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Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, evolution, and eugenics) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. From the 1920s to the 1940s Hrdlicka was a member of the American Eugenics Society and prepared exhibits for various eugenics congresses. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

The University of Alaska Anchorage holds diaries relating to Hrdlička's Expeditions to Alaska in 1936, 1937, and 1938 in the Alan G. May papers. The finding aid for this collection is avialable online at https://archives.consortiumlibrary.org/collections/specialcollections/hmc-0690/ and a trascription of May's diaries from the expeditions is available online at https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/11850
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Zuni Workmen

Creator:
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Collection Creator:
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Greenwood, Walter B.  Search this
Hill, Ernest H. Jr  Search this
Kyte, Dorothy  Search this
Leonard, Jane  Search this
Morgan, Dorothy  Search this
Smith, George Hubert  Search this
Stern, Theodore, 1917-  Search this
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
United States. Federal Civil Works Administration  Search this
Collection Correspondent:
Allyn, Harriet M.  Search this
Antevs, Ernst V.  Search this
Baker, Frank C.  Search this
Chaney, Ralph W.  Search this
Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977  Search this
Figgins, J.D.  Search this
Gazin, C. Lewis (Charles Lewis), 1904-1996  Search this
Guthe, Carl E. (Carl Eugen), 1893-1974  Search this
Hall, Marion  Search this
Harcus, John  Search this
Haury, Emil W. (Emil Walter), 1904-1992  Search this
Hitchcock, Virginia Beth  Search this
Hooton, Earnest Albert, 1887-1954  Search this
Howard, Edgar B.  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Judson, Sheldon  Search this
Kellogg, A. Remington  Search this
Krieger, Alex D. (Alex Dony), 1911-1991  Search this
Leonard, Jane  Search this
McCarty, Oscar  Search this
Miller, Carl F.  Search this
Moomaw, Jack C.  Search this
Ray, Cyrus N.  Search this
Reiter, Paul David  Search this
Richards, Horace G.  Search this
Shapiro, Harry L. (Harry Lionel), 1902-1990  Search this
Shepard, Anna O.  Search this
Van Devanter, D.W.  Search this
Van Riet, Clarence  Search this
Wheat, Joe Ben  Search this
Woodbury, George  Search this
Collection Author:
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Anderson, Jack C.  Search this
Baby, Raymond S.  Search this
Atkins, Ruth  Search this
Deacon, John C.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (003 in x 005 in)
Culture:
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Eight men standing in western dress, six with type of headdress, not feathers, two with western hats. One holding what looks like a bow. Village of the Great Kivas, New Mexico.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 10000220

NAA MS 4851

OPPS NEG 79-11638
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint
Place:
New Mexico Zuni Pueblo
Forms part of:
Frank Harold Hanna Roberts Colln Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives
Collection Restrictions:
The photographic negatives are in special storage and require advance notice to view.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
MS 4851, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4851 Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4851-ref1

Petroglyphs

Creator:
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Collection Creator:
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Greenwood, Walter B.  Search this
Hill, Ernest H. Jr  Search this
Kyte, Dorothy  Search this
Leonard, Jane  Search this
Morgan, Dorothy  Search this
Smith, George Hubert  Search this
Stern, Theodore, 1917-  Search this
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
United States. Federal Civil Works Administration  Search this
Collection Correspondent:
Allyn, Harriet M.  Search this
Antevs, Ernst V.  Search this
Baker, Frank C.  Search this
Chaney, Ralph W.  Search this
Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977  Search this
Figgins, J.D.  Search this
Gazin, C. Lewis (Charles Lewis), 1904-1996  Search this
Guthe, Carl E. (Carl Eugen), 1893-1974  Search this
Hall, Marion  Search this
Harcus, John  Search this
Haury, Emil W. (Emil Walter), 1904-1992  Search this
Hitchcock, Virginia Beth  Search this
Hooton, Earnest Albert, 1887-1954  Search this
Howard, Edgar B.  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Judson, Sheldon  Search this
Kellogg, A. Remington  Search this
Krieger, Alex D. (Alex Dony), 1911-1991  Search this
Leonard, Jane  Search this
McCarty, Oscar  Search this
Miller, Carl F.  Search this
Moomaw, Jack C.  Search this
Ray, Cyrus N.  Search this
Reiter, Paul David  Search this
Richards, Horace G.  Search this
Shapiro, Harry L. (Harry Lionel), 1902-1990  Search this
Shepard, Anna O.  Search this
Van Devanter, D.W.  Search this
Van Riet, Clarence  Search this
Wheat, Joe Ben  Search this
Woodbury, George  Search this
Collection Author:
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Anderson, Jack C.  Search this
Baby, Raymond S.  Search this
Atkins, Ruth  Search this
Deacon, John C.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (003 in x 005 in)
Culture:
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Pictographs of animals and other items on rock. To the left are the words "Bob Hudson"; to the right is a feathered headdress. Village of the Great Kivas, New Mexico.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 10000221

NAA MS 4851

OPPS NEG 79-11643
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint
Place:
New Mexico Zuni Pueblo
Forms part of:
Frank Harold Hanna Roberts Colln Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives
Collection Restrictions:
The photographic negatives are in special storage and require advance notice to view.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
MS 4851, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4851 Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4851-ref2

MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography

Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Extent:
41.29 Linear feet (22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items)
Note:
Some materials, especially in series 3, are stored in the NAA artwork collection.
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated
Biographical Note:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.

