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Program in African American Culture Collection

Collector:
Maltsby, Portia  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Program in African American Culture  Search this
Extent:
100 Cubic feet (309 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Photographs
Date:
1850-2004, undated
Summary:
The collection primarily documents the activities of the National Museum of American History's Program in African American Culture (PAAC) dating from 1979 through 2004. The Program in African American Culture (PAAC) created public programs documenting the black experience in the United States, as well as, other countries. Archival materials include photographs, programs, administrative files, magnetic tape, audiocassettes, U-matic and VHS video cassettes.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of administrative files, audio, video, and photographic documentation of the programs presented by the Program in African American Culture (PAAC) from 1979 through 2004. There is a substantial amount of material documenting research conducted by the Program in African American Culture (PAAC) for its programming. In addition, administrative paperwork relating to the day-to-day activities of the Program in African American Culture (PAAC) are also included in the materials.

The collection is divided into four series. Series one consists of the material created for each program and is arranged in chronological order. Series two contains background materials and publications relating to subjects of program interest and is arranged in alphabetical order. Series three includes correspondence, contracts, resumes of presenters and performers and other forms of administrative files. Series four are materials relating to Smithsonian Institution or outside programs and performances.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Programs Files, 1979-2004, undated

Series 2, Research Files, 1850-1995, undated

Series 3, Administrative Files, 1850-1995, undated

Series 4, Interviews, Speaking Engagements and Performances, 1964-2000, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Program in African American Culture (PAAC) is a Smithsonian Institution research and programming office located in the National Museum of American History that was created as an outgrowth of the African Diaspora component of the 1975 and 1976 Festival of American Folklife. Founding director, Bernice Johnson Reagon, developed the Program in Black Culture, as the PAAC was originally, as a center for researching and presenting topics of interest to the study of African American history and culture. Reagon is a song leader, composer, scholar, and social activist, who was a founding member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Freedom Singers in the Albany Movement in Georgia. The Program, which was transferred to the National Museum of American History in 1983, provided, and continues to provide, a forum for the presentation of traditional and historical forms of African American cultural expression. To accomplish this, Program in African American Culture (PAAC) staff conducted thorough research, which resulted in public programs including conferences, concerts, colloquia, and seminars on a wide range of topics.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Duke Ellington Collection (NMAH.AC.0301)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (NMAH.AC.0415)

Eugene D. Smallwood Gospel Music Collection (NMAH.AC.0456)

Wade in the Water Radio Series Collection (NMAH.AC.0516)

Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection (NMAH.AC.0556)

Bernice Reagon Johnson Collection of African American Sacred Music (NMAH.AC0653)

Edward and Gaye Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (NMAH.AC.0704)

Smithsonian Institution

Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections

Smithsonian Institution Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, June 25-July 6, 1997 (CFCH.SFF.1997)

Smithsonian Institution Archivesemph>

Oral History Interview with Bernice Reagon Johnson, 1986 (Accession 009612)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1982-2002 (Accession 05-116)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1983-2004 (Accession 06-002)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1972-1999 (Accession 08-107)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1975-2000 (Accession 12-102)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1976-1999 (Accession 12-358)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1980-1992, 1961 (Accession 96-147)

Duke Ellington Collection Records, circa 1985-1993 (Accession 98-129)

National Museum of American History, Program in Black American Culture, circa 1976-1987 (Accession 98-136)
Provenance:
Collection created by the Program in African Amerian Culture at the Smithsonian Institution from 1979-1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Use of reference audio and video cassette copies only.
Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Civil rights  Search this
African American history  Search this
African American religion  Search this
Gospel music  Search this
African Americans -- Music  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Program in African American Culture Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0408
See more items in:
Program in African American Culture Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0408
Online Media:

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1169 boxes )
7 Film reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

William "Cat" Anderson Collection

Creator:
Anderson, William "Cat", 1916-1981 ((musician))  Search this
Names:
Benny Carter All Stars  Search this
Cat Anderson Quintet  Search this
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Lionel Hampton Orchestra  Search this
Mingus Quintet  Search this
Bechet, Sidney (musician)  Search this
Calloway, Cab, 1907-  Search this
Carter, Benny, 1907-2003  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Fitzgerald, Ella, 1917-1996  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert H. (Hubert Horatio), 1911-1978  Search this
Humphrey, Muriel  Search this
Johnson, Lucy Bird  Search this
Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973  Search this
Tatum, Art, 1910-1956  Search this
Webster, Ben  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Transcripts
Oral histories (document genres)
Oral history
Phonograph records
Photographs
Recordings
Interviews
Clippings
Audiotapes
Awards
Audiocassettes
Articles
Date:
1940-1981
bulk 1963-1977
Scope and Contents note:
Primarily audiotapes, sheet music, and photographic images. Also: correspondence, newspaper clippings, magazine articles, itineraries, awards, and ephemera.,Of particular interest are recordings or photographic images, including the personalities listed below, and President and Mrs. Tubman of Liberia; also, two interviews and three recordings of Cat Anderson as guest with various university and college jazz bands.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Music

Series 2: Original tapes and recordings

Series 3: Photographs

Series 4: Miscellaneous
Biographical/Historical note:
Cat Anderson (Sept 12, 1916 - April 29, 1981) was one of the premier trumpet players of the Duke Ellington Orchestra. Known for his effortless high notes, he was a strong section leader and a great soloist whose style exhibited humor and precision. He grew up in Jenkins= Orphanage in Charleston, SC, received basic music training there, and participated in many of their famous student ensembles. He formed and played with the Cotton Pickers, a group of orphanage teens while still a young man. Before joining Ellington in 1944, he played in several big bands, including Claude Hopkins and Lionel Hampton. Anderson left the Ellington organization from 1947 through 1949 again to lead his own group. From 1959 to1961 and after 1971 Anderson free lanced, working with the Ellington orchestra intermittently. He died in 1981 after receiving honors from the US Air Force, the Prix du Disque de Jazz, and the City of Los Angeles.
Related Archival Materials:
Related artifacts include: awards, plaques, mutes, trumpet mouth pieces, and the Jon Williams/Cat Anderson simulator in the Division of Cultural and Community Life. See accession: 1998.3074.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History in January 1998, by Dorothy Anderson, Cat Anderson's widow. It was acquired through negotiations with her, her brother, Mr. John Coffey and her nephew, Andrew Brazington. The materials were picked up from Mr. John Coffey of upper N.W. Washington, DC on January 21, 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Master tapes not available to researchers.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright status of items varies. Signed copies of releases on file.
Topic:
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Acoustics and physics  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Piano and synthesizer music  Search this
Inventions -- 1980-2000  Search this
Synthesizer music  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Electric engineering -- 1980-2000  Search this
Band musicians  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts -- Music -- 20th century
Transcripts
Oral histories (document genres)
Oral history
Phonograph records
Photographs -- 20th century
Recordings
Interviews
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Clippings -- 20th century
Audiotapes -- 1940-1980
Awards
Audiocassettes
Audiotapes
Articles -- 1940-1980
Citation:
William "Cat" Anderson Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0630
See more items in:
William "Cat" Anderson Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0630
Online Media:

Jeff Donaldson papers

Creator:
Donaldson, Jeff, 1932-2004  Search this
Names:
AFRICOBRA (Artists' group)  Search this
Conference on the Functional Aspects of Black Art  Search this
Howard University -- Faculty  Search this
Organization of Black American Culture  Search this
World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture  Search this
Extent:
12.5 Linear feet
0.003 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sound recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Date:
1918-2005
bulk 1960s-2005
Summary:
The papers of African American artist and educator Jeff Donaldson measure 12.5 linear feet and 0.003 GB and date from 1918 to 2005, with the bulk of the records dating from the 1960s to 2005. The collection documents Donaldson's work as a professional artist, his academic career at Howard University, and his leadership role in the Black Arts Movement through biographical material, a small amount of professional and personal correspondence, personal business records, writings by Donaldson and others, research files, artist files, sound recordings of interviews Donaldson conducted with over 40 artists, teaching files, exhibition files, printed and digital material, and photographs. Also found are detailed records of his professional activities and leadership roles in AfriCOBRA, CONFABA, FESTAC, and the Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC), including documentation on the Wall of Respect mural.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of African American artist and educator Jeff Donaldson measure 12.5 linear feet and 0.003 GB and date from 1918 to 2005, with the bulk of the records dating from the 1960s to 2005. The collection documents Donaldson's work as a professional artist, his academic career at Howard University, and his leadership role in the Black Arts Movement through biographical material, a small amount of professional and personal correspondence, personal business records, writings by Donaldson and others, research files, artist files, sound recordings of interviews Donaldson conducted with over 40 artists, teaching files, exhibition files, printed and digital material, and photographs. Also found are detailed records of his professional activities and leadership roles in AfriCOBRA, CONFABA, FESTAC, and the Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC), including documentation on the Wall of Respect mural.

Biographical material includes biographical summaries and resumes detailing Donaldson's career, and documents such as his birth certificate, veteran and education records, and passports.

The correspondence series includes 0.3 linear feet of letters to and from colleagues, friends, and educational and art organizations. This correspondence relates primarily to Donaldson's professional activities. Also found are one folder of letters each from Gwendolyn Brooks and Hoyt Fuller. The bulk of Donaldson's professional correspondence can be found in other series.

Interviews consist of transcripts and sound recordings of interviews conducted by Donaldson for research for his dissertation on the Harlem Renaissance, with more than forty artists including Charles Alston, Romare Bearden, Bob Blackburn, Nancy Cox, Mildred Howard, Suzanne Jackson, Senga Nengudi, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, James Phillips, and Lamonte Westmoreland. This series also includes two transcripts of interviews with Donaldson.

Writings by Donaldson include articles, catalog essays, notes and draft excerpts from his dissertation, and draft lectures on TransAfrican art.

Artist files were compiled by Donaldson and relate to various projects including his dissertation, his teaching, and his involvement with FESTAC and other projects. Artists represented include Romare Bearden, John Howard, Jacob Lawrence, Archibald Motley, James Phillips, Hale Woodruff, and others. The files contain scattered correspondence, writings and notes, printed material, and photos of artists and artwork.

Exhibition files document Donaldson's involvement with the TransAfrican Art Invitational Exhibition (1997-1988) at the Orlando Museum of Art through correspondence and other planning documents, catalog essays, artist records, printed and digital material, and photographs. The series also documents solo and group exhibitions of Donaldson's artwork from 1980-2000, and includes correspondence, printed material, and photographs.

Professional files provide a rich and substantial record of Donaldson's leadership roles in the African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists (AfriCOBRA), the Conference on the Functional Aspects of Black Art (CONFABA), the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC), and the Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC). The records are particularly extensive for AfriCOBRA and FESTAC, and include correspondence, planning documents, financial records, meeting records, printed and digital material, and photographs. Additional professional files document Donaldson's involvement with other committees and conferences, including his role as guest editor for the International Review of African American Art.

Research files provide additional material related to Donaldson's dissertation and his teaching career. Of particular note is correspondence from the 1940s-1950s between the Harmon Foundation and the Department of Art at Howard University, as well as notes and a photograph of Harlem Renaissance artists outside 306 West 41st Street where Charles Alston taught art classes.

Teaching files document Donaldson's role as art department chairman and subsequently dean of the College of Fine Arts at Howard University, through correspondence and employment records. The files also include his lecture notebooks and other course documentation.

Personal business records document Donaldson's personal art collection, as well as appraisals, sales, and consignments of his own artwork. Printed material includes announcements and catalogs for exhibitions of Donaldson's artwork and the artwork of others, as well as news clippings compiled by him on subjects of interest, particularly African American artists and racial injustice.

Photographs are primarily slides of Donaldson's artwork produced from the 1950s to 2000, but also include some photos of Donaldson, including contact sheets and photographs of late career portraits, and photos of Donaldson with his wife, Arnicia. One set of photos documents a visit to Uganda in 1974, where Donaldson and his travel companions met with Idi Amin.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 12 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1954-2004 (0.3 Linear feet; Box 1, OV 14)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1957-2004 (0.3 Linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Interviews, 1959-1997 (1.7 Linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 4: Writings, 1963-2003 (0.5 Linear feet; Box 3)

Series 5: Artist Files, 1928-2003 (1.1 Linear feet; Boxes 3-4)

Series 6: Exhibition Files, circa 1966-2000 (1.3 Linear feet; Boxes 4-6, 0.002 GB: ER01-ER02)

Series 7: Professional Files, 1960s-2005 (5.2 Linear feet; Boxes 6-11, OV 14, 0.001 GB; ER03)

Series 8: Research Files, 1930-2001 (0.4 Linear feet; Box 11)

Series 9: Teaching Files, 1961-2002 (0.6 Linear feet; Boxes 11-12)

Series 10: Personal Business Records, 1966-2001 (0.2 Linear feet; Box 12)

Series 11: Printed Material, 1918-2003 (0.5 linear feet; Box 12)

Series 12: Photographs and Personal Sound Recordings, 1956-2003 (0.4 Linear feet; Box 13)
Biographical / Historical:
Jeff Donaldson (1932-2004) was an African American artist and educator who worked in Chicago and Washington, D.C. He was a leading figure in the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s and promoted the "TransAfrican" aesthetic.

Donaldson was born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, and graduated from the University of Arkansas with a B.A. in studio art in 1954. He briefly served in the U.S. Army and taught art in a Chicago high school from 1957 to 1965. In 1963, he received his M.S. in Art Education from Illinois Institute of Technology, and taught at Northwestern University while pursuing his Ph.D. there. He received his Ph.D. in art history in 1974 with a dissertation on young African American artists working in Harlem during the 1930s. In 1970, Donaldson became director of the Howard University Art Gallery and chairman of the art department. From 1985 to 1998, he served first as associate dean and then dean of the Howard University, College of Fine Arts.

As a leading member of the Black Arts Movement, Donaldson co-founded the Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC) Visual Art Workshop which created the influential Wall of Respect mural in 1967 on the southside of Chicago. He also co-founded the AfriCOBRA artist collaborative in 1968 of which he was a lifelong member. Donaldson promoted the TransAfrican art aesthetic through his leadership role in FESTAC, the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture, held in Lagos, Nigeria in 1977. He was guest editor for a TransAfrican focused issue of the International Review of African American Art which coincided with the TransAfrican Art Invitation Exhibition he curated at the Orlando Museum of Art in 1997.

Donaldson also worked as a professional painter, exhibiting in over a hundred and fifty group and solo exhibitions, and wrote critical essays for several arts publications. He regularly served as an exhibition juror, conference presenter, and served on advisory committees and as a board member for many arts and African American organizations.
Provenance:
Donated 2015 by Jameela Donaldson, Jeff Donaldson's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings and born-digital records with no duplicate access copies requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Jeff Donaldson papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Educators -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Painters -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Painters -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Topic:
Black Arts movement  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Citation:
Jeff Donaldson papers, 1918-2005, bulk 1960s-2005. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.donajeff
See more items in:
Jeff Donaldson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-donajeff
Online Media:

Assorted Interviews, Sound Recordings

Collection Creator:
Castleman, Riva  Search this
Extent:
9 Sound cassettes (microcassette)
Container:
Box 8, Folder 23
Type:
Archival materials
Audio [31027000842795]
Sound cassettes (microcassette)
Date:
1980s-1990s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings and born-digital records with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Riva Castleman papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Riva Castleman papers, 1871, 1930-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Riva Castleman papers
Riva Castleman papers / Series 5: Interviews
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-castriva-ref170

The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection

Topic:
Pepsi-Cola World
Pepsi-Cola (soft drink)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
7.7 Cubic feet (32 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews
Oral history
Videotapes
Date:
1938-1986
Summary:
The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of an oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Scope and Contents:
At the core of the "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documention Collection are oral history interviews with individuals involved with Pepsi-Cola and its advertising campaigns. In addition to the oral histories there are research files which include an almost complete run of Pepsi-Cola World, interview abstracts, print advertising, and television commercials from Pepsi's best-known advertising campaigns.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1985

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1984-1985

Series 3: Oral History Interviews, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.1: Reference Copies, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.2: Master Tapes,1984-1985

Subseries 3.3: Original Tapes, 1984-1985

Series 4: Pepsi-Cola Video, 1946-1988

Subseries 4.1: Reference videos

Subseries 4.2: Master Copies

Series 5: Pepsi Cola Audio, circa 1970, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1983, as part of the 20th anniversary of the "Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi-Cola donated to the Archives Center approximately 200 advertising and promotional items (see collection AC0092). The Archives Center accepted these items and proposed an oral history project to document the "Pepsi Generation" story.

The Archives Center embarked upon this project in the spring of 1983. A professional oral historian, Dr. Scott Ellsworth, conducted twenty-nine interviews during 1984 and 1985 with twenty-six people involved in Pepsi advertising, including bottlers, advertising executives, producers, directors, a songwriter, a performer, a publisher, the president of Pepsi, the chairman of the board, and two former Pepsi presidents.

The interviews focus primarily on the "Come Alive, You're In The Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi's adoption of youth-oriented advertising, campaign execution, television commercial production, background of the idea for the "Think Young" campaign, and the company's response to the "Pepsi Generation"campaign.

The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of this oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Beverages

N.W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Pepsi-Cola Advertising Collection
Provenance:
Collection donated by Pepsi-Cola Company through Rebecca Madiera in 1983. Interviews made for the Smithsonian Institution in 1984 and 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
Ambiguity in advertising  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Music in advertising  Search this
Prize contests in advertising  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Beverages -- 1930-1990  Search this
Advertising writing  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Youth-oriented advertising  Search this
Slogans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Videotapes
Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0111
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0111
Online Media:

Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints

Creator:
Ostroff, Eugene, d. 1999 (NMAH Curator)  Search this
Salo, Matt, Dr.  Search this
Haberstich, David E., 1941-  Search this
Ahlborn, Richard E.  Search this
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Names:
China Daily News -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
China Daily News -- Photographs  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Davis, Earl  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Oral history
Interviews
Audio cassettes
Place:
Virgin Islands -- 1930-1940
New York (N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Bowery (New York, N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Chinatown (New York, N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
St. Thomas (Virgin Islands) -- 1930-1940
Date:
1985 - 1986
1930 - 1943
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 273 silver gelatin photoprints (Series 1), most of which apparently were made during the 1930s and early 1940s, contemporaneously with the original negatives. All are 8" x 10" or slightly smaller, unmounted except for flush mounted linen on the backs of some prints. The photographs were made primarily in two locations, New York City and the Virgin Islands. The Virgin Islands pictures were made as part of a special documentary project in 1939, as described above, whereas the New York photographs stem from Mr. Alland's largely self assigned documentation of various ethnic and religious groups in New York from approximately 1932 to 1943. The projects include photographs of the "Red Bandanna" Romany Gypsy group in the Bowery, a black Jewish congregation, Mohawk Indians in Brooklyn, and other groups, which required extensive exploration, research, and photographing over periods of many days or weeks. A variety of miscellaneous ethnic and religious groups are covered in the general "Other Religions" and "Nationalities" folders. The contents of the "Judaism" folder include primarily New York sites and people, but there are also additional views of a synagogue from the Virgin Islands project.

Series 2 of the collection contains four cassette tape recordings of two interviews with Mr. Alland, three made by Richard Ahlborn (with Eugene Ostroff and Matt Salo) in 1985, and one by David Haberstich and Richard Ahlborn, June 2-3, 1986 (at which time the photographs were donated). The tapes include readings from his autobiography, personal reminiscences on his experiences as an immigrant and a photographer, and commentary on the photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photoprints, 1930-1943

Series 2: Audiotape Cassettes, 1985-1986

The photographs are arranged topically and by nationality.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Alland, Sr., was born in Sevastopol, Crimea (formerly in the Soviet Union) on 6 August 1902. His last name originally was Landschaft, but he legally changed it to Alland following the birth of his son. Alland's interest in photography began at the age of twelve, when he helped a local photographer with darkroom work. He constructed his own camera from cardboard with a simple meniscus lens and exposed glass plate negatives with the device.

Toward the end of the Civil War in Russia in 1920, Alland relocated in Constantinople, Turkey, where he was hired as an apprentice by a graduate of the Vienna Academy of Photography. When the Union Nationale des Combatants Francais went on a pilgrimage to Gallipoli, a former battle zone on the Dardanelles, he was asked to accompany them in order to document events. After having his request for a pay increase refused, he left his employer two years later and opened his own portrait studio, "Photo d'Art Russe." When civil unrest threatened Constantinople in 1923, he decided to emigrate to the United States.

During his first years in the United States he worked in photo finishing businesses while engaged in home portraiture independently. He married in 1929 and a son, Alexander, Jr., was born. In the 1930s he became one of the best known photographers portraying the life of immigrants and various ethnic groups in New York. (1) In 1936 he was appointed supervisor of the Photo Mural section of the W.P.A. Federal Art Project, and worked as a free lance photographer for magazines and periodicals featuring the activities of various ethnic groups living in New York City. He specialized in making photomurals with montage techniques. (2)

In 1937 Alland became photography instructor at the American Artists' School and joined the American Artists Congress. In 1939, his first book, Portrait of New York, was published and he became president of the "Exploration Photo Syndicate" and went to the U.S. Virgin Islands as part of a project to produce a pictorial record of the West Indian Islands. His photographs appeared in publications and were exhibited at the New School for Social Research and at the Schomberg Collection. In 1942 he joined the staff of Common Ground magazine as photography editor and was appointed by the National Youth Administration to supervise their photography workshop. His book American Counterpoint appeared in 1943 and was selected as "One of the Fifty Best Books of the Year." The original prints from that book were exhibited at the Museum of the City of New York, which also exhibited a portfolio of his work on American Gypsies. In 1944 he became director of an agency, "Pictures for Democracy," and in 1945 his book The Springfield Plan was proclaimed another "One of the Fifty Best Books of the Year."

During World War II Alland did technical photography for the War Department, receiving a commendation for this work. After another book My Dog Rinty was published, he left New York City to establish a school of photography, combined with a school of dance directed by his wife, Alexandra, a professional dancer and choreographer. (3) He then began to exhibit his own photographs and to collect glass plate negatives and vintage prints by significant photographers. He is perhaps best known for locating a collection of Jacob Riis negatives and making them available. In 1974 Aperture published his biography, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen4. Because of his efforts in providing the Riis negatives to the Museum of the City of New York, that institution awarded a special commemorative medal to him in 1973. The Riis book was followed by two more studies of photographers, Jessie Tarbox Beals, First Woman News Photographer (5) and Heinrich Tonnies, Cartes de Visite Photographer Extraordinaire. (6)

Retrospective exhibitions of Alland's work were held in two major Danish museums in summer 1979 and he was honored for contributions to the cultural history of Denmark. In 1991 studies for his photomural work were included in an historical survey exhibition of American photomontage at the University of Maryland at College Park. (7).

Sources

1. My text is based upon the biographical information recorded on my taped interviews with Mr. Alland in this collection, but see also Bonnie Yochelson, The Committed Eye: Alexander Alland's Photography. New York: The Museum of the City of New York, Inc., 1991.

2. Merry A. Foresta, "Art and Document: Photography of the Works Progress Administration's Federal Art Project," in Official Images: New Deal Photography (essays by Foresta, Pete Daniel, Maren Stange, and Sally Stein), Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987, p. 153, based on an interview with Alland, January 1987.

3. Photographic historian Anne Peterson, contractor for three Archives Center photographic collection projects between 1986 and 1982, reports that she studied ballet as a child with Mrs. Alland.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid

7. See catalog by Cynthia Wayne, Dreams, Lies, and Exaggeration: Photomontage in America. The Art Gallery, University of Maryland at College Park, 1991 (exhibition at the gallery Oct. 21 Dec. 20, 1991).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Carlos de Wendler Funaro Gypsy Research Collection (AC0161)

Contains additional Alland photographs. De Wendler Funaro also photographed Steve Kaslov, his family, and his Bowery coppersmith workshop.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Alexander Alland, June 3, 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyrighted material: photographs may not be reproduced without written permission from the Estate of Alexander Alland, Sr.
Topic:
Synagogues -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York, N.Y.  Search this
Newspapers -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Muslims -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Minorities -- Housing -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Minorities -- Housing -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Judaism -- Customs and practices  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Immigrants -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Housing -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Buddhism -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Catholic Church -- Liturgy  Search this
Chinese drama -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Churches -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Clergy -- 1930-1940 -- United States  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Ethnic costume  Search this
Ethnic groups -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Falashas -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Fortune-tellers -- Gypsies -- 1930-1940 -- United States  Search this
Pluralism  Search this
Poverty -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Printing -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Protestant churches -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Religious and ecclesiastical institutions -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Singers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Synagogues -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints, 1932-1943, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0204
See more items in:
Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0204
Online Media:

Emiliano Martinez Collection

Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Interviewer:
Ahlborn, Richard E.  Search this
Martin, Juana  Search this
Author:
Martinez, Emiliano  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Transcripts
Photographs
Audiotapes
Oral history
Audiocassettes
Place:
Fort Chaffee (Ark.)
Date:
1984
Scope and Contents:
Papers and photographs related to the immigration experience of Cuban refugee Martinez: a story from the Washington Post, March 12, 1984; a 45-minute cassette recording of an interview (in Spanish) by Richard E. Ahlborn with Martinez; a transcription in Spanish of the interview; six photographs of the hut taken by a zoo photographer; a covering memorandum from Ahlborn; a copy of Martinez's earnings from the sale of cans; and a diagram of his hut. Ahlborn, a curator in the Division of Community Life, was assisted by Juana Martin, a social worker.
Biographical / Historical:
The story of Emiliano Martinez, a Cuban refugee, was publicized as an example of the ingenuity and survival skills of recent immigrants to this nation. Martinez fled Cuba in one of the freedom flotillas of 1980. After a year in a refugee camp at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, he arrived in Washington, D.C. in April 1981. He shared apartments with other Cuban refugees until October 1982. Using his carpentry skills, he constructed a hut on undeveloped land at the National Zoo, where he lived from December 1982 until March 1984. He then moved into a boarding house in the Adams-Morgan neighborhood. He made his livelihood by selling aluminum cans to a Safeway grocery store for an average of sixty-five dollars a month.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Emilio Martinez.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hispanic Americans -- 1950-2000  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Housing  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
Political refugees  Search this
Carpentry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Transcripts
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Audiotapes
Oral history
Audiocassettes
Citation:
Emiliano Martinez Collection, 1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0176
See more items in:
Emiliano Martinez Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0176

Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers

Creator:
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Names:
Bell Aircraft Corporation  Search this
Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Rockwell International  Search this
Space Global  Search this
Dornberger, Walter, 1895-  Search this
Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977  Search this
Extent:
124.9 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes
Sketches
Vhs (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Date:
1949-1984
Summary:
This collection is composed of Krafft Ehricke's files including Ehricke's published and unpublished papers as well as papers and works by others that Ehricke gathered, presumably as reference material.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Krafft Ehricke's writings and interviews spanning 1949-1984 and items gathered by Ehricke as reference material for his various writing projects. The files on his writings include handwritten manuscripts, typed drafts, publication proofs, and/or final published versions and reprints, and in some cases include correspondences or other documents relating to publication. The collection also includes original paste-up versions of graphics created by or for Ehricke to illustrate his writings. The reference material includes technical reports, scientific papers, and newspaper and magazine articles gathered by Ehricke during his career.
Arrangement:
The collection remained in the possession Ehricke's family for nearly two decades after his death and apparently was largely unorganized prior to processing. The material has been arranged in five series, with oversized materials filed at the end of the collection in series order by size.

Series I. Writings (Boxes 1-80) – copies of papers, articles, and lectures by Ehricke, including a mix of manuscript (MS), typescript (TS), paste-up, and published copies. Reports written by Ehricke as part of a study conducted as part of his professional duties are filed in Series IV as part of the "Studies and Projects" section of each subject group (see below). The materials are organized chronologically with different versions of the same work filed together by date of publication (if published) or completion. Ehricke rarely labeled MS or TS pages by title, generally wrote on the similar topics, and often cut finished text blocks or figures from one paper to use in another, a process he referred to cannibalization. As a result, although efforts have been made to organize loose MS and TS pages by their final works these assignments must be considered tentative and some pages have been left unassigned due to lack of sufficient information.

Series II. Graphics (Boxes 81-94) – copies of original and paste-up graphics (charts, graphs, illustrations) designed or created by Ehricke. Because these materials were mainly found in their original folders, they have been filed consistent with their original labeling. As a result they fall into groups roughly corresponding to Ehricke's tenures at General Dynamics, North American Rockwell, and Space Global.

Series III. Company Files (Boxes 94-104) – files and materials relating to business activities at the various companies for which Ehricke worked, organized by company in chronological order of Ehricke's tenure. Within each company, materials are organized by named files (filed alphabetically) and proposals and related material (filed chronologically). The proposals filed in this series represent studies or programs for which no other documentation exists in the collection.

Series IV. Reference Files (Boxes 104-253) – files and documents arranged by broad subject areas, based upon the subject organization for Ehricke's existing lecture transparencies. Within each subject area files are organized into three groups: named files (arranged alphabetically); studies (arranged chronologically by the start of the study); and other reports (arranged chronologically). Named files usually contain a variety of papers, reports, and articles and sometimes include items written by Ehricke. Studies often include correspondence, papers, or reports by Ehricke in addition to documents by other members of the study team; items by Ehricke have been filed in this series, rather than in Series I to preserve the context in which they were created and used. Other reports are generally filed chronologically by date of publication unless it could be clearly established that Ehricke acquired the material significantly later than its publication date (for instance: in cases where order forms attached to document bundles show that Ehricke had requested copies of the documents a decade after they were published). The subject areas are:

Subseries

2. General (Boxes 104-108)

3. Vehicle Technology (Boxes 108-154)

4. Planets and Planetary Missions (Box 154-203)

5. Transportation Systems (Boxes 204-208)

6. Space Habitation and Human Factors (Boxes 208-219)

7. Space and Lunar Industry (Boxes 219-229)

8. Earth / Resources / Open World Synthesis (Boxes 229-234)

9. Energy (Boxes 234-249)

10. Space Light (Boxes 249-250)

11. Information Services (Boxes 250-253)

Unfortunately, there is significant overlap between these subject areas, especially between subseries 2, 3, 4, and 5; subseries 5, 6, and 9; and subseries 7, 8, and 9. Researchers are cautioned to examine several subject areas.

Series V. Miscellaneous Personal and Posthumous Materials (Boxes 253-254) – files and documents not otherwise related to Ehricke's research and writing or which post-date his death.
Biographical/Historical note:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke (1917-1984) was an engineer and scientist who made vital contributions to the American space program. Ehricke was considered "one of the few philosophers of astronautics" by the early 1960s (note 1) and until his death remained a visionary and public champion of the cause of space exploration and colonization.

Ehricke was born in Berlin, Germany on 24 March 1917. He was inspired by Fritz Lang's 1929 science fiction film Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon) and attempted to join the German rocket society, Verein für Raumschiffarht (VfR), but, denied membership due to his youth, he instead conducted his own experiments. He spent two years (1936-1938) fulfilling military service requirements in Germany's new Panzer Corps, then earned an Aeronautical Engineering degree (MS equivalent) from the Technical University of Berlin (1938-1940). With World War II underway, Ehricke was recalled to service and was wounded during the Blitzkrieg on the Western Front in 1940. While recuperating from his wound he took graduate courses in Celestial Mechanics and Nuclear Physics from the University of Berlin (1940-1941). He returned to duty in 1941 as an officer to participate in the German attack on Russia. In 1942 he was again wounded, but his earlier engineering work had come to the attention of Wernher von Braun and he was recruited into von Braun's rocket development team, a move he later credited with saving his life. Ehricke spent the next two years (1942-1944) as a propulsion engineer at Peenemünde, then became an ordnance lecturer in Köslin, Germany (now Koszalin, Poland) until the end of the war. In January 1945 Ehricke married Ingeborg Maria Mattull. As the Third Reich collapsed in May he returned to her in Berlin and went into hiding to escape being "recruited" by the Soviet Union. He was finally located by an American officer in 1946 and was reunited with von Braun and the other Operation Paperclip (note 2) scientists under United States Army auspices.

In January 1947 Ehricke began work as a Research Engineer for the Research and Development Service of the United States Army Ordnance Corps at Ft. Bliss, TX, moving to Huntsville, AL, in 1950 when the Army transferred missile development from Ft. Bliss to Redstone Arsenal, AL. In 1952 Ehricke was recruited by Walter Dornberger (note 3), left government service for private industry, and moved to Buffalo, NY, to work as a Design Specialist at Bell Aircraft. For the next two years he worked on Bell's Orbital Glider project, a precursor to Project Dyna-Soar, the Air Force reusable boost-glide weapon system that itself prefigured NASA's Space Shuttle.

In November 1954 Ehricke moved to San Diego, CA, to begin a decade-long career with what was then the Convair Division of General Dynamics. For several years he was a key figure in the development of the Convair's SM-65 Atlas ICBM and Atlas launch vehicle. NASA used the man-rated Atlas LV-3 for the orbital flights of the Mercury Program and as of this writing the Atlas V family of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles remains a mainstay of the United States launch vehicle inventory. Between 1959 and 1962 Ehricke directed the development of the Centaur booster, the first high-energy upper stage powered by liquid hydrogen. Although Centaur was not successfully launched until 1965, it eventually served as the upper stage for Atlas, Titan, and Delta launch vehicles and was the last stage for the Viking (Mars) and Voyager (Outer Planets) missions. During this time he also authored Space Flight, a two-volume textbook on celestial mechanics and launch vehicle design (note 4). In 1962 Ehricke became the director of the Advanced Projects Department of General Dynamics Astronautics, where he directed and contributed to studies of next-generation (Post-Saturn) launch vehicles and propulsion systems, planetary exploration programs, and post-Apollo space activities.

At the end of October 1965 Ehricke left General Dynamics to become the assistant director of Astrionics at the Autonetics Division of North American Aviation (note 5), later rising to become Chief Scientist in the Advanced Systems Department of North American Rockwell's Space Division (1968-1973) and Chief Scientific Advisor for Rockwell International's North American Space Operations (1973-1977). While at North American Ehricke was involved in some aspects of the Space Shuttle program but primarily worked advanced project studies, including studies relating to NASA's space station and deep space exploration programs, and culminating in a multi-year study of space industrialization which began in 1976. During this time he also acted as scientific advisor to the abortive Satellite Power Corp (1974-1976), which proposed using satellites to generate and transmit electrical power to the Earth.

Ehricke retired from Rockwell in July 1977 and established Space Global Company with himself as president. Space Global was, in essence, a vehicle to promote space exploration and to promulgate his vision of a future space civilization, a concept he originally called the "Extraterrestrial Imperative" but later referred to as the "Open World Synthesis." The basic concept was relatively straightforward: because Earth's resources, although great, are limited, they place a limit on mankind's development. The only way to escape that limit is to move beyond the Earth and exploit the resources available in space. It was an argument for space exploration and colonization that Ehricke developed during the 1950s and 1960s, and finally crystallized in a manuscript he co-authored with Elizabeth Miller. Doubleday planned to publish the book in 1971, but then cancelled the project. Ehricke managed to get facets of the idea published in a number of technical journals, most notably in a four-part article in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (1979-1981), and gave numerous lectures on the topic, but The Extraterrestrial Imperative never appeared in the general media. Described as a "warm, witty man" and "a popular lecturer," he kept up an active speaking career until his health began to fail in 1984. He died of complications from leukemia on 11 December 1984.

During his life Ehricke wrote over 200 scientific and technical papers, contributed to a number of dictionaries and encyclopedias, and authored or co-authored several books. His final book The Seventh Continent: Industrialization and Settlement of the Moon (published in German as Der Siebente Kontinent – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)) was being edited for English publication at the time of his death. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by the National College of Education (note 6) (1961) and received numerous awards including the International Astronautical Federation's Guenther Loeser Medal (1956), the American Rocket Society's Astronautics Award (1957) and Edward J. Pendray Award (1963), the New York Academy of Sciences' I. B. Laskowitz Award (1972), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Goddard Astronautics Award (1984), and was inducted into the Aerospace Hall of Fame (1966).

Notes

2. Dandridge M. Cole to Krafft Ehricke, 12 February 1964.

3. Operation Paperclip was a program by the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to bring German scientists to the United States in the immediate aftermath of World War II. More than 1500 scientists and engineers and nearly 4000 members of their families had entered the US by the end of 1947.

4. Walter Robert Dornberger (1895-1980) was a German artillery officer and engineer. In 1942 he was placed in charge of coordinating V-1 and V-2 development at Peenemünde. Captured by the British in 1945, he participated in Britain's -- Operation Backfire -- before being brought to the United States as part of -- Operation Paperclip -- , working on guided missile development for the United States Air Force. Between 1950 and 1965 he worked for Bell, eventually becoming a Vice President of the company. According to some stories he was responsible for poaching several -- Paperclip -- scientists away from the Army's Huntsville team for USAF projects.

5. Krafft A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1960) and Kraftt A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1962)

6. In September 1967 North American Aviation merged with Rockwell Standard and was renamed North American Rockwell. In 1973 North American Rockwell merged with Rockwell Manufacturing to form Rockwell International.

7. In 1990 National College of Education (NCE, est. 1886) expanded and reorganized into the National Louis University (NLU), headquartered in Chicago, IL, with NCE becoming one of the NLU's three colleges.

Chronology

1917 Mar 24 -- born (Berlin, Germany)

1923-1926 -- Grammar School (Berlin, Germany)

1927-1936 -- Gynasium (Berlin, Germany)

1936-1938 -- German Army (military service, Panzer Corps)

1938-1941 -- Berlin Technical University (Aeronautical Engineering Diploma, 1941)

1940 -- German Army (Sergeant, Panzer Corps) – Western Front

1941-1942 -- University of Berlin (Nuclear Physics and Celestial Mechanics; predoctoral studies)

1942 -- German Army (Lieutenant, Panzer Corps) – Eastern Front, wounded

1942-1944 -- Peenemünde Research and Development Center (Development Engineer and Assistant to Director, Propulsion Development)

1944-1945 -- Köslin, Germany (Lecterer, Army Ordnance)

1945 Jan 19 -- married Ingeborg Maria Mattull (Berlin, Germany)

1947-1950 -- Ft Bliss, TX (Research Engineer)

1950-1952 -- Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL (Thermodynamics Research Engineer, Chief of Gas Dynamics Dept)

1952-1954 -- Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY (Preliminary Design Specialist)

1954-1955 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Design Specialist)

1956-1958 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Chief of Preliminary Design and Systems Analysis)

1956 -- received Gunther Loesler Medal (International Astronautics Federation)

1957 -- received Astronautics Award (American Rocket Society)

1958-1959 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Assistant to Chief Engineer)

1959-1962 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Centaur Development)

1959-1961 -- NASA Research Advisory Committee on Electric Energy Systems (Chairman)

1961 -- awarded Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (National College of Education, Evanston, IL)

1962-1965 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Advanced Studies Dept/Astronautics Division)

1963 -- received Edward Pendray Award (American Rocket Society)

1965-1968 -- North American Aviation, Anaheim, CA (Assistant Director, Astrionics Division)

1966 -- inducted into Aerospace Hall of Fame (San Diego, CA)

1968-1973 -- North American Aviation / Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientist, Advanced Systems Department, Space Division)

1972 -- received I. B. Laskowitz Award (New York Academy of Sciences)

1973-1977 -- Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations)

1977-1984 -- Space Global Co (President)

1981 -- received Space Systems Award (IAA)

1984 -- received Goddard Astronautics Award (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics)

1984 Dec 11 -- died of complications from leukemia (La Jolla, CA)

Partial Bibliography of Papers, Reports, Lectures, and Interviews by Krafft Ehricke

"1990 A.D. and Man's Flight to the Planets" (extract from Ehricke & Betty A. Miller, -- Exploring the Planets -- (Morristown (NJ): Slver Burdett, 1969))

"Absolute Comparisons of Management Systems" (no date)

Accuracy Improvement of Martian Probe by Post-Escape Correction and Improved Determination of the Astronomical Constant -- (Convair report AZM-049; 1 Aug 1958)

"Acquisition of Geospace" (Nov 1968)

"Acquisition of the Solar System" (presented to "Contemporary Americans in an Intricate Society – 1969", The Hackley School Program for a Special Senior Conference, 19-29 May 1969)

"Advanced Nuclear Reactor Propulsion Concepts" (AIAA Lecture Series – Advanced Propulsion Systems for Space Applications, 6 Apr 1965)

"Aero-Thermodynamics of Descending Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 2, fasc.1 (1956))

"Aerojet-General Nucleonics Non-Chemical Propulsion Program" (presented to USAF, 11 Feb 1966)

"Aerospace and National Economic Development" (Feb 1976)

"Aerospace Contribution to Solving the Energy and Pollution Crisis" (delivered to luncheon meeting of Capital Section of AIAA, 27 Jun 1973)

"Aerospace Transportation" (Jun 1966)

"Aerospace Transportation – Concepts and Advanced Systems" (Jun 1966)

"Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age" (published as "Toward Aviation's New Infinities", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

An der Schwelle des Industriellen Raumzeitalters -- (report E75-9-1, Sep 1975)

"Analysis of a New Orbital Supply System and Optimization of Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" (presented to ARS 8th Annual Meeting, 2-4 Dec 1953; published as "A New Supply System for Satellite Orbits", -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309 and No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (1st edition, Feb 1954)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (2nd edition; presented to IAF 5th International Astronautical Congress, 5-7 Aug 1954)

"Analysis of Transportation Systems Flight Performance" (1970)

"Anthropology of Astronautics (The)" ( -- Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Nov 1957) : 26-29, 65-68; reprinted in -- Astronautics and the Future -- )

Apollo 11 Flight [5th] Anniversary "Town Hall Talk" (circa 1974)

"Apollo and the Future" (delivered to Industrial Management Club of Reading and Berks County, Reading, PA, 25 Mar 1971)

Ascent and Descent of Rocket Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP-071; no date)

"Ascent of Orbital Vehicles" (published in -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 fasc.4 (1956))

"Aspects Concerning the Impact of Manned Heliocentric Mission on Space Station and Space Shuttle" (NR report PD70-5; Jan 1970)

"Aspects of Deep Space Probes Requiring Cryogenic Engineering Solutions" (University of California, Engineering X428GHI, Lecture 14, 14-17 May 1962)

"Astro-ecology and the Human Environment" (no date)

"Astrogenic Environments – The Effect of Stellar Spectral Classes in the Evolutionary Pace of Life" ( -- Space Flight -- 14 no.1 (Jan 1972); NR report SD71-716)

"Astronautical and Space-Medical Research with Automatic Satellites" (presented to the Franklin Institute; Jun 1956)

"Astronautical Vehicles" (no date)

"Astronautical Vehicles" ( -- Colliers Encyclopedia Year Book -- , 1960)

"Astronautics" (San Diego State College course, Physics 131, Fall Semester 1960)

"Astropolis and Androcell / Thermonuclear Power Generation Satellite / Lunar Productivity Center" (extracts from papers and testimony, 1972-1975; SG reprint SG578-1R, May 1978)

"Astropolis and Androcell – The Pyschology and Technology of Space Utilization and Extraterrestrialization" (presented to Session 2, International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976)

"Astropolis: The First Space Resort" ( -- Playboy -- , Nov 1968 : 96-98, 222)

"Atlas Family of Spacecraft & Preliminary Data on 990000 and 2x106 lb 3-Stage System with O -- 2 -- /H -- 2 -- Second and Third Stage" (30 Sep 1958)

Atmosphere Braking Entry and Associated Technologies -- (NR report X6-624/3061, 1968)

"Aufstieg und Abstieg von Raketengeraten" (published as Chapter 8 of -- Handbuch der Astronautik -- (Karl Schütte and Hans K. Kaiser, eds; Akademische Verlaggesellschaft Athenaion, 1958), pp.235-254; also Convair report AZP-071, circa 1958)

"Ausbeutung des Roten Planeten" (with unidentified "German author", circa Oct 1975)

"Ballistic Ascent to Satellite Orbits" (no date)

Beyond Earth: The Story of Astronautics -- (with Betty A. Miller, 1970 [not published])

"Beyond the First Space Stations" (Jan 1971; presented to Alabama AIAA Meeting, 20 Jan 1971)

"Blaue Planet hat doch eine Zukunft (Der)" ( -- Die Welt -- , 29 Jun 1974)

"Brief Outline of Steps for Commercial Development of Solar Power Systems on Earth and Power Transmission Through Space" (no date)

"Brief Study of the Application of Three Nerva Engine Models to Comparatively Modern Manned Interplanetary Missions Such as Capture in an Elliptic Orbit around Venus in 1975 and Return to Earth" (with B. Brown, B. Oman, and W. Strobl; GDA report GDA 63-1223, 20 Nov 1963)

Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979) [ -- The Future of Space Industry -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979)]

"Buck Stops Here (The)" (Viewpoint column; -- Fusion -- , Sep 1981)

"Busy World of Outer Space (The)" ( -- Discovery -- ; ABC TV, aired 28 Jan 1968; includes Ehricke interview)

"Calculations on a Manned Nuclear Propelled Space Vehicle" (ARS paper 532-57; presented at ARS 12th Annual Meeting, 2-5 Dec 1957)

"Case for Space (A)" (presented to the Citizen's Campaign for Space, Sponsored by The Center of American Living Inc, New York City, NY, 17-18 Feb 1970; NR report SD70-65; Feb 1970)

"Case for Space" [II] (presented to unidentified meeting, 27 Jun 1970; also to California State Polytechnical College, Aerospace Education Workshop, 14 Jul 1970)

"Case for the Space Station (The)" (circa Feb 1970)

CBS News Interview (Krafft Ehricke/Walter Cronkite, Sep 1966)

"Changing Role of Technology (The) – Yesterday Today and Tomorrow" (presented to 8th Space Congress, 19-23 Apr 1971; NR SD71-536)

"Circular Satellite Orbits" (no date)

"Cislunar Operations" (ARS paper 467-57; presented at ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 10-13 Jun 1957)

Cislunar Orbits -- (Convair report AZP-004, 30 Mar 1957)

"Comments on Space Station Paper by R Gilruth" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; response to Robert R. Gilruth, "Manned Space Stations - Gateway to Our Future in Space," presented at the Orbital Laboratory Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, 18 Oct 1968)

"Comments on the Question of the Usefulness of the Scramjet to Boost and Reentry Vehicle Program" (no date)

"Communications and the New Life Style" (address to Public Broadcasting System Annual Meeting, 1972)

Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems: Solar-Heating, Arc Thermo-dynamics and Arc Magneto Hydrodynamics -- (Convair report AZK-002, 1 Dec 1957)

"Comparison of One-Way Transfers and the Effect of Specific Impulse I -- sp -- and Mass Fraction x on Gross Payload Fraction" (no date)

"Comparison of Propellants and Working Fluids for Rocket Propulsion (A)" (Sep 1952; published in -- Journal of ARS -- 23, no.5 (Sep/Oct 1953))

"Comparison of Rocket Propulsion at Constant Thrust and Constant Acceleration (A)" (Jun 1951; published in -- Rocket Science -- 5, no.3 (Sep 1951))

"Computation of Number of Binary Bits of Information for Venus Radar Mapping" (no date)

"Concept of Shuttle Stations and Their Functions in Geolunar Space Utilization (The)" (NR report PD70-4, 15 Jan 1970, revised Jan 1970)

"Contributions of Space Reflection Technology to Food Production, Local Weather Manipulation and Energy Supply, 1985-2020" (presented to 17th European Space Symposium, 4-6 Jun 1980; published in -- JBIS Space Technology -- 34 no.12, Dec 1981))

"Cost Reductions in Energy Supply through Space Operations" (IAF paper IAF-A-76-25; presented to the Sixth International Cost Reduction in Space Operations Symposium II, session 34 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium; NR report SD72 SA-0174, Sep 1972; published as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station"" ( -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station" (Raumfahrtforschung 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135; NR report SD72-SA-0174, Sep 1972; presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit")

Delta -- (California Museum of Science and Industry, TV Pilot, Jun 1974; Ehricke included in on-screen interview)

"Destination Mankind – Proposal for a Saturn V-Apollo Mission into Geosynchronous Orbit" (19 May 1972)

Development of a Basic Planetary Transportation System Model, Interim Report -- (GDA report, circa 1964)

"Development of Large Earth Orbital Space Station" (presented to IAF 21st Interntional Astronautical Congress, 4-10 Oct 1970; NR report SD 70-641, Nov 1970)

Early Manned Interplanetary Missions, Intermediate Report No. 1 – Missions and Operations Studies -- (GDA report AOK 62-0001, 30 Jul 1962)

"Earth Environment and Resources Management from Space" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-734, Sep 1971)

Earth's Seventh Continent – Industrialization and Settling of the Moon -- (in preparation for publication, 1984)

"Earth-Moon Transportation" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-338)

"Earth-Space Meta-Environment and the Future of Man 1970-2070" (presented to ISF 1971 Conference on International Science Policy with the International Meta-University, Sep 1971)

"Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs" ( -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619; originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; originally titled "Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost")

"Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost" (originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; published as "Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs", -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619)

Effective Initial Contributions of a Manned Space Station -- (report KAE-11, 6 Nov 1970)

"Electric Propulsion Systems Model" (no date)

"Electromagnetic Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technolog -- y, vol. 4 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Elements of Rocket Science -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"ELV Comparison and Evaluation Methodology" (Summer 1963)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final Report -- , Vol. I – -- Condensed Summary Report -- (GDA report AOK 64-006, 1 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final -- [Third] -- Presentation -- (GDA report AOK 64-002, 28 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On – Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Energy and the Shuttle Compatible Space Energy Test (SET) Facility Briefing, September 25, 1974"

"Engineering and Space Operations" (presented to Space Station Utilization Conference, NASA/Ames Research Center; 9-10 Sep 1970)

"Engineering Problems of Manned Space Flight" (presented to USC Symposium on the 75th anniversary of the University and 59th Anniversary of the Engineering Dept, Apr 1955)

"Engineering the Reality of Lunar Industrialization" (presented to CSU Northridge School of Engineering and Computer Science Colloqium, 24 Feb 1983)

"Erde und Raum als Integrale Aktionsumwelt des Menschen" (no date)

Error Analysis of Keplerian Flights Involving a Single Central Force Field and Transfer Between Two Central Force Fields Spacecraft Orbits -- (Convair report AZM-7-551; 17 Jan 1958)

"Error Analysis of Single and Two-Force Field Spacecraft Orbits" (Ehricke; presented to Franklin Institute Lecture Series on Space Flight, Mar 1958; Convair report AZM-054, 22 Sep 1958)

"Evolution of Interstellar Operations" (presented to AAS Joint National Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 17-20 Jun 1969; NR report SD69-420, Jun 1969)

"Evolution of Space Flight" (no date)

Evolution of the Space Ship -- (not published)

"Ex Mens[is] – 1: On the Integrated Plan" (15 Feb 1970)

"Ex Mens[is] – 2: Perspective" (no date)

Excerpts of Chapter 7 "Low Thrust Space Flight" of -- Space Flight, Vol. II "Dynamics" -- (Convair report KE62/1, no date)

Exoindustrial Productivity – The Extraterrestrial Imperative of Our Time -- (report E75-5-1, May 1975)

"Exoindustrialization as a System" (no date)

Exoindustry: A Macro-System Analysis -- (report E76-1-1, Jan 1976)

Exploration of the Solar System -- (with Betty A. Miller; published as -- Exploring the Planets -- (Learning Corp, 1969))

"Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space" (presented to 2nd International Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, NY Academy of Science, 26-27 Oct 1967; NR report X7-3215/060)

Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 [not published])

Exploring the Planets -- (with Betty A. Miller; (Learning Corp, 1969); originally titled -- Exploration of the Solar System -- )

"Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" (published as "Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" in -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Grow and Live", NY -- Times -- , 23 May 1972)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 (first version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth Miller, 1974 (second version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part I – Evolutionary Logic -- (SG report SG1078-1, Oct 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part II – Productive Earth Orbits – New Partnership Through Pressures and Promise" ( -- JBIS -- 32 no.11 (November 1979) : 410-418)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part III – New Earth-Space Energy Metabolism, I – Energy Demand Model, Near-Term Space Assist, Space Disposal of Nuclear Waste" ( -- JBIS -- 33 no.11 (November 1983) : 379-390; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part IV – Evolution II -- (SG report SG-OW-9ET-4-182, Jan 1982)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Air University Review -- 29 no.2 (Jan-Feb 1978) : 2-20)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114; originally titled "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy")

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists -- 27 no.9 (Nov 1971) : 18-26; reprinted in -- New Worlds -- 2 no.2 (Feb 1972) : 12-23)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Logic and Realistic Promise" (SG report SG678-1; submitted to -- Smithsonian -- , circa 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative", -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Grow and Live" (NY -- Times -- , 23 Mar 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative – Road Into the Future" (presented to SYNCON '72, 17-21 May 1972; NR report SD72 SA-0120, Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – The Logic of Social and Realistic Promise" (CSU Northridge extension course SOC X496G/X896G, 30 Jan-14 May 1980)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The): Why Mankind Must Colonize Space" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.6 (Dec 1982) : 18-24)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development" (originally presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984 as "Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization")

"Extraterrestrial Imperatives" (presented to Future Oriented Activities in the United Nations, 30 Nov 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (presented to The Conference Board, The Essential Resources Conference, 16 Apr 1973; NR report SD 73-SH-0134, Apr 1973)

"Extraterrestrial Nuclear Mining" (no date)

"Fast Flight Profiles for Manned Helionautical Missions" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX))

"Flight Profiles and Navigation of Interorbital Transports in Geolunar Space" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD71-475, Mar 1971)

"For a Synergistic Space Program – Excerpts from Material Presented to the Advanced Aerospace Projects Office, NASA Langley Research Center, on July 16, 1970" (16 Jul 1970)

Forward to -- Into the Unknown -- (Don Dwiggins; San Carlos (CA): Golden Gate Junior Books, 1971)

Foundations of Interplanetary Flight -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970; published as "Our Commitment to Space", -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82)

"From Closed to Open World" (presented to NASA Study Group on "Outlook for Space", 23-24 Oct 1974)

From Dust to Stars: The Evolution of Space Flight -- (with Elizabeth Miller and J. Sentovic, 1967)

"Further Analyses of the Slide Lander and of Drop Delivery Systems for Improved Lunar Surface Access" (IAF paper IAA-82-216; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982)

"Further Comments on the Power Relay Satellite Concept" (Jan 1974)

"Future in Space" (presented to Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 18 May 1972)

Future of Space Industry (The) -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979) [Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979)]

"Geolunar Industrial Transportation for Low Propellant Expenditure with New Energy Management Concepts for Lunar Access, Part I" (IAF paper 79-120, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress 16-22 Sep 1979; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Geospace Development – Presentation to C. W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC -- (NR report PD70-24; Mar 1970)

"Good Heavens, Santa!" (television script with Leon Leonidoff and Elizabeth A. Miller, 20 Jul 1978)

"Government, Industry and Research Responses to Space Exploration" (presented to ARDC 7th Annual Science and Engineering Symposium, 29-30 Nov 1960)

Guidance and Navigation Approach to Lifting Reentry Vehicle Missions -- (NA report T6-2580/060, Oct 1966)

"Habeus Extraterrestrium – Kultur und Technik im gesetz Jenseits der Erde" (no date)

Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979; reprint of -- Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- ; report E74-12-1, Dec 1974)

"Harenodynamic Cooling: The Use of Lunar Sand as a Cooling Medium" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.6 (Jun 1984) : 319-325)

"Helionautics in the Year 2000" (no date)

Helionauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; also titled -- The Infinauts -- )

