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Pluto, Eris, and the Dwarf Planets of the Outer Solar System

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-07-09T17:08:54.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianVideos
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianVideos
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ddC3AKJXolk

Cryostat, COBE Optical Assembly

Manufacturer:
NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center  Search this
Materials:
Aluminum, mixed metals, plastics and electronics and glass.
Dimensions:
3-D: 82.6 x 144.8cm (32 1/2 x 57 in.)
Support (Stand): 1ft 5in. x 3ft 4in. x 3ft 4in. (43.2 x 101.6 x 101.6cm)
Dimensions given in documentation:
Diameter: 32.5 IN. ASSEMBLY
Height: 57 IN. ASSEMBLY
Length: 40 IN. STAND
Width: 40 IN. STAND
Height: 17 IN. STAND
Type:
INSTRUMENTS-Scientific
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from the National Aeronautical and Space Administration
Inventory Number:
A19960298000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Explore the Universe
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9b05fd42e-41df-44ec-aaa4-34e5993b6830
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19960298000
Online Media:

International Astronomical Union (IAU), 1983

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Office of the Director  Search this
Container:
Box 13 of 52
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access limitations to personnel records; Transferring office; Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 98-100, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Office of the Director, Subject Files
See more items in:
Subject Files
Subject Files / Box 13
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa98-100-refidd1e2856

Leo Goldberg Diary

Creator:
Goldberg, Leo  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Date:
bulk 1960, 1979
Scope and Contents:
This item is a 8.5 x 7.5 inch diary written by Leo Goldberg. Only the first fifteen pages, and last page of the diary have any entries. Of greatest importance is that Goldberg writes of his decision to leave the University of Michigan for Harvard University.
Biographical / Historical:
Leo Goldberg (1913-1987) was an astrophysicist who carried out research into the composition of stellar atmospheres and the dynamics of the loss of mass from cool stars. His main subject of research was the study of the sun from space. Born in Brooklyn, New York to Polish immigrants, Goldberg received his degrees from Harvard and went on to be the director of three important observatories: University of Michigan (1946-60), Harvard (1960-71), and Kitt Peak National Observatory (1971-77). He played an important role in founding the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Goldberg was the president of the American Astronomical Society (1964-1966) and the International Astronomical Union (1971-1976).
Provenance:
Beverely (BD) Lynds, Gift, Year received
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Citation:
Leo Goldberg Diary, Accession 2004-0059, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2004.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2004-0059

Astrophysical Observatory, Smithsonian - Photographs

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Assistant Secretary for Science  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 26
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 108, Smithsonian Institution, Assistant Secretary for Science, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Series 1: GENERAL SUBJECT FILES, 1966-1971 / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0108-refidd1e327
Online Media:

Website Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic records
Web sites
Date:
2013
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the Minor Planet Center (MPC) website as it existed on February 26, 2013. The Minor Planet Center operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, under the auspices of Division III of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The MPC is responsible for the designation of minor bodies in the solar system: minor planets; comets, in conjunction with the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT); and natural satellites (also in conjunction with CBAT). The MPC is also responsible for the collection, computation, checking and dissemination of astrometric observations and orbits for minor planets, comets, and natural satellites. The website provides information about services provided to observers and about available publications and software. It also includes technical information and other documentation. Observational data is not included in this accession. Materials are in electronic format.
Topic:
Museums -- Public relations  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Astronomical observatories  Search this
Web sites  Search this
Asteroids  Search this
Comets  Search this
Satellites  Search this
Planets  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Electronic records
Web sites
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 13-179, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Website Records
Identifier:
Accession 13-179
See more items in:
Website Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa13-179

Farouk El-Baz Papers

Topic:
Apollo over the moon: a view from orbit (Monograph)
Creator::
El-Baz, Farouk  Search this
Extent:
74.67 cu. ft. (54 record storage boxes) (2 document boxes) (4 16x20 boxes) (2 3x5 boxes) (7 5x8 boxes) (18 tall document boxes) (28 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Manuscripts
Drawings
Audiotapes
Sound recordings
Microfilms
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Place:
Moon -- Exploration
Date:
circa 1965-1983
Descriptive Entry:
These papers primarily document Farouk El-Baz's work at Bellcomm, his lunar studies and work with the United States Apollo program, and his participation in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program, in which astronauts in space studied the earth's deserts. Also included is his Desert Bibliography. Papers include correspondence and memoranda, minutes of meetings, reports, charts, maps, printouts, logs, flight plans, press releases, and material relating to his book, "Apollo Over the Moon." His participation in the lunar nomenclature committee, which is well represented, includes minutes of meetings, charts, and correspondence with committee members. There is also a copy of the master list of lunar names. For additional documentation of El-Baz's activities, see records of the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Record Unit 353.

