1. Lillooet ("Lilowat") vocabulary. March 16, 1859. 8 pages in notebook. Note on page 3: "The Lilowat is spoken on the river which feeds Harrison's Lake, a branch of Fraser River. The vocabulary was obtained from the chief of a village at the mouth through Skehukl, the Soomass [Sumass: dialect of Cowichan group of Coast Salish], and may be relied on as tolerably accurate." The Lillooet River feeds into Harrison Lake. The Interior Salish dialect for west British Columbia is referred to as "Lillooet" in Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
2. "Saamena"vocabularies. 1858 and no date. 10 pages in notebook. Two vocabularies: Vocabulary of the "Saamena or as it is called by the Canadians, "Couteau," was obtained at Fort Hope, Mch. 4, 1858 from Kwee-tah-lich-kan, son of Pa-haa-luk, the Chief of the Kletch-ah-meh'h village at Forks of Fraser & Thompson's Rivers." 7 pages. Includes names for varieties of salmon in "Soomass" (Sumass) and Saamena. pages 12-19. Vocabulary obtained from Te-o-sa-luk, a Saamena of the Chileweyech [--?--]," no date. 3 pages. On page 1 note in Mooney's hand: "alias Nientemewh." Page 11 marked "copied".
3. "Yukeh" vocabulary. No place or date recorded. 3 pages in notebook. The word "Ross" follows the name "Yukeh." This refers to note on page iv: Mr Edward Ross says that the Yukehs have no numerals above five; thus they would say o'-pe mahote, twice five, for ten."
4. "Tai-eet vocabulary. Fort Hope, 1850. 10 pages in notebook. "The following vocabulary of the Tai-eet was obtained at Fort Hope, Sept. 25, 1850 from two men and a woman. It is the dialect intervening between the Kwantlen and the Saamena on Fraser River." page 25.
5. "Nevada or Yuba (Ross)" vocabulary. No date. 2 pages in notebook, pages 35-36. Possibly copied from Ross (?).
6. "Chilowhe'huk (Chilliwack) vocabulary. 4 pages in notebook, pages 36-39. No date. "Not completed as it does not differ sufficiently from the Kwantlen & neighboring dialects in Fraser River to make it an object." Chilliwack belongs to the Cowichan group of Coast dialects, Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
7. "Hailt-zuk or Belbella" vocabulary" obtained at Victoria, April 26, 1859, from Capt. Stewart." 10 pages in notebook, pages 40-42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54. Note on page 40: "...obtained at Victoria, April 26, 1859, from "Capt. Stewart" and Indian of the tribe through the medium of Frederic Minni, a Canadian, who partially spoke the language. It is generally reliable...." Page 41 marked "copied;" Another copy by Gibbs of this vocabulary in Ms. Number.
8. "Bel-le-whil-la or Bel'hoo-la" vocabulary. Victoria. 1859. 10 pages in notebook, pages 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 56. Note on page 56: "The vocabulary of the Belhoola was obtained from a woman of that tribe with the assistance of the Indian Stewart through the means of the Belbella vocabulary (cf. 277, part 7). With the exception of a very few words, my rendering of the latter [Belbella] was perfectly intelligible to her. The principal difficulty experienced in this was the excessively gutteral pronounciation of the language. I have classed this without hesitation among the Flathead languages from its obvious analogies. Some words, identical with those of the Belbella are marked with an asterisk. These are probably borrowed the one from the other, or perhaps were given by the woman from having mixed with the Belbellas." Page 41 marked "copied." 8-a Words obtained by Mackenzie at "Friendly Village," page 57.
9-10. Vocabularies of the "Okina'kane (O-Kin-ah-kehn[=Okinagan]) & Similkameen." 1853 & 1859. 17 pages in notebook, pages 58-74. "The incomplete vocabulary of the Okinakane was obtained in 1853. That of the Similkameen in 1859 and the latter is to be retained in place of the first as much more reliable. Given by "Sam" the guide employed by the N.W.B.S." The contents at the beginning of this volume has penciled note indicating that "Okinakane" and "Similkameen" are two dialects of one language.--page 1, note in hand of Mooney.
