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Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1428 Negatives (photographic)
40 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Iroquois [Six Nations/Grand River (Brantford, Ontario)]  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Nauset  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Catawba  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Machapunga (Pungo River)  Search this
Innu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Virginia
Canada
Delaware
North Carolina
Date:
1909-1937
Summary:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.

Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
Related Materials:
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
Separated Materials:
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.

Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
Provenance:
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maryland  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Delaware  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-032
Online Media:

Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
66 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Innu [Pakuashipi (Saint Augustin)]  Search this
Innu [Sheshatshit (Northwest River)]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1916-1935
Scope and Contents:
This series includes negatives that Frank Speck made among various Newfoundland and Labrador communities in Canada between 1916 and 1935. The majority were taken in 1927 among the Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi) and in 1935 among the Innu [Pakuashipi (Saint Augustin). There are a smaller amount of photographs from 1916 and 1924 from additional Innu and Mi'kmaq (Micmac) communities.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Series 1
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref510

Québec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg

Collection Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Collection Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
499 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Innu [Kiskissink]  Search this
Innu [Mashteuiatsh (Pointe-Bleue, Quebec)]  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Innu [Nutashkuan (Nataskwan)]  Search this
Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Innu [Moisie]  Search this
Innu [Essipit (Escoumains)]  Search this
Innu [Lac Saint Jean (Lake Saint John)]  Search this
Innu [Pakuashipi (Saint Augustin)]  Search this
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1910-1937
Scope and Contents:
This series includes negatives that Frank Speck made among various Québec communities between 1910 and 1937. The majority of the photographs were shot in Innu communities in the Saguenay-Lac Saint Jean and Côte Nord Regions in the 1920s. Additional photographs were made among the Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg communities.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032, Series 2
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-032-ref511

MS 2212 Montagnais anthropometric, linguistic, and ethnographic notes collected by Truman Michelson

Creator:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Extent:
54 Pages
Culture:
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Attikamekw (Tete De Boule Cree)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Field notes
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Truman Michelson's field notes consisting of anthropometric measurements and notes on the linguistics and ethnography of the Montagnais. These were collected by Michelson in Point-Bleue in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec. There are also a few references to the Mistassini and Têtes-de-Boules (Attikamek, Atikamekw).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2212
Topic:
Indians of North America -- anthropometry  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Montagnais language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Manuscript 2212, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2212
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2212
Online Media:

MS 2681 Malecite and Nascapi field notes collected by Truman Michelson

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Extent:
84 Pages
Culture:
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Naskapi Innu  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
Anthropometric, linguistic, and ethnographic notes on the Maliseet (Malecite) and Naskapi (Nascapi). These were collected by Truman Michelson during his 1923 fieldwork in Canada among the Maliseet at "Indian Village," 14 miles from Fredericton, New Brunswich and the Naskapi and other Indians from Davis Inlet, Ungava, and Northwest River while lodged at a Hudson Bay Company post at Northwest River in Newfoundland and Labrador. Michelson added additional notes at a later period.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2681
Local Note:
Title changed from "Linguistics; some physical anthropology; general ethnology" 4/7/2014.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- anthropometry  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Passamaquoddy language  Search this
Naskapi language  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2681, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2681
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2681
Online Media:

William Duncan Strong papers

Creator:
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Names:
Columbia University  Search this
Institute of Andean Research Viru Valley Project  Search this
Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition  Search this
Extent:
64.88 Linear feet (87 boxes; 16 map folders; and 14 boxes of nitrate negatives, which are not included in the linear feet extent measurement)
Culture:
Eskimos  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Naskapi Innu  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
North Dakota -- Archeology
South Dakota -- Archeology
Great Plains
Honduras -- Archeology
Labrador (N.L.)
Nebraska -- Archeology
Columbia River Valley
Date:
1902-1965
bulk 1927-1955
Summary:
William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World and was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, where he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.
Scope and Contents:
Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.