Some of the abbreviations used include:

ATO - Apollo Target of Opportunity Flight Chart

ALO - Apollo Lunar Orbit Chart

AEO - Apollo Earth Orbit Chart

LSF - Lunar Orbital Science Flight Chart

NDR - Deepspace Recovery Planning Chart

LSC - Lunar Orbital Science Contingency Flight Chart
Historical Note:
Farouk El-Baz (1938- ) was born in Zagazig, Egypt. He received a B.S. in Chemistry and Geology in 1958 from Ain Shams University, Cairo. In 1960 he came to the United States, where he earned an M.S. in geology at the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy in 1961 and a Ph.D. in geology at the University of Missouri in 1964. After teaching for a short period, he worked as an exploration geologist for an oil company, 1966-1967.

In 1967 he joined the staff of the Lunar Exploration Department of Bellcomm, Inc., and Bell Telephone Laboratories, and in 1969, became supervisor of lunar science planning and lunar science operations. In this position, he worked directly with the United States space program on lunar data analysis, landing site selection, lunar exploration planning, and orbital science crew training. In 1969 he was named a member of the Apollo Program Science Support Team.

At Bellcomm El-Baz began pioneering work in remote sensing in which a variety of scientific means are used to examine the surface of the earth or the moon from space. This work led him into the use of space photography to study the earth's deserts.

In 1973 El-Baz joined the staff of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, where he established the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, which he directed until 1982. At the same time, he served as science advisor to President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, 1978-1981.

In 1982 El-Baz became Vice President for International Development at Itek Optical Systems in Lexington, Massachusetts. In 1986 he accepted the position of Director of the Boston University Center for Remote Sensing.

In addition to his work on remote sensing, El-Baz is also known for his participation in the International Astronomical Union's Task Group for Lunar Nomenclature, which was responsible for naming the features of the moon's surface geography.

El-Baz has been a citizen of the United States since 1970.
Oversize:
This collection contains oversize material.
Rights:
Restricted for duration of Farouk El-Baz's lifetime without written permission from Donor. Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Lunar geophysics  Search this
Astrogeology  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Manuscripts
Drawings
Audiotapes
Sound recordings
Microfilms
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7415, Farouk El-Baz Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7415
See more items in:
Farouk El-Baz Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7415

IAU (International Astronomical Union) Approved Lunar Feature Names

Collection Creator::
El-Baz, Farouk  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 87
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted for duration of Farouk El-Baz's lifetime without written permission from Donor. Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7415, Farouk El-Baz Papers
See more items in:
Farouk El-Baz Papers
Farouk El-Baz Papers / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7415-refidd1e1395

IAU (International Astronomical Union)

Collection Creator::
El-Baz, Farouk  Search this
Container:
Box 39 of 87
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted for duration of Farouk El-Baz's lifetime without written permission from Donor. Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7415, Farouk El-Baz Papers
See more items in:
Farouk El-Baz Papers
Farouk El-Baz Papers / Box 39
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7415-refidd1e6278

QB International Astronomical Union

Collection Creator:
Science Service  Search this
Container:
Box 14, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Science Service Astronomy and Astronautics Files, Acc. 1987-0125, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Science Service Astronomy and Astronautics Files
Science Service Astronomy and Astronautics Files / Series 1: Clippings, Publications, Papers, and Press Releases
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1987-0125-ref243

"Introductory Remarks: The Apollo 14 Mission" present at the International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 47, March 22 -- 26, 1971 reprint from THE MOON, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland

Collection Creator:
Newell, Homer Edward, 1915-1983  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1972
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Homer E. Newell, Jr., Speech Transcripts, Acc. XXXX-0150, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Homer Edward Newell, Jr. Speech Transcripts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0150-ref69

Travel Grant - International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Research Foundation  Search this
Container:
Box 7 of 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 90-037, Smithsonian Research Foundation, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 7
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa90-037-refidd1e2613

Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
4 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Date:
1976
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conducts interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Whipple was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his central role in the modernization of the SAO and his outstanding contributions to science. For additional information, see the following related collections in Smithsonian Archives: the records of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; the Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers; and Record Unit 9542, Multiple Mirror Telescope videohistory interviews.
Descriptive Entry:
Whipple was interviewed on June 24 and 25, 1976 by Pamela M. Henson. The interviews cover his education; radar countermeasure work during World War II; role in the development of national programs for astrophysics and space exploration; research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary material; administration of SAO; development of Mt. Hopkins, MMT, and optical tracking programs; and reminiscences of colleagues such as Imre G. Izsak, Craig M. Merrihue, and Carlton W. Tillinghast.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004), received the B.A. in mathematics with a minor in physics and astronomy from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927 and the Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. His early training focused on comet orbits. After teaching for a year at Stanford University, he joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1931 and remained in Cambridge throughout his career. During the 1930s his work focused on double station meteor research. From 1943 to 1945, he developed radar countermeasures for the U. S. Army Radiation Laboratory of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. After World War II he worked on development of the Super-Schmidt cameras to photograph meteors and continued research on the influx of material from comets into the interplanetary medium. His comet research culminated in publication of the Icy Comet Model in 1950. During the forties he also conducted studies of meteor hazards to spacecraft, inventing the meteor bumper, and served on the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel. In the early fifties, with Wernher von Braun and Cornelius J. Ryan, he coauthored a series of popular articles on the conquest of the space frontier.

His teaching career at Harvard University progressed from Instructor, 1932-1938; Lecturer, 1938-1945; Associate Professor, 1945-1950; Professor, 1950-1970; Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, 1949-1956; to Phillips Professor of Astronomy, 1970-1977. Thus when Whipple was appointed Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in July 1955, he moved its headquarters to the Cambridge campus and continued as Professor and member of the Harvard College Observatory staff. He reorganized the Smithsonian's observatory and reoriented its research program. Under his directorship, the staff grew from a handful to more than five hundred, including over sixty scientists.

At the request of the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple began development of Baker-Nunn cameras to track artificial satellites during the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). With the help of Armand N. Spitz, he also developed the Moonwatch optical tracking program, which utilized teams of volunteers observing satellites with hand-held telescopes. When Sputnik was launched in October of 1957, the Moonwatch teams were the only U. S. mechanism available to track the Russian satellite. The SAO subsequently received large contracts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to operate the Satellite Tracking Program (STP), an optical tracking system with Baker-Nunn camera stations located all over the globe. Whipple's satellite tracking work earned him the 1963 Distinguished Civilian Service Award from President John F. Kennedy.

The Prairie Network, an optical tracking system designed to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits, created by Whipple and Richard E. McCrosky, began observations in 1964. Coordination of STP camera observations with Jodrell Bank Observatory radio data on flare stars led to the first identification of radio noise from any star besides the sun.

SAO relied on early computers such as the Mark IV, IBM 7090, and CDC 6400 for rapid processing of massive quantities of data. Baker-Nunn and Super-Schmidt camera data were directly processed by automated means, which made possible the 1966 SAO Star Catalog, coordinated by Katherine L. Haramundanis. Whipple required direct publication from computer tapes, a first for the U. S. Government Printing Office. Observations from the STP were progressively refined during the sixties through new laser tracking techniques and advances in automated data processing, to provide improved geodetic and geophysical data. In the early sixties, stellar atmosphere models were developed with the aid of an IBM 7090 and after 1966 a CDC 6400, in anticipation of far ultraviolet light data from orbiting observatories. Based on this experience in upper atmosphere research, Whipple was appointed project director for the orbiting astronomical observatories from 1958 to 1972.

The telegraph service of the International Astronomical Union came to the SAO in 1965 under the coordination of Owen J. Gingerich and later Brian G. Marsden. It utilized SAO's sophisticated communications network and led eventually to the creation of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena by Robert A. Citron.

Development of an observatory site at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, began in 1966. Chosen by Whipple for its altitude and seeing conditions, the site was dedicated in 1981 as the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. On this site, in conjunction with the U. S. Air Force and University of Arizona, he developed the technically innovative Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), which commenced observations in May of 1979.

In addition to his own research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary materials, Whipple coordinated the SAO research programs in celestial mechanics, geodesy, meteoritics, radio astronomy, neutrino searches, stellar atmosphere models, and the atomic clock project to test the theory of relativity. He encouraged NASA's lunar program and development of the space telescope.

