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Audio Log Sheets

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: American Folklore Society Centennial / Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5603c05dc-94c1-46e0-9b6d-2ef2cafc6f3a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1988-ref2018
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Inspection and Analysis Report

Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Container:
Box 100, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1988
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 2: Howard Theatre / 2.2: Administrative and Business Files
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa76a815630-26ae-4e8d-bbb2-c5c99eef33e9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref872

Second Year No.9

Creator:
New Negro Alliance (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Advertisements
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
March 3, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American newspapers  Search this
Activism  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
Business enterprises  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7844b9aca-5d9f-44c1-94aa-2daa8adb6daf
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref13
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Second Year No.11

Creator:
New Negro Alliance (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Advertisements
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
March 17, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American newspapers  Search this
Activism  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
Business enterprises  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7e94642ac-87fe-47d1-a584-77c7cfb1c1ce
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref15
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Second Year No.22

Creator:
New Negro Alliance (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Advertisements
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
August 11, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American newspapers  Search this
Activism  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
Business enterprises  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa778e9d29e-b82a-47f9-9063-71bb512df9fc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref18
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Second Year No.26

Creator:
New Negro Alliance (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Advertisements
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
September 8, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American newspapers  Search this
Activism  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
Business enterprises  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa75830abe0-5e20-4638-9ed1-7356e5e705ec
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref22
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Second Year No.27

Creator:
New Negro Alliance (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Advertisements
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
September 15, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American newspapers  Search this
Activism  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
Business enterprises  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7db03902d-93ac-4866-a281-5cd0a77a6e68
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref23
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Second Year No.29

Creator:
New Negro Alliance (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Advertisements
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
September 29, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American newspapers  Search this
Activism  Search this
Discrimination in employment  Search this
Business enterprises  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7a7a9b82b-bfe0-4361-bc0b-e86cdb20c488
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref25
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Philadelphia -- Glenwood Green Acres

Provenance:
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Glenwood Green Acres (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet, narrative description of the garden and its history, and an abbreviated garden plan.
General:
This 140,000 square-foot community garden site is located at the northern edge of the Susquehanna Greene Countrie Towne, a low-income community in north central Philadelphia. Initiated in 1983 with assistance from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society's Philadelphia Green program, the garden has been developed by the neighborhood on the former site of a warehouse complex destroyed by fire. By the third season in 1986 between 80 and 90 vegetable plots were flourishing. Two primary coordinators, both retired men, have handled the work in the common area, with the support of several other volunteers. They set up the wire fence, paths, raised beds, sheds, and watering system. The boards used for the raised beds and bricks for the pathways were recycled from a number of buildings being demolished in the area. Philadelphia Green provided fencing, a watering system, gravel, soil, woodchips, a paved driveway, trellis, a patio, plants, and benches. Although the garden was initially focused on vegetables, in 1990 plans were implemented for the East Hill, filled with trees, shrubs, and perennial flowers, set among boulders for dramatic effect. A pergola was erected as the entrance to the hillside garden, and additional plants were donated from exhibits and the Philadelphia Flower Show. In 1992, the commissioner of the Department of Licenses and Inspections entered into an agreement with the gardeners under which he put a caboose from his personal train collection along the back of the garden in exchange for replacement of fencing along two sides of the garden.
The group is well-organized, with elected officers and written by-laws. The gardeners are mostly in their 60s and 70s, while a few younger ones are in their 30s and 40s. Many of the gardeners are former residents of the neighborhood who travel back to Glenwood to work a garden plot each year. The community at large is supportive of the garden, which has won many prizes in the City Gardens Contest. The gate is never locked and visitors are often treated to the harvest and favorite recipes. The gardeners are renowned for their huge feasts in the summer when everyone is welcomed. The gardeners of Glenwood Green Acres have hosted Philadelphia Green workshops on many occasions. A special intergenerational project was conducted there in 1990 introducing youngsters to the heritage of southern agriculture. Demonstration plots of tobacco, cotton, and peanuts are still grown there.
Related Materials:
Glenwood Green Acres related holdings consist of 1 folder (6 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA353
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6cf4d51bd-b728-444f-a3da-aae1940bf713
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16525

