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Satellite Tracking Station Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Extent:
41 cu. ft. (82 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Maps
Clippings
Manuscripts
Architectural drawings
Date:
1953-1968
Descriptive Entry:
This record unit consists mostly of records documenting the administration and operation of the STP tracking stations and includes files on the stations kept by the Photographic Observation Section, 1956-1961; SOD, 1961-1965; and STADAD, 1965-1968. The station files consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence and memoranda, reports, and technical data concerning satellite tracking operations; station fiscal matters; the construction and maintenance of station buildings and facilities; conferences and meetings held at the stations; the procurement of equipment and supplies for the stations; station personnel; and special projects conducted at each station. Also included are administrative records of SOD and STADAD; station files and administrative records of the Engineering Section of SOD and STADAD, mostly concerning the operation of the Baker-Nunn tracking cameras at each station; station financial statements; and records documenting relations between SAO and foreign countries or states where tracking stations were located.

Many of the files in this record unit are arranged in a numerical-subject records management system instituted at SAO about 1964. In the system, records were assigned a number code based on subject classification and filed numerically. Often records prior to 1964 were refiled using the numerical-subject system. Retrieval of records using the system is difficult. For a detailed explanation of the SAO numerical-subject filing system, see appendix 1 in the Archives.
Historical Note:
Created in 1956 as part of the International Geophysical Year, the Satellite Tracking Program (STP) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) was a world-wide network of stations responsible for the optical tracking of satellites. From 1956 until June 1959, the program was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. In July 1959, funding was assumed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The goal of STP was to obtain photographs of satellites in sufficient number and accuracy to allow the determination of highly precise orbits. Data derived from the orbits provided information concerning variations in the density and temperature of the upper atmosphere and helped construct new representations of the earth's gravitational potential and geometrical figure. Twelve camera stations were established around the world between 36 degrees north and 36 degrees south of the equator. Stations were located at Jupiter, Florida (closed in 1967); Organ Pass, New Mexico (moved to Mt. Hopkins, Arizona in 1968); Maui, Hawaii; Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, West Indies (moved to Natal, Brazil, in 1966); Arequipa, Peru; Villa Dolores, Argentina (moved to Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina, in 1966); Shiraz, Iran (moved to Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, in 1966); Olifantsfontein, South Africa; Naini Tal, India; San Fernando, Spain; Tokyo, Japan (closed in 1968); and Woomera, Australia (moved to the Space Research Site at Island Lagoon, Australia, in 1964). Cooperative programs enabled STP to track satellites at United States Air Force stations at Oslo, Norway, and Johnston and Kwajalein Islands in the Pacific Ocean; the Royal Canadian Air Force station at Cold Lake, Alberta; Harvard University's Agassiz Station; and the geodetic station at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece. A special satellite tracking camera, designed by James C. Baker and Joseph Nunn, was installed in each station.

When it was created in 1956, STP was a part of SAO's Upper Atmosphere Studies Division. The 12 satellite tracking camera stations were administered by the Photographic Observation Section, under the direction of Karl G. Henize. In 1961, STP became a separate Department of SAO. At that time the Station Operations Division (SOD) was created within STP for the administrative direction and logistical support of all satellite tracking camera stations, for maintenance of equipment and development of new equipment and techniques, and for technical support in observing procedures. SOD was organized into three sections: Administrative, Operations, and Engineering. Richard C. Brock became the first chief of the Station Operations Division in June 1961. Other incumbents included Jan Rolff, 1962-1964, and Carl W. Hagge, acting chief, 1964-1965. In 1965, SOD was abolished and replaced by the Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Department (STADAD). STADAD assumed the duties of its predecessor and was also responsible for administering SAO's Meteor Simulation Project station at Wallops Island, Virginia. STADAD was comprised of five divisions: Optical Tracking Division, Moonwatch Division, Wallops Island Division, Engineering Division, and Administrative Support Division. John I. Hsia was appointed the first manager of STADAD in 1965. Other incumbents included Jack A. Coffey, 1966-1968, and Harry Albers, 1968- .
Topic:
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Astronomical observatories  Search this
Research  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Maps
Clippings
Manuscripts
Architectural drawings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 263, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Satellite Tracking Program, Satellite Tracking Station Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 263
See more items in:
Satellite Tracking Station Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0263

Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Moonwatch Division  Search this
Extent:
24 cu. ft. (24 record storage boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Audiotapes
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Clippings
Black-and-white transparencies
Date:
1956-1975
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
These records document the history of the Moonwatch Division and the volunteer Flight Officer Network. They include the outgoing correspondence of Albert Werner, 1968-1975; general correspondence of the Moonwatch Division, 1957-1975; Moonwatch station files, 1956-1975, including correspondence and other data from American and foreign Moonwatch teams; Moonwatch administrative files, 1956-1975; Moonwatch project files, 1962-1973, including correspondence and reports on various comets, satellites, and other projects assigned to Moonwatch to track; the incoming and outgoing correspondence of Herbert E. Roth, 1966-1975; general correspondence of the VFON, 1969-1975; VFON airline files, 1963-1975, containing correspondence and sighting reports from member airlines; VFON administrative files, 1963-1975; Moonwatch and VFON newsletters and bulletins, 1956-1975; and a small number of slides, tapes, and movies.
Historical Note:
The Moonwatch Division of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was created in 1956 as part of the Satellite Tracking Program established to track and photograph the artificial earth satellites to be launched during the International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958. The surprise launch of Sputnik in 1957 generated much enthusiasm for the satellite program. Amateur astronomers, often supported by local businesses and schools, formed groups of volunteers who manned rows of telescopes searching for satellites. The Moonwatch Division directed and instructed the observers, loaned them equipment, and tabulated the data collected. Scientists were named in other parts of the world to help establish Moonwatch teams in many foreign countries. Gradually many "teams" came to be composed of a single observer, highly skilled in satellite tracking and often affiliated with a local observatory or university. Until its termination in 1975, the Moonwatch Division coordinated this network of volunteers and amassed a total of nearly 400,000 observations of satellites. Directors of the Division included Armand N. Spitz, 1956-1957; Leon Campbell, Jr., 1957-1962; Richard C. Vanderburgh, 1962-1964; William P. Hirst, 1964-1968; and Albert Werner, 1968-1975.

The Volunteer Flight Officer Network (VFON) was established in 1963 by Denver Moonwatch team leader Herbert E. Roth to collect eyewitness reports of satellites and meteor sightings from airline pilots and other flight personnel. Roth was employed by United Air Lines, which agreed to support the project by providing printing and mailing funds. In 1965 the VFON became affiliated with Moonwatch, which advised Roth and assumed a part of the mailing expenses. In 1969 Moonwatch assumed complete administrative control of the VFON under a contract with the United States Air Force. Before its termination in 1975, the VFON had grown to include the employees of 118 airlines in 57 countries and had collected approximately 4200 observations. Roth was its sole director.
Topic:
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Audiotapes
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Clippings
Black-and-white transparencies
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 255, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Moonwatch Division, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 255
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0255

Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews

Creator:
Whipple, Fred Lawrence,  Search this
Extent:
4 audiotapes (reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Date:
1976
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conducts interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Whipple was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his central role in the modernization of the SAO and his outstanding contributions to science. For additional information, see the following related collections in Smithsonian Archives: the records of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; the Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers; and Record Unit 9542, Multiple Mirror Telescope videohistory interviews.
Descriptive Entry:
Whipple was interviewed on 24 and 25 June 1976 by Pamela M. Henson. The interviews cover his education; radar countermeasure work during World War II; role in the development of national programs for astrophysics and space exploration; research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary material; administration of SAO; development of Mt. Hopkins, MMT, and optical tracking programs; and reminiscences of colleagues such as Imre G. Izsak, Craig M. Merrihue, and Carlton W. Tillinghast.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004), received the B.A. in mathematics with a minor in physics and astronomy from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927 and the Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. His early training focused on comet orbits. After teaching for a year at Stanford University, he joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1931 and remained in Cambridge throughout his career. During the 1930s his work focused on double station meteor research. From 1943 to 1945, he developed radar countermeasures for the U. S. Army Radiation Laboratory of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. After World War II he worked on development of the Super-Schmidt cameras to photograph meteors and continued research on the influx of material from comets into the interplanetary medium. His comet research culminated in publication of the Icy Comet Model in 1950. During the forties he also conducted studies of meteor hazards to spacecraft, inventing the meteor bumper, and served on the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel. In the early fifties, with Wernher von Braun and Cornelius J. Ryan, he coauthored a series of popular articles on the conquest of the space frontier.

His teaching career at Harvard University progressed from Instructor, 1932-1938; Lecturer, 1938-1945; Associate Professor, 1945-1950; Professor, 1950-1970; Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, 1949-1956; to Phillips Professor of Astronomy, 1970-1977. Thus when Whipple was appointed Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in July 1955, he moved its headquarters to the Cambridge campus and continued as Professor and member of the Harvard College Observatory staff. He reorganized the Smithsonian's observatory and reoriented its research program. Under his directorship, the staff grew from a handful to more than five hundred, including over sixty scientists.

At the request of the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple began development of Baker-Nunn cameras to track artificial satellites during the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). With the help of Armand N. Spitz, he also developed the Moonwatch optical tracking program, which utilized teams of volunteers observing satellites with hand-held telescopes. When Sputnik was launched in October of 1957, the Moonwatch teams were the only U. S. mechanism available to track the Russian satellite. The SAO subsequently received large contracts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to operate the Satellite Tracking Program (STP), an optical tracking system with Baker-Nunn camera stations located all over the globe. Whipple's satellite tracking work earned him the 1963 Distinguished Civilian Service Award from President John F. Kennedy.

The Prairie Network, an optical tracking system designed to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits, created by Whipple and Richard E. McCrosky, began observations in 1964. Coordination of STP camera observations with Jodrell Bank Observatory radio data on flare stars led to the first identification of radio noise from any star besides the sun.

SAO relied on early computers such as the Mark IV, IBM 7090, and CDC 6400 for rapid processing of massive quantities of data. Baker-Nunn and Super-Schmidt camera data were directly processed by automated means, which made possible the 1966 SAO Star Catalog, coordinated by Katherine L. Haramundanis. Whipple required direct publication from computer tapes, a first for the U. S. Government Printing Office. Observations from the STP were progressively refined during the sixties through new laser tracking techniques and advances in automated data processing, to provide improved geodetic and geophysical data. In the early sixties, stellar atmosphere models were developed with the aid of an IBM 7090 and after 1966 a CDC 6400, in anticipation of far ultraviolet light data from orbiting observatories. Based on this experience in upper atmosphere research, Whipple was appointed project director for the orbiting astronomical observatories from 1958 to 1972.

The telegraph service of the International Astronomical Union came to the SAO in 1965 under the coordination of Owen J. Gingerich and later Brian G. Marsden. It utilized SAO's sophisticated communications network and led eventually to the creation of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena by Robert A. Citron.

Development of an observatory site at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, began in 1966. Chosen by Whipple for its altitude and seeing conditions, the site was dedicated in 1981 as the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. On this site, in conjunction with the U. S. Air Force and University of Arizona, he developed the technically innovative Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), which commenced observations in May of 1979.

In addition to his own research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary materials, Whipple coordinated the SAO research programs in celestial mechanics, geodesy, meteoritics, radio astronomy, neutrino searches, stellar atmosphere models, and the atomic clock project to test the theory of relativity. He encouraged NASA's lunar program and development of the space telescope.

Whipple was distinguished both for his theoretical work in astrophysics and his technical innovations in such areas as tracking cameras, multiple mirror telescopes, and meteor bumpers. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple received the Academy's J. Lawrence Smith Medal in 1949 for his meteor research. He was awarded the Kepler Medal by the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1971 and the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1973. Through his work on numerous federal and private boards, panels, and commissions, Whipple was influential in the development of national programs for research in astrophysics and creation of a space exploration program.