"Heritage of Apollo – Presentation to the Town Hall of California (The)" (report E74-7-1, 16 Jul 1974)

"How Do We Get There From Here?" (presented to Los Angeles Council of Engineers and Scientists [LACES], 3 Apr 1975)

"I Can Get Us There by 1966" ( -- Space World -- 1 no.2 (Jul 1960) : 16-19, 48-49)

"Identification of Manned Space Activities Beyond Apollo at Modest Orbital Work, Attractive to Scientific Community" (n.d)

"In-Depth Exploration of the Solar System and Its Utilization for the Benefit of Earth" (presented to 3rd Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, 28-29 Oct 1970; NR report SD 71-290, Jan 1971)

"Industrial Productivity as a New Overarching Goal of Space Development" (Oct 1975)

"Industrialisierung des Mondes (Die) – Der erste Schritt in eine Neue Offene Welt" ( -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.2 (Mar 1982) : 38-51 and -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.3 (May 1982) : 40-50)

"Industrialization of Space" (presented to the Wisconsin American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Milwaukee, WI, 28 Apr 1978)

"Industrializing the Moon – The First Step into a New Open World" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.2 (Dec 1981) : 21-31 and -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 6 no.1 (May-Jun 1984) : 46-55)

"Industrielle Evolution und Revolution im Geolunaren Raum 1980-2010" (presented to 21 Raumfahrt-tagung der HOG, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 28 Sep-1 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-0173, Sep 1972)

Infinauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; originally titled -- The Helionauts -- )

"Instrumented Comets – Astroanutics of Solar and Planetary Probes" (ARS paper 493-57; presented to IAF 8th International Astronautical Congress, 6-12 Oct 1957)

Integrated Geolunar Transportation and Occupation System Using Space Station Modules in Highly Eccentric Orbits -- (report KAE-4, 18 Nov 1969)

"Interplanetary Maneuvers in Manned Helionautical Missions" (AIAA paper 65-695; presented to the AIAA/ION Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, 16-17 Sep 1965; reprinted in -- Progress in Astronautics -- , Vol. 17, -- Methods in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics -- (NY: Academic Press, 1966))

Interplanetary Mission Profiles -- (GDC report AZM-023, 30 Apr 1958)

Interplanetary Mission Profiles – Pt. II -- (report KE60/2, 1 Dec 1960; published as part of -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- )

"Interplanetary Probes: Three Problems" ( -- Astronautics -- , Jan 1959 : 20-22, 42, 44, 46)

"Ion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 7 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Ion Propulsion System for Orbital Stabilization of Satellites, Especially of Several Satellites in Closely Similar Orbits (Pt. 1) -- (Convair report ASM-2, 13 Sep 1957)

Kraftsoletta – Eine Industrie-Sonne für Europa -- (SG report SG1177-1, Nov 1977)

"Künstliche Kometen – Eine Analyse der Enforschüng der Interplanetaren Raums mit hyperbolischen Sonden" (no date)

"Large Scale Processing of Lunar Material" (presented to LSI 7th Lunar Science Conference "Utilization of Lunar Materials and Expertise for Large Scale Operations in Space", 15-19 Mar 1976; report E76-3-1, Mar 1976)

Light and Shadow Distribution in a Circular Satellite Orbit with and without Precession -- (Convair report ZP-7-019; 3 Nov 1953)

"Long-Range Perspective and Some Fundamental Aspects of Interstellar Evolution (A)" (Apr 1975; published in -- JBIS -- 28, no.11 (Nov 1975); report E75-6-1, Jun 1975)

"Low Cost Commercial Space Traffic Operations and the Swing Station" (presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, 7-13 Oct 1973; report E73-10-2, Oct 1973; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 18 no.4 (Jul/Aug 1974) : 173-182)

"Lunar Atmospheric Research by Lunar Satellite and the Landing of Lunar Probes Within Pressurized Structures" (circa 1960)

"Lunar Bases – Complexes for Exploration and Colonization of the Moon" (with Betty Ann Miller, pp.1380-1391 of unidentified publication)

"Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization" (presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984; later retitled "Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development")

"Lunar Industries and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-SA-0176, Sep 1972; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no. 5 (May 1974): 585-622)

"Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" ( -- Acta Astronautica -- 1, no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622; originally titled "Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth")

"Lunetta System Analysis" (IAF paper 80-A-11: presented at IAF 31st International Astronautic Congress, Symposium on Space and Engery; possibly SG report SG-OW-21-182)

"Magnetogas Dynamics" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 8 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Magnificent Heritage – Missions to New Worlds and the New Solar System (The) -- (documentary; with Elizabeth Miller, Jul 1970)

"Man Can Use Interstellar Space" (Los Angeles -- Times -- , 28 Jun 1972)

"Man, Resources and Planets" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress, 13-19 Oct 1968; NR report X8-2233/060)

"Maneuvers and Navigation in Manned Helionautics" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD 71-474, Mar 1971)

"Manned Orbital and Lunar Space Vehicles" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958; Convair report AZM-059, 25 Nov 1958; reprinted in Southwest Research Institute, -- The Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space -- (John Wiley, 1960))

"Manned Planetary Spacecraft Commonality with Space Station" (with A. L. Jones; presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-342, Jun 1970)

Manned Space Service Program -- (report KAE-16, Nov 1968)

"Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies, Part I – Alternatives for Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies" (Jan 1971)

"Manned Versus Unmanned Spaceflight" (Oct 1968)

"Material on Space Industrialization Presented to J. T. Murphy, NASA-MSFC, 31 Aug 1976"

"Mehr Mut, die Brücke in eine große Zukunft zu betreten" ( -- Die Welt -- no.304, 31 Dec 1982)

"Mensch, Umwelt, Technik und wachstum – Dem 'Klub von Rom' zum Zehnten ins Stammbuch" (no date)

"Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968). NR report X-2209/060; originally presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968 as "Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space", NR report X-2291/060)

"Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; NR report X-2291/060; also presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968) as "Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (NR report X-2209/060))

"Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System (A)" (published as "Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Method of Using Small Orbital Carriers for Establishing Satellites" (ARS paper 69-52, Dec 1952)

Methodology of Mission and Systems Synthesis of Manned Planetary Flights with Particular Emphasis on Venus and Mars as Target Planets -- (GD report AOK-63-019, 1 Jul 1963)

"Methods of Minimizing Shuttle-Based High- and Low-Thrust Transportation Costs to Geosynchronous Orbit" (IAF paper A74-03; presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974)

"Mission Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars" (presented to Interplanetary Mission Conference, AAS 9th Meeting, 15-17 Jan 1963)

Mission Map Parameters: Hyperbolic Excess Velocity, Inclination, Path Angle, Perihelion Distance, and Tranfer Angle, Vol. II – Earth-Mars-Earth 1972-1985 -- (GD report AOK63-0005, 20 Jan 1963)

"Missions Between Planets and to Selected Asteroids of this Solar System, Covering the Period of 1973 to 2000" (presented to AIAA National Meeting, Washington, DC, 28 Jun-2 Jul 1964)

"Morphological Analysis and Comparison of Nuclear Pulse Drive Mechanization Concepts" (presented to AIAA 5th Joint Propulsion Specialist Conference, 9-13 Jun 1969)

"New Cosmos and Homo Extraterrestris (The)" (delivered to AIAA Symposium: "Our Extraterrestrial Heritage – from UFOs to Space Colonies", 28 Jan 1978)

"New Growth in an Open World at the Threshold of the First Cosmopolitan Millenium – Collected Works of K. A. Ehricke, 1939 through 1980" (introduction to SG "OpenWorld" document series)

"New Growth in an Open World: Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (IAF paper IAA-81-234, Aug 1981; presented to IAF 32rd International Astronautical Congress, 11th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II, 6-12 Sep 1981)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 1" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 2" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Earth Launch Vehicle (with Freeman D'Vincent; presented at AIAA Summer Meeting, 17-20 Jun 1963; GDA report 63-0065; AIAA paper 63-277)

"Nexus Concept (The)" (with Freeman D'Vincent; -- Astronautics and Aerospace -- 2 no.1 (Jan 1964))

Non-relativistic Interstellar Mission Performance Analysis to Alpha Centauri -- (report KAE-19, circa 1971)

"Notwendigkeit der Weltraumfahrt (Die) – Der Extraterrestrischel Imperativ" (published in -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 4 no.4 (Fall 1983) : 29-41)

"Offene Neue Welt" (no date)

Omni -- Interview ( -- Omni -- 3 no.12 (Sep 1981) : 87-91, 124)

"On Bounding the Problem of Growth" (17 Jul 1972)

"On the Application of Solar Power in Space Flight" (presented to IAF 7th International Astronautical Congress, 17-22 Sep 1956)

"On the Commercial Satellite Project" (no date)

"On the Descent of Winged Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 1, fasc.3 (1955))

"On the Mechanics of Descent to a Celestial Body" (presented to ARS Annual Meeting, Dec 1954; -- Journal of Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Winter 1955) : 137-144)

"On the Need for New Launch Vehicles" (session paper for "Do We Need New Propulsion Systems (Post Saturn) for Lunar and Planetary Flight?", panel for AIAA Annual Meeting, 29 Nov-2 Dec 1966 (chaired by Ehricke); NA report X7-158/060)

"On Space Dynamics at Moderately Low Accelerations" (no date)

"Ӧppen värld med obegränsad tillväxt (En)" ( -- Energi and Utveckling -- , no date, 50-58)

"Orbit Change at Moderate Infra G Acceleration" (no date)

"Our Commitment to Space" ( -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82; originally titled "Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970))

"Our Philosophy of Space Missions", ( -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43; originally titled "Philosophy of Our Space Mission")

"Out There ... Why Not?" (no date)

"Outer Atmosphere Research Program" (Jan 1954)

"Outlook for Space 1980-2000" (6 Sep 1974)

"Outlook for Space, Economy of Infinity aned Economy of Durability" (extract from -- Extraterrestrial Industy - A Challenge to Growth Limitations -- , Proceedings of the Essential Resources Conference, The Conference Board)

Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Passive Power Relay Satellite (The) – Concept and Appraisal of Extraterrestrial Means to Contribute to Overcoming the Energy Confrontation" (circa 1974)

"Passive Power Relay Satellites for Global Energy Distribution" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SA-0016, Feb 1973)

"Peenemünde: The Coming of the Future" (CSULB-Nova; Ehricke interviewed for program; possibly aired as "Hitler's Secret Weapon", -- NOVA -- , 5 Jan 77)

"Peenemuende Rocket Center" (3 Jan 1950)

"Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (published as "Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth"; -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622)

"Perspective and Systems Engineering of Manned Planetary Flight" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-339, Jun 1970)

"Pesticides, Fungicides, Oxides of Nitrogen = Recognized Environmental Hazards" (no date)

Philosophy and Outline of Long-Range Space Planning for the Needs of This Nation and Mankind -- (NR report PD71-16; Jul 1971)

"Philosophy of Our Space Mission" (published as "Our Philosophy of Space Missions", -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization" (presented to Short Course in Space Station Utilization, University of Tennessee, Tullahoma, Mar 1971; NR report SD 71-473, Mar 1971)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization of Space for Earthians" (presented to von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Brussels, during the Short Course on Space Station Technology and Utilization, Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-562, Sep 1971)

Pollution of the Future (The) -- (SG report SG879-1, Aug 1978)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.1, Advanced Concepts, Extraterrestrial Operation Models and Launch Vehicle Requirements -- (GDA report AOK62-0005, 5 Sep 1962)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.2, Extraterrestrial Options, Concept Selections and Schedule (GDA report AOK62-0012, 13 Nov 1962)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Distribution of Electricity from Large Remotely Located Energy Factories Processing Solar, Nuclear or Other Sources of Primary Energy -- (report E74-11-1, Nov 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part I: Technology, Operation, Performance and Economics of the Power Relay System -- (report E74-3-1, Mar 1973)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part II: The Power Relay Satellite Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture and Complete Terrestrial Energy Systems -- (report E74-6-1, Jun 1974)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of World Electrification through Space Transmission" (Aug 1973; presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Cost Reduction in Space Operations, 7-13 Oct 1973)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – Problem Areas" (circa Jan 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (PRS) Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture (The) -- (report E73-12-1, Dec 1973)

"Powered Ascension Path of Satellite Vehicles" (no date)

"Powered Flight Without Atmosphere" (published as Chapter 6.1 of -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961); Convair report AE61-0199, 19 Mar 1961)

"Powered Flyby" (no date)

"Practical Approach to the Disposal of Highly Toxic and Long-Lived Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Between Venus and Earth (A)" (presented to 10th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II: Socio-Economic Benefits of Space Operations, 31st International Astronautical Congress, 22-27 Sep 1980; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 10 no.11 (Nov 1983))

"Producing Advanced Fusion Fuel on the Moon" ( -- Fusion -- (English language ed.), Sep 1982)

"Profitability of Manufacturing in Space in View of Lunar Industrial Development and Geo-Socio-Economic Benefit" (presented to ASME Winter Meeting – Manufacturing in Space, Boston 17-18 Nov 1983; published in L. Kops, Ed. -- Manufacturing in Space -- [PED Vol.11] (NY: ASME, 1983), pp.183-198)

Programmatic Comparison of Initial Manned Missions to Venus and Mars (A) -- (GDA report AOK 63-031, 16 Oct 1963)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (1st edition, May 1952)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (2nd edition, Aug 1952)

"Propellant for Booster of a Two-Stage Missile" (PGAF Memorandum #3, 1 Feb 1949)

"Propulsion System for Fast Manned Reconnaissance Flights to Mars and Venus" (presented to IAS National Flight Propulsion Meeting, 6 Mar 1959; Convair report AZM-068)

"Propulsion Systems Comparison and Evaluations for Space Missions" (published as Chapter 18 of -- Jet, Rocket, Nuclear, Ion, and Electric Propulsion – Theory and Design -- , W. H. T. Loh, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1968); NA report X7-626/060, Mar 1967)

"Raumfahrtsziele und Weltraumtechnik von Morgen" (presented at Industry Fair, Hannover, 26-27 Apr 1971; published in -- Astronautik -- 8 no.3/4 (Aug-Dec 1971) : 95-109; -- Technische Möglichkeiten von Morgen III -- (Düsseldorf and Vienna: Econ Verlag, 1971); -- Junkers Nachrichten -- 14 no.2 (Mar-Apr 1972) : 3-5; no.3 (May-Jun 1972) : 5-7; no.4 (Jul-Aug 1972) : 4-6; no.5 (Sep-Oct 1972) : 4-6; no.6 (Nov-Dec 1972) : 4-6)

Re-entry Characteristics of Recoverable Spherical Satellites, Satelloids and Lunar Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP 001, 25 Jun 1957)

"Re-entry of Spherical Bodies Into the Atmosphere at Very High Speeds" (presented to ARS 12th Annual Meeting, Dec 1957)

"Regional and Global Energy Transfer Via Passive Power Relay Satellites" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SH-0117, Apr 1973)

"Regional Power Distribution Via Power Relay Satellite" (presented to 1st Greater Los Angeles Area Energy Symposium, 3 Apr 1975)

"Rescue from Space by a Secondary Vehicle" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958)

"Response to Questions by the Subcommittee on Energy (Congressman Mike McCormack, Chairman) and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications (Congressman James W. Symington, Chairman) Following Testimony Before Both Subcommittees on 24 May 1973" (23 Jul 1973)

"Restricted 3-Body Systems Flight Mechanics in Cislunar Space and the Effect of Solar Perturbation" (presented to American Mathematical Society for Orbit Symposium, January 1957; Convair report AZM-013, Mar 1957)

"Review and Evaluation of Solar Central Power Stations for Use in the U.S., Mideast and Japan and Associated Solar Engineering Business Development (A)" (19 Jul 1974)

"Review of Important Aspects Concerning the Use of Power Relay Satellite for Icelandic Energy Export by Means of Beamed Microwave Transmission (A)" (no date)

Review of Future Space Applications for House Science and Astronautics Committee -- (RI report SSV74-41; 25 Sep 1974)

"Role of the Army in Space" (presented to Association of the United States Army "Rockwell Night", 24 Feb 1970)

"Safety Aspects in Planning Manned Interplanetary Missions" (submitted to AIAA 4th Annual Meeting, 1967)

"Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No. 6 (Nov-Dec 1954): 381)

"Satelliten zur irdischen Energie-Übertragung Technische und sozio-ökonomische Untersuchungen" (presented at HOG 23rd Raumfahrtkongreß, Jun 1974; published in -- Astronautik -- 12 no.2 (1975) : 19-25)

"Satelloid (The)" (presented to IAF 6th International Astronautical Congress, Copenhagen, 1-6 Aug 1955; -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 no.2 (1956) : 63-100)

"Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System" (originally titled "A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Science Policy and the Extraterrestrial Imperative" (adapted and exerpted from -- Extraterrestrial Imperative -- (1971); presented to Congressman G. P. Miller, Chairman, Committee on Science and Astroanutics, US House of Representatives, Feb 1972; later identified as report KE72-1-1, Jan 1972)

Selection of Promising Initial Planetary Missions and Mission Modes -- (GDA report ASO 63/24, 18 Sep 1963)

"Shuttle and Apollo – The Nature of their Differences" (circa 1971)

Shuttle Station as Element of Low-Cost Geospace Transportation to Geosynchronous Orbit, Interlinking with Earth-Space Shuttle -- (NR report PD70-24, Feb 1970)

"Sidereal Civilization" (no date)

Siebente Kontinent (Der) – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes -- (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)

"Significance of Earth-To-Low-Orbit Shuttle for the Cost Effectiveness of Space Operations (The)" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-780, Sep 1971; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 16 no.2 (Mar/Apr 1972) : 65-77)

"Social Relevance" ( -- Skyline -- 30 no.2 (1972) : 50-55)

"Socio-Economic Determinants of a Program for Lunar Industrialization In Support of Space Light Development Lunetta and Soletta" (IAF paper IAF-A-77-66; presented to the Seventh Symposium on Cost Effectiveness in Space Operations, at the IAF 28th International Astronautical Congress, 25 Sep-1 Oct 1977)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – I. Principles and Overall System Strategy" (IAF paper 78-A-40; presented to the Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits, IAF 29th International Astronautical Congress, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1-8 Oct 1978; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1389-1433; SG report SG778-1, Jul 1978)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – II. Energy for the Selenosphere" (IAF paper 79-A-16, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits); published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1407-1433; SG report SG779-3, Jul 1979)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – III. Selenospheric Economics and Cislunar/Terrestrial Market Analysis" (IAF paper IAA-82-235; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982,12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.2 (Feb 1984)

"Solar Energy" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Solar Option (The) – A Study -- (report E74-4-1, Apr 1974)