Fairfield -- Birdcraft Gardens

Former owner:
Jennings, Annie Burr  Search this
Wright, Mabel Osgood  Search this
Architect:
Clarke, Cameron  Search this
Franzen, John P.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Eckerson, Alice  Search this
Kenny, William  Search this
Loglisci, Andrew  Search this
Owner:
Connecticut Audubon Society  Search this
Provenance:
Sasqua Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Birdcraft Gardens (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield -- Fairfield
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles and other documents, and additional images.
General:
The Birdcraft Museum and Sanctuary was founded in 1914 by ornithologist and author Mabel Osgood Wright on ten acres of land, former pasture that had been donated and deeded to the fledgling Connecticut Audubon Society. It was established as a refuge for migratory and other song birds; the birds prefer open or partly bushed fields with some tall trees so the early plantings augmented the trees and shrubs already growing. The existing trees included mature oaks, Pepperidge, cedars, maples, black cherries and alders, and trailing wild berries. To prepare the sanctuary pines, spruce and hemlocks were planted for windbreaks, mountain ash, mulberries, sweet cherries, flowering shrubs and vines were planted for food, and several stone birdbaths and numerous bird houses were installed as well as a cat-proof fence. Additional plantings included blackberries, dewberries, thimble berries, strawberries, huckleberries, blueberries, chokeberries, sumacs, wild grapes, wild plum, shad bush, elderberries, wild roses, sweetbriar and honeysuckle.
Starting in 2013 the Sasqua Garden Club has been restoring five different garden habitats with native plants that will support the ecosystem of animals, birds, insects and microorganisms. The gardens are living classrooms for the outdoor science-based education and augment the exhibits in the museum, also undergoing restoration. While many trees, shrubs and native perennials recur throughout the sanctuary, now reduced to six acres, each garden has a distinctive profile. The Woodland edge garden contains red chokeberry, dogwood, magnolia, and crab apple with spicebush, rhododendron, viburnum and an understory of coral bells, ferns, Virginia bluebells, and phlox. The Meadow garden includes wild flowers, winterberry, cedars and dogwood, grasses and low and high bush blueberries. In the Wetland garden there are Juneberry, serviceberry, milkweed, native azaleas, spicebush, river birch, native flowers and ferns. The Seaside garden has butterfly weed, sedge, beach plum, grasses and bayberry. The Terrace garden has mountain laurel, holly, honeysuckle, sumac, willow, coneflower and potentilla.
Birdcraft Sanctuary has been an important community resource ever since it opened in 1914. Every year birds are trapped in soft nets, counted, inspected, tagged and released supplying useful data on migratory bird populations. The sanctuary was enrolled on the National Register of Historic Places on June 23, 1982 and became a National Historic Landmark in 1993.
Persons associated with the garden include Annie B. Jennings (former owner, -1914); Mabel Osgood Wright (1859-1934) (founder of Birdcraft Sanctuary, 1914-circa 1934); Connecticut Audubon Society (owners since 1914);Cameron Clarke (1887-1957) (architect of the Swallow Chimney, 1937); Jack Franzen, (architect of new museum space, 2012-2014); Alice Eckerson (landscape architect, 2013- ); William Kenny (ecological services, 2013-2014); Andrew Loglisci (water features, -2016).
Related Materials:
Birdcraft Gardens related holdings consist of 1 folder (30 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File CT744
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb616ba6eaa-687d-41a0-8b04-b580bb7a5816
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21469

Wheaton -- Robert R. McCormick Museum at Cantigny

Former owner:
McCormick, Robert R.  Search this
Medill, Joseph  Search this
Architect:
Coolidge, C. A.  Search this
Irvin, Wills  Search this
Landscape architect:
Lipp, Franz, 1897-1996  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Robert R. McCormick Museum at Cantigny (Wheaton, Illinois)
United States of America -- Illinois -- DuPage County -- Wheaton
Scope and Contents:
Materials relating to the public garden of the Cantigny Trustee, located in Wheaton, Illinois. The folder includes slide list, photographs, excerpts from publications, brochures, and a description and worksheet completed by GCA researchers at James R. Buckler and Associates. The garden is noted for its original owner, Joseph Medill, editor of the Chicago Tribune and its claim on the first Chicago Peace roses.
General:
"This garden is a series of irregular rooms, each leading to the next, whlle affording time for close inspection of every leaf. The design tempts the stroller to wonder what delight might wait beyond the next turn. The garden contains a rose garden, tree collections, a fountain garden, ponds, and a dryland garden."
Persons associated with the property include: Joseph Medill (former owner, 1896); Robert R. McCormick (former owner); C. A. Coolidge (architect); Wills Irvin (architect); and Franz Lipp (landscape architect).
Related Materials:
Robert R. McCormick Museum at Cantigny related holdings consist of 1 folder (17 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Illinois -- Wheaton  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File IL078
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Illinois
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb607be2a71-a2a9-42b8-96a7-76e1b9bda33c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref6825

Zionsville -- Frogmore

Landscape designer:
Altum,Jim  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Frogmore (Zionsville, Indiana)
United States of America -- Indiana -- Boone -- Zionsville
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets.
General:
Frogmore is a five acre property set in the woodlands of Boone County, Indiana, with gardens featuring a large pond, tall trees and shade plants. Groves of mature oaks, shagbark hickories, sugar maples and ash trees have been supplemented with new plantings of oaks, spruce, yellowwoods and magnolias including a specimen Chinese Oyama magnolia. The garden beds under the trees include hosta, sweet woodruff, ferns, astilbes, hydrangeas, thousands of spring bulbs and ground covers that stay green all year. The pond is the habitat for a water garden that includes water lilies, water irises, pickerelweed, water cannas, koi, snakes and many bullfrogs. The owners began work in 2005 by removing dense overgrowth of honeysuckle and digging out curving beds, and created the pond by building a small dam over an underground stream. In a sunny corner of the property there is a small vegetable and herb garden maintained by grandchildren. There is also a "Wind in the Willows" garden where statues of Mr. Mole, Mr. Rat, Mr. Badger, and Mr. Toad are featured. At the entrance to the house they planted rhododendron, clipped boxwood hedges, a Japanese maple tree and placed a furnished patio, with a view of the spruce and roses planted in the center of the circular driveway.
The garden is called Frogmore after the English royal country estate, and because of the many loud bullfrogs that live in the pond. The pond is monitored for any appearance of duckweed which is removed promptly, and the 92 ash trees are inspected for emerald ash borer which is a serious pest in that location.
Persons associated with the garden include) Jim Altum (landscape designer, 2010- ).
Related Materials:
Frogmore related holdings consist of 1 folder (22 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Indiana -- Zionsville  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File IN067
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Indiana
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb67e052168-ba65-45ae-bcef-7e59d6c0f0d7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref7248