11. "Additional forms in Yakima," from Rev Marie Charles Pandosy, No date. 1 page in notebook, page 75.
12. "Piskwowse or Winatsha" vocabulary obtained 1853 and revised in 1860. 14 pages in notebook, pages 76-90, & 201. Note on page 76: "Revised at Ft. Colville, March 1860, by the assistance of Lahome's daughter. I have not however confidence in its being entirely correct. There may have been a difference in dialect between her and the first interpreter." Marked "copied" on page 76. Originally a Salish tribe, "Gibbs states that by 1853 they were so largely intermarried with the Yakima as to have almost lost their identity." page 264 of Handbook of American Indians. Page 201 has list of Winatsha Indians in 1853.
13. Vocabulary obtained from Spokane Gerry in 1854. 13 pages in notebook, pages 91-104. Marked "copied" on page 91.
14. Klikatat vocabulary obtained from Yahotowit in 1854. Copy by Gibbs of his original vocabulary, 15 pages in notebook, pages 105-119 and 222. Note in Gibbs' hand: "I am not certain that this is unmixed with the Yakama, as it resembles more closely two vocabularies of that dialect which I obtained then I have been led to expect. It was received from Ya-ho-tow-it." Apparently a copy by Gibbs from his original in Manuscript Number 671. Another copy by Gibbs is cataloged as Manuscript Number 693.
14. "Klikatat" vocabulary, copied from (?) "Tolmie." No date. 1 page in notebook, page 222. 15 Kalispel or Pend Oreille vocabulary, 1860. 15 pages in notebook, pages 119-133. "...vocabulary of the Kalispelm or Pend Oreille obtained from a man at Colville Depot, Jany., 1860. It is spoken by the Indians of Clarke's Fork of the Columbia River." Page 119 marked "copied."
16. "Shoos-whap or She-whap-much" vocabulary, 1860. 15 pages in notebook, pages 134-138. "Obtained at Colville Depot, Jany., 1860 from a woman by the assistance of the man from which the foregoing of the Kalispeln was derived [Manuscript Number 227, part 15], and using that in interpreting. Page 134 marked "copied."
17. "Chepewyan vocabulary" extracted from MacKenzie." No date. 7 pages in notebook, pages 149, 150, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162.
18-19. "Knistinaux" (Cree) (18) and "Algonquin" (19) vocabulary "extracted from MacKenzie." 8 pages in notebook, pages 149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 161, 163.
20. "Kootenay" vocabulary. Place and date not recorded, 33 pages in notebook, pages 164-198, not including page 186 and 192. Page 164 is marked "copied." A copy by Gibbs of this vocabulary, pages 164-176 is filed Manuscript 512 with the note that this vocabulary "was taken from the son of the chief at the Chelenta Depot (Che-tam-towse)" with help of half breed interpreter; "I think the vocabulary can be relied on." Also note in Manuscript Number 512: "additional words of the Algonquin Kootenay in the book." This probably refers to pages 177-198 in Manuscript Number 227. Manuscript Number 512 contains 1 page of "Additional words in Kootenay" not found in Number 227.
21. Vocabulary of the Kalispel & Flathead including geographical names, No date. 2 pages in notebook, pages 199-200.
22. "Similkameen", dialect of the Okinagan, vocabulary, No date,. 9 pages in notebook, pages 202-210. Note in Mooney's hand on page 1 says Okinakane and Similkameen are 2 dialects of 1 language. Note on page 202: "Sam says that the Similkameen, Okin-a-kane, Sin-ke-mah-pe-luks, Skla-kum Methone; Che-lehn, Sin-pai-li-hooch; Se-leh-nich, Sins-peh-lich; Swoi-yehlp, Sche-wuch-hooch all understand one another but not the Soushwap & Couteaux." Sam was informant in 1853, cf. 227, part 10.