"Solar Power from Space" (circa 1973)

"Solar Power Module Concept and Data Summary" (no date)

"Solar Powered Space Ship (The)" (ARS paper 310-56; presented to ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 18-20 Jun 1956

"Solar Transportation" (presented to AAS 4th Goddard Memorial Symposium, 15-16 Mar 1966; NA report X6 661/3061, Mar 1966 rev. May 1996)

"Some Basic Aspects of Operation in Cislunar and Lunar Space" (no date)

"Space" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space – 1980" (circa 1970)

"Space and a World Society Under Law" (no date)

"Space and Energy Sources" (presented to the World Electrotechnical Congress, Moscow, USSR, June 21-25, 1977; RI report, May 1977)

"Space and Human Dividends" (no date)

"Space Applications for Earth-to-Low-Orbit Shuttle Vehicles" (presented as the University of Tennessee, Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight, Oct 1970; and Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series in the Technology of Space Shuttle Vehicles, Nov 1970; NR report SD70-637, Nov 1970)

"Space Applications for Low Cost Ferry Vehicles" (presented at the Space Institute of the University of Tennessee Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight Technology and Applications, 18-22 Aug 1969; NR report SD70-66, Feb 1970)

"Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" ( -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45; originally titled "Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal")

"Space Engineering" (no date)

Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1960)

Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1962)

Space Flight -- , Vol. III – -- Missions, Operations, Vehicles and Planning -- (not published)

"Space Industrial Productivity – New Options for the Future" (Jul 1975; presented to the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Hearings on Future Space Flight, 22-30 Jul 1975)

"Space Industrialization – New Growth Through An Open World" (presented to AIAA 13th Annual Meeting; Jan 1977)

Space Industrialization – Statement to the Commitee on Science and Technology Hearing on Future Space Projects, US House of Representatives -- (SG report SG178-1, Jan 1978)

"Space Light: Space Industrial Enhancement of the Solar Option" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 6 no.12 (Dec 1979) : 1515-1633; SG report SG812-1, Feb 1981)

"Space Light – The Enhanced Solar Option" (published in -- Swann Oil Energy Digest -- 2 no.17 (24 Aug 1977); SG report SG777-1)

Space Light Illumination from Sun-Synchronous Orbits -- (SG report SG278-2, Feb 1978)

"Space Medicine" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Pilot" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Planning Methodology" (circa 1969)

Space Shuttle – The Timing is Right -- (RI report E73-4-1, Apr 1973)

"Space Shuttle and the Energy Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle and the Power Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle May Point the Way to Safe Disposal of Atomic Waste" (Huntsville -- Times -- , 30 Jun 1972)

"Space Station" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/3, 15 Sep 1959)

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/4, rev. 25 Feb 1960)

Space Station for Development and Orbital Flight Training -- (Convair report KE-59/2, 12 May 1959)

"Space Stations – Symbols and Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (keynote address to Session 1 (International Space Stations) of the International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976; RI report SD 76-SA-0200)

"Space Stations – Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (5th IAF Invited Lecture, presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974; later report E74-9-1, Sep 1974)

Space Technology and Energy – Presentation to the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee of Science and Astronautics, US House of Representatives -- (RI report SD 73-SH-139, 24 May 1973)

Space Technology Course – "Interplanetary Operations" (UCLA course, Engineering X461, , 1958)

"Space Tourism" (AAS paper 67-127; presented to AAS 13th Annual Meeting, 1-3 May 1967)

"Space Transportation Lecture" (presented to 3rd Conference on Engineering for Executives, University of Texas; NA report BR6-802/3061, Mar 1966)

"Space Travel" -- (Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles" (published as Chapter 24.1, "Advanced Launch and Carrier Vehicle", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961))

"Space Vehicles" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles Prototypes" (published as Chapter 24.18, "Advanced Space Vehicle Prototypes", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961)

"Spacecraft" (presented to 3rd Jet Age Conference, 26-28 Feb 1958; Convair report AZM-020, 25 Feb 1958)

"Spacecraft Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Fusion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Nuclear Pulse Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacelab – Model for International Teamwork" (presented to 12th Space Congress, 9-11 Apr 1975)

"Sprung In Die Unendlichkeit – Der Flug Des Pioneer Zum Jupiter" (circa 1974)

"STEPP, A Computerized System for Space Technology Evaluation and Program Planning" (no date)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Chief Scientific Adviser to the Space Division of Rockwell International, Before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate" (RI report, 31 Oct 1973)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke, Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations, Rockwell International Corporation, before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate" (RI report, 27 Jun 1974)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Space Division, Rockwell International, Before the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittees of the House Science and Astronautics Committee" (25 May 1973)

"Statement to Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space; Commitee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, Symposium on the Future of Space, US Senate" (SG report SG278-1, Feb 1978)

"Statement to the Committee of Science and Astronautics, House of Representatives, Congress of the United States" [1973 NASA Authorization, 92nd Congress, Second Session] (Jan 1972)

"Strategic Approach to Interplanetary Flight (A)" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and The Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX; NR report X8-1689/060)

"Strategic Approach to the Development of Geolunar Space (A)" (presented to IAA Orbiting International Laboratory and Space Sciences Conference, Oct 1969; NR report SD69-710, Oct 1969)

Study of Interplanetary Missions -- (GDA report, circa Jan 1964)

Study of Interplanetary Missions to Mercury through Saturn with Emphasis on Manned Missions to Venus and Mars 1973/82 Involving Capture -- (GDA report GDA 63-0916, 30 Sep 1963)

Study of Interplanetary Vehicle Assembly Modes, Part I -- ( GDA report AOK 63-029, 23 Sep 1963)

"Summary of Fundamental Rules of Space Navigation" (published as part of -- Space Flight -- Vol. II, -- Dynamics -- ; Convair report KE61/2, 22 Sep 1961)

Summary of Preliminary Data on Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles -- (Convair report KE59/1, 4 May 1959)

"Sun-Synchronous Power Generation and Space Light Systems Lunetta/Soletta" (IAF paper 76-120; presented to session 15 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

Sun-Synchronous Power Generation Satellite System (The) -- (report E76-1-2, Jan 1976)

"Sun, Wind, and Space (Testimony Before the Senate Interior Committee)" (no date)

"Synoptic Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Maneuvering Operations Associated with Several Employment Modes in Geolunar Space" (presented to 5th Symposium on Advanced Propulsion Concepts, 8-10 Apr 1968; NR report X8-1353/060, Apr 1968)

System Analysis of a New Concept for Low-Cost Transportation Involving Geosynchronous and Lunar Space -- (report KAE-8-1, no date)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part I: Mission Philosophy, Life Support, Scientific Reconnaissance and Prototype Vehicle Layout" (published in -- Transactions of the ASME – Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 1-12; Convair report AZM-072, 11 Mar 1959)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part II: Storage of Liquid and Solid Hydrogen on Nuclear Powered Interplanetary Vehicles" ( -- Transactions of the ASME - Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 13-28)

System Concepts for STS Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles, Special Emphasis Task Decsription -- (circa Apr 1975)

Systems Integration, Mission-Performance Analysis, Vehicle Comparisons -- (with B. H. Ohman; GDA report AOK62-0010, 1 Dec 1962)

Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- (report E74-12-1, Dec 1974; reprinted as -- Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979))

"Technology and Economy of Extraterrestrial Industrialization (The)" (no date)

"Toward Aviation's New Infinities" (originally titled "Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

"Toward a 3-Dimensional Civilization" (interview; -- Skyline -- 28 no.3 (Jul 1970))

"Ultraplanetary Probe (The)" (AAS paper AAS-71-164; presented to AAS 17th Annual Meeting, 28-30 Jun 1971; NA report SD 71-542)

"Und Wieder wind die Welt gerettel" ( -- Die Welt -- 106, 7 May 1983); review of Fritjof Capra, -- Wendezeit -- (Bern/Munich: Scherz Verlag, 1983), originally published as -- The Turning Point -- (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982))

United Nations and the Power Relay Satellite as Element of Global Energy Development (The -- ) (report KE75-4-1, 5 Apr 1975)

"Use of Shuttle in Establishing Large Space Installations" (presented at American Association for the Advancement of Science 7th Annual Meeting, Dec 27-28, 1972; NR report SD 73-SA-0015, Jan 1973)

"Utilization of Space Environment for Therapeutical Purposes" (with B. D. Newsom; AAS paper 66-19; presented to AAS 12th Annual Meeting, 21-22 Feb 1966; NR report X6-1962/060, August 1966)

"Vision of Space: We Must Expand to Survive" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 9 Apr 1970)

"Wachsen in die Offene Welt" ( -- Die Welt -- no.89, 17 Apr 1982)

"Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen" (published as "Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?", -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980)

"We Must Colonize the Planets" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 10 Apr 1970)

"Weltraum Technik als Mittel der Produktionssteigerung" (no date)

"Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?" ( -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980; originally titled "Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen")

Wirtschaft, Weltall und Wachstum -- (with E. A. Miller, 1978)

"World Electrification through Space Transmission (WEST)" (Jan 1973)

Abbreviations

AAS -- American Astronautical Society

ABMA -- Army Ballistic Missile Agency

AFOSR -- Air Force Office of Scientific Research (USAF)

AFSC -- Air Force Systems Command (USAF)

AIAA -- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

ARS -- American Rocket Society

ASME -- American Society of Mechanical Engineers

AWST -- Aviation Week and Space Technology

CRS -- Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress)

GD -- General Dynamics

GD|FW -- General Dynamics, Fort Worth

GDA -- General Dynamics Astronautics

GDC -- General Dynamics Convair

GE -- General Electric

HOG -- Hermann Oberth Gesellschaft

IAF -- International Astronautical Federation

IAS -- Institute for Aeronautical Sciences

ION -- Institute of Navigation

JBIS -- Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

JPL -- Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LC -- Library of Congress

LLL -- Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

LSI -- Lunar Science Institute

MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MSC -- Manned Spacecraft Center (NASA)

MSFC -- Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA)

NA -- North American Aviation

NAS -- National Academy of Sciences

NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIH -- National Institutes of Health

NR -- North American Rockwell (successor to NA)

ONERA -- Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aérospatiale (France)

ONRL -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory

PWA -- Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corp

RI -- Rockwell International (successor to NR)

SAMSO -- Space and Missile Systems Organization (USAF)

SG -- Space Global Co

TUB -- Technische Universität Berlin

UAC -- United Aircraft Corp

UARL -- United Aircraft Research Laboratory
Provenance:
Ingeborg M. Ehricke, Gift, 2003
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Rocket engines  Search this
V-2 rocket  Search this
Interplanetary voyages  Search this
Space stations  Search this
Centaur Rocket  Search this
Launch vehicles (Astronautics)  Search this
Space scientists  Search this
Space colonies  Search this
Space industrialization  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Sketches
VHS (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0025
See more items in:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0025
Online Media:

Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records

Advertiser:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Mars, Incorporated  Search this
American Airlines  Search this
Burger King Corporation  Search this
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Anheuser-Busch  Search this
Creator:
Sosa, Lionel  Search this
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates (San Antonio, Texas)  Search this
Aguilar, Adolfo  Search this
Bromley, Ernest W.  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet (31 boxes and 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera
Photographs
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements
Ledgers (account books)
Articles
Magazines (periodicals)
Place:
Texas -- 20th century
San Antonio (Tex.)
Date:
1981-1997
Summary:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas. They created advertising for large corporations such as Western Union, American Airlines, Coca-Cola, Mars, Procter and Gamble, Anheuser-Busch, and Burger King. Additionally, they worked on political campaigns for Republican candidates including George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan. Works created for local institutions such as the San Antonio Symphony and Incarnate Word High School are also represented in the collection. Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar were pioneers in developing advertising strategies to appeal to Latino consumers.

This collection includes internal corporate documentation such as awards, financial reports, marketing strategies, advertisement samples and newsletters, as well as newspaper and magazine articles. The majority of the collection consists of audiovisual materials in D2, BetacamSP, 3/4" U-Matic and 1" videotape formats. The audiovisual materials contain commercials, casting calls/auditions, director reels, public service announcements, focus groups sessions and more. Six hours of oral histories with the principals and transcriptions of the interviews are also included in the collection. Prominent sections of the collection include advertisements created for the Center for Disease Control to address misconceptions about AIDS in Latino communities, as well as photographs, an audiocassette, and public service announcements pertaining to the life and death of singer Selena Quintanilla-Pérez.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into five series:

Series 1: Background Materials, 1980-2015

Series 2: Financial Materials, 1983-1989

Series 3: Clippings, 1988-1999

Series 4: Advertisements, 1988-1995

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1988-1997
Biographical / Historical:
Lionel Sosa (b. 1939) is from San Antonio, Texas and is of Mexican descent. His first venture as an entrepreneur was starting a graphic design studio called Sosart which later developed into an advertising agency. Ernest Bromley (b.1951), of Puerto Rican and Canadian descent, joined the company in 1981 while employed at the University of Texas, San Antonio as a researcher. Bromley's background in acculturation, advertising and consumer research provided a unique perspective for the newly developed Sosa and Associates. Adolfo "Al" Aguilar (b. 1955), also of Mexican descent, studied advertising and marketing at the University of Texas, Austin. Aguilar worked for Coca-Cola's first Hispanic Marketing Department when he began meeting with Sosa and Bromley. Eventually, Aguilar helped bring the Coca-Cola account to Sosa Bromley and Associates. This successful transfer ultimately led to the development of Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center:

López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection (NMAH.AC.1413)

Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.1384)

Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies Collection (NMAH.AC.1343)

Dolores Valdes-Zacky Papers (NMAH.AC.1394)

Castor Advertising Corporation Collection (NMAH.AC.1461)

Spanish Language Television Collection (NMAH.AC.1404)

Goya Foods, Inc. Collection, 1960-2000 (NMAH.AC.0694)
Separated Materials:
Items relating to this collection were donated to the Division of Numismatics and Division of Work and Industry. See accessions: 2002.0007.0517 (Tetradrachm coin); 2015.0080.01 (1988 Clio Award Trophy Hispanic Advertising AIDS Campaign); 2015.0080.02 (Promotional Mug); 2015.0080.05 (Promotional Watch); 2016.3049.02 (1993 Clio Award for Hispanic Market Coca Cola Classic); 2015.0080.06 (1990 Adweek Plaque); 2015.0080.03 (1995 Selena Commemorative Pin).
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015, by Lionel Sosa, Ernest Bromley and Adolfo Aguilar.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 1980-2000  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
advertising -- Soft drinks  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- Confectionery  Search this
advertising -- Beverages  Search this
advertising -- Brand name products  Search this
advertising -- Audio-visual materials  Search this
advertising -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- Airlines  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Television advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Ledgers (account books)
Articles -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records, 1981-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1351
See more items in:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1351
Online Media:

Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers

Creator:
Browning, Bil  Search this
Davis, Jerame  Search this
Davis, Jerame Joe, 1975-  Search this
Browning, William Dale, 1972-  Search this
Extent:
3.15 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Scrapbooks
Petitions
Photographs
Correspondence
Identity cards
Bumper stickers
Periodicals
Oral history
Videocassettes
Programs
School records
Date:
1972-2015, undated
Summary:
Bil Browning and his husband, Jerame Davis were activists for LGBT issues, locally in Indiana as well as nationally in Washington, D.C.
Scope and Contents:
The Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers consist of approximately 3.15 cubic feet documenting their activism on behalf of LGBT rights in Indiana, and includes correspondence, photographs, school papers, a scrapbook from Browning's youth, posters, petitions, handouts, bumper stickers, periodicals, conference and event programs, ID cards, VHS recordings, and printed materials. There are extensive notes from an oral history interview with Browning and Davis conducted by Archives Center intern, Sara Dorfman, in Series 1.

Series 1, Personal Papers, 1972-2015, undated, consists of correspondence between Browning and his friends and family, school-related materials such as yearbooks and report cards, an oral history interview, and a scrapbook from Browning's youth. The scrapbook contains materials pertaining to Browning's work with ACT-UP, along with letters and other personal materials.

Series 2, Activism Records, 1992-2012, undated, contains papers from the Fast Max Sunoco employment discrimination case, papers from the Indiana Stonewall Democrats, conference and event programs, papers from Indiana Equality, papers from the Human Rights Campaign, papers from Pride at Work, a presentation on LGBT youth homelessness from the LGBT Editor/Blogger Convening, an invitation to the inauguration of President Obama, an invitation to LGBT Pride Month from the White House, and papers from the Bilerico LGBT Media Foundation.

Series 3, Legal Records, 1991-2011, undated, contains financial records as well as papers from the Indiana Department of Workforce Development and documents regarding termination of child support paid by Browning's father.

Series 4, Publications, 1981-2014, undated, includes newspaper clippings relating to Browning's youth, LGBT events, and ACT-UP. It also contains pamphlets, hand-outs from conferences, and multiple LGBT periodicals from around the United States, such as the Washington Blade, that claims to be the oldest LGBT newspaper in the country.

Series 5, Photographs, 1972-2006, undated, contains photos from Browning's youth, friends and family of Browning and Davis, Browning's significant others, protests, and drag shows.

Series 6, Audiovisual, 1992-2008, undated, covers Browning's involvement with the organization ACT-UP, interviews with Browning, an open forum led by Jerame Davis in response to a protest against Cummins, a rally staged by the Indiana Action Network, and various clips from news programs covering some of these events.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1972-2015, undated

Series 2: Activism Records, 1992-2012, undated

Series 3: Legal Records, 1991-2011, undated

Series 4: Publications, 1981-2014, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1972-2006, undated

Series 6: Audiovisual, 1992-2008, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Bil Browning (William Dale Browning) was born in Zanesville, Ohio in 1972. Jerame Davis (Jerame Joe Davis) was born in Columbus, Indiana in 1975. After coming out as gay in high school, Browning joined the Clinton presidential election campaign and the organization ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) in 1992. Davis worked for multiple LGBT organizations, including Indiana Equality, Indiana Fairness Network, Columbus Gay/Straight Alliance, Indiana Stonewall Democrats, and Pride at Work.

In the late 1990s, Browning and Davis were involved in an employment discrimination case against Fast Max Sunoco in Indiana. This case served as a catalyst for them to continue championing LGBT rights. The same case resulted in their organizing the internet's first gay rights grassroots online action against the local company that had fired them. Since then, Browning has won multiple awards for his work as an activist. He is also a board member of the National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association, and an advisory board member of the Woodhull Sexual Freedom Alliance. Davis has served as the executive director of the National Stonewall Democrats.