In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians (1880), A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians (1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the BAE 1st Annual Report (1881).

While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.

Sources Consulted

Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.

Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A." American Anthropologist 8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.

Chronology

1831 -- Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25

1850 -- Graduates Yale College

1853 -- Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar

1853-1861 -- Practices law in Philadelphia

1861 -- Enters the volunteer army of the United States

1862 -- Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia

1866 -- Completes service with volunteer army of the United States Accepts commission in regular army of the United States

1870 -- Marries Helen W. Wyckoff

1879 -- Retires from the United States army due to disability Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology

1880 -- Publishes Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind and A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons

1881 -- Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"

1894 -- Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24
Related Materials:
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.
Provenance:
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2372
Online Media:

Copies of David F. Barry photographs of Plains Indians

Creator:
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Names:
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Curly, approximately 1856-1923  Search this
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876  Search this
Low Dog Dakota Oglala  Search this
Rain in the Face, approximately 1835-1905  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Running Antelope Dakota Oglala  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Young Man Afraid of His Horse, ca. 1830-1900  Search this
Extent:
24 Copy prints
Culture:
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1870-1890
Scope and Contents note:
The collection is largely composed of photographs depicting Plains Indians, many of whom took part in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Depicted individuals include Young Man Afraid of His Horse, Low Dog, Good Horse, Clear Eyes, Rain in the Face, Crow Flies High, Trail Hunter, Sitting Bull, Crow King, Red Cloud, White Faces, Running Antelope, Red Girl, Curly, John Grass, Gall, Spotted Tail, and a group of Ghost Dancers. There are also images of Barry, General Custer, the horse Comanche, and Buffalo Bill.
Biographical/Historical note:
David Frances Barry (1854-1934) was a photographer based in Bismarck, Dakota Territory, who is most noted for his photographs of famous American Indians. In 1878, he was hired by itinerant photographer O. S. Goff, with whom he eventually partnered. From 1878 to 1883, Barry traversed the Dakota Territory, making many of his most widely known photographs of American Indians, forts and battlefields, military officers, and other people in the region. In 1883, Barry opened a new studio in Bismarck, where he began photographing members of Cody's Wild West Show.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R81-71
Reproduction Note:
Copy prints made by Smithsonian Institution, 1981.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by Barry, as well as originals of images in this collection, can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 80-18, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 90-1, MS 4559, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Topic:
Comanche (Horse)  Search this
Little Bighorn, Battle of the, Mont., 1876  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot R81-71, Copies of David F. Barry photographs of Plains Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R81-71
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r81-71

Tecumseh D. Cook photograph collection of Pamunkey Indians

Creator:
Cook, Tecumseh D., Chief  Search this
Extent:
57 Copy prints
Culture:
Pamunkey  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Copies of photographs depicting members of the Cook and Bradby families of the Pamunkey Reservation in Virginia, including some images of Pamunkey Indians with game or birds. There is also a photograph that include James Miles, Governor of Virginia, and a group that participated in the Jamestown Exposition in 1907.
Biographical/Historical note:
Tecumseh Deerfoot Cook was chief of the Pamunkey tribe from 1942-1984.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R87-6
Reproduction Note:
Copy prints made by Smithsonian Institution, circa 1987.
General note:
Captions furnished by Edward Bradby and Chief Tecumseh D. Cook of the Pamunkey Indian Reservation, Virginia.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of Pamunkey Indians can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24 and the BAE historical negatives.
Photographs of Pamunkey Indians can be found in the National Museum of the American Indian Archives in the Mark Raymond Harrington Photograph Collection and the Daniel Sutherland Davidson prints and negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot R87-6, Tecumseh D. Cook Family photograph collection of Pamunkey Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R87-6
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r87-6

Howard Zehr photographs of Southern Cheyenne chiefs

Creator:
Zehr, Howard  Search this
Extent:
6 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1991
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Howard Zehr in September 1991 depicting Southern Cheyenne chiefs, including Lawrence Hart, Alfrich Heap-of-Birds, Joe Antelope, Everett Wilson, Lucian Twins, and Rollin Haag. The men were photographed wearing blankets, headdresses, war medals, and a George Washington and an Andrew Jackson peace medal. The photographs were made various at locations in Oklahoma, including Watonga, Cheyenne, Sayre, and Clinton.
Biographical/Historical note:
Howard Zehr is a photographer and photojournalist, as well as Professor of Restorative Justice at Eastern Mennonite University's Center for Justice and Peacebuilding in Harrisonburg, Virginia. He also served as director of the Mennonite Central Committee's Office on Crime and Justice for 19 years.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 92-13
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Ryan Newswanger's film, "You Chiefs are Peacemakers," for which he obtained these photographs, is available in the Human Studies Film Archives, HSFA 95.1.5.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 92-13, Howard Zehr photographs of Southern Cheyenne chiefs, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.92-13
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-92-13

Department of Anthropology photographs of specimens and exhibits

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Names:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) -- Exhibitions.  Search this
River Basin Surