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Photographs copied by George Peter Murdock's Strategic Index of Latin America

Creator:
Murdock, George Peter, 1897-1985  Search this
Extent:
700 Copy prints (circa)
Culture:
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Virgin Islands
Venezuela
British Honduras
Chile
Brazil
British Guiana
Colombia
Dominican Republic
Paraguay
Peru
Puerto Rico
Suriname
Leeward Islands (Federation)
Mexico
Nicaragua.
Panama
Ecuador
Honduras
Bolivia
Argentina
Date:
circa 1942-1948
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs assembled circa 1942-1948, probably as part of the Strategic Index of Latin America, and relating to people and scenery in Latin America. They depict transportation, irrigation, agriculture and industry (including rubber production), cities and villages, and archeological finds. The prints are arranged geographically into the following locations: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, British Guiana, British Honduras, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Leeward Islands, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, and Windward Islands. The photographs were copied from published sources (originals circa 1850s-1940s) and are individually labeled with source information and original captions.
Biographical/Historical note:
George Peter Murdock (1897-1985) was an anthropologist of comparative ethnology. Educated at Yale, he received a BA in History (1919) and PhD in Sociology (1925). He taught sociology and anthropology at the University of Maryland for two years before returning to Yale in 1928 as an assistant professor of physical anthropology. In 1931, Murdock was granted a joint appointment with Yale's newly formed anthropology department, in which he served as department chair (1938-1960) and full professor (1939-1960). During his time at Yale, Murdock embarked on his most notable project, the Cross Cultural Survey in 1937. Positioned within the Institute of Human Relations, the CCS was a catalog of anthropological data, indexed according to Murdock's Outline of Cultural Materials (1938) to enable quick reference of cultures and analyses of a unified theory of behavior. During the Second World War, the Strategic Index of Latin America, an auxiliary arm of the CCS, was created to focus on Latin American cultural questions and strategic decision making. After the war, the CCS was reorganized by a consortium of universities as the Human Relations Area Files, with Murdock at the head. Murdock left Yale in 1960 and served as Mellon Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh until 1973.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4632
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Murdock's Pacific Survey File.
Correspondence with Murdock held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7027, MS 4821, American Ethnological Society records, Handbook of South American Indians Records, and collections of personal papers.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Cities and towns  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4632, Photographs copied by George Peter Murdock's Strategic Index of Latin America, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4632
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4632

Frederick Starr negatives and lantern slides

Creator:
Starr, Frederick, 1859-1933  Search this
Photographer:
Lang, Charles B.  Search this
Grabic, Louis  Search this
Extent:
152 Lantern slides
3344 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Zoque  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo  Search this
Mazatec [Huautla]  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Maya  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Mazahua  Search this
Ute  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tzeltal Maya  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Triqui (Trique) [San Joan Copala]  Search this
Shuar  Search this
Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Chol Maya  Search this
Totonac  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Mixe  Search this
Chinantec  Search this
Mixtec  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Chibcha  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Mehináku (Mehinacu)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Haida  Search this
Karajá (Caraja)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Teotihuacán (archaeological culture)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Macushi (Macusi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives (photographic)
Negatives
Place:
Colombia
Washington
West Virginia
Kansas
Kentucky
New Mexico
Brazil
Ecuador
Missouri
Wisconsin
Oklahoma
Ohio
New York
Georgia
Mexico
Iowa
Arkansas
Illinois
Pennsylvania
Alaska
Date:
1894-1910
Summary:
The collection includes materials from cultures in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, and Guiana: Acoma Pueblo, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboine, Caddo, Cahuilla, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chinantec, Chippewa (Ojibwa), Choco, Chol, Chontal, Cochiti Pueblo, Crow, Cuicatec, Eskimo, Flathead, Haida, Hopi, Huastec, Huave, Iowa, Iroquois, Isleta, Karaja, Kwakiutl, Laguna Pueblo, Macusi, Mandan, Maya, Mazahua, Mazatec, Mehinaku, Menomini, Mixe, Mixtec, Navajo, Nez Perce, Osage, Otomi, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pima, Ponca, Potawatomi, Salish, San Blas, San Felipe Pueblo, Sauk & Fox, Shuar, Sioux, Taos Pueblo, Tarasco, Teotihuacan, Tepehua, Tlaxcala, Tlingit, Tonkawa, Totonac, Triqui, Tzental, Tzotzil, Ute, Wampanoag, Zapotec, Zoque, Zuni.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick Starr was born in Auburn, New York, on September 2, 1858. He received a Ph.D. in biology in 1884 at Coe College, where he was later appointed professor of biology. Starr did postgraduate work in anthropology at Yale. In 1889 he was appointed head of Ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History, and in 1892 he was chosen by William Harper to organize the Anthropology Department at the new University of Chicago. Starr remained at the University until his retirement in 1923. Besides his field studies with various Indian tribes in the United States, Starr traveled to Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Guiana, Japan, the Philippines, and Africa. He died in Tokyo, Japan, on August 14, 1933. Starr was the author of several books and scholarly articles.
General note:
Starr hired professional photographers Charles B. Lang and Louis Grabic to accompany him on his field trips. One lantern slide of Moses Ladd (Menomini) was taken by William H. Jackson.
Provenance:
Dr. Frederick Starr, Purchased, circa 1929
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Colombia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Alaska  Search this
Indians of North America -- Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Ecuador  Search this
Indians of South America -- Guiana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Lantern slides
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.052
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-052

