 1940s they had all moved to Seattle, Washington, where George died in 1934, Alfred in 1950, Harry in 1957, and Carl in 1965.
Adapted from Archives West, Orbis Cascade Alliance.
Photographs received and copied from the Glenbow Museum in a 1967 exchange.
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to email@example.com. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's
and NMAI Archive Center's
Digital Image request
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Lomen Brothers Studio copy negatives from Alaska and Canada, image #, NMAI.AC.164; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Basque Archaeology and the Wider World: An Emerging Legacy
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Search this
1 Sound recording (digital audio file)
2016 July 10
Scope and Contents:
John Bieter (presenter); Lorea Bilbao; Asier Madarieta; Xabier Berroeta (participants) During their time in Canada, the Basque people had a unique history of confrontation and collaboration with the Inuit people. Traces of this relationship can be seen in the artifacts found in the whaling stations where Inuit technology is found. The principle target of the Basque whaling endeavors was the Greenland right whale due to the plentiful oil and baleen that this species could provide. By the nineteenth century, the Greenland right whales were nearly extinct, which decimated the whaling industry. Between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Basques in St. Lawrence turned to cod fishing, and trade with the Native Indian communities. The combination of remnants of Basque and Inuit cultures suggests new perspectives on the early encounters and relationships between Native communities and European peoples. This unforeseen Basque history has emerged from the discoveries of archeologists within their work on Basque whaling sites in Canada.
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or firstname.lastname@example.org for additional information.
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2016 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.