Strong's papers reflect his professional life, but there is little personal material. Except for the Rawson-MacMillan Labrador Expedition, there is little information from Strong's years at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Other than information on field work expenses, there is little light shed on Strong's personal financial situation. There is no personal correspondence with either of his wives and little correspondence with family members, except for his brother, Ronald. Some correspondence from the late 1930s to the early 1940s is not present and its whereabouts is not known. Of special interest is a collection of drawings by Naskapi Indian children collected while Strong was on the Labrador expedition in 1928. Strong collected obituaries, vitae, news articles, and writings on and by other anthropologists. He was an inveterate doodler, and his fascinating creations appear throughout the papers.

Strong also collected materials from other researchers, including Loren Eiseley's 1931 field notes from the Morrill Expedition, Maurice Kirby's 1932 notes on the Signal Butte excavations, notes and drawings from the 1936 Honduras expedition by Alfred V. Kidder II, and the field notebooks kept by Clifford Evans for the 1946 Virú Valley expedition in Peru. Contributed photographs from field expeditions are from A.T. Hill, Waldo Wedel, and John Champe.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 12 series: (1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1914-1963; (2) Correspondence, 1922-1965; (3) Materials relating to field work, 1921-1963; (4) Miscellaneous research notes, 1917-1960, most undated; (5) Maps and charts, 1902-1949; (6) Drawings by Naskapi Indians and Eskimos, 1910, 1928; (7) Manuscripts of writings, 1922-1962, undated; (8) Writings by other authors, 1902-1961; (9) Papers relating to organizations, 1926-1961; (10) Teaching materials and course work, 1909, 1928-1961; (11) Miscellany, 1902-1961, most undated; (12) Photographs, 1913-1950.
Biographical Note:
William Duncan Strong (1899-1962) was a major figure in American anthropology. His accomplishments were as a field worker in archaeology and ethnology, archaeological theorist, writer, and teacher. He was, furthermore, a leader in anthropological organizations. In 1954, his position in the field was recognized by the award of the Viking Fund Medal for his contributions to archaeology.

William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World, including Labrador, southern California, Honduras, and Peru. Strong was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, and it was there that he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. His work in all these areas are represented by notebooks, diaries, specimen catalogues, maps, and photographs.

Strong spent the majority of his professional life affiliated with various universities and taught many anthropologists who became influential in their own right. His students included Loren Eiseley, Waldo R. Wedel, Joseph Jablow, Oscar Lewis, John Landgraf, Dorothy Keur, David Stout, Charles Wagley, Eleanor Leacock, John Champe, Albert C. Spaulding, Victor Barnouw, John M. Corbett, Walter Fairservis, and Richard B. Woodbury. Strong preserved the student papers by some of these anthropologists as well as their correspondence with him.

Strong influenced American anthropology by his service in professional societies. He served as president of the American Ethnological Society, the Institute of Andean Research, and the Society for American Archaeology. He was the director of the Ethnogeographic Board (his journal from his tenure as director is in the papers) and chairman of the Committee on Basic Needs of American Archaeology. In this latter capacity, Strong was involved in establishing a program to salvage archaeological sites before they were destroyed by public works. Strong served as the anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs during Franklin Roosevelt's administration and advised on new directions to be taken in Indian Service policy.

Strong died suddenly on January 29, 1962.

Chronology

1899 -- Born January 30 in Portland, Oregon

1917 April-1919 January -- In the United States Navy aboard the U.S.S. South Dakota on convoy duty in the Atlantic Ocean

1922 -- Collected faunal specimens in the Canadian Rockies, Skeena River district, for the University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology

1923 -- A.B., University of California Studied Max Uhle's Peruvian archaeological collection Collected faunal specimens, Columbia River, Washington

Winter, 1923-1924 -- Archaeological investigations in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California under the direction of Edwin Winslow Gifford

1924-1925 -- Expedition to study Shoshonean tribes (the Serrano, Cahuilla, Cupeño, and Luiseño) of Southern California (Riverside and San Diego counties) under Alfred Louis Kroeber Archaeological surveys and excavations of three months each in the middle Columbia River Valley in Oregon and Washington

1925 -- Archaeological expedition and collection of faunal specimens in the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Baja California under W. Egbert Schenk

1925-1926 -- Research Assistant, Department of Anthropology, University of California

1926 -- PhD, Anthropology, University of California

1926 July-1929 August -- Assistant Curator of North American Ethnology and Archaeology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

1927 -- An Analysis of Southwestern Society (doctoral dissertation)

1927 June-1928 September -- Anthropologist on the Rawson-MacMillan September, 1928 Subarctic Expedition of the Field Museum Studied Naskapi and Eskimos in Labrador and on Baffin Island

1929 -- Married Jean Stevens

1929 August-1931 July -- Professor of Anthropology, University of Nebraska

1929 -- Published The Aboriginal Society of Southern California

1929-1931 -- Director, Archaeological Survey of Nebraska, University of Nebraska

1930 June 11-September 6 -- Excavated at Rock Bluff cemetery site

1931 -- Helped organize the First Plains Conference (held August 31-September 2)

1931-1932 -- Morrill Expedition, central and western Nebraska and North and South Dakota: ethnological investigations of Arikaras at Nishu, North Dakota; excavation at Signal Butte, Nebraska; and excavation at Leavenworth and Rygh village sites in South Dakota

1931 July-1937 August -- Senior Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution

1932 -- Archaeological survey of northeastern Honduras along the Mosquito Coast and the Patuca River, archaeological work on the Bay Islands, and ethnological investigation of Sumu Indians

1933-1934 -- Two Civilian Works Administration archaeological expeditions (five months each) in California in southern San Joaquin Valley, Kern County, at Tulamniu (a Yokuts village) and eastern Chumash area

1934-1937 -- Trustee, Laboratory of Anthropology, Sante Fe

1935 -- Anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs Assistant editor, American Antiquity Published Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras and An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology

1935-1937 -- Member, Committee on State Archeological Surveys, National Research Council

1936 -- Smithsonian Institution-Harvard expedition to northwestern Honduras to the valleys of the Chamelecon and the Ulua Rivers, Naco and other sites

1937-1962 -- Professor, later Chairman, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1937-1938 -- Vice-President, American Anthropological Association

1938 -- Fort Abraham Lincoln (Slant Mandan village) site and Sheyenne-Cheyenne village site excavations in North Dakota

1939 -- Chairman, National Research Council's Committee on Basic Needs in American Archaeology Excavated at Arzberger site in South Dakota and the area between the Chamberlain and Cheyenne Rivers

1940 -- Member, National Research Council's Committee on War Services of Anthropology Expeditions to western Florida and southwestern United States, especially New Mexico Peruvian archaeological survey

1941 -- Chairman, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1941-1942 -- President, American Ethnological Society Peruvian excavations at Pachacamac in the Chancay Valley and the Ancon-Supe excavations

1942? -- Peruvian excavations in the Naxca and Ica Valleys

1942-1944 -- Director, Ethnogeographic Board

1943 -- Published Cross Sections of New World Prehistory Appointed to Loubat Professorship at Columbia University

1945 -- Married Helen Richardson

1946 -- Peruvian excavations, Virú Valley Project National Research Council liaison member of the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains President, Institute of Andean Research

1948-1949 -- Chairman, Anthropology Section of New York Academy of Sciences

1949 July-August -- Peru-Mexico trip

1950 -- Talking Crow site expedition Excavated at Signal Butte

1952-1953 -- Peruvian expeditions, Nazca and Ica Valleys

1954 -- Awarded the Viking Fund Medal Trip to western United States

1955-1956 -- President, Society for American Archaeology

1962 -- Died January 29

Selected Bibliography

1929 -- Strong, William Duncan. Aboriginal Society of Southern California. Vol. 26, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1929.

1935 -- Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935. Strong, William Duncan. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. Vol. 93, no. 10, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935.

1938 -- Strong, William Duncan, Alfred Kidder, II, and A.J. Drexel Pail, Jr. Preliminary Report on the Smithsonian Institution-Harvard University Archeological Expedition to Northwestern Honduras, 1936. Vol. 97, no. 1, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1938.

1943 -- Strong, William Duncan. Cross Sections of New World Prehistory: a Brief Report on the Work of the Institute of Andean Research, 1941-1942. Vol. 104, no. 2, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1943. Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Studies in Peru, 1941-1942. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

1948 -- "The Archeology of Honduras." In The Circum-Caribbean Tribes Vol. 4, Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. Steward, 71-120. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 143. Washington: U.S. Government Print Office, 1948.

1952 -- Strong, William Duncan, and Clifford Evans. Cultural Stratigraphy in the Virú Valley, Northern Peru. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952.

For a complete bibliography of Strong's works, see Solecki, Ralph, and Charles Wagley. "William Duncan Strong, 1899-1962," American Anthropologist 65, no. 5 (October 1963): 1102-1111. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00080
Related Materials:
Additional materials in the National Anthropological Archives relating to William Duncan Strong can be found in the records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Handbook of South American Indians, Institute of Social Anthropology, River Basin Surveys, the Society for American Archaeology, and Tulamniu Project (1933-1934); the papers of Ralph Leon Beals, John Peabody Harrington, Frederick Johnson, Frank Maryl Setzler, Ruth Schlossberg Landes, Albert Clanton Spaulding (including information on the Arzberger site), and Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel; Photographic Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File; Photographic Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum Photographs of American Indians; Photographic Lot 77-80, Portraits of Smithsonian Anthropologists; Photographic Lot 92-35, Ralph S. Solecki Photographs of Anthropologists; Numbered Collections, MS 4821 (records of the Anthropological Society of Washington), MS 4261 (photographs made on a site survey in the Santa Barbara Mountains, California, 1934), MS 4302 (journal covering the 1936 expedition to Honduras), MS 4846 (correspondence between BAE authors and the BAE editor's office), and MS 7200 (original field catalog of Honduran artifacts, 1936); and in the non-archival reference file. There are also materials in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in record units 87 (Ethnogeographic Board), 9528 (Henry Bascom Collins interviews), and 1050102 (papers of T. Wayland Vaughan). In the Human Studies Film Archives there is material on Strong in the video dialogues of Charles Wagley, 1983.
Provenance:
The Strong papers were donated to the archives by Strong's widow, Mrs. Helen Richardson Strong. Most of the arrangements were handled by Ralph S. Solecki, then of Columbia University. He sent the papers to the archives between 1974 and 1979, and there have been small accretions since that time. These accretions came through Richard G. Forbis, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary; Mildred Mott Wedel and Waldo R. Wedel, Department of Anthropology; and Nan A. Rothschild, Department of Anthropology, Barnard College. Mrs. Strong donated the rights in the unpublished material in the collection to the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution.
Restrictions:
The William Duncan Strong papers are open for research.

Access to the William Duncan Strong papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Citation:
William Duncan Strong papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-28
See more items in:
William Duncan Strong papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-28
Online Media:

MS 3748 Copy from Jesuit Relations, 1900

Creator:
ANONYMOUS  Search this
Extent:
45 Pages
Culture:
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
"Chap. IV. On the Beliefs, Superstitions, and Errors of the Montagnais Savages."
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3748
Citation:
Manuscript 3748, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3748
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3748

MS 3402 Vocabularies and linguistic notes

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Extent:
2,000 Items (ca. cards ca. 2000 cards)
Culture:
Cree  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
Summer of 1935
Scope and Contents:
Extracted by Eva Bielouss. Indian only.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3402
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 3402, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3402
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3402

MS 172 An account of the Montagnais or Chippewayans

Collector:
Petitot, Emile Fortune Stanislas Joseph  Search this
Extent:
3 Pages
Culture:
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
October 11, 1865
Scope and Contents:
Contains information on their habitat, and division into nations and tribes. The second and third pages contain a short vocabulary of words.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 172
Topic:
Social structure -- Montagnais  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 172, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS172
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms172

MS 4332 Truman Michelson field notes from Bersimis, Natashquan, and Seven Islands

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Creator:
Fontaine, Alec  Search this
MacKenzie, Sylvester, 1876-  Search this
Moreau, Mathieu  Search this
Napes, Pierre  Search this
Picard, Batiste  Search this
Rabbit Skin, Joseph  Search this
Roc, Sylvester  Search this
St. Ange, Daniel  Search this
Extent:
17 Items (0.17 linear feet (10 notebooks and 30 cards)
Culture:
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Cree  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Folklore
Narratives
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Place:
Betsiamites Indian Reserve (Québec)
Natashquan (Québec)
Sept-Iles (Québec)
Date:
1937
Scope and Contents:
Collection of 10 notebooks containing notes and texts collected by Truman Michelson at Bersimis, Natashquan, and Seven Islands in Quebec, Canada, in 1937. Also a set of index cards with linguistic notes, some of which are marked Weenusk (Eastern Swampy Cree). The field notebooks consist primarily of Innu-aimun (Montagnais) linguistic notes, including kinship terms and general vocabulary, and stories in Innu-aimun with phonetic transcriptions and English translations. There are also some ethnological notes and notes on Indians in neighboring areas and at James Bay and Hudson Bay. The English translations of some of the stories in the Natashquan notebooks are based on French translations (not present) of the Innu-aimun texts. Michelson worked with Sylvester Roc at Bersimis; Mathieu Moreau (from St. Augustine) and Pierre Napes (from Mingan) at Natashquan; and Alec Fontaine, Batiste Picard, Joseph Rabbit Skin (from Lake Kaniapiskan), Daniel St. Ange (of Moisie and Shelter Bay), and Sylvester MacKenzie (of Moisie and Bersimis) at Seven Islands.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4332
Local Note:
Title changed from "Truman Michelson field notes from Bersimis, Natashquan, and Seven Islands, 1937" 6/9/2014.
Topic:
Montagnais language  Search this
Cree language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Kinship  Search this
Pessamit  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Folklore
Narratives
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Citation:
Manuscript 4332, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4332
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4332
Online Media:

"Innu Women Speak Out"

Collection Creator:
Medicine, Beatrice  Search this
Container:
Box 62
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989
Collection Restrictions:
Materials relating to student grades, letters of recommendation, and evaluations have been restricted.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Beatrice Medicine papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Guide to the Beatrice Medicine papers
Guide to the Beatrice Medicine papers / Series 23: Women and Gender
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1997-05-ref1386

"Indios-Innu, 1492-1992" (1990)

Collection Creator::
National Museum of the American Indian. Office of the Deputy Director  Search this
Container:
Box 3 of 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 93-138, National Museum of the American Indian. Office of the Deputy Director, Project Management and Projects Files
See more items in:
Project Management and Projects Files
Project Management and Projects Files / Box 3
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa93-138-refidd1e1219

MS 123 Concordance of the Athapascan languages, with an appendix

Creator:
Anderson, Alexander Caulfield, 1814-1884  Search this
Extent:
20 Pages
Culture:
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Athapaskan  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kwalhioqua  Search this
Clatskanie  Search this
Applegate Creek  Search this
Tututni (Tutuni)  Search this
Umpqua Indians  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Dakelh (Carrier)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Summary:
This manuscript is a set of comparative data containing materials in several Athabascan/Athapascan languages. The language names as they appear in the ms. with alternative spellings in parenthesis. Chipwyan (Chipewyan, Montagnais, Dene Suline, Sluacus-tinneh, Dene Soun'line), Tacully (Tâh-killy, Tâ-cully ), Klatskani [Kwalhioqua ?] (Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai Kwalhioqua- Clatskanie, Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanie), Willopah (Willapa, Willoopah) Upper Umpqua, Tootooten, Applegate Creek, Hopah, Haynarger with notes in English.
Scope and Contents:
Consists of Comparative vocabulary, 4 double leaves; Appendix, 8 pages.
Place and date of record not on manuscript; recorded at Cathlamet, Washington Territory, February 24, 1858, according to Pilling, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 14.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 123
Topic:
Chipewyan language  Search this
Hupa language  Search this
Athapascan languages  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Athabaskan  Search this
Dene Suline  Search this
Carrier language  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 123, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS123
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms123
Online Media:

MS 3928 English-Algonquian vocabulary on cards, compiled from information in reply to letters of inquiry