[Miscellaneous Sites in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England]: Anne Hathaway's Cottage, perennial garden

Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print ((mounted on cardboard), black and white, mount 8.5 x 10.5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United Kingdom -- England -- Warwickshire -- Stratford-upon-Avon
Date:
1929
General note:
The print is reversed left to right from the actual appearance of the site. In addition, the notation "Combined Photo" on the print mount, as well as visual inspection of the image's lighting, suggests that two negatives were used to create the print. Plants such as the hollyhocks in the foreground are much lighter and brighter than the middle and background of the image.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- England -- Warwickshire -- Stratford-upon-Avon  Search this
Houses  Search this
Cottage gardens  Search this
Hedges  Search this
Perennials  Search this
Thatched roofs  Search this
Walkways, flagstone  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item ENG084016
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / Foreign Countries / England / ENG084: Stratford-upon-Avon -- Miscellaneous Sites in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6879622e6-36f6-444e-9226-88124effb032
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref15358

Satellite, Explorer I

Manufacturer:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology  Search this
U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal  Search this
Materials:
Steel, copper alloy, aluminum, rubber, paint, electrical wires
Dimensions:
Other: 205.7 × 15.2cm, 12.9kg (81 × 6 in., 28 1/2lb.)
Type:
SPACECRAFT-Unmanned
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Inventory Number:
A19620034000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv939119067-3e7a-4e27-8b20-0c53fb7c8546
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19620034000
Online Media:

Scrapbooks

Collection Creator:
Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries  Search this
Extent:
(Boxes 23-24; 0.6 linear feet; Reels 5869-5870)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1919-1940
Scope and Contents note:
This series contains five volumes documenting the activities of Rehn Galleries and its associated artists, 1919, 1923-1941, that contain clippings and a small number of exhibition catalogs. An autographed photograph of Walter Griffin is in volume 1. Items on former reel NY59/17 (frames 165-293) were missing from volume 1 when inspected in October 1981. This material was thought to have been returned to the donor after microfilming, and reader-printer copies were inserted as substitutes in 1981. In 2003, these items were found and are now interfiled with the appropriate series (correspondence, printed matter, works of art, and miscellaneous items).
Collection Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries records, 1858-1969 (bulk 1919-1968). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.franrehg, Series 3
See more items in:
Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97cfc336e-7267-4388-8cac-de9f03e44202
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-franrehg-ref546

Frederick Douglass Patterson papers

Creator:
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Names:
Phelps-Stokes Fund  Search this
Tuskegee Institute  Search this
United Negro College Fund  Search this
Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943  Search this
Moton, Robert Russa, 1867-1940  Search this
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Extent:
18.66 Linear feet (21 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diplomas
Notebooks
Articles
Manuscripts
Photographic prints
Ephemera
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Awards
Photographs
Invitations
Legal documents
Programs
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1882 - 1988
Summary:
President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later Tukegee Institute; now Tuskegee University) from 1935 - 1953 and founder of the United Negro College Fund (1944). Patterson was born on October 10, 1901. Orphaned at age two, he was raised by his eldest sister, Wilhelmina (Bess), a school teacher in Texas. He studied at Iowa State College, where he received a doctorate in veterinary medicine in 1923 and a master of science degree in 1927. Five years later, he was awarded a second doctorate degree from Cornell University. Patterson taught veterinary science for four years at Virginia State College, where he was also Director of Agriculture. His tenure at Tuskegee University started in 1928 and spanned almost 25 years, first as head of the veterinary division, then as the director of the School of Agriculture and finally as Tuskegee's third president. He married Catherine Elizabeth Moton, daughter of Tuskegee University's second president, Dr. Robert R. Moton. Patterson also founded the School of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee in 1944, the same year he founded the United Negro College Fund (UNCF). The UNCF continues today as a critical source of annual income for a consortium of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tuskegee University among them.
Scope and Content note:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson Collection comprises 18.66 linear feet of correspondence, manuscripts, research material, published writings, photographs, audiovisual material, scrapbooks, diplomas, awards, and other materials chronicling the personal life and professional career of Frederick D. Patterson.

The collection is comprised of glimpses into the life of Dr. Patterson. The little correspondece that survived is located in Series 2: Career, Series 3: Correspondence, and Series 4: Organizations. Some of the correspondence takes the form of congratulatory notes from 1953 during Patterson's transfer from Tuskegee Institute to the Phelps-Stokes Fund, located in Series 2. There is also a personal note sent to Patterson's wife, Catherine Patterson, from George Washington Carver in which he describes peanut oil as a good massage oil.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged by series and chronologically therein:

1. Biography: This series provides insight into Patterson's family life through primary documents. It is comprised of family wills, insurance policies, and his autobiography. Sub-series are arranged alphabetically by title.

2. Career: This series contains materials from Patterson's long professional career in the field of higher education, including his tenure as present of both the Tuskegee Institute and the Phelps-Stokes Fund. Sub-series are arranged chronologically.

3. Correspondence: This series contains letters sent to Patterson (and his wife) of a personal and professional nature. Several letters relate to Patterson's personal business "Signs and Services," which was a small billboard advertising company. There are also letters from George Washington Carver. The series is arranged chronologically. 4. Organizations: This series contains material from the various foundations Patterson founded and to which he belonged, including the R.R. Moton Fund and the College Endowment Funding Plan. He is especially noted for developing the United Negro College Fund. The series is organized alphabetically by sub-series title.