Whipple retired from administration of SAO in 1973 but continued active research as a Senior Scientist from 1973 to 1977. Upon his retirement in 1977, he was appointed Emeritus Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard.
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
Astrophysics.  Search this
Meteorites.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Whipple, Fred Lawrence, , Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9520
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9520

In the Director's Conference Room at the National Air and Space Museum, featured Friedman, Byram, Kreplin, and Chubb on the chronology of NRL's astronomical research, c. 1945-1964, including: backgrounds of interviewees; research freedom, and lab cultu...

Container:
Session 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9539, Naval Research Laboratory Space Science Videohistory Collection
See more items in:
Naval Research Laboratory Space Science Videohistory Collection
Naval Research Laboratory Space Science Videohistory Collection / Series 1: Early X-ray Astronomy / Sessions
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9539-refidd1e275

The Policy Process and the International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958

Author:
Krupnik, Igor  Search this
Lang, Michael A.  Search this
Miller, Scott E.  Search this
Korsmo, Fae L.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2009
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
See others in:
Anthropology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_77081

Preserving the Origins of the Space Age: The Material Legacy of the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958) at the National Air and Space Museum

Author:
Krupnik, Igor  Search this
Lang, Michael A.  Search this
Miller, Scott E.  Search this
DeVorkin, David H.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2009
Topic:
Flight  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_77082

Operation Moonwatch in Philippines

Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Boy Scouts of America  Search this
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Public Affairs  Search this
Physical description:
Gelatin silver prints; 8 x 10;
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Philippines
Date:
1958
Topic:
Artificial satellites  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU000371 [96-1369]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Copyright Undetermined
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_396202

Albert Paddock Crary (1911-1987)

Subject:
Crary, Albert P (Albert Paddock) 1911-1987  Search this
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Antarctica
Date:
1959
Topic:
Geophysics  Search this
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Discovery and exploration  Search this
American  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0690]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Copyright Not Evaluated
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_296768

Albert Paddock Crary (1911-1987)

Subject:
Crary, Albert P (Albert Paddock) 1911-1987  Search this
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Antarctica
South Pole
Topic:
Geophysics  Search this
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Discovery and exploration  Search this
American  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0691]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Copyright Not Evaluated
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_296769

DL-1 Gravimeter

Maker:
LaCoste & Romberg  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 37.3 cm x 42 cm x 26 cm; 14 11/16 in x 16 17/32 in x 10 1/4 in
overall: 14 3/4 in x 10 1/4 in x 12 3/4 in; 37.465 cm x 26.035 cm x 32.385 cm
Object Name:
gravimeter
Place made:
United States: Texas, Austin
Date made:
1953
ID Number:
2000.0194.01
Catalog number:
2000.0194.01
Accession number:
2000.0194
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Physical Sciences
Science & Mathematics
Measuring & Mapping
Sputnik
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-72eb-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1029663
Online Media:

Gulf Gravity Pendulum

Maker:
Gulf Research & Development Corp.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 20 in x 23 in x 13 1/2 in; 50.8 cm x 58.42 cm x 34.29 cm
Object Name:
gravity pendulum (Gulf)
gravitometer, pendulum, Gulf
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Harmarville
Date made:
1930s
Credit Line:
Gulf Research and Development Company
ID Number:
PH.319961
Catalog number:
319961
Accession number:
241314
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Physical Sciences
Measuring & Mapping
Natural Resources
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-cc89-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_892807
Online Media:

Model, Rocket, Aerobee Hi

Manufacturer:
Aerojet General Corp.  Search this
Materials:
non-ferrous metal, wood, paint
Dimensions:
Overall: 2ft x 3 1/2in. (60.96 x 8.89cm)
Type:
MODELS-Missiles & Rockets
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of Aerojet General Corp.
Inventory Number:
A19650324000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9c17a0126-49c0-4df7-a885-a804efdc8a61
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19650324000
Online Media:

Rocket, Solid Fuel, Loki

Manufacturer:
Bendix Aviation Corp.  Search this
Materials:
Aluminum
Steel
Paint
Plastic
Dimensions:
3-D: 169.5 × 8.9 × 9.2cm (66 3/4 × 3 1/2 × 3 5/8 in.)
Storage: 180.3 × 15.2 × 15.2cm (71 × 6 × 6 in.)
Type:
CRAFT-Missiles & Rockets
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1954
Credit Line:
Transferred from U.S. Army Center of Military History
Inventory Number:
A19910079000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9b8ce4253-5a50-45e2-b357-2f6928ca9f50
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19910079000

Fred Whipple's Empire: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 1955-1973

Author:
DeVorkin, David H  Search this
Subject:
Whipple, Fred Lawrence 1906-  Search this
Menzel, Donald Howard 1901-  Search this
Carmichael, Leonard 1898-1973  Search this
Ripley, Sidney Dillon 1913-2001  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Harvard College Observatory  Search this
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory  Search this
Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Project Celescope  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Edition:
First edition
Physical description:
Number of pages: 418; Page numbers: 1-401
Date:
2018
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
Telescopes  Search this
Astrophysicists  Search this
Astronomy and astrophysics  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Geodesy  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Publisher:
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_14888

Report: Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science: XIII: Fred L. Whipple

Author:
Marvin, Ursula B  Search this
Subject:
Carmichael, Leonard 1898-1973  Search this
Ripley, Sidney Dillon 1913-2001  Search this
Whipple, Fred Lawrence 1906-  Search this
Nininger, Harvey  Search this
LaPaz, Lincoln  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Prairie Meteorite Network  Search this
Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory  Search this
Mt. Hopkins Observatory  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Harvard College Observatory  Search this
Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory  Search this
Meteoritical Society  Search this
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Sputnik  Search this
Moonwatch Program  Search this
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics  Search this
Physical description:
Number of pages: 15; Page numbers: A199-A213
Date:
2004
Topic:
Biography  Search this
Meteorites  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Meteors  Search this
Telescopes  Search this
Astrophysicists  Search this
Comets  Search this
Baker-Nunn Camera  Search this
Meteoritics  Search this
Artificial satellites  Search this
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Secretaries  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Continental drift  Search this
Publisher:
Arizona Board of Regents, University of Arizona: The Meteoritical Society
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_11372

Operation Moonwatch Event, Biloxi, Mississippi

Author:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Operation Moonwatch  Search this
Moonwatch Program  Search this
Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Physical description:
Number of Images: 1; Color: Black and white; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Group; Interior; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Group, candid
Interior
Place:
Mississippi
Date:
c. 1958
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
Children  Search this
Event  Search this
Special events  Search this
Visitors' centers  Search this
Women  Search this
Standard number:
91-6389
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_11597

Operation Moonwatch in Philippines

Author:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Operation Moonwatch  Search this
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Satellite Tracking Program  Search this
Boy Scouts of America  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 6w x 4h; Type of Image: Group, candid; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Group, candid
Place:
Philippines
Date:
1958
Topic:
Artificial satellites  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Education  Search this
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Observatories  Search this
Volunteers  Search this
Standard number:
96-1369
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_9157

Deep freeze : the United States, the International Geophysical Year, and the origins of Antarctica's age of science / Dian Olson Belanger

Author:
Belanger, Dian Olson 1941-  Search this
Subject:
United States Navy Task Force 43 History  Search this
Physical description:
xxix, 494 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Antarctica
Date:
2006
C2006
Topic:
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Discovery and exploration  Search this
American  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_827291

I.G.Y. : the year of the new moons / J. Tuzo Wilson ; foreword by Llyod V. Berkner

Title:
IGY : the year of the new moons
International Geophysical Year : the year of the new moons
Year of the new moons
Author:
Wilson, J. Tuzo (John Tuzo) 1908-1993  Search this
Physical description:
352 p., [32] p. of plates : ill., maps, ports. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1961
Topic:
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Call number:
QC801.3 .W5 1961
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_600274

Assault on the unknown; the International Geophysical Year

Author:
Sullivan, Walter  Search this
Physical description:
460 p. illus. 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1961
[1961]
Topic:
International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  Search this
Call number:
QC801.3.S79X 1961
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_325281

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