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Culture:
Odawa (Ottawa)  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Algonquin (Algonkin)  Search this
Penobscot Indians  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Cree  Search this
Powhatan  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Miami  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Montauk  Search this
Narragansett  Search this
Naskapi Innu  Search this
Munsee Delaware  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Natick  Search this
Nipissing Algonquin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Massachusett  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
The information is secondary and lacks documentation. The cards are interfiled, but terms of the following languages are thought to be included: Abnaki, Algonkin, Arapaho, Atsina (Gros Ventres), Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cree, Delaware, Malecite, Massachusetts Algonkin, Miami, Micmac, Mohegan, Montagnais, Montauk, Munsee, Narragansett, Nascapi, Natick, New England and New Jersey Algonkin, Nipissing, Ottawa, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Potawatomi, Powhatan, Shawnee, Virginia Algonquian.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3928
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Vocabularies  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Lenape  Search this
Mi'kmaq  Search this
Delaware (Lenape)  Search this
Gros Ventre  Search this
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy  Search this
Algonqian  Search this
Blackfeet  Search this
Massachusett  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 3928, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3928
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3928

MS 2806 Edward Sapir notes on vocabularies of Algonquian languages

Creator:
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939  Search this
Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Extent:
28 Pages
Culture:
Cree  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Vocabulary
Date:
circa 1911
Scope and Contents:
Edward Sapir's typed notes on the vocabularies of various Algonquian languages that he collected in 1911. List of languages covered: Delaware, pages 1-6; Abnaki (Pierreville), page 7-12; Malecite (Riviere du Loup, Thomas Paul), pages 13-17; Micmac, pages 18-23, Cree (Rupert's House), pages 24-25; Montagnais (Louis Clairie, Pointe Bleue), pages 26-28. There are annotations and corrections in ink in Sapir's handwriting (identified by Mary Haas, 4/58). There are also pencil additions signed by Michelson; perhaps all of the pencil additions are his.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2806
Local Note:
Title changed from "Vocabularies" 5/1/2014.
Topic:
Algonquian languages  Search this
Munsee language  Search this
Abenaki language  Search this
Passamaquoddy language  Search this
Micmac language  Search this
Cree language  Search this
Montagnais language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Lenape  Search this
Mi'kmaq  Search this
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abnaki  Search this
Genre/Form:
Vocabulary
Citation:
Manuscript 2806, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2806
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2806
Online Media:

William F. Stiles collection of negatives, slides and photographic prints

Creator:
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Extent:
82 Photographic prints (mostly albumen)
242 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
211 Slides (color)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Innu [Ekuanitshit (Mingan)]  Search this
Innu [Pakuashipi (Saint Augustin)]  Search this
Seneca [Tonawanda]  Search this
Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]  Search this
Innu [Moisie]  Search this
Innu [Unaman Shipit (Romaine)]  Search this
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi) [Utshimassit (Davis Inlet)]  Search this
Attikamekw (Tete De Boule Cree)  Search this
Seneca [Allegany]  Search this
Seneca [Cattaraugus]  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Narragansett  Search this
Onondaga  Search this
Miccosukee Seminole (Mikasuki)  Search this
Attikamekw (Tete De Boule Cree) [Weymontachie Band, Saint Maurice River, Quebec] Cree  Search this
Mohawk [Kahnawake (Caughnawaga)]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Slides
Negatives
Color slides
Photographs
Date:
1938-1974
Summary:
This collection consists of views of New York, Rhode Island, Florida, Mississippi, South Carolina, Newfoundland and Quebec (slides are primarily of Saint Augustin, Quebec).
Scope and Contents:
The Stiles collection consists of views made by Stiles on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation from 1938 to 1974. More than half of these document the life of Innu peoples of Quebec, Canada, in the years 1952, 1958, 1959, and 1964. They depict Innu men, women, and children, and food preparation, dwellings, fishing, canoes, settlements, the preparation of animal skins, and ceremonials. Stiles apparently photographed among the Seminole and Miccosukee peoples of Florida in 1939, 1940, 1941, 1966, and 1974. He also variously photographed the Narragansett and Niantic peoples of Rhode Island, the Onondaga on the Onondaga Reservation, the Eastern Band of Cherokee in North Carolina, the Seneca of New York, the Attikamekw (Tete De Boule Cree) and the Mohawk of Quebec, and the Mushuaunnuat of Labrador. He also photographed various archaeological sites in New York State, Mississippi, and South Carolina.
Arrangement note:
Negatives arranged by negative number (N21703-N21711, N21792-N21802, N22300-N22310, N22481-N22484, N22594-N22597, N22630, N22705-N22710, N22722, N23504, N23581-N23585, N23675-N23684, N26086-N23585, N23675-N23684, N26086-N26100, N26109-N26126, N26186-N26188, N29562-N29604, N32844-N32867, N33295-N33343, N41162-N41186)