A. Hyatt Verrill negatives, photographs and other materials

Creator:
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide
170 Photographic prints (albumen)
392 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
Culture:
Arecuna  Search this
Warao  Search this
Akurio (Acuria)  Search this
Akawaio (Acawai)  Search this
Coclé Guaymi (Cocle)  Search this
Arawak  Search this
Waiwai  Search this
Macushi (Macusi)  Search this
Patamona  Search this
Carib  Search this
Sabanero  Search this
Kuna (Cuna)  Search this
Taruma  Search this
Teribe (Terraba)  Search this
Ngäbe (Boorabi)  Search this
Emberá (Choikoi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Photographs
Negatives
Place:
Penonomé (Panama) -- Antiquities -- photographs
Date:
circa 1880-1925
Summary:
These images depict the indigenous people of Peru, Bolivia, Suriname and Chile; the largest percentage of the images are of Panama and Guyana (British Guiana).
Scope and Contents:
The Verrill collection consists primarily of photographic materials made by Verrill in Guyana and Panama. Dating from 1917 and 1925, the Guyana photographs depict mostly Carib and Patamona but also Warao, Arecuna, Akawaio (Acawai), Akurio (Acuria), Arawak, Macushi (Macusi), Waiwai, and Taruma men and women. These are mostly informal portraits, but the photographs also document dwellings and various activities, such as weaving, spinning, fishing, and canoeing. Included in the Guyana materials are also nineteenth-century (ca. 1880?) albumen prints of portraits of Wapichana (Wapishana), Waiwai, Atorai, and Taruma men and women; Verrill most likely did not make these photographs. The Panama materials date from 1924 and 1925 and are primarily portraits of Teribe (Terraba), Ngäbe (Boorabi), Coclé Guaymi (Cocle), Guaymi, Kuna (Cuna), Emberá (Choikoi), and Sabanero men and women, but the photographs also depict dwellings, ceremonials, and canoes. Among the Panama materials are photographs depicting antiquities from Penonomé. The collection also consists of 1924 photographs of the indigenous peoples of Peru, Bolivia, and Chile and 1925 photographs of the indigenous peoples of Suriname and Peru.
Arrangement note:
Negatives Arranged by negative number (N10017-N10307, N10804-N10966, N11229-N11257, N29558, N34270, N34288-N34289, N34294, N34930-N34932, N36040-N36041, N36044, N41525)

Prints Arranged by print number (P00243-P00271, P00289-P00341, P00289-P00341, P02207-P02215, P06385-P06401, P06654-P06682, P06654-P06682, P06695-P06700, P06703, P07307, P07310-P07315, P07317, P07384-P07394, P09137-P09141, P18855)

Lantern slide Arranged by lantern slide number (L00076)
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in 1871 in New Haven, Connecticut, A. Hyatt Verrill was an illustrator, naturalist, explorer, and author of more than 105 books. From 1889 to 1928, he either explored, made ethnological expeditions to, or excavated in Bermuda, the West Indies, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Surinam.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Peru  Search this
Indians of South America -- Chile  Search this
Indians of South America -- Suriname  Search this
Indians of South America -- Bolivia  Search this
Indians of South America -- Panama  Search this
Indians of South America -- Guiana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Negatives
Citation:
A. Hyatt Verrill negatives, photographs and other materials, 1917-1926, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.015
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-015

Annual Reports

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 404, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1921 - 1924
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 12: Publications / 12.1: Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15241
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Annual Reports digital asset number 1