Together, Browning and Davis were the co-owners of the Bilerico Project, a group blog that chronicled Indiana politics and LGBT issues for nearly 11 years. On June 30th, 2015, Browning made his last post on the blog, saying that he was taking time off to work on his book.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by Bil Browning and Jerame Davis, in 2015.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sexual orientation  Search this
Political activists  Search this
Lesbian and gay experience  Search this
Homosexuality  Search this
Gay activists  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
LGBT  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- 21st century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Petitions
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Correspondence -- 21st century
Identity cards
Bumper stickers
Periodicals -- 21st century
Oral history -- 2010-2020
Videocassettes
Programs -- 21st century
School records -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers, 1972-2015, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1334
See more items in:
Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1334
Online Media:

Motion Picture Press Kits Collection

Collector:
Gay Life Magazine  Search this
Gay Life Magazine  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publicity photographs
Press releases
Film stills
Interviews
Clippings
Date:
1961-2004, undated
bulk 1995-2000
Summary:
A collection of promotional photographs and press kits used to promote motion pictures and made for television motion pictures and other entertainment.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of publicity kits and promotional photographs for newly released and re-released motion pictures and television shows. There is a small quantity of material for other entertainment forms: theater, television, music, dance, and tennis. The files may include such items as still photographs of scenes from the films, plot summaries, news clippings, interviews of performers, and press releases. The titles included cover a range of genres and subject matter. The bulk of the material is from 1995-2000. There is one item from 1961 and a small amount of material for the years 2000-2004.

This collection is arranged in one series by title:

Series 1, Motion Picture Press Kits, 1961-2004, undated.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series by title.

Series 1, Motion Picture Press Kits, 1961-2004, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Motion picture, television, and other entertainment producers regularly sent out press kits to news organizations, motion picture theaters, television studios, and entertainment-related publications for publicity purposes. They have been a staple tool of the entertainment industry for decades.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060) Lobby Card, Motion Picture, Television, and Theater categories

Archives Center Business Americana Collection (AC0404) Motion Picture, Television, and Theater categories

Danish Film Stills of American Motion Pictures Collection (AC0543)

Movie Poster Collection (AC0656)

Erol's Video Club Collection (AC0687)

Video Press Kits Collection (AC0748)

Archives Center Poster Collection (AC0751)

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Collection (AC1146) Subseries 4.4: Television, Theater, and Motion Pictures
Provenance:
These press kits were collected by Gay Life Magazine, Baltimore, Maryland during the course of journalistic activities. They were donated to the Archives Center through Daniel K. McEvily, Gay Life Magazine editor, when it moved its editorial offices in 2014-2015.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Motion picture industry  Search this
Motion pictures  Search this
Publicity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publicity photographs
Press releases
Film stills
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Interviews -- 2000-2020
Clippings -- 1950-2000
Clippings -- 2000-2050
Citation:
Motion Picture Press Kit Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1353
See more items in:
Motion Picture Press Kits Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1353

Ashok Gadgil Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Gadgil, Ashok  Search this
Berger, Sondra  Search this
Names:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Oral history
Interviews
Date:
1998 January 16
1998 April 28
1996 - 1996
Summary:
Original, master, and reference videos documenting an Innovative Lives presentation and interview with Ashok Gadgil, inventor of the UV Waterworks disinfectant unit.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains original, master, and reference videos, and audio cassettes documenting Ashok Gadgil, inventor of the UV Waterworks, a water purifier.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Original videos, 1998

Series 2: Master Videos, 1998

Series 3: Reference Videos, 1998

Series 4: Photographs and Slides, 1998
Biographical / Historical:
Ashok Gadgil, was born in India and is a physicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. Gadgil invented the UV Waterworks, a water purifier that provided reliable, inexpensive water disinfection for the world. The UV Waterworks uses ultraviolet light to kill waterborne pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and molds) and thus purify drinking water. The key to this invention is the effect ultraviolet light has on bacteria and viruses--it triggers the formation of peptide bonds between certain nucleic acids in the pathogens' DNA molecules, which robs them of the ability to reproduce and renders them harmless. Water, powered by gravity, flows down through pipes, passing into a tray where it is exposed to twelve seconds of ultraviolet light before it flows out a spigot. Gadgil used sheet metal, UV lamps, and stainless-steel piping to create this invention.
Separated Materials:
UV Water Works Disinfectant unit is located in the Division of Medicine and Science. See accession #: 1998.0158.01.
Provenance:
This video presentation and interview was created by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation on April 28, 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Water -- Bacteriology  Search this
Water -- Ultraviolet treatment  Search this
Water -- Purification  Search this
Ultraviolet radiation  Search this
Physicists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Ashok Gadgil Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0647
See more items in:
Ashok Gadgil Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0647

Magellan Systems Corporation GPS Records

Creator:
Magellan GPS  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (14 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Notebooks
Instructional materials
Design drawings
Photographs
Notes
Memorandums
Manuals
Videocassettes
Reports
Press releases
Advertisements
Clippings
Audio cassettes
Articles
Date:
1978-2005
bulk 1986-1998
Summary:
The Magellan Systems Corporation Records document various aspects of the development of several different Magellan GPS devices through engineering, research, design, manufacturing, and marketing records. Magellan Systems Corporation introduced the first hand-held differential GPS product and the conpany's focus was on research, product engineering, and design activities for GPS receivers. The collection includes correspondence and internal company reports and memoranda; design drawings; research notes; engineering notebooks, technical notes, schematics; photographs, slides and negatives; video and audiocassettes; advertisements; product literature, magazine articles and newspaper clippings; press releases; and user guides and manuals.
Scope and Contents:
The Magellan Systems Corporation Records document various aspects of the development of Magellan GPS devices, including the engineering, research, design, manufacturing, and marketing of the devices. The collection includes correspondence and internal company reports and memoranda; design drawings; research notes; engineering notebooks, technical notes, schematics; photographs, slides and negatives; video and audiocassettes; advertisements; product literature, magazine articles and newspaper clippings; press releases; and user guides and manuals. In Series 1, Operational Materials, Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996, provides an excellent overview of the issues facing the company and what actions/decisions were made and in Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials, Subseries 8, Technical Product Development Seminars provide a good foundation for understanding what the product development staff accomplished.

The core team of players who developed, tested and brought to market the GPS devices included: Janice Jones Blankenhorn, Gary Barta, John Foukos, Randy Hoffman, Norm Hunt, Sab Ifune, Don Rea, Dennis Rich, Ed Tuck, Jon Vavrus, Larry Weill, Val Fife Wong, and James Yuan. The majority of the core team were software and hardware engineers as well as mechanical designers. Their energy, enthusiasm, vision, and unwillingness to fail produced the first handheld commercial GPS receiver in 1989 and Magellgan was the first company to make GPS devices affordable to consumers.

Series 1, Operational Materials, 1988-1993, is divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Organizational Materials, 1988-1994; Subseries 2, Strategic and Operating Plans, 1989-1995; Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996; and Subseries 4, Company Newsletters, 1991-1992.

Subseries 1, Organizational Materials, 1988-1994, consists of an organizational chart detailing Magellan's corporate structure, a document discussing the communication and functional objectives of the company, and a company Christmas card. The Orbital Sciences Corporation profile was prepared by Alex. Brown and Sons Incorporated and provides an overview of the ORBCOMM system technology, a two-way data-only personal communications service.

Subseries 2, Strategic and Operating Plans, 1989-1995, consists of a variety of strategic and operational plans for the company. The plans are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996, consists of handwritten and typescript reports primarily from Randy Hoffman, president and CEO of Magellan and Gary Barta, Senior Engineer and Vice President of engineering. The reports document issues that include, personnel issues, product development, technological developments, military orders, investments, marketing and sales, financial issues, orders, resource activities, and future activities. The subseries is arranged chronologically and provides an excellent overview of the issues facing the company and what actions/decisions were made.

Subseries 4, Company Newsletters, 1991-1992, consists of two external company newsletters, The Global Navigator, 1991 and The Magellan Explorer, 1992. The Global Naviagtor was created for the marine market and was sent to all NAV PLUS owners as well as dealers.

Series 2, Correspondence, 1989-1994 and undated, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Customer Correspondence, 1989-1993 and Subseries 2, Business Correspondence, 1989-1994 and undated. The customer-related correspondence consists of letters from users of Magellan GPS units (primarily maritime-related) and their feedback about the product. Some color photographs are included. The business-related correspondence consists of records of conversations, invoices, suggestions for strategic planning, correspondence between Randy Hoffman and the Boundary Found, and the agreement and plan for the merger of Orbital Sciences Corporation and Magellan Corporation in 1994.

Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials, 1978-1998, consists of ten subseries: Subseries 1, Product Development, 1989-1994; Subseries 2, Engineering Notebooks, 1987-1996; Subseries 3, Technical Notes, 1978-1994; Subseries 4, Breadboard Design, 1986-1994; Subseries 5, First Generation (NAV 1000/NAV 1200), 1985-1994; Subseries 6, Second Generation, 1988-1996; Subseries 7, Third Generation, 1986-1994; Subseries 8, Swiss Army Chip (SAC) Development, 1987-1995; Subseries 9, Technical Products Development Seminars, 1997-1998; Subseries 10, Specifications, 1992-1994 and Subseries 11, TriQuint Semiconductor Materials, 1986-1992.

Subseries 1, Product Development, 1989-1994, consists of documentation related to product development at Magellan. There are sketches for the third generation of GPS products, descriptive materials for the Meridian Plus and third generation receiver, testing data from the Forest Service using GPS in the wilderness near Missoula, Montana, and position description for the director of product engineering at Magellan outlining the skills and responsibilities.

Subseries 2, Engineering Notebooks, 1987-1996, consists of bound, paginated and handwritten notebooks belonging to two Magellan engineers, Janice Jones Blankenhorn, senior software engineer and Don Rea, director of engineering. Each of Don Rea's notebooks contains a page of handwritten annotations made in 2010 describing the contents. Don Rea's 1987 notebook contains documentation on the original Magellan breadboard, custom digital chip (SAC 1), and the digital board design and test, all of which deal with the first generation of the NAV 1000. Rea's 1986 and 1988 notebook contains information about the first generation of software used, GaAS chips, radio frequency (RF) board, second generation (NAV 5000), design work for Swiss Army Chips (SACs), SAC2 digital chip, SAC2B, and the SAC3 chip. Don Rea's 1993-1995 notebook contains notes on the testing of the SAC5, SAC5M and SAC6 custom digital integrated circuit for the third generation.

Subseries 3 Technical Notes, 1978-1994, consists of handwritten and typescript notes of Gary Barta, Janice Jones Blankenhorn, John Foufos, Janice Intyre, Don Rea, Larry Weill, and James Yuan. Where possible, file level information about what the notes relate to and the Magellan staff member who wrote the notes is listed. Much of the documentation consists of equations, algorithms, sketches, block diagrams, and narrative describing processes and research. The subseries is loosely arranged chronologically.

Subseries 4, Breadboard Design, 1986-1994, consists of memoranda, technical notes, drawings, and sketches detailing the radio frequency breadboard design. Magellan's first-generation breadboard, circa 1987, was developed by the team of Janice Jones Blankenhorn, Val Fife Wong, Ed Tuck, Norm Hunt, Sab Ifune, Gary Barta, Larry Weill, Randy Hoffman, and Don Rea.

Subseries 5, First Generation (NAV 1000/NAV 1200), 1985-1994, consists of technical notes, design notes, memoranda, drawings, and blueprints documenting the development of the first generation (primarily the NAV 1000/NAV 1200), handheld GPS unit produced by Magellan. The first generation of GPS were single channel receivers and were quite simple. The NAV 1000 was 8.75" x 3.5" x 2.25" and weighed only 1.5 pounds. The NAV 1000 converted GPS satellite information into a satellite/navigation (sat/nav) positioning. It used Gallium arsenide (GaAs) a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic, and monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology to reduce its size and power consumption. GaAs is a semiconductor used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells, and optical windows. The device sold for approximately $3,000 dollars.

Subseries 6, Second Generation, 1988-1996, consists of technical notes, design notes, memorandums, drawings, and blueprints documenting the development of the second generation (primarily the NAV 5000) handheld GPS unit produced by Magellan. The NAV 5000 used five channels working simultaneously to locate and collect data from GPS satellites. The units GaAs circuitry rapidly processed the data received from the satellites to compute current location, altitude, velocity and navigation in under one minute. The NAV 5000 was designed primarily for marine use. Other second generation products included: OEM Brain, OEM 1/2 Brain, Nav 500 Pro, NAV 100M5, Skaynav, Fieldpro, NAV 5200 PM, NAV 5000A, NAV 5000D, DX, DLX, Pro mark V, and the Map 7000.

Subseries 7, Third Generation, 1986-1994, consists of technical notes for the development of the third generation (primarily Meridian and Trailblazer models) of Magellan GPS devices. Third generation models were intended for the lower end of the GPS market and were compact hand-held (size, weight, battery life) and a retail price that was reasonable. Other third generation devices included: the meridian, Trailblazer, AIV10 OEM, Skatblazer, NAV 6500 PM, Meridian/TB/SB XL, NAV 1200 Pm, NAV 1200 XL PM, NAV DLX 10, Promark X, and the Pro Mark X-CM.

Subseries 8, Swiss Army Chip (SAC) Development, 1987-1995, consists of technical notes, diagrams and drawings, and specifications for the development of a digital chip used in Magellan GPS products. Don Rea and Norm Hunt of Magellan are credited with naming the chip. The chip combined several elements--GPS DPS channels, correalators, real time clock, alarm timer, interval timer, keyboard interface, display interface, precise timing, power sequencing, memory decoding, code generators, and beeper driver, to name a few--which allowed the development team reduce the overall power, size, and cost of the chip. Magellan outsourced the manufacture of the SAC.

Subseries 9, Technical Products Development Seminars, 1997-1998, consists of documentation for nine seminars in a series of technology seminars initiated by the product develpment group at Magellan. The seminars were created to keep all staff up to date on past, present, and future technology developments at Magellan. The nine seminars cover the history of Magellan GPS technology and address specific areas of development such as antennas, circuits, signal processing, software, navigation needs, and radio frequency. Other information includes tables providing comparisons for the first, second, and third generations, timelines, SAC chip characteristics, and product shipping dates. The seminars provide a good foundation for understanding what the product development staff accomplished. Researchers should consult Series 8 which documents some of the technical seminars.

Subseries 10, Specifications, 1992-1994, consists of preliminary, functional, and system requirements describing technical characteristics for several Magellan products.

Subseries 11, TriQuint Semiconductor Materials, 1986-1992, consists of materials documenting TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc.'s work. TriQuint was a division of Tektroninix, Inc., a manufacturer of analog and mixed signal gallium arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit products. TriQuint supplied custom radio frequency (RF) and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) chips for Magellan's hand-held GPS systems and tested its chips. Documentation includes trip summaries and observations to TriQuint by Don Rea, a Magellan engineer as well as technical drawings, memorandums, development schedules, invoices, purchase orders, and tests results, production quantity and costs, and specifications. In 1986, Don Rea met Gary Barta, then principal engineer at TriQuint through his frequent visits to the company. Barta led the engineeering development of the an integrated circuit which combined the GPS L-band low-noise pre-amplifier, UHF local oscillator, down converter and high speed digital divisers on a single gallium-arsenide chip. Nothing like this had been done before for a cost senstive commerical application. Barta later joined Magellan in November 1988 as Vice President of Engineering and made the chip he had designed actually work in the environment of a hand-held product.

Series 4, Marketing and Promotional Materials, 1985-1997, is divided into six subseries: Subseries 1, Market Research, 1985-1993 and undated; Subseries 2, Product Literature, circa 1990s; Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1988-1995 and undated; Subseries 4, Press Releases, 1988-1996; Subseries 5, Presentation Materials, 1990-[1997?] and undated; and Subseries 6, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1988-1996 and undated. The series consists of product literature, advertisements, press releases, presentation materials, and newspaper and magazine clippings about Magellan products as well as competitors.

Subseries 1, Market Research, 1985-1993 and undated, consists of market research data in the form of reports prepared by Merrill Lynch, Simmons Market Research Bureau, J & H Instruments, and others, directed interviews and focus group data. There are directed interviews and discussion documentation from 1986 with Coast Guard Rescue, survival trainers, surveyors, hunters, harbor patrols, expeditionists, and mountaineer trainers providing detailed feedback into experiences with the product. The focus group information consists of transcribed interviews, survey text, selection criteria, participant lists, invoices, and technical drawings and mock-ups for the marine, outdoor and hunting markets.

Subseries 2, Product Literature, circa 1990s, consists of one file folder of product information sheets detailing specifics about Magellan products such as the NAV 1000, NAV 5000DX, NAV 1000 PRO/Geolink, NAV 5200, NAV 1000M, Meridian GPS, ProMARK V, GPS 2000, and the Global Satellite Communicator (GSC) 100.

Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1988-1995 and undated, consists of point of purchase ads, artwork and transfer designs for Magellan products. There are some oversize drawings (copies of blueprints) with the transfer design materials.

Subseries 4, Press Releases, 1988-1996, consists of press releases and one press kit containing biographies of staff members, black-and-white prints of Randy D. Hoffman, President and Chief Executive Officer, prints of the NAV 1000, and press releases introducing the NAV 1000. The marine outdoor press releases also contain 1993 dealer price lists for the Trailblazer, Meridian, NAV 5000DX, NAV 5200DX, and the mimimum advertised price policy for 1993.

Subseries 5, Presentation Materials, 1990-[1997?], consists primarily of staff presentation materials used to promote Magellan products. There is one bound presentation, Magellan Systems Corporation Management Presentation, undated, prepared by Merrill Lynch, that provides documentation about the company (an overview), market segments, competition, sales and marketing, product development, technology, manufacturing, and a financial overview.

Subseries 6, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1988-1996 and undated, consists primarily of magazine articles. The articles appeared in a variety of publications and included Defense Electronics, Southern Boating, Maritime Reporter, Cruising World, Boating the Journal of the Sport, International Defense Review, and Navigation News. The subseries is arranged chronologically.

Series 5, User Guides and Manuals, 1989-2005 and undated, consists of training, reference, and user guides for the consumer who purchased Magellan products. The guides are primarily spiral bound and some are annotated. Multiple copies of some years exist. The series is arranged chronologically.

Series 6, Financial Materials, 1991-1995 and undated, consists of stock information, a Securities and Exchange Commission registration statement, correspondence, registration rights agreements, preferred stock purchase agreements, agreement and plan of merger documents between Magellan Corporation and Orbital Sciences Corporation (November 1994), and two floppy discs (3 1/2" and 5") containing information about the company and its staff.

Series 7, Photographs and Slides, 1987-1995 and undated, consists of slides, negatives, transparencies, and color and black-and-white prints of Magellan products. Many of the images document early product concepts, and there are some promotional and publicity materials. There is one folder of photographs with images of employees from 1989.

