This item is a 8.5 x 7.5 inch diary written by Leo Goldberg. Only the first fifteen pages, and last page of the diary have any entries. Of greatest importance is that Goldberg writes of his decision to leave the University of Michigan for Harvard University.
Biographical / Historical:
Leo Goldberg (1913-1987) was an astrophysicist who carried out research into the composition of stellar atmospheres and the dynamics of the loss of mass from cool stars. His main subject of research was the study of the sun from space. Born in Brooklyn, New York to Polish immigrants, Goldberg received his degrees from Harvard and went on to be the director of three important observatories: University of Michigan (1946-60), Harvard (1960-71), and Kitt Peak National Observatory (1971-77). He played an important role in founding the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Goldberg was the president of the American Astronomical Society (1964-1966) and the International Astronomical Union (1971-1976).
Beverely (BD) Lynds, Gift, Year received
No restrictions on access.
This accession consists of the Minor Planet Center (MPC) website as it existed on February 26, 2013. The Minor Planet Center operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical
Observatory, under the auspices of Division III of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The MPC is responsible for the designation of minor bodies in the solar system:
minor planets; comets, in conjunction with the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT); and natural satellites (also in conjunction with CBAT). The MPC is also responsible
for the collection, computation, checking and dissemination of astrometric observations and orbits for minor planets, comets, and natural satellites. The website provides
information about services provided to observers and about available publications and software. It also includes technical information and other documentation. Observational
data is not included in this accession. Materials are in electronic format.
These papers primarily document Farouk El-Baz's work at Bellcomm, his lunar studies and work with the United States Apollo program, and his participation in the Apollo-Soyuz
Test Program, in which astronauts in space studied the earth's deserts. Also included is his Desert Bibliography. Papers include correspondence and memoranda, minutes of meetings,
reports, charts, maps, printouts, logs, flight plans, press releases, and material relating to his book, "Apollo Over the Moon." His participation in the lunar nomenclature
committee, which is well represented, includes minutes of meetings, charts, and correspondence with committee members. There is also a copy of the master list of lunar names.
For additional documentation of El-Baz's activities, see records of the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Record Unit 353.
Some of the abbreviations used include:
ATO - Apollo Target of Opportunity Flight Chart
ALO - Apollo Lunar Orbit Chart
AEO - Apollo Earth Orbit Chart
LSF - Lunar Orbital Science Flight Chart
NDR - Deepspace Recovery Planning Chart
LSC - Lunar Orbital Science Contingency Flight Chart
Farouk El-Baz (1938- ) was born in Zagazig, Egypt. He received a B.S. in Chemistry and Geology in 1958 from Ain Shams University, Cairo. In 1960 he came to the United
States, where he earned an M.S. in geology at the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy in 1961 and a Ph.D. in geology at the University of Missouri in 1964. After teaching
for a short period, he worked as an exploration geologist for an oil company, 1966-1967.
In 1967 he joined the staff of the Lunar Exploration Department of Bellcomm, Inc., and Bell Telephone Laboratories, and in 1969, became supervisor of lunar science planning
and lunar science operations. In this position, he worked directly with the United States space program on lunar data analysis, landing site selection, lunar exploration planning,
and orbital science crew training. In 1969 he was named a member of the Apollo Program Science Support Team.
At Bellcomm El-Baz began pioneering work in remote sensing in which a variety of scientific means are used to examine the surface of the earth or the moon from space. This
work led him into the use of space photography to study the earth's deserts.
In 1973 El-Baz joined the staff of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, where he established the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, which he directed until
1982. At the same time, he served as science advisor to President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, 1978-1981.
In 1982 El-Baz became Vice President for International Development at Itek Optical Systems in Lexington, Massachusetts. In 1986 he accepted the position of Director of
the Boston University Center for Remote Sensing.
In addition to his work on remote sensing, El-Baz is also known for his participation in the International Astronomical Union's Task Group for Lunar Nomenclature, which
was responsible for naming the features of the moon's surface geography.
El-Baz has been a citizen of the United States since 1970.
This collection contains oversize material.
Restricted for duration of Farouk El-Baz's lifetime without written permission from Donor. Contact reference staff for details.
Science Service Astronomy and Astronautics Files, Acc. 1987-0125, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee Search this
4 audiotapes (Reference copies).
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives'
record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program
staff conducts interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted
by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Whipple was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his central role in the modernization of the SAO and his outstanding contributions to science. For additional
information, see the following related collections in Smithsonian Archives: the records of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; the Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers; and
Record Unit 9542, Multiple Mirror Telescope videohistory interviews.
Whipple was interviewed on June 24 and 25, 1976 by Pamela M. Henson. The interviews cover his education; radar countermeasure work during World War II; role in the development
of national programs for astrophysics and space exploration; research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary material; administration of SAO; development of Mt. Hopkins,
MMT, and optical tracking programs; and reminiscences of colleagues such as Imre G. Izsak, Craig M. Merrihue, and Carlton W. Tillinghast.
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004), received the B.A. in mathematics with a minor in physics and astronomy from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927 and
the Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. His early training focused on comet orbits. After teaching for a year at Stanford University,
he joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1931 and remained in Cambridge throughout his career. During the 1930s his work focused on double station meteor
research. From 1943 to 1945, he developed radar countermeasures for the U. S. Army Radiation Laboratory of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. After World War
II he worked on development of the Super-Schmidt cameras to photograph meteors and continued research on the influx of material from comets into the interplanetary medium.
His comet research culminated in publication of the Icy Comet Model in 1950. During the forties he also conducted studies of meteor hazards to spacecraft, inventing the meteor
bumper, and served on the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel. In the early fifties, with Wernher von Braun and Cornelius J. Ryan, he coauthored a series of popular articles
on the conquest of the space frontier.
His teaching career at Harvard University progressed from Instructor, 1932-1938; Lecturer, 1938-1945; Associate Professor, 1945-1950; Professor, 1950-1970; Chairman of
the Department of Astronomy, 1949-1956; to Phillips Professor of Astronomy, 1970-1977. Thus when Whipple was appointed Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
(SAO) in July 1955, he moved its headquarters to the Cambridge campus and continued as Professor and member of the Harvard College Observatory staff. He reorganized the Smithsonian's
observatory and reoriented its research program. Under his directorship, the staff grew from a handful to more than five hundred, including over sixty scientists.
At the request of the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple began development of Baker-Nunn cameras to track artificial satellites during
the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). With the help of Armand N. Spitz, he also developed the Moonwatch optical tracking program, which utilized teams of volunteers
observing satellites with hand-held telescopes. When Sputnik was launched in October of 1957, the Moonwatch teams were the only U. S. mechanism available to track the Russian
satellite. The SAO subsequently received large contracts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to operate the Satellite Tracking Program (STP), an optical
tracking system with Baker-Nunn camera stations located all over the globe. Whipple's satellite tracking work earned him the 1963 Distinguished Civilian Service Award from
President John F. Kennedy.
The Prairie Network, an optical tracking system designed to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits, created by Whipple and Richard E. McCrosky,
began observations in 1964. Coordination of STP camera observations with Jodrell Bank Observatory radio data on flare stars led to the first identification of radio noise
from any star besides the sun.
SAO relied on early computers such as the Mark IV, IBM 7090, and CDC 6400 for rapid processing of massive quantities of data. Baker-Nunn and Super-Schmidt camera data were
directly processed by automated means, which made possible the 1966 SAO Star Catalog, coordinated by Katherine L. Haramundanis. Whipple required direct publication from computer
tapes, a first for the U. S. Government Printing Office. Observations from the STP were progressively refined during the sixties through new laser tracking techniques and
advances in automated data processing, to provide improved geodetic and geophysical data. In the early sixties, stellar atmosphere models were developed with the aid of an
IBM 7090 and after 1966 a CDC 6400, in anticipation of far ultraviolet light data from orbiting observatories. Based on this experience in upper atmosphere research, Whipple
was appointed project director for the orbiting astronomical observatories from 1958 to 1972.