23. "Nooksaak" ("Nooksahk") vocabulary. June, 1859. 2 pages in notebook, pages 211 & 228. The Nooksak is a dialect of Squawmish coast group, Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
24. "Soomass" vocabulary. Place and date not recorded. 3 pages in notebook, pages 212-214. Sumass is a dialect of the Cowichan group of coast dialects, Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
25. "Simiahmoo" vocabulary: animals and proper names. 1 page in notebook, page 215. No date. The Semiahmoo is a dialect of the Songish coast group, Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
26. "Saamena" vocabulary. 1 page in notebook, page 216. No date.
27. Skagit vocabulary "(vide Dr Craig's corrections)." No date. 1 page in notebook, page 217. Skagit is a dialect of the Nisqualli group of coast dialects, Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
28. "Simiahmoo" vocabulary of 10 terms. Date and place not recorded. 1 page in notebook, page 218. The Semiahmoo is a dialect of the Songish coast group, Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
29. "Chiloweyuck" vocabulary. Date and place not recorded. 2 pages in notebook, pages 218 & 223. Chilliwack is a dialect of the Cowichan coast group, Handbook of American Indians, page 417.
30. "Nisqually" vocabulary. October, 1858. 6 pages in notebook, pages 219-221, 223 & 226. Note on page 219, "copied."
31. Chehalis vocabulary of 8 words. (Terms for salmon.) No date. page 222. Chinook vocabulary of 9 terms. (Terms for salmon.) No date. Page 224 in notebook. "Cowlitz" vocabulary of 5 terms. (Terms for salmon.) Page 224 in notebook. No date.
32. "Toanhooch" vocabulary. No date. 1 page in notebook, page 227; only 4 terms are recorded.
33. Chimakum- Not filled in; English only.
34. Kwillehyuts- Not filled in; English only.
35. Kwinaiutl- Not filled in; English only.
36. Noo-so-lupsh- Not filled in; English only.
NAA MS 227
Notes by Gibbs on the source of many of the Salishan vocabularies in this volume are catalogued under Numbers 735 and 742.
Manuscript 227, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Digitization and preparation of these materials for online access has been funded by the National Science Foundation under BCS Grant No. 1561167 and the Recovering Voices initiative at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.
Photographs depicting Mary Peters (Interior Salish) weaving a tapestry with a two-bar loom and Mrs. William Kelley (Coast Salish) spinning yarn with a spinning wheel. Photographs made in Sardis, Chilliwack, British Columbia.
Oliver N. Wells (1907-1970) was owner of Edenbank Farm in Chilliwack, British Columbia, as well as an amateur historian and ethnologist. He assisted the effort to reestablish traditional Salish weaving techniques and wrote "The Return of the Salish Loom," an article published in the "Beaver" Hudson Bay Magazine in spring 1966.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81C
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs of Coast Salish arts, collected by Oliver Wells, held in National Anthropological Archives in MS 4764.