5. Honors: This series contains the awards, citations, and resolutions Patterson received during his lifetime. Folders are organized chronologically. 6. Subject Files: This series comprises articles, employee vitas, and other documents collected and organized by Patterson. Among the subjects in the files are higher education, Negroes, segregation, civil rights, and employee records. There is no key to this system.

7. Photographs: The Photograph series mostly documents Patterson's tenure at Tuskegee University. The series includes images of Patterson and various other notable figures during formal functions at the university. Noteworthy personalities include George Washington Carver, Eleanor and Franklin D. Roosevelt, and President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

8. Printed Materials: This series contains books, programs, and other documents from Patterson's personal collection. The series is organized alphabetically by author's last name.
Biographical note:
Frederick Douglass Patterson was born on October 10, 1901 to parents William and Mamie Brooks Patterson, in the Buena Vista Heights area of Anacostia in Washington, D.C. The youngest of six children, Patterson's parents died of tuberculosis before he reached the age of two years, his mother when he was eleven months old and his father a year later. Following his parents' death, the Patterson children were split up and sent to live in the homes of family and friends as stipulated in his father's last will and testament until he was seven years old, Patterson lived in the Anacostia area with a family friend he called "Aunt Julia."

When he was seven years old, Patterson's older sister Bess (a recent graduate of the Washington Conservatory of Music) decided to seek employment in Texas and took him with her. Many of their parents' family still lived in the state, which allowed Patterson the opportunity to spend months with various aunts and uncles, while his sister taught music throughout the South. After completing eighth grade, Patterson joined his sister at the Prairie View Normal School, where she taught music and directed the choir. Patterson attended the school for four years, during which time he developed an interest in veterinary medicine.

In 1920, Patterson enrolled at Iowa State College as a veterinary student. He graduated in 1923 and moved to Columbus, Ohio, to join his brother John. While there, he took the Ohio State Board exam for Veterinary Medicine. Although he became certified, a lack of money prevented him from practicing. Four years later he received a teaching offer from Virginia State College (VSC) in Petersburg, Virginia, which afforded him the opportunity to work within his profession. While at VSC Patterson took a leave of absence and returned to Iowa, in 1926, to pursue a Master's degree in veterinary medicine.

After five years at VSC, the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute offered Patterson a position running the veterinarian hospital and teaching veterinary science. He moved to Tuskegee, Alabama in 1928. While at Tuskegee, Patterson decided to pursue a Ph.D. in bacteriology at Cornell University. During his year and a half leave from Tuskegee, Patterson completed his coursework and wrote his dissertation. After he returned to Tuskegee, a serial killer murdered three people, including the head of the Department of Agriculture. Confronted with this tragedy, school officials quickly offered Patterson the vacant position, which he accepted in 1934.

Robert R. Moton, second president of Tuskegee, retired in 1935 and a search was soon commenced to find the next president for the school. Patterson, in the meantime, pursued more personal matters when he met and married Catherine Moton (with whom he would have a son) in June 1935. By then he was already hired to take his now, father-in-law's, position as President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.

As president of Tuskegee, Patterson made several changes and many additions to the institution. He increased faculty housing for professors; integrated the Board of Trustees' meeting meals and eventually arranged for both balck and white members to eat at one table; shortened the name to Tuskegee Institute; and established the Department of Commercial Dietetics in 1935, the veterinary medicine program in 1942, and the engineering program in 1948. While many considered Patterson's changes important achievements, it was his development of the Commercial/Military Aviation Program that would bring the school distinction and fame.

Patterson first attempted to develop the aviation program in 1939. The government fostered the development of such programs by subsiding the expenses. All a university had to do was present able-bodied instructors and willing pupils. Tuskegee had both. By 1940 the United States Air Force was interested in integrating its forces. In order to do this they needed trained black pilots. Tuskegee was the perfect place to provide the needed pilots since the school was situated in an all-black environment where students could concentrate on learning to fly without having to worry about racist reactions from their fellow classmates. To accommodate this program, the Tuskegee Army Air Base was created. Tuskegee pilots flew missions throughout World War II and would later be recognized for their bravery.

An important part of Patterson's duties as president was fund-raising. By 1943 he found it increasingly difficult to find ample sources of funds to run the Institute. He came to realize Tuskegee and similar black colleges would benefit if they pooled their funding resources and asked for larger amounts of money from philanthropic individuals and organizations as a collective. Working together would cut fund-raising expenses; this in turn would leave more money for the colleges to use as they wished. Patterson named his new creation the United Negro College Fund (UNCF); it would go on to raise millions of dollars for the nation's historically black colleges. He served as the first president of the organization.

During the fifteen years Patterson served as president of Tuskegee, he hosted many famous personalities, including W.E.B. DuBois, Mary McLeod Bethune, Eleanor Roosevelt, Duke Ellington, Paul Robeson, Pearl Buck, and Andre Segovia. He developed a lasting relationship with George Washington Carver, who had been a professor with Tuskegee since the days of Booker T. Washington.