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1991-1998 and undated, consists of 1/2" VHS, BETA Cam SP, and 8 mm video cassettes documenting technical seminars presented by Magellan Systems Corporation staff and instances of Magellan products featured in news segments. Researchers consult the technical seminar documentation in Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials. The series is arranged chronologically.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Operational Materials, 1988-1993

Subseries 1, Organizational Materials, 1988-1994

Subseries 2, Strategic and Operating Plans, 1989-1995

Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996

Subseries 4, Company Newsletters, 1991-1992

Series 2, Correspondence, 1989-1994 and undated

Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials, 1978-1998

Subseries 1, Product Development, 1989-1994

Subseries 2, Engineering Notebooks, 1987-1996

Subseries 3, Technical Notes, 1978-1994

Subseries 4, Breadboard Design, 1986-1994

Subseries 5, First Generation (NAV 1000/NAV 1200), 1985-1994

Subseries 6, Second Generation (NAV 5000), 1988-1996

Subseries 7, Third Generation, 1986-1994

Subseries 8, Swiss Army Chip (SAC) Development, 1987-1995

Subseries 9, Technical Product Development Seminars, 1997-1998

Subseries 10, Specifications, 1992-1994

Subseries 11, TriQuint Semiconductor, 1986-1992

Series 4, Marketing and Promotional Materials, 1985-1997

Subseries 1, Market Research, 1985-1993 and undated

Subseries 2, Product Literature, circa 1990s

Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1988-1995 and undated

Subseries 4, Press Releases, 1988-1996

Subseries 5, Presentation Materials, 1990-[1997?]

Subseries 6, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1988-1996 and undated

Series 5, User Guides and Manuals, 1989-2005 and undated

Series 6, Financial Materials, 1991-1995 and undated

Series 7, Photographs and Slides, 1987-1995 and undated

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1991-1998 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Ed Tuck of the Boundary Fund, a venture capital firm specializing in technologies founded the Magellan Systems Corporation in 1986 and served as its director from 1986 to 1993. Tuck assembled the initial team of Norm Hunt, Larry Weill, Val Wong, and Sab Ifune to conduct a feasibility study in early 1986 to pursue commercial markets for products based on global positioning system (GPS) technology. Magellan introduced the first handheld commercial GPS receiver in 1989 and was the first company to make GPS devices affordable to consumers. Magellan introduced the first handheld commercial GPS receiver in 1989 and was the first company to make GPS devices affordable to consumers. The company successfully introduced GPS products into the marine, professional, military and automotive and general aviation markets.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) began as a United States Department of Defense Program in the 1960s with a navy system known as Transit (first satellite navigation system). Two other projects soon followed, Timation (satellite to broadcast accurate time reference) and Air Force Project 612B, which began in the 1970s. In 1973, the development of the Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR) began under the management of the Air Force. Designed by the military, the system provided twenty-four positioning satellites under all- weather conditions using passive (non-transmitting) receivers. This kept a user's presence from being detected as a result of the receiver. Although primarily for military use, the system also offered a less-precise coded signal for civilian use.

GPS uses a group of twenty-four earth-orbiting satellites which broadcast continuously. The data being broadcast can be processed by a portable receiver to determine a user's position, velocity and time. GPS has three parts: 1) space part with twenty-four satellites; 2) ground part with monitor and 3) user part with receivers that process the signals and calculate position.

In the spring of 1986, the Magellan team published a specification for a custom mixed signal RF (radio frequency) integrated circuit and by fall 1986, had a breadboard (used in prototyping of electronics) and began software development and testing. Magellan focused its research, product engineering, and design activities on the development of GPS receivers that were application-specific, software-intensive, reliable, lower power, easy to use, and affordable.

From 1986 to 1988, the Boundary Fund provided the venture capital for feasibility studies and the initital product design. By 1988, the company occupied its first stand-alone facility in Monrovia, California with thirty-five employees. In May 1989, the company's first product, the NAV 1000, shipped, and in that same year, the company entered the military market with the NAV 1000M. The company entered the professional market in January 1990 with the NAV 1000 PRO, the world's first hand-held GPS product. By 1991, Magellan moved to a new facility in Dimas, California and introduced advanced five-channel technology. It also incorporated in the United Kingdom (UK) as Magellan Systems to handle product distribution in the rest of the UK and Europe.

The SkyNAV 5000 was introduced in 1992 for the general aviation market, and in the same year, hand-held differential GPS technology for the marine market appeared. Magellan was purchased by Orbital Sciences Corporation in 1994. In 2001, Thales Group purchased the Magellan division of Orbital Sciences, and the company became known as Thales Navigation. In 2006, a private equity firm, Shah Capital Partners, and other investors purchased Thales Navigation, and the company was officially renamed Magellan Navigation. Magellan (also known as MiTAC Digital Corporation) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of MiTAC International Corporation and promotes and sells products and services under the Magellan brand name. Magellan is headquartered in Santa Clara, California.
Related Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds related artifacts (GPS receivers, computer electronics boards, computer chips, antennas, packaging, components, circuit boards, keyboards, a Swiss Army Chip (SAC), and receiver brackets). See Accession numbers 2010.0117; 2010.0118; 2010.0151; 2010.0152; 2010.0153; 2010.0154 and 2010.0155.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2010, by MiTAC Digital Corporation through Michael Williams, Director of Marketing and Gary Barta, Janice Itnyre, Jean Tuck McGregor, Donald Rea, Edward F. Tuck, Lawrence R. Weill, and James P. White.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Navigation  Search this
Navigation equipment and supplies  Search this
Global Positioning System  Search this
GPS receivers  Search this
Satellites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Notebooks
Correspondence -- 2000-2010
Instructional materials
Design drawings
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Notes
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 2000-2010
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 1950-2000
Memorandums -- 1950-2000
Manuals
Memorandums -- 2000-2010
Videocassettes
Reports
Press releases
Reports -- 2000-2010
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Reports -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Clippings -- 2000-2010
Photographs -- Color transparencies -- 2000-2010
Photographs -- Color transparencies -- 1950-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1990-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1980-1990
Clippings -- 1950-2000
Audio cassettes -- 2000-2010
Articles
Advertisements -- 2000-2010
Citation:
Magellan Systems Corporation GPS Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1214
See more items in:
Magellan Systems Corporation GPS Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1214
Online Media:

W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews

Interviewee:
Sun Ra  Search this
Gaskin, Leonard, 1920-  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Sullivan, Maxine, 1911-1987  Search this
Wells, Ronnie  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Towers, Jack  Search this
Venuti, Joe, 1903-1978  Search this
Pullen, Don, 1941-  Search this
Roney, Wallace  Search this
Pizzarelli, Bucky, 1926-  Search this
Pizzarelli, John, 1960-  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shepp, Archie, 1937-  Search this
Sanders, Pharaoh  Search this
Grant, Felix, 1918-1993  Search this
Scott, Jimmy  Search this
McPhail, Jimmy  Search this
McPartland, Marian  Search this
McFerrin, Bobby  Search this
Krall, Diana  Search this
O'Connell, Helen  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Metheny, Pat  Search this
McShann, Jay  Search this
Horn, Shirley, 1934-  Search this
Hinton, Milt, 1910-  Search this
Hill, Andrew, 1937-  Search this
Hendricks, Jon, 1921-  Search this
Keane, Helen  Search this
Kaminsky, Max, 1908-  Search this
Jordan, Sheila, 1928-  Search this
Humes, Helen, 1913-1981  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Harris, Eddie, 1934-  Search this
Heath, Jimmy, 1926-  Search this
Frishberg, Dave  Search this
Ennis, Ethel  Search this
Farmer, Art, 1928-  Search this
Flanagan, Tommy, 1930-  Search this
Hampton, Slide  Search this
D'Rivera, Paquito, 1948-  Search this
Daniels, Billy  Search this
Davison, Bill  Search this
Donegan, Dorothy, 1922-  Search this
Crouch, Stanley, 1945-  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Cruz, Celia, 1920-  Search this
Byard, Jaki  Search this
Brown, Ruth  Search this
Carter, Betty, 1930-  Search this
Byron, Don  Search this
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Bellson, Louis  Search this
Bowie, Lester, 1941-  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Allen, Steve, 1921-2000  Search this
Adderly, Nat, 1931-  Search this
Bailey, Benny, 1925-  Search this
Collector:
Stokes, W. Royal, Dr., 1930-  Search this
Names:
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Davis, Miles  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Gillespie, Dizzy, 1917-  Search this
Extent:
9.65 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Photographs
Publicity photographs
Date:
ca. 1970-2000.
Summary:
Publicity photographs of musicians and entertainers, mostly jazz musicians, such as Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, and Dizzy Gillespie, but including many rock and even a few classical performers. The collection also contains tape recorded radio interviews conducted between 1970 and 2003. In addition there are posters relating to musical performances.
Scope and Contents:
This collection was formed by W. Royal Stokes in the course of his professional work as a music and arts critic. It is composed primarily of publicity portraits of musical performers, both single acts and groups. The emphasis is on jazz musicians and singers, although many rock stars and groups, and other popular musical performers are included. Even a few classical musicians are represented. The pictures are primarily mass-produced black and white publicity photographs distributed to newspapers, writers, etc., by agents for entertainment personalities. Some prints were made from the original negatives, while others clearly were made from copy negatives after typography was stripped together with a print and re-photographed. However, there are some rarer original photographs included in the collection, such as personal color snapshots, higher quality prints by art photographers, etc. Nearly all the prints are unmounted, and are 8 x 10 inches or smaller in size. The bulk of the photographs date from circa 1970 to 2000, however, a number of the earlier photographs are included as well as slightly later examples.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1, Photographs of Musicians and Ensembles, circa 1970-2000; undated

Subseries 1.1, Musicians and Ensembles

Subseries 1.2, Recording Company Photographs

Subseries 1.3, Unidentified Musicians

Series 2, Photographs of Performances, 1987-2002; undated

Subseries 2.1, Music Festivals, 1987-2002; undated

Subseries 2.2, Concerts, Music Clubs and Other Venues, 1920s-1940s and circa 1980s-1990s; undated

Series 3, Formal and Informal Groups, circa 1980s-2000; undated

Series 4, Photographs of Musicians in Films, Radio, Television and Theater, 1940s-2000; undated Series 5, Photographs of Subjects and Products related to Musicians and Music, 1970-2000; undated

Series 6, Photographs of Non-Musicians, circa 1980s-2000; undated

Series 7, Interviews with Musicians, 1970-2003

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1970-2003

Subseries 8.1, Audio Recordings - Audiocassettes

Subseries 8.2, Audio Recordings-Audiotapes

Series 9, Posters, 1976-1990; undated
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Washington, D.C., W. Royal Stokes served in the Army and then embarked on an academic career, teaching at the University of Pittsburgh, Tufts University, Brock University and the University of Colorado. He left the academic profession in 1969 and become a writer, broadcaster and lecturer, journalist, and critic and authority on jazz music. A follower of jazz since his teens in the 1940s, Stokes has written about music for such publications as Down Beat, Jazz Times, and the Washington Post, and hosted the public radio shows "I Thought I Heard Buddy Bolden Say . . ." and "Since Minton's". Today he is the editor of the quarterly Jazz Notes, and is the author of The Jazz Scene: An Informal History From New Orleans to 1990 and Swing Era New York: The Jazz Photographs of Charles Peterson.. He is also the author of Living the Jazz Life: Conversations with Forty Musicians about Their Careers in Jazz (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). Dr. Stokes lives in Silver Spring, Maryland.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of Ameican History:
Duke Ellington Collection, 1928-1988 (AC0301)

Herman Leonard Photoprints, 1948-1993

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Reference Prints [copyprints], 1923-1972

Jazz Oral History Collection, 1988-1990

Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection, 1910s-1970s (mostly 1930s-1960s)

Jeffrey Kliman Photographs

Stephanie Myers Jazz Photographs, 1984-1987, 2005

Chico O'Farrill Papers

Paquito D'Rivera Papers, 1989-2000.

Louis Armstrong Music Manuscripts, undated

Tito Puente Papers, 1962-1965.

Audrey Wells "Women in Jazz Radio Series, 1981-1982

Mongo Santamaria Papers, 1965-2001

Ramsey Lewis Collection, 1950-2007

Earl Newman Collection of Monterey Jazz Festival Posters, 1963-2009

James Arkatov Collection of Jazz Photographs, 1995-2003

Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints, 1953-1966

Floyd Levin Jazz Reference Collection, circa 1920s-2006

Jazz Oral History Program Collection, 1992-2009

Leslie Schinella Collection of Gene Krupa Materials
Provenance:
Donated by W. Royal Stokes to the Archives Center in 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Publicity  Search this
Portraits -- Musicians  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Rock music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Publicity photographs
Citation:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Jazz Musicians' Photographs, ca. 1970-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0766
See more items in:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0766
Online Media:

Formal and Informal Groups, circa; 1980s-2000; undated

Collection Interviewee:
Sun Ra  Search this
Gaskin, Leonard, 1920-  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Sullivan, Maxine, 1911-1987  Search this
Wells, Ronnie  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Towers, Jack  Search this
Venuti, Joe, 1903-1978  Search this
Pullen, Don, 1941-  Search this
Roney, Wallace  Search this
Pizzarelli, Bucky, 1926-  Search this
Pizzarelli, John, 1960-  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shepp, Archie, 1937-  Search this
Sanders, Pharaoh  Search this
Grant, Felix, 1918-1993  Search this
Scott, Jimmy  Search this
McPhail, Jimmy  Search this
McPartland, Marian  Search this
McFerrin, Bobby  Search this
Krall, Diana  Search this
O'Connell, Helen  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Metheny, Pat  Search this
McShann, Jay  Search this
Horn, Shirley, 1934-  Search this
Hinton, Milt, 1910-  Search this
Hill, Andrew, 1937-  Search this
Hendricks, Jon, 1921-  Search this
Keane, Helen  Search this
Kaminsky, Max, 1908-  Search this
Jordan, Sheila, 1928-  Search this
Humes, Helen, 1913-1981  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Harris, Eddie, 1934-  Search this
Heath, Jimmy, 1926-  Search this
Frishberg, Dave  Search this
Ennis, Ethel  Search this
Farmer, Art, 1928-  Search this
Flanagan, Tommy, 1930-  Search this
Hampton, Slide  Search this
D'Rivera, Paquito, 1948-  Search this
Daniels, Billy  Search this
Davison, Bill  Search this
Donegan, Dorothy, 1922-  Search this
Crouch, Stanley, 1945-  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Cruz, Celia, 1920-  Search this
Byard, Jaki  Search this
Brown, Ruth  Search this
Carter, Betty, 1930-  Search this
Byron, Don  Search this
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Bellson, Louis  Search this
Bowie, Lester, 1941-  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Allen, Steve, 1921-2000  Search this
Adderly, Nat, 1931-  Search this
Bailey, Benny, 1925-  Search this
Collection Collector:
Stokes, W. Royal, Dr., 1930-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Jazz Musicians' Photographs, ca. 1970-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0766, Series 3
See more items in:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0766-ref144

Musicians: Social and Informal Groups

Collection Interviewee:
Sun Ra  Search this
Gaskin, Leonard, 1920-  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Sullivan, Maxine, 1911-1987  Search this
Wells, Ronnie  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Towers, Jack  Search this
Venuti, Joe, 1903-1978  Search this
Pullen, Don, 1941-  Search this
Roney, Wallace  Search this
Pizzarelli, Bucky, 1926-  Search this
Pizzarelli, John, 1960-  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shepp, Archie, 1937-  Search this
Sanders, Pharaoh  Search this
Grant, Felix, 1918-1993  Search this
Scott, Jimmy  Search this
McPhail, Jimmy  Search this
McPartland, Marian  Search this
McFerrin, Bobby  Search this
Krall, Diana  Search this
O'Connell, Helen  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Metheny, Pat  Search this
McShann, Jay  Search this
Horn, Shirley, 1934-  Search this
Hinton, Milt, 1910-  Search this
Hill, Andrew, 1937-  Search this
Hendricks, Jon, 1921-  Search this
Keane, Helen  Search this
Kaminsky, Max, 1908-  Search this
Jordan, Sheila, 1928-  Search this
Humes, Helen, 1913-1981  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Harris, Eddie, 1934-  Search this
Heath, Jimmy, 1926-  Search this
Frishberg, Dave  Search this
Ennis, Ethel  Search this
Farmer, Art, 1928-  Search this
Flanagan, Tommy, 1930-  Search this
Hampton, Slide  Search this
D'Rivera, Paquito, 1948-  Search this
Daniels, Billy  Search this
Davison, Bill  Search this
Donegan, Dorothy, 1922-  Search this
Crouch, Stanley, 1945-  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Cruz, Celia, 1920-  Search this
Byard, Jaki  Search this
Brown, Ruth  Search this
Carter, Betty, 1930-  Search this
Byron, Don  Search this
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Bellson, Louis  Search this
Bowie, Lester, 1941-  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Allen, Steve, 1921-2000  Search this
Adderly, Nat, 1931-  Search this
Bailey, Benny, 1925-  Search this
Collection Collector:
Stokes, W. Royal, Dr., 1930-  Search this
Container:
Box 18, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Jazz Musicians' Photographs, ca. 1970-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews / Series 3: Formal and Informal Groups, circa; 1980s-2000; undated
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0766-ref145

Musicians: Organizations and Events

Collection Interviewee:
Sun Ra  Search this
Gaskin, Leonard, 1920-  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Sullivan, Maxine, 1911-1987  Search this
Wells, Ronnie  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Towers, Jack  Search this
Venuti, Joe, 1903-1978  Search this
Pullen, Don, 1941-  Search this
Roney, Wallace  Search this
Pizzarelli, Bucky, 1926-  Search this
Pizzarelli, John, 1960-  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shepp, Archie, 1937-  Search this
Sanders, Pharaoh  Search this
Grant, Felix, 1918-1993  Search this
Scott, Jimmy  Search this
McPhail, Jimmy  Search this
McPartland, Marian  Search this
McFerrin, Bobby  Search this
Krall, Diana  Search this
O'Connell, Helen  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Metheny, Pat  Search this
McShann, Jay  Search this
Horn, Shirley, 1934-  Search this
Hinton, Milt, 1910-  Search this
Hill, Andrew, 1937-  Search this
Hendricks, Jon, 1921-  Search this
Keane, Helen  Search this
Kaminsky, Max, 1908-  Search this
Jordan, Sheila, 1928-  Search this
Humes, Helen, 1913-1981  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Harris, Eddie, 1934-  Search this
Heath, Jimmy, 1926-  Search this
Frishberg, Dave  Search this
Ennis, Ethel  Search this
Farmer, Art, 1928-  Search this
Flanagan, Tommy, 1930-  Search this
Hampton, Slide  Search this
D'Rivera, Paquito, 1948-  Search this
Daniels, Billy  Search this
Davison, Bill  Search this
Donegan, Dorothy, 1922-  Search this
Crouch, Stanley, 1945-  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Cruz, Celia, 1920-  Search this
Byard, Jaki  Search this
Brown, Ruth  Search this
Carter, Betty, 1930-  Search this
Byron, Don  Search this
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Bellson, Louis  Search this
Bowie, Lester, 1941-  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Allen, Steve, 1921-2000  Search this
Adderly, Nat, 1931-  Search this
Bailey, Benny, 1925-  Search this
Collection Collector:
Stokes, W. Royal, Dr., 1930-  Search this
Container:
Box 18, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Jazz Musicians' Photographs, ca. 1970-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews / Series 3: Formal and Informal Groups, circa; 1980s-2000; undated
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0766-ref146

Musicians: Awards and Honors

Collection Interviewee:
Sun Ra  Search this
Gaskin, Leonard, 1920-  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Sullivan, Maxine, 1911-1987  Search this
Wells, Ronnie  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Towers, Jack  Search this
Venuti, Joe, 1903-1978  Search this
Pullen, Don, 1941-  Search this
Roney, Wallace  Search this
Pizzarelli, Bucky, 1926-  Search this
Pizzarelli, John, 1960-  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shepp, Archie, 1937-  Search this
Sanders, Pharaoh  Search this
Grant, Felix, 1918-1993  Search this
Scott, Jimmy  Search this
McPhail, Jimmy  Search this
McPartland, Marian  Search this
McFerrin, Bobby  Search this
Krall, Diana  Search this
O'Connell, Helen  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Metheny, Pat  Search this
McShann, Jay  Search this
Horn, Shirley, 1934-  Search this
Hinton, Milt, 1910-  Search this
Hill, Andrew, 1937-  Search this
Hendricks, Jon, 1921-  Search this
Keane, Helen  Search this
Kaminsky, Max, 1908-  Search this
Jordan, Sheila, 1928-  Search this
Humes, Helen, 1913-1981  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Harris, Eddie, 1934-  Search this
Heath, Jimmy, 1926-  Search this
Frishberg, Dave  Search this
Ennis, Ethel  Search this
Farmer, Art, 1928-  Search this
Flanagan, Tommy, 1930-  Search this
Hampton, Slide  Search this
D'Rivera, Paquito, 1948-  Search this
Daniels, Billy  Search this
Davison, Bill  Search this
Donegan, Dorothy, 1922-  Search this
Crouch, Stanley, 1945-  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Cruz, Celia, 1920-  Search this
Byard, Jaki  Search this
Brown, Ruth  Search this
Carter, Betty, 1930-  Search this
Byron, Don  Search this
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Bellson, Louis  Search this
Bowie, Lester, 1941-  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Allen, Steve, 1921-2000  Search this
Adderly, Nat, 1931-  Search this
Bailey, Benny, 1925-  Search this
Collection Collector:
Stokes, W. Royal, Dr., 1930-  Search this
Container:
Box 18, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Jazz Musicians' Photographs, ca. 1970-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews / Series 3: Formal and Informal Groups, circa; 1980s-2000; undated
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0766-ref147

Records of Small Beginnings, Inc

Donor:
Webber, Austin J., II  Search this
Rogone, Philip N.  Search this
Croteau, Winnifred D.  Search this
Rogone, Mary S.  Search this
Croteau, Kenneth S.  Search this
Creator:
Small Beginnings, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Compact discs
Correspondence
Patents
Photographs
Date:
1986 - 2006
Summary:
Records relating to Small Beginnings, Inc., a medical supply company that designs, invents, manufactures, and distributes products for premature infants. The records include contacts with distributors, correspondence, product advertisements, patent and trademark files, photographs, a scrapbook, and oral history interviews with Kenneth S. Croteau, Mary S. "Sharon" Rogone, and Philip N. Rogone.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1, Background Information, 1983-2006, is divided into nine subseries and includes articles of incorporation for the business, correspondence, corporate identity branding, and journal articles and magazine and newspaper clippings about Small Beginnings, Inc. The correspondence consists of thank you letters from hospitals and medical centers for visits made by Small Beginnings staff during the holiday season and a September 2001 letter from Kenny Loggins discussing his partnership with Small Beginnings to distribute his CD "More Songs from Pooh Corner." The Entrepreneur packet was created by Kenneth Croteau of Caring Creations, Inc., to assist potential inventors/entrepreneurs in developing ideas into a patented product and bringing it to the marketplace.

Series 2, Oral History Interviews and Logs, 18 January 2007, is divided into two subseries. Subseries 1 contains reference CD-ROM copies for listening and Subseries 2 consists of master CD-ROMs. The interviews were created digitally using a Marantz PMD 660 recorder. The oral history interviews were conducted by National Museum of American History staff members Maggie Dennis and Judy Chelnick. The interviewees include Kenneth S. Croteau, Mary S. "Sharon" Rogone, and Philip N. Rogone, founders of and business partners in Small Beginnings, Inc. Each interview has a time code log. Full text transcripts do not exist.

Series 3, Product Information, 1994-2006, is divided into four subseries.

Subseries 1, Small Beginnings, Inc. Products, 1998-2004, contains documentation on the products made available by Small Beginnings, Inc. The company offers a wide variety of products for neonatal intensive care units and newborn nurseries. This subseries is arranged alphabetically by product name. The bulk of the documentation consists of printed product literature that was disseminated to distributors and/or at conferences. In some instances, such as the Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, and Pacee Pacifier—correspondence, testing information, and sketches exist.

Subseries 2, Disclosure Statements, 2000-2003, contains waivers and agreements between Small Beginnings, Inc., and individuals which state that an idea or ideas will not be used or revealed to others.

Subseries 3, Competitors, 1994-2004, includes files on competitors in the neonatal medical supply business. The documentation is primarily product literature and company overviews. The subseries are arranged alphabetically by company name.

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1999, 2001, undated, contains printed paper examples of the fabric Small Beginnings used on its products and a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) booklet designed for parents of preemie infants. The booklet provides a checklist of tasks for parents to be conscious of when caring for their premature infant.

Series 4, Sales Records, 1993-2006

Subseries 1, Catalogs, 2001-2005, contains catalogs in hard copy and on CD-ROM for distributors and other interested parties.

Subseries 2, Price lists, 2000, 2003, undated, includes itemized pricing lists for all Small Beginnings products and special pricing lists designed for hospital admission kits. There is also a pricing list with similar competitor products and the savings gained by using Small Beginnings products.

Subseries 3, Distributor Information, 1993-2006, consists of documentation on distributors around the United States who are distributing or considering distributing Small Beginnings, Inc., products. Arranged alphabetically by the name of the distributor, this subseries consists primarily of contracts—the independent distributor contract—between Small Beginnings, Inc., and the distributor.

The contract details the sales representatives appointment, terms, permitted sales, distributor sales and service obligation, supplier organizations, prices, orders, payment, shipment, trademark protection, no competitive products, proprietary rights protection, warranty, disclaimer, and warrant service, limitations or remedies and liability, termination, taxes, duties, import permits, approvals, and general provisions. In some instances, there is correspondence with a distributor and sales report information detailing the product type, cost and to which hospital it was sold.

The Advanced Medical Systems file also contains vendor sales information. This report details what Small Beginnings product(s) were sold, to whom, when, how many, the price, and any shipping details.

The HealthTrust file documents a "purchasing group." A purchasing group negotiates with suppliers to provide member facilities with high quality supplies, equipment, and other services at competitive prices through national, regional and local supply agreements. Small Beginnings did not enter into a formal agreement with HealthTrust but explored the idea of becoming a prospective vendor.

Subseries 4, Licenses and Agreements, 1998-2005, includes license and compensation agreements with five individuals (Eileen Clayton, Linda Cook, Diane D'Eugenio, Ilija Kainovic, and Kathleen Porter) for a variety of products. The agreements cover the definitions, license grants, royalties and payments; term and termination; best effort; breach and cure; patent, applications, prosecution and ownership; new inventions; infringement; representations by the licensee; force majeure; and other rights and conditions.

There are also letters of agreement for purchase and compensation documents. These agreements between Small Beginnings, Inc., and said party states what the product/idea is, how much it will cost, if the product/idea will be commercially produced and marketed, and if the product/idea can be altered. There is one agreement among the officers of Small Beginnings, Inc., dated 1999 which states that any and all future intellectual property(s) and/or product(s) and/or idea(s) shall be the property of the individual and not Small Beginnings, Inc.

Subseries 5, Finances, 2000-2003, contains sales summary data, expense allocations, invoices, and cost analyses. The sales summary provides an itemized breakdown of Small Beginnings's inventory for the period January 1, 2000 to July 10, 2000. The expense allocation spreadsheet of January 2000 to July 2000 provides a detailed breakdown of salary payments, office equipment, goods sold, and other line items such as printing, attorney's fees, and shipping supplies. Also provided is the total actual expenses, total income, difference, and starting and ending balance information. The invoice reports provide information about the customer, the invoice number, date due (0-30 days, 31-60 days or 61-90 days or over 90 days), amount due, purchase order number and the date paid. The projected cash flow from January 2000 to May 2000 details the amount of cash taken in and cash spent. The cost analyses provide a breakdown by list price, materials, manufacturing, labor costs, and packaging for six products: Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, Iso-sphere Covers, Baby-Crates, Security Baby Wrap, and Baby Blotters, Preemie Swaddler, Preemie Gown, Privacy Poncho, Bed Buddie, Posture Pillow, Preemie Nest, Bebeonkers and Pacee Pacifier.

Subseries 6, Neonatal Conference Programs, 1998-2002, consists primarily of conference programs and, in some instances, only the program cover.

Subseries 7, American Hospital Association Guide (partial), 1998, contains a partial print out of hospitals located in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio.

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Files, 1991-2002, contains copies of patent and trademark information relating to Small Beginnings, Inc., products. The trademark file includes documentation with the law firm of Townsend and Townsend and Crew LLP and the United States Patent and Trademark office for Small Beginnings, Peeweeonkers, Bebeonkers, Nasalonkers (all infant nasal suction devices), and Doctor Nurse Apparel, (DNA) trademark logos. The patent files contain correspondence, drawings and narrative text for Bebeonkers, Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, Pacee Pacifier, Positioning Device, Preemie Nest, and Privacy Poncho.

Series 6, Photographs and Scrapbook, 1987-2007

Subseries 1, Photographs, 2000-2001, are arranged by topic and include color and color photocopies documenting some of Small Beginnings products, a 2001 Christmas party, a 2000 neonatal conference, and office and factory images.

Subseries 2, Digital images, 2007, consists of office, factory and employee images taken by National Museum of American History staff members Judy Chelnick, Maggie Dennis, and Alison Oswald.

Subseries 3, Scrapbook, 1987-2000, consists of nineteen pages featuring photographs of employees, products and the factory, as well as printed product information.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into six series.

Series 1, Background Information, 1983-2006

Subseries 1, Articles of Incorporation, 1997-2005

Subseries 2, Small business certification, 2006

Subseries 3, Women's Business Enterprise Council, 2004-2006

Subseries 4, Corporate Identity, undated

Subseries 5, Correspondence, 2001-2003

Subseries 6, Entrepreneur packet, undated

Subseries 7, Articles (Perinatalogy/Neonatology), 1990-2002

Subseries 8, Magazine and newspaper clippings, 1983-2003

Subseries 9, Miscellaneous, 1988-2001

Series 2, Oral History Interviews and Logs, 18 January 2007

Subseries 1, Reference copies of interviews, 2007

Subseries 2, Original interviews, 2007

Series 3, Product Information, 1994-2004

Subseries 1, Small Beginnings, Inc. Products, 1998-2004

Subseries 2, Disclosure Statements, 1999-2003

Subseries 3, Competitors, 1994-2004

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1999, 2001, undated

Series 4, Financial/Accounting Records, 1967-1971

Subseries 1, Catalogs, 2001-2005

Subseries 2, Price lists, 2000, 2003, undated

Subseries 3, Distributor Information, 1993-2006

Subseries 4, Licenses and Agreements, 1998-2005

Subseries 5, Finances, 2000-2002

Subseries 6, Neonatal Conference Programs, 1998-2002

Subseries 7, American Hospital Association Guide (partial), 1998

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Files, 1991-2002

Series 6, Photographs and Scrapbook, 1987-2007

Subseries 1, Photographs, 2000-2001

Subseries 2, Digital images, 2007

Subseries 3, Scrapbook, 1987-2000
Biographical / Historical:
Small Beginnings, Inc., of Hesperia, California, was founded by Mary S. Rogone and her business partner, Austin J. Webber, II in the late 1990s. It officially incorporated on November 21, 1997, in the State of Nevada. The company specializes in products conceived and developed by healthcare professionals, specifically nurses who work with premature infants. The name "small beginnings" originated from the small amount of money used to start the company and for the tender age of the patients it serves. The company motto is "Clinicians on a Mission" with the entire company dedicated to making better, more innovative products for premature infants.

Mary Sharon Shoffstall was born August 8, 1942 and raised in the San Bernardino Hills of California. She attended Huntington Park High School where she concentrated on math and science and graduated in 1960. She earned degrees as a licensed practical nurse (LPN) in 1976 and as a registered nurse (RN) in 1980 from San Bernardino Valley College. Rogone worked a variety of nursing jobs—labor and delivery and surgical—but found her niche in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

In the late 1980s, Rogone was motivated by her work in the neonatal intensive care units at St. Bernardine's Hospital (now St. Bernardine Medical Center) and San Bernardino County Hospital in California to create a better phototherapy mask for premature infants suffering from bilirubin. "Bilirubin is a brownish yellow substance found in bile. It is produced when the liver breaks down old red blood cells. The most obvious symptom of high bilirubin levels is jaundice, a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes appear yellow. Therefore, some babies who develop jaundice may be treated with special lights (phototherapy) or a blood transfusion to reduce their bilirubin levels."

Rogone's phototherapy mask was fashioned out of a variety of hospital materials and was designed to take the pressure off the ocular socket, transfer it to the cheekbone and reduce the ability of light to penetrate the mask. With no objections from fellow nurses or doctors, Rogone developed the Bili-Bonnet Phototherapy Mask and began using it on infants in the NICU. Encouraged by Austin Webber, a medical sales representative she met at the hospital, Rogone formed a financial partnership with Webber. Both Rogone and Webber contributed $1,500.00 to start the business. Webber provided knowledge about materials, manufacturing processes, and distribution while Rogone supplied the ideas and medical background. Rogone began the patent process for the mask in 1992 and was granted US Patent # 5,613,502 for a "Photo therapy eye mask" in 1997. This invention launched Rogone's inventive career and her company, Small Beginnings, Inc.

In 1995, Sharon married Phil Rogone, a respiratory therapist and physician's assistant she met while working at St. Bernardine's Hospital. Phil soon joined the company as Vice President for Marketing and began attending tradeshows to promote the company's growing line of products. In 1998, Ken Croteau, a respiratory specialist and close friend of Phil and Sharon's, joined the staff of Small Beginnings, Inc., as the business manager. Croteau established the company's website, www.small-beginnings.com, and began to recruit distributors. Croteau, along with Sharon Rogone, Philip Rogone, Winnifred Croteau, and Ted Lopez founded Caring Creations, Inc., a separate corporation on May 1, 2002. Caring Creations, Inc., is a vehicle intended to launch Small Beginnings products into the retail market. By 2000, Sharon Rogone left full-time nursing to focus on the company as Chief Executive Officer.

As the company grew, more products were developed. The company now offers: Bebeonkers (oral suction device), Lil' and Nu' Pacee Pacifiers, Cuddle Buns™ Diapers; Preemie Nest (swaddler and positioning device); Bed Buddy (positioning device); Baby Blotters (absorbent, moisture proof plastic blotters); Abdominal Pillow; Head Pillow; Wedge Pillow; Preemie Gown; Arm immobilier; Baby Crates™ (allows moisture to flow through and away from the baby), Baby Blankee™; Isosphere™ covers (for NICU warmers); Universal Climate Cover II, and the Privacy Poncho.

Not all products are developed and patented by Small Beginnings, Inc. The company inspires and assists budding inventors, especially nurses and other healthcare professionals to realize their dreams. The Pacee Pacifier sold by Small Beginnings (US Patent # 4,909,253) was invented by Linda L. Cook from Infrapreem, Inc., of Connecticut. Cook licensed her invention to Small Beginnings in 1999 so they could commercially develop, produce and market the pacifier as the Lil' and Nu' Pacee Pacifier. In a 1998 letter Cook wrote to Rogone, "It is so good to know there are people like you in the world that are out there to help nurses. Thank you." Other products, such as the Cuddle Buns™ Diapers, are not patented, but the name is trademarked.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See Accession # 2007.0022:

Bili-Bonnet mold with masking tape

Bili-Bonnet mold with foam inserts

Pacifier choking test stand (includes barbell and pacifier)

Pac black foam disk

Diapers from Children's Medical Ventures

Diaper, prototype 1 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 2 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 3 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 4 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 5, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, final version production model

Diaper, ultra preemie production model, 2003

Diaper, Pampers Preemie Swaddler from Procter & Gamble

Oral suction device, Bebeonkers

Pacifier, Original Pacee with product literature, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, second generation with packaging, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, Competitor's "Soothie" Children's Medical Ventures

Pacifier "Lil' Pacee," Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, competitors, Children's Medical Ventures

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #1, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #2, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #3, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Packaging, new Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Packaging, old Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, original preemie Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Posture pillow sets for preemies, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Bed Buddy 36" for ultra preemies, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Preemie nest set, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Bendy Bumpy, Children's Medical Ventures

Bulb syringe "Adult Yankauer," taken from NICU

Suction tube with collecting bottle, Delee taken from NICU (for use after c-section)

Bulb and syringe, taken from NICU

Catheter, size 6 cut, for suction, taken from NICU

Catheter for oral and nasal use (by Ballard)

Pen, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, original ultra preemie, cat #OIC 38, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, 'Nu' Pacee" in packaging, Small Beginnings, Inc.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Small Beginnings, Inc., through Mary S. Rogone, Philip N. Rogone, Austin J. Webber II, Kenneth S. Croteau and Winnifred D. Croteau, February 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Diapers  Search this
Infants -- Care  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Infants -- Medical care  Search this
Medical supplies  Search this
Neonatal intensive care  Search this
Neonatology  Search this
Nursing  Search this
Pacifiers (Infant care)  Search this
Perinatalogy  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Compact discs
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 2000-2010
Patents
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Citation:
Records of Small Beginnings, Inc., Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0940
See more items in:
Records of Small Beginnings, Inc
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0940
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