Whipple was distinguished both for his theoretical work in astrophysics and his technical innovations in such areas as tracking cameras, multiple mirror telescopes, and meteor bumpers. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple received the Academy's J. Lawrence Smith Medal in 1949 for his meteor research. He was awarded the Kepler Medal by the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1971 and the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1973. Through his work on numerous federal and private boards, panels, and commissions, Whipple was influential in the development of national programs for research in astrophysics and creation of a space exploration program.

Whipple retired from administration of SAO in 1973 but continued active research as a Senior Scientist from 1973 to 1977. Upon his retirement in 1977, he was appointed Emeritus Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Meteorites  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9520
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9520

Discusses Whipple's research and tenure as director of the SAO, 1955-1976, especially: the Prairie Network, established to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits; comparisons of photographic and radio data on flare stars...

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e339

International Astronomical Union

Collection Creator::
National Air and Space Museum. Department of Space Science and Exploration  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 23
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 348, National Air and Space Museum. Department of Space Science and Exploration, Subject Files
See more items in:
Subject Files
Subject Files / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0348-refidd1e8780

International Astronomical Union (IAU), 1986 -1988

Collection Creator::
National Air and Space Museum. Department of Space History  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 98-020, National Air and Space Museum. Department of Space History, Subject Files
See more items in:
Subject Files
Subject Files / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa98-020-refidd1e714

Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers

Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Extent:
23.5 cu. ft. (23 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Place:
Moon
Date:
circa 1927-1983
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of Fred Lawrence Whipple document his astronomical research; his professional work in the field of astronomy; his career as director of the SAO; and, to a lesser extent, his activities as a Harvard University faculty member. They include a large file of correspondence with professional colleagues, amateur astronomers, SAO staff scientists, Smithsonian Institution officials, scientific societies and professional groups, government agencies, and Harvard University staff and officials. The papers concern Whipple's research interests, scientific publications, and editorial work; SAO research projects, particularly the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project; Whipple's work for professional organizations and government agencies and committees including the International Astronomical Union, the Committee on Space Research, the Committee on Space and Astronautics of the United States House of Representatives, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Science Foundation; SAO relations with the Smithsonian Institution; and his activities at Harvard University and the Harvard College Observatory. Also included are college papers, notes, and a copy of his Ph.D. dissertation; manuscripts of articles, lectures, radio talks, reviews, and notes from his research; research notes on comets; correspondence, notes, reports, minutes and related materials from Whipple's work with professional groups and committees; files documenting the development of the MMT at Mount Hopkins, Arizona; and a set of Whipple's publications. Researchers should also consult Record Unit 9520, Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews, 1976.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906- ), an astronomer, received his B.A. degree from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927, and his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. In 1932, he joined the staff of Harvard University as an instructor of astronomy. By 1950, Whipple had received the title of professor and chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Harvard. Whipple was appointed director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) when it moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1955. Since his retirement in 1973, Whipple has continued his research as a senior scientist at SAO.

During his tenure as director, Whipple oversaw SAO research programs in stellar interiors, the upper atmosphere, meteorites, celestial mechanics, and geodesy studies. Major SAO projects under his direction included the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project, also known as the Prairie Network. In the late 1960s, Whipple selected Mount Hopkins, Arizona, as the site of a new SAO astronomical facility. Renamed the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in 1981, the facility houses the Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT), an innovative, low-cost telescope planned by Whipple and two colleagues.

Whipple is internationally recognized for his research on the moon, meteors, and comets. He has conducted pioneering research in photographically measuring the speeds and decelerations of meteors, computing the orbits of comets and asteroids, and describing the structure of comets. He is the author of more than 150 scientific books and papers, has served as editor of several publications, and has been a member and officer in numerous professional organizations. In 1975, the minor planet no. 1940 was named "Whipple" in recognition of his contributions to astronomy.
Topic:
Asteroids  Search this
Comets  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astronomers  Search this
Astrophysicists  Search this
Meteors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7431
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7431

International Astronomical Union, 1955-1961

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 2 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 1: GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1943-1983. / Box 2
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e1137

International Astronomical Union (IAU), 1962-1963

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 5 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 1: GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1943-1983. / Box 5
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e2475

International Astronomical Union, 1967 Meeting

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 8 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 1: GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1943-1983. / Box 8
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e5054

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