Prints arranged by print number (P13375-P13385, P13431-P13438, P15331-P15346, P15770-P15773, P15885-P15889, P16102, P17154, P17212-P17217, P17282-P17284, P18537-P18551, P18586, P19991-P20002)

Slides arranged by slide number (S02005-S02178, S02389, S04518-S04519, S04559-S04575, S04675-S04678, S04694-S04702, S04753-S04760)
Biographical/Historical note:
Before joining the staff of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in May 1938, William F. Stiles was George G. Heye's personal driver. An employee of the Museum for almost forty years, Stiles retired in March 1978 as the Curator of Collections. Although Stiles published very little, he was an active field collector and participated in numerous archaeological expeditions. As is evident from his photographs of the Innu and Seminole peoples, he often visited individual communities more than once and over the course of several years.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Florida  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Mississippi  Search this
Indians of North America -- New York (State)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Rhode Island  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New York (State)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- South Carolina  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Color slides
Photographs
Citation:
William F. Stiles collection of negatives, slides and photographic prints, 1938-1974, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or print number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.014
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-014

Frederick Johnson photograph collection

Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Names:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Linear feet
450 Negatives (photographic) (black and white)
Culture:
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Algonquin [Golden Lake/Pikwàkanagàn First Nation]  Search this
Algonquin [Lac Barriere (Barriere Lake)]  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Anishinaabe [Parry Island, Ontario]  Search this
Potawatomi [Parry Island, Ontario]  Search this
Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]  Search this
Innu [Mashteuiatsh (Pointe-Bleue, Quebec)]  Search this
Innu [Kiskissink]  Search this
Innu [Pessamit (Betsiamites/Bersimis)]  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Place:
Canada
Quebec
Ontario
Nova Scotia
Newfoundland
Delaware
Date:
1924-1931
Summary:
The Frederick Johnson collection consists of original negatives made from 1924 to 1931 by Johnson primary among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, Algonquin, Potawatomi, Montagnais, Abenaki, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree peoples of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Quebec, Canada. Frederick Johnson began his anthropological studies as a teenager, accompanying anthropologist Frank G. Speck (1881-1951) on trips to Native communities in Eastern Canada. Between 1923 and 1929, Johnson studied at the University of Pennsylvania and conducted several research trips in Canada, some of which were sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of original negatives made from 1924 to 1931 by Johnson primary among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, Algonquin, Potawatomi, Montagnais, Abenaki, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree peoples of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Quebec, Canada. The bulk were made among the Mi'kmaq, Innu, and Algonquin peoples in 1925 and from 1927 to 1931. In general, the majority of the Canada materials are informal, outdoor portraits of individuals and groups but they also depict dwellings, the construction of wigwams and birchbark canoes, carving and wood working processes, ceremonials, churches, the process of catching and smoking salmon, and the landscape. In addition there are negatives made in Delaware from 1924 to 1926 of and Nanticoke and Rappahannock. Again, these consist primarily of outdoor, informal portraits of individuals and groups of people.
Arrangement note:
Arranged in three series geographically and chronologically; Series 1: United Sates: Delaware, Nanticoke, 1924-1927; Series 2: Canada: Quebec and Ontario, Various Communities, 1925-1930; Series 3: Canada: Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Mi'kmaq (Micmac), 1930-1931. Series 2 has six subseries organized by community. Negatives are arranged by catalog number within the series or subseries.
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in 1904 in Everett, Massachusetts, Frederick Johnson at an early age displayed an interest in indigenous cultures and an aptitude for indigenous languages. He studied anthropology at Tufts, the University of Massachusetts, and at the University of Pennsylvania, and eventually accompanied anthropologist and mentor Frank G. Speck on several trips throughout the Northeastern United States. Early in his career, Johnson worked with the Algonquin people and from 1917 to 1931 among the Innu, Mi'kmaq, Anishinaabe, and Mistassini Cree communities in Canada. Individuals from these communities noted that Johnson's primarily focus was to listen to elders and their stories. Many of Johnson's research trips during this period were sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and Johnson would send collections of ethnographic materials and photographs back to the MAI in New York City. From 1936 to 1967, Johnson was the curator of Harvard's Peabody Museum and subsequently became the Museum's director, a post that he held until his retirement in 1969. Johnson passed away in 1994 in Lowell, Massachusetts.