Patterson served on many organizational boards in addition to his educational work. His involvement with the Phelps-Stokes Fund would ultimately lead Patterson to leave his beloved Tuskegee Institute to apply his educational philosophies on a broader scale. In 1953 the Fund approached Patterson and offered him the presidency of the organization. Patterson, feeling he needed a change, accepted the offer. He resigned from Tuskegee that same year and moved to New York to begin a new life.

Organized in 1911, the Phelps-Stokes Fund supported African, African American, and Native American education and worked on solving housing problems in New York City. Patterson's interest in African education began before he joined Phelps-Stokes. In 1950 the World Bank/International Bank Commission to Nigeria hired him to "evaluate the resources of Nigeria and…to study the educational programs and the organizational structure of advanced education." Through his work with the Fund he continued his efforts to improve the educational opportunities for Africans and help them move beyond colonialism. Patterson traveled extensively throughout the west coast of Africa in support of these goals.

In addition to forming the UNCF, Patterson created two other organizations (the Robert R. Moton Institute and the College Endowment Funding Plan), during the mid 1960s and 1970s. Each was designed to improve funding efforts for historically black colleges. The Robert R. Moton institute began as an off-shoot of the Phelps-Stokes as a site for conferences to address the Fund's primary concerns. Patterson's idea for the Institute came from a desire to put to use a piece of property inherited after Moton's death. Empathy with the frustrations of college presidents regarding the restricted funding for institutional expenses led Patterson to create the College Endowment Funding Plan. The Endowment was designed to alleviate this situation by providing matching funds to eligible colleges. The Endowment made its first payment in 1978. Unfortunately, by the 1980s, the Moton Institute lost most of its government funding due to federal cutbacks. This resulted in reductions to the Institute's programming.

It was not until Patterson was well into his eighties that he began to retire from his life of public service. On June 23, 1987, President Ronald Reagan presented Dr. Patterson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest possible honor that can be bestowed upon a civilian, for his service in higher education and his role in creating funding sources for the nation's historically black colleges. A year later Frederick Douglass Patterson died at the age of eighty-seven.

Honorary Degrees

undated -- Xavier University

1941 -- Virginia State College

1941 -- Wilberforce University

1953 -- Morehouse College

1956 -- Tuskegee Institute

1961 -- New York University

1966 -- Edward Waters College

1967 -- Atlanta University

1969 -- Franklin and Marshall College

1970 -- Virginia Union University

1975 -- Bishop College

1977 -- St. Augustine's College

1982 -- Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

1984 -- Stillman College

1985 -- Payne College

Distinctions

undated -- Association for the Study of Negro Life and History Carter

undated -- The Southern Education Foundation, Inc. Distinguished Service Citation

undated -- The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) and Texas Association of Developing Colleges Annual Leadership Awards

1950 -- Christian Education department, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Inc. Citation for Distinguished Service

1953 -- Bethune-Cookman College, the Mary McLeod Bethune Medallion

1953 -- John A. Andrew Clinical Society at Tuskegee Institute, Citation for Distinguished Service in the Cause of Humanity

1953 -- Tuskegee Institute, Certificate of Appreciation for 25 Years of Service

1957 -- Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. Beta Lamda Sigma Chapter, Bigger and Better Business Award

1960 -- National Alumni Council of the UNCF, Inc. Award

1963 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Award

1965 -- Booker T. Washington Business Association, Certificate of Acknowledgement

1970 -- Moton Conference Center Award

1970 -- Tuskegee National Alumni Association, R.R. Moton Award

1972 -- American College Public Relations Association, 1972 Award for Distinguished Service to Higher Education

1972 -- UNCF F.D. Patterson 71st Birthday Award

1975 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Symbol of Service Award

1976 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Continuous Creative and Courageous Leadership in the Cause of Higher Education for Blacks

1977 -- Yale Alumni Associates of Afro-America, Distinguished Service Award

1979 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation Inc., Distinguished Educator Award

1979 -- Tuskegee Institute Alumni Association Philadelphia Charter Award

1980 -- The Iowa State University Alumni Association, Distinguished Achievement Citation

1980 -- Gary Branch NAACP Life Membership Fight for Freedom Dinner 1980, Roy Wilkins Award

1980 -- State of Alabama Certificate of Appreciation

1982 -- St. Luke's United Methodist Church Achievement Award

1983 -- Tuskegee Airmen, Inc., Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- Booker T. Washington Foundation, Booker T. Washington Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- The Ohio State University Office of Minority Affairs, Distinguished Humanitarian and Service Award

1985 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc, Eta Zeta Lamda Chapter Civic Award

1985 -- United States, Private Sector Initiative Commendation

1987 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc of New York State, Founders Day Award

1987 -- Presidential Medal of Freedom

1987 -- Brag Business Achievement Award

1987 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Aggrey Medal

Public Service

1941-1971 -- Southern Educational Foundation, Inc., Board Member

1943-1988 -- United Negro College Fund, Founder, President, and Member

1960s-1988 -- Robert R. Moton Memorial Institute, Founder

1970s-1988 -- The College Endowment Funding Plan, Founder

undated -- American National Red Cross, Board of Governors Member

undated -- Boys Scouts of America, National Council Member

undated -- Citizens Committee for the Hoover Report on Reorganization of Federal Government, Board Member

undated -- Institute of International Education, Advisory committee Member

undated -- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Life Member

undated -- National Business League, President and Board Member

undated -- National Urban League, National Committee Member

undated -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Board of Trustees Member

undated -- President's Commission on Higher Education for Negroes

undated -- Southern Regional Education, Board of Control Member
Related Materials:
Additional biographical materials in the Dale/Patterson Collection of the Anacostia Community Museum Archives.