The telegraph service of the International Astronomical Union came to the SAO in 1965 under the coordination of Owen J. Gingerich and later Brian G. Marsden. It utilized
SAO's sophisticated communications network and led eventually to the creation of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena by Robert A. Citron.
Development of an observatory site at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, began in 1966. Chosen by Whipple for its altitude and seeing conditions, the site was dedicated in 1981 as the
Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. On this site, in conjunction with the U. S. Air Force and University of Arizona, he developed the technically innovative Multiple Mirror
Telescope (MMT), which commenced observations in May of 1979.
In addition to his own research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary materials, Whipple coordinated the SAO research programs in celestial mechanics, geodesy,
meteoritics, radio astronomy, neutrino searches, stellar atmosphere models, and the atomic clock project to test the theory of relativity. He encouraged NASA's lunar program
and development of the space telescope.
Whipple was distinguished both for his theoretical work in astrophysics and his technical innovations in such areas as tracking cameras, multiple mirror telescopes, and
meteor bumpers. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple received the Academy's J. Lawrence Smith Medal in 1949 for his meteor research. He was awarded the Kepler
Medal by the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1971 and the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1973. Through his work on numerous federal
and private boards, panels, and commissions, Whipple was influential in the development of national programs for research in astrophysics and creation of a space exploration
Whipple retired from administration of SAO in 1973 but continued active research as a Senior Scientist from 1973 to 1977. Upon his retirement in 1977, he was appointed
Emeritus Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard.
Discusses Whipple's research and tenure as director of the SAO, 1955-1976, especially: the Prairie Network, established to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits; comparisons of photographic and radio data on flare stars...
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee Search this
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004 Search this
23.5 cu. ft. (23 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
The papers of Fred Lawrence Whipple document his astronomical research; his professional work in the field of astronomy; his career as director of the SAO; and, to
a lesser extent, his activities as a Harvard University faculty member. They include a large file of correspondence with professional colleagues, amateur astronomers, SAO
staff scientists, Smithsonian Institution officials, scientific societies and professional groups, government agencies, and Harvard University staff and officials. The papers
concern Whipple's research interests, scientific publications, and editorial work; SAO research projects, particularly the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the
Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project; Whipple's work for professional organizations and government agencies and committees including the
International Astronomical Union, the Committee on Space Research, the Committee on Space and Astronautics of the United States House of Representatives, the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Science Foundation; SAO relations with the Smithsonian Institution; and his activities at Harvard
University and the Harvard College Observatory. Also included are college papers, notes, and a copy of his Ph.D. dissertation; manuscripts of articles, lectures, radio talks,
reviews, and notes from his research; research notes on comets; correspondence, notes, reports, minutes and related materials from Whipple's work with professional groups
and committees; files documenting the development of the MMT at Mount Hopkins, Arizona; and a set of Whipple's publications. Researchers should also consult Record Unit 9520,
Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews, 1976.
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906- ), an astronomer, received his B.A. degree from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927, and his Ph.D. from the University
of California at Berkeley in 1931. In 1932, he joined the staff of Harvard University as an instructor of astronomy. By 1950, Whipple had received the title of professor and
chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Harvard. Whipple was appointed director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) when it moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts,
in 1955. Since his retirement in 1973, Whipple has continued his research as a senior scientist at SAO.
During his tenure as director, Whipple oversaw SAO research programs in stellar interiors, the upper atmosphere, meteorites, celestial mechanics, and geodesy studies. Major
SAO projects under his direction included the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project,
also known as the Prairie Network. In the late 1960s, Whipple selected Mount Hopkins, Arizona, as the site of a new SAO astronomical facility. Renamed the Fred Lawrence Whipple
Observatory in 1981, the facility houses the Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT), an innovative, low-cost telescope planned by Whipple and two colleagues.
Whipple is internationally recognized for his research on the moon, meteors, and comets. He has conducted pioneering research in photographically measuring the speeds and
decelerations of meteors, computing the orbits of comets and asteroids, and describing the structure of comets. He is the author of more than 150 scientific books and papers,
has served as editor of several publications, and has been a member and officer in numerous professional organizations. In 1975, the minor planet no. 1940 was named "Whipple"
in recognition of his contributions to astronomy.