For more information on Frederick Johnson ethnographic work in Canada see "Frederick Johnson's Canadian Ethnology in the Americanist Tradition" by Marilyn Norcini. Histories of Anthropology Annual, Volume 4, 2008, pp. 106-134.
Related Materials:
Frederick Johnson participated in the 1919 expedition to San Miguel Island (California) with Ralph Glidden, sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Johnson's photographs from that expedition can be found in the Ralph Glidden photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.028).

A collection of Frederick Johnson's papers and photographs can be found at the Robert S. Peabody Institute of Archaeology.
Separated Materials:
A significant collection of ethnographic materials from Canada accompanied the photographs by Johnson and can be found in NMAI's object collection. To view these objects, or for more information, please contact NMAI Collections or make an appointment through the NMAI website.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were sent to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, by Frederick Johnson between 1927-1931 along with his ethnographic field collections.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-038
Online Media:

Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
33 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
The photographs in this subseries were taken by Frederick Johnson as undergraduate student in 1925 among the Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)] or Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam in Quebec, Canada. Also known as the Naskapi at Seven Islands (Sept Iles), Johnson photographed daily activity on the reserve as well as outdoor portraits of men, women and dogs. These portraits include individuals and groups posed and unposed in front of buildings and landscapes. None of the individuals in this series have been identified.
N14767-N14800
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Subseries 2.1
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 2: Canada: Quebec and Ontario, Various Communities
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref550

Innu [Mashteuiatsh (Pointe-Bleue, Quebec)] and Mistassini Cree

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
33 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Innu [Mashteuiatsh (Pointe-Bleue, Quebec)]  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1926
1930
Scope and Contents:
The photographs in this subseries were taken during two separate trips by Frederick Johnson to Lac Saint Jean in Quebec in 1926 and 1930. Both trips were to the Mashteuiatsh reserve, formerly called Ouiatchouan, which is located on a headland jutting out of the western shore of Lac Saint Jean, known as Pointe-Bleu. In 1926, as an undergraduate student, Johnson photographed Innu (Montagnais) community members Luke Simon, Rene Basil, Alexandre Metacic in various locations around the reserve. When Johnson returned to Pointe-Bleue in 1930 there were also Mistassini Cree men, women and children on the reserve whom he photographed playing various hunting games. These include "Rabbit Hunting" and "Shooting the Otter." Johnson also took additional portraits of unidentified Innu community members around the Mashteuiatsh reserve.
N14801-N14813, N19140-N19159
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Subseries 2.2
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 2: Canada: Quebec and Ontario, Various Communities
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref551

Portrait of Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)] Man

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1925 Summer
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of an Innu young man wearing a cotton shirt with collar of a different fabric, striped tie with a young boy behind him. Wooden clapboard or shingled house or structure in background, with a church with steeple and another structure beyond on the Uashat-Maliotenam reserve, Sept-Îles, Quebec.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.

Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick Johnson photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.038, Item N14767
See more items in:
Frederick Johnson photograph collection
Frederick Johnson photograph collection / Series 2: Canada: Quebec and Ontario, Various Communities / 2.1: Innu [Uashat-Maliotenam (Seven Islands)]
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-038-ref738

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