This collection contains artifacts catalogued in the ACM Objects Collection.
Provenance:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers were donated to the Anacostia Community Museum in 2001 by Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Universities and colleges -- Administration  Search this
African Americans -- Education (Higher)  Search this
African American universities and colleges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diplomas
Notebooks
Articles
Manuscripts
Photographic prints
Ephemera
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Awards
Photographs
Invitations
Legal documents
Programs
Correspondence
Clippings
Citation:
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-010
See more items in:
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7da84300b-c608-41af-b59a-1f44dce53a26
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-010
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  • View Frederick Douglass Patterson papers digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Members minutes, taken by Acting Secretary, H.E. Burke

Collection Creator:
Bladensburg Union Burial Association  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
5 February 1923-4 April 1938
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for unrestricted research. Use requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Bladensburg Union Burial Association records are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
Bladensburg Union Burial Association records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Reverend L. Jerome Fowler.
See more items in:
Bladensburg Union Burial Association records
Bladensburg Union Burial Association records / Series 1: Administration
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7911844ad-1059-48e0-99a5-2fa82d7974fa
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-025-ref22
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Members minutes, taken by Acting Secretary, H.E. Burke digital asset number 1
  • View Members minutes, taken by Acting Secretary, H.E. Burke digital asset number 2

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection

Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Publisher:
American Stereoscopic Co.  Search this
H. C. White Co.  Search this
Killela, J.J.  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
Photographer:
Ponting, Herbert George, 1870-1935  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
White, Clarence W.  Search this
Extent:
160 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereographs
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Lantern slides
Date:
1895-1921
Summary:
A collection of approximately 28,000 glass plate negatives showing views of a variety of subjects.
Scope and Contents:
The major part of the collection, series 1-4, contains nearly 28,000 glass plates, including original stereoscopic negatives, interpositives, and both negative and positive non-stereoscopic plates used to produce lantern slides and paper prints. The photographs were taken all over the world. The majority are from the Underwood & Underwood active files, but plates from other publishers are also included. Series 5 is a small collection of paper stereographs. Series 6 contains 4 Underwood & Underwood descriptive sales catalogs and 1 H. C. White & Co. catalog (numbers on the Underwood plates correspond to the numbers on catalog captions). Series 7 is apparatus--four stereoscopes.

The approximately 28,000 glass plates in this collection have not been completely inspected at this point due to handling problems associated with asbestos contamination of the collection. A preliminary survey, however, indicated that the selections of images cover the full range of subject matter encompassed by the "Underwood Travel System." The subject matter is most easily comprehended by consulting one of the Underwood sales catalogs which accompany the collection. The catalog captions are arranged geographically, for the most part, and generally represent an organized "tour" which could be purchased as a boxed set, complete with maps and guide book, although individual images could be purchased separately. The catalogs indicate that the Underwood files were continually updated, for extensive modifications in some of the sets can be seen from edition to edition, and actual inspection of published stereographs shows that alternate views with identical Underwood catalog numbers were substituted from time to time, and that new subjects (with new catalog numbers) were sometimes introduced into the sets and old subjects were retired. There are glass plate negatives as well as positives in this collection. The positive images were probably interpositives used for the production of duplicate negatives. Some of the original stereo negatives were cut apart and the images transposed; they were then bound with an additional glass support (in many cases the tape has deteriorated). Half stereo positives also appear in the collection: these probably were intended for use in lantern slide production. Frequently a drawer of plates contains several incarnations of a single image, including the original negative, a copy negative, an interpositive, and a positive lantern slide. In other cases a drawer may contain only a single mode, e.g., original negatives, while corresponding positives and/or lantern slides appear in separate drawers.

A small quantity of the Underwood & Underwood plates are not from the Travel System, but represent humorous and genre subjects which were cataloged and marketed separately. The work of several other publishers, usually without Underwood catalog numbers, is also represented, including H. C. White, American Stereoscopic Company, and J. J. Killela.

The arrangement of the collection seems to reflect a combination of permanent reference storage as well as active use files. The apparent anomalies or inconsistencies probably indicate the pulling of plates from permanent files into temporary work files, and the collection may consist of a combination of permanent storage and temporary working files. As the drawers do not appear to have been renumbered according to any easily discernible pattern, they have become intermixed and rearranged in storage. The contents of each drawer usually have been found in good order, however, and the plates were nearly always arranged numerically,usually with the low numbers at the rear of the drawer and the highest number at the front. As the plates have been rehoused, the reverse numerical order has been corrected. When all the plates have been rehoused and inventoried, consideration will be given to general collection rearrangement and renumbering of the containers, either strictly in numerical order or topically and/or geographically with a numerical sequence within each group.

The collection is in good condition for the most part, although conservation attention will be required. There is a certain amount of emulsion peeling or frilling at the edges of some plates, but this is a condition to which emulsions on glass frequently are prone. A few plates, bound in a sandwich arrangement between cover glass and acetate facing the emulsion, have suffered severe damage, peeling, and image losses through the apparent ferrotyping and sticking of emulsion to the plastic, probably under conditions of high humidity at some stage. There is surprisingly little glass breakage within the collection.