Annual Reports

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 404, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1925 - 1927
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 12: Publications / 12.1: Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15242
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Annual Reports digital asset number 1

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers

Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
129 Linear feet
Culture:
American Indian -- South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Place:
Venezuela -- archeology
Peru -- Archeology
Date:
1893-2012
Summary:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. Their work at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and their frequent collaboration with other researchers and professional organizations is also represented. In addition, this collection contains detailed records on South American research conducted by the Smithsonian Institution from the 1950s through the 2010s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. There is also significant material detailing research conducted in South America by the National Museum of Natural History (particularly the Department of Anthropology). Material documenting their publication and collaboration efforts with researchers and other colleagues is represented as well. There is also limited material related to Meggers and Evans time in graduate school at Columbia University and their brief careers before starting at the Smithsonian Institution in the early 1950s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 12 series: Series 1. Personal, 1893-2012, undated; Series 2. Writings, 1944-2011, undated; Series 3. Research, 1930-2011, undated; Series 4. Correspondence, 1922-2012; Series 5. Conferences and Seminars, 1949-2010, undated; Series 6. Museum and Institute Subject Files, 1973-2011, undated; Series 7. Smithsonian Institution Amazon Ecosystem Program, 1962-2008, undated. Series 8. National Program of Archeological Research in Brazil, 1961-1989, undated; Series 9. Paleoindian Research: Paleoclimatology and Paleofauna Programs, 1960-1992, undated; Series 10. Latin American Archaeology Fund, 1971-1991, undated; Series 11. Photographs, 1937-2008, undated; Series 12. Maps and Charts, 1957- circa 2009, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Clifford Evans Chronology

1920 -- Born in Dallas, Texas.

1941 -- Bachelors degree in anthropology from the University of Southern California.

1946 -- Married Betty Meggers.

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Betty Meggers.

1950 -- Ph.D., Columbia University.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, University of Virginia.

1951-1962 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Betty Meggers.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Betty Meggers.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1962-1964 -- Curator of the Division of Archaeology.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Betty Meggers.

1964-1970, 1975-1981 -- Supervising Curator of the Department of Anthropological Research.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1970-1975 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology.

1971 -- Creates the Latin American Archaeology Fund with Betty Meggers.

1972 -- Creates the Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program.

1974 -- Creates the Amazon Ecosystems Research Program.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Betty Meggers and Dennis Stanford.

1981 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty Meggers Chronology

1921 -- Born December 5 in Washington, D.C.

1943 -- A.B. in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1944 -- M.A., University of Michigan

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Clifford Evans.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, American University

1952 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Clifford Evans.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1954-2012 -- Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, national Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Clifford Evans.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Clifford Evans.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Clifford Evans and Dennis Stanford.

1976-1996 -- Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society

1982-1985 -- Consultant, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil

2012 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans were anthropologists specializing in the archeology of lowland South America. Their combined careers at the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology totaled over 100 years. Evans was born in 1920 in Texas. He received his bachelor's degree in anthropology and archaeology from the University of Southern California in 1941. Following his service as a bombardier during World War II, he enrolled in the anthropology doctoral program at Columbia University where he met Meggers, a fellow student in the department. Meggers was born in 1921 in Washington, D.C., and was the daughter of well-known archaeologist William Frederick Meggers. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a bachelors degree in anthropology in 1943 and from the University of Michigan with a masters in anthropology in 1944 before being admitted to Columbia.

Meggers and Evans did their dissertation research together in South America— Meggers worked on the island of Marajo at the mouth of the Amazon River while Evans did archaeological research in the Amapa territory of Brazil. The two were married on September 13, 1946.

After Evans received his Ph.D. in 1950, he was hired by the Smithsonian Institution as an associate curator in the Department of Anthropology in 1951. After graduating in 1952, Meggers worked as an anthropology instructor at American University for one year before being hired as a research associate in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology in 1954.

Evans was named Curator of the Division of Archaeology in 1962, and Supervising Curator of the newly created Office of Anthropological Research in 1964. Under his leadership, standardized operating procedures were created that centralized accessioning, cataloging, storing, and lending of objects. This freed curators from many complicated and routine activities. In 1970, Evans was appointed the Chairman of Anthropology for a five year term, where he initiated many large-scale research programs with Meggers that continued to operate many years after his chairmanship ended.