1.7 Linear feet ((1 storage box, 2 document boxes))
147 Sound recordings
This collection contains the field work of anthropologist Barry F. Carlson regarding his linguistic study of the Salish dialects spoken by the elders at the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State from 1969-1992. Included are 39 notebooks containing vocabularies, grammatical examples, transcripts of native texts, and line-by-line analyses of native texts; six notebooks from native Spokane speaker Pauline Flett; 147 reel tapes of Salish dialects (Spokane, Kalispel, Chewelah, and Flathead/Montana Salish); microfiche; handwritten notes; newspaper clippings; and a tape log. The majority of the notebook contents are direct transcriptions of the recordings. The collection also contains information that Carlson provided to the NAA regarding his primary consultants, Margaret Sherwood and Pauline Flett, as well as Albert Sam and Lucy Peuse, two other Spokane speakers with whom he worked.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection contains the field work of anthropologist Barry F. Carlson regarding his linguistic study of the Salish dialects spoken by the elders at the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Included are 39 notebooks containing vocabularies, grammatical examples, transcripts of native texts, and line-by-line analyses of native texts; six notebooks from native Spokane speaker Pauline Flett; 147 reel tapes of Salish dialects (Spokane, Kalispel, Chewelah, and Flathead/Montana Salish); microfiche; handwritten notes; newspaper clippings; and a tape log. The majority of the notebook contents are direct transcriptions of the recordings. The collection also contains information that Carlson provided to the NAA regarding his primary consultants, Margaret Sherwood and Pauline Flett, as well as Albert Sam and Lucy Peuse, two other Spokane speakers with whom he worked. The Tape Log in Salish Notes Series, Box 3, contains a list of all the speakers and their dialects that Carlson worked with.
Folders are arranged alphabetically. Reel tapes are arranged in numerical order. The majority of these sound recordings were collected by Barry Carlson during his fieldwork with the Spokane and Chewelah Salish People of Washington State from 1969 to the late 1980s. They contain native texts in Spokane, Kalispel, Chewelah, and Flathead (Montana Salish). They are more than 200, including the traditional 'Coyote Stories' and more recent contact stories called either 'French Stories' or 'Cowboy and Indian Stories'. The narrators include all the fluent Spokane and Chewelah Kalispel storytellers that lived on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State when Carlson did his fieldwork. In addition, there are 4 tapes collected by Carlson's student Christine Santon in 1974, which contain terminology relating to traditional Spokane foods. There are 2 tapes of Spokane collected by Carlson's student Brenda Orser in 1992. There is one tape of the Flathead (Montana Salish) language collected by Carlson's professor, Laurence Thompson in the 1960s.
Titles for the tapes were taken from Carlson's Tape Log which is in the Salish Notes series, Box 3.
This collection is organized in 2 series: Series 1. Salish Notes, 1969-2013; Series 2. Sound Recordings, 1969-1992.
Barry F. Carlson is an anthropologist known for his linguistic work with the Salish language of Washington State. Born in Evanston, Illinois, Carlson attended the University of Colorado and graduated with a B.A. in English/ Education in 1966. A year later he received a Masters in Linguistics from the same institution.
While a doctoral student at the University of Hawaii, Carlson began to study the Interior Salish languages spoken by the elders residing at the Spokane Indian Reservation, specifically the Spokane, Kalispel, and Chewelah dialects. He eventually wrote his doctoral dissertation on his fieldwork in Washington State. After receiving his Ph.D. in Linguistics in 1972, Carlson joined the Department of Linguistics at the University of Victoria in British Columbia, where he continued to teach until 2007.
Throughout his anthropological career, Carlson continued his work with those fluent in the Salish dialects. From 1969 to the late 1980s Carlson collected over 200 native texts, including both traditional stories and more recent contact narratives. He also worked closely with his fluent narrators to gather vocabularies and grammatical examples of their language. Margaret Sherwood and Pauline Flett were his primary consultants.
Carlson, Barry F. Carlson, "Curriculum Vitae," Accession Files, National Anthropological Archives
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Barry F. Carlson in 2012.
The Salish Notes and Sound Recordings of Barry Carlson are open for research. Access to the Salish Notes and Sound Recordings of Barry Carlson requires an appointment.
The Salish Notes and Sound Recordings of Barry F. Carlson, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Digitization and preparation of these materials for online access has been funded through generous support from the Arcadia Fund.
Date estimated from note in Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1883, page LXX, that stated that Chief Moses and a delegation came to Washington, D.C. in July, 1883 and signed an agreement, July 7, 1883.
Identified from BAE Negative 2925-a. Taken at same sitting as Arbitrary Bell Numbers 201 and 106.