Most of the stereoscopic negatives and many of the positives are defaced with a double "XI' scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right side, as described above in the historical note. Of particular interest and presumed rarity are cards found interfiled with plates in many of the drawers. These cards, filed by Underwood (i.e., catalog) numbers, bear printing'or production dates and notes, along with the unique, chronological accession numbers which the company assigned to each plate, regardless of the "active" number which it might eventually receive. A check mark on a card usually refers to a plate actually in the collection and with which the card is found physically associated; additional accession numbers without check marks listed on the cards possibly refer to variant views which were discarded or may in fact be in the Keystone Mast Collection (pending further research). For ease of handling and in the interest of conservation, the cards have been separated from the plates within each drawer and are arranged as a group at the rear, but can still be located easily. Frequently when a plate and/or its original envelope does not bear both the "active" and accession numbers, the missing number can be located on one of these cards.

Photographers represented include Herbert G. Ponting and Clarence W. White. A photographer and/or publisher named J. J. Killela is also represented.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in seven series. Series 1, 2, and 3 are each divided into negative and positive subseries. Plates are arranged numerically in groups based on geographical and subject content. Controlled at the series level in the finding aid and at the item level in a computer database.

Series 1, H. C. White glass plates

Series 2, American Stereoscpopic Co. glass plates

Series 3, Underwood & Underwood glass plates

Series 4, Broken glass plates

Series 5, Original company catalogs

Series 6, Paper stereographs

Series 7, stereoscopes (viewers)
Biographical / Historical:
Underwood & Underwood was established at Ottawa, Kansas, by the young brothers Elmer and Bert Underwood in 1882. They initially operated as distributors for eastern photographers' stereographs to new markets in the West. Their activities included door to door canvassing with views by Charles Bierstadt, J. F. Jarvis, and Littleton View Co.(1) Underwood & Underwood, Publishers, opened a branch office in Baltimore in 1887.(2)

Soon Underwood & Underwood and other large stereograph publishers began recruiting college students to work as salesmen during summer months (1890). Underwood and Underwood claimed that their organization alone sent out as many as 3,000 college students in one Summer [sic]. With the other ... big companies each employing more than 1,000, it is easy to understand how the countryside of the Nation literally swarmed with stereograph salesmen throughout the summer months! ... The competition between the salesmen themselves was likewise aggressive, with no holds barred. Many successful business and professional men of today relate with considerable pride that they got their start on their careers in this practical and very effective school of salesmanship.(3)

The company moved its main office from Ottawa, Kansas to New York City (1891),(4) and gradually began to publish its own stereographs. Bert Underwood finally took photography lessons from M. Abel in Mentone, France during the same year.(5) B. L. Singley, erstwhile salesman for the Underwood & Underwood and James M. Davis & Co. firms, in 1892 formed the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania, which was to become Underwood & Underwood's chief competitor and imitator.(6)

Underwood & Underwood entered the education market (1895) by producing packaged sets of 100 or more stereographs with descriptive texts.(7) From 1897 the firm employed full time staff photographers as well as free lancers. By 1901 the Underwoods were publishing 25,000 stereographs per day (i.e.,total number of cards). Increasing production levels led them to gain control of the Jarvis, Bierstadt, and William H. Rau photoprinting facilities in 1897 1898.(8)

The Keystone view Company created its own Educational Department in 1898. This division sustained the Keystone View Company past the period of the stereograph's popularity. In this year Underwood & Underwood reprinted Oliver Wendell Holmes's series on the stereograph and stereoscope which originally appeared in The Atlantic Monthly between 1859 and 1863. This eighty page booklet included testimonials from eminent scholars on the value of the stereograph in education. The company had been test marketing what itlater called "The Underwood Travel System." This consisted of a boxed set of stereo views of a country or region, a guide book describing the significance of the places shown, and a map showing their location and the viewpoints from which the stereographs were taken. Captions on the backs of the stereographs were sometimes printed in six languages.(9) As stereographs began to be used in schools as visual aids, the firm promoted its Travel System with endorsements from prominent educators, citing the usage of the system by various schools and universities.(10)

The H. C. White Company, which had manufactured stereoscopes for several decades, entered the stereo publication field in 1899.(11) Much of its production seemed to imitate Underwood & Underwood cards, including typography and the color of mount stock. Underwood & Underwood expanded into news photography by 1910 and gradually decreased its stereographic work. Few new stereo negatives were added to the file after 1912 except for a flurry of activity during the early war years, 1914 1916. The total number of Underwood & Underwood "titles" in stereo were from 30,000 to 40,000 (there might be a substantially larger number of actual negatives, since the files frequently were updated with newer views for old catalog numbers).(12)

Underwood & Underwood sold a portion of its negative file to the educational division of Keystone View Company in 1912,(13) and between 1921 1923 conveyed to this competitor their remaining stereo stock (presumably both cards and negatives) and rights.(14) In addition to its involvement as a news photographic agency, the company eventually opened portrait studios which flourished during the World war II years. A former Smithsonian employee, Vince Connolly, worked for Underwood & Underwood, which competed with Harris & Ewing in general portrait work during that period: he did portraiture and other photography, but says he was unaware of his employer's earlier stereo publishing activities.