The first program that Evans and Meggers created was the "Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program" in 1972, which was designed to study prehistoric peoples in the Western Hemisphere. The second program, implemented in 1974 was the "Amazon Ecosystems Research Program," which organized Brazilian scientists and Smithsonian staff members interested in environmental studies of the Amazon region.

Meggers and Evans conducted much of their field work together, which resulted in hundreds of articles, essays, presentations, and books. The majority of their work was done in the Amazon and Andean regions of South America, particularly Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Aside from these publications, they were also able to collect many archaeological specimens that are still part of the Smithsonian's holdings.

The conclusions that Meggers and Evans drew from their research and field work, while ground-breaking, were often controversial. In the early 1960s local businessman and amateur archaeologist Emilio Estrada excavated pottery from the Valdivia area in Ecuador and shared his results with Meggers and Evans. After finding significant similarities between Valdivian artifacts and those from Japan's ancient Jomon culture, they theorized that there was transpacific contact between Japan and South America around the beginning of the third millennium B.C. Their theory remains controversial.

Meggers and Evans also argued that despite the rich forests of the Amazon region, the river basin's thin, poor soil could not hold enough nutrients to sustain intensive agriculture. As a result, they argued, large and complex societies could not have existed in the Amazon River basin as other archaeologists and anthropologists have suggested.

After finishing his tenure as chairman of the Department of Anthropology, Clifford Evans died in 1981 of a heart attack at the age of 60. Following his death, Meggers continued in her position as research associate in the Department of Anthropology for another 30 years. Though she did not conduct additional fieldwork after her husband's death, Meggers wrote prolifically and was heavily involved in analyzing field work data and collaborating with colleagues working throughout South America. She made it possible for many researchers to study and conduct research at the National Museum of Natural History, and presented in many conferences and seminars locally and internationally. In addition, Meggers advocated on the behalf of colleagues to the National Geographic Society and other organizations to procure funding for archaeological and anthropological expeditions all over the world. Betty Meggers died in 2012 at the age of 90.
Related Materials:
There are about 25 slide cases, each containing about 200 to 300 kodachrome slides, that are currently stored at the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. These were created in the late 1940s and early 1950s and contain images of field work and other trips to South American locations such as Peru, British Guiana, the Peru Highlands, Ecuador, Brazil, Chile, Hondouras, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Mexico. Contact repository for more information.
Separated Materials:
2 rolls of 16mm film, 22 audio cassettes, and 1 VHS of South and Central American research were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives in 2015.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the estate of Betty J. Meggers in 2013.
Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Paleoindian  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Archeology -- Meso-America  Search this
Archaeology -- Ponape, Nan Matol  Search this
Archeology -- British Guiana  Search this
Archaeology -- Ecuador  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Paleo-Indians -- North America  Search this
Names, place -- geographic -- South America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2013-01
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2013-01

Teriananda papers

Author:
Teriananda, 1947-  Search this
Names:
Peltier, Leonard  Search this
Extent:
0.83 Linear feet (2 archival boxes )
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Writings
Letters
Clippings
Reports
Date:
1972 - 1999
Summary:
The Teriananda Papers, located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, contain writings authored by Teriananda, as well as various position papers, news articles, flyers, correspondence, and group newsletters that represent the political activities she participated in on behalf of Native American and other indigenous peoples.
Scope and Contents:
This collection, from the 1970s to the 1990s, is comprised of published and unpublished writings by Teriananda, as well as letters, reports, newspaper and magazine articles, group newsletters, flyers and announcements of political events, and news releases. The issues represented here, including support work for "The Longest Walk," the campaign for justice for Leonard Peltier, and the Big Mountain relocation are indicative of the concerns in parts of Indian country in the United States and elsewhere during these decades.
Arrangement:
The Teriananda papers are arranged into two series:

Series I: Writings (1978-1991)

Series II: Political Activities (undated; 1972-1996)
Biographical / Historical:
Teriananda was born in Manhattan in 1947, where she grew up and has continued to live throughout her adult life. Teriananda's father, born in Brooklyn, became a financial officer and independent scholar, her mother, born in British Guiana (now Guyana), was a classical pianist who immigrated to the United States and later became an editorial assistant, working part-time during Teriananda's childhood. Her parents instilled in Teriananda a belief that she was "a citizen of the world." She studied ballet as a youngster, and, as a teenager, immersed herself in the artistic and intellectual milieu of the Lower East Side and Greenwich Village. An improperly diagnosed back injury while she was a senior in high school resulted in severe back problems in the 1970s that have persisted throughout her life.

Teriananda became interested in indigenous struggles in the 1970s following a "back crisis" that almost took her life yet proved to be psychically transformative. In seeking to know who she was, she realized she needed to know where she was, and this led her to ask who the original inhabitants of the continent were. She soon became involved in activist struggles for indigenous rights, and worked with a number of Native American groups during the 1970s and 1980s, including, among other things, the International Treaty Council's attempts to found the U.N.'s permanent Working Group on Indigenous People, support for Yvonne Wanrow and Leonard Peltier, the issue of uranium contamination from mining on Native American land, and the problem of the Joint Land Use Area near Big Mountain on the Hopi and Navajo reservations.

Teriananda also worked on issues surrounding the AIDS crisis after the death of several friends from this disease. She had become familiar with the possibilities of natural medicines, partly through contact with traditional Native teachers, and she became active promoting the benefits of nutritional, herbal and other natural therapies to sufferers of AIDS. As Teriananda's own health issues persisted and worsened, she turned to Tibetan Buddhism, and has devoted herself to artistic pursuits influenced by this spiritual path, although she has worked artistically since the early 1970s, when she stopped dancing. Although she has cut back on her activism, due to health problems and family demands, Teriananda remains a committed political activist who stays informed of current issues and is determined to pass on the heritage of struggles for peace and justice to the next generation.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of the American Indian Archives by Teriananda in March 2003
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the NMAI Archivist. The Archives has no information on the status of literary rights for the work of others found in these papers; researchers are responsible for determining any question of copyright.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Relocation  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Traditional medicine  Search this
AIDS (Disease)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Indians of Central America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Writings
Letters
Clippings
Reports
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Teriananda papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.009
See more items in:
Teriananda papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-009

Basket

Collector:
Hon. J. F. Crampton  Search this
Donor Name:
Hon. J. F. Crampton  Search this
Culture:
Warrau  Search this
Object Type:
Basket
Place:
Guyana, South America
Accession Date:
26 Feb 1867
Collection Date:
Ca 1852
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
67A00053
USNM Number:
E4354-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/317e9114c-d6ad-45b6-a2a6-14d392debeb9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8462456
Online Media:

Basket

Collector:
Hon. J. F. Crampton  Search this
Donor Name:
Hon. J. F. Crampton  Search this
Culture:
Warrau  Search this
Object Type:
Basket
Place:
Guyana, South America
Accession Date:
26 Feb 1867
Collection Date:
Ca 1852
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
67A00053
USNM Number:
E4354-1
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37d5ec4d6-3973-4b53-ab35-97f88df4fde2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8462457
Online Media:

Flute

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Flute
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278531-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/39a3c31cd-e4ab-4711-b64e-2923ec1b7b15
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381638
Online Media:

Flute

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Flute
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278532-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/33cd3c544-f54e-426f-8901-6be469120cae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381640
Online Media:

Head Feathers

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Feather
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278542-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/33a10202f-3e59-4ce4-b316-a6dfa593c5e9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381653
Online Media:

Fire-Fan

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Fan
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278544-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3db8f3e2d-bd18-4abb-a42e-9beb11cef1b3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381660
Online Media:

Fire-Fan

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Fan
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278544-1
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3abbc0fe2-96cf-4019-8ea6-6cabfd02812e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381661
Online Media:

Crown

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Crown
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278570-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a012a795-f854-4832-b596-b462de708ba5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381694
Online Media:

Shoulder Ornament

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Shoulder Ornament
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278574-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e1ffed2c-ffec-403d-9719-8754b8081bac
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381699
Online Media:

Rattle (Goobie Shak Shak)

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Rattle
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278578-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31b6f44ae-c198-441c-a351-dd10c674fdc2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381703
Online Media:

Shoulder Ornament

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Shoulder Ornament
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278581-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3de2b7b11-ea33-449e-9d04-7e4865e0a188
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381708
Online Media:

Shoulder Ornament

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Shoulder Ornament
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278582-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3787f15d4-d024-48d0-900a-fd47e0b0407d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381709
Online Media:

Snuff Gourd

Donor Name:
John W. Ogilvie  Search this
Culture:
Wapishana  Search this
Object Type:
Gourd
Place:
Suriname, South America
Accession Date:
23 Jun 1913
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
055609
USNM Number:
E278584-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b6c80a2a-36fb-4abb-b4c9-83574a444bf9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381711
Online Media:

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