Underwood & Underwood donated approximately 6000 negatives to the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts (1964). These photographs are primarily 4" x 5", captioned glass plate and film negatives. The subjects are news events and theatrical, sports, and political subjects of the early 20th century. In a letter to the Smithsonian of March 25, 1966 (in accession number 270586), Mrs. John M. Stratton described another collection of Underwood & Underwood photographs, stating that her husband had been a partner in Underwood & Underwood Illustrations and owned Underwood & Underwood News Photos. In November of the same year Mr. and Mrs. Stratton donated this collection of glass plates by Underwood & Underwood and other publishers to the Division of Photographic History (then the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts) . This material consists of both negative and positive stereographic plates, as well as non stereoscopic plates, chiefly copies made from the stereographs, with some catalogs, stereoscopes, and other material. The donor estimated 12,900 plates, but in 1983 the Smithsonian Institution inventory yielded a total of approximately 28,000 plates.

The Keystone View Company's stereoscopic production continued much later than Underwood & Underwood's. It was not until 1939 when declining interest in stereography led the firm to discontinue stereograph production and enter the field of visual optometrics. The stereoscopic negative collection, including material obtained from Underwood & Underwood and other firms, was placed in storage in concrete vaults. The Mast family of Davenport, Iowa, eventually purchased the collection in 1963, and in 1977 donated the collection to the University of California for its California Museum of Photography in Riverside. The University took physical possession of this vast collection in 1979.(15)

Many of the Underwood & Underwood plates donated by the Strattons (which were transferred to the Archives Center in 1983), in effect have been cancelled by having diagonal lines (double "X" marks) scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right image of each stereo pair (never both sides). These cancellation marks do not appear on the Underwood & Underwood plates in the Keystone Mast Collection in Riverside. This leads to several theories: (a) that these cancellations were in fact the reason that the Smithsonian plates were not purchased by Keystone in either 1912 or 1921, since Keystone clearly intended to use the Underwood material for stereograph production and the defaced plates would be of no value to them for this purpose; or (b), as stereo collector John Waldsmith suggests, that the cancellations were part of an agreement between Underwood & Underwood and Keystone: Keystone may have asked Underwood & Underwood to cancel one side of each stereoscopic plate not being sold to Keystone so that Underwood & Underwood would no longer be able to compete with Keystone in the stereo market. The defaced plates, as well as other material which Keystone did not purchase, apparently remained in Underwood custody and eventually were acquired by Mr. and Mrs. Stratton. The cancellation marks in the Smithsonian's collection are the subject of further conjecture. Edward Earle at Riverside feels that, since Underwood & Underwood sought to abandonded stereograph production much earlier than Keystone's departure from the field in order to enter the non stereoscopic lantern slide market, the cancellation may have served to indicate which side of each sterescopic pair should be converted to lantern slide production use; the existence of the 4" x 5" copy negatives and positives from stereographs in this collection seem to corroborate this. The Underwood & Underwood conversion from stereograph to lantern slide materials seems to coincide with the ascendance of lantern slide projection as visual aids in schools. The company apparently modified the type of photographic product which they published at least partially in recognition of this new educational trend.

NOTES

1. edward W. Earle, ed., Points of View: The Stereograph in America A Cultural @ Visual 'g . E!Ltory, Rochester, F.Y., Th Studies Workshop ress, 1979, p. 60; William Culp Darrah, The World of Stereographs, Gettysburg, Pa., 1979, p. 46.

2. Tbid., p. 62.

3. George E. Hamilton, Oliver Wendell Holmes, His Pioneer SLtuereoscope and Later Industry, New York, New )men Society, 1949, p. 17, quoted in Points of 1=e w:, 6 4 . P.

4. Points of View., p. 66.

5. Darrah, p. 47.

6. points of View, p. 66.

7. Ibid., p. 68.

8. Darrah, p. 47.

9. Points of View, p. 70.

10. Howard S. Becker, "Steteographs: Local, National, and International Art Worlds," in Points of View, p. 95. 11. points of View, p. 72.

12. Darrah, p. 48.

13. Darrah, p. 48, quoted in Points of View, P. 82.

14. Darrah, p. 48.

15. Chris J. Kenney, introduction to "Perspective and the Past: The Keystone Mast Collection," CMP Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1982.
Related Materials:
California Museum of Photography, University of California--Riverside, Riverside, California 92521.

Underwood & Underwood stereographs in this collection and the Smithsonian Underwood & Underwood Collection originally were components of the same company file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by June Stratton (Mrs. John M.) on December 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Traveling sales personnel  Search this
Travel photography -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereographs -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Interpositives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Stereoscopic photographs -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Lantern slides
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0143
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86e358e26-e305-49a6-bf9b-f2d38d995ae0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0143
Online Media:

RSN Numbers 8611-8713

Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Container:
Box 79
Type:
Archival materials
Graphic Materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 1: H. C. White glass plates / 1.2: H.C. White Interpositives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81b085112-ea12-4ddc-839a-654116fbe3c1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref100

[Coney Island, low view inside park : Active No. 510 : stereo photonegative.]

Topic:
UNITED STATES--NEW YORK
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
H.C. White Co.  Search this
Photographer:
White, C. W.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-3/4" x 7".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Coney Island (New York, N.Y.) -- 1900-1910
Local Numbers:
RSN 125

AC0143-0000125 (AC scan number)
General:
Orig. no. 33-C.
Formerly stored in box 1.1.1 [162], moved from [158].
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Amusement parks -- New York (State) -- New York -- Coney Island -- 1890-1920.  Search this
Resorts -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 1: H. C. White glass plates / 1.1: H.C. White Negatives / RSN Numbers 109-192
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8eda7105e-9ada-4af0-9e68-af757edabd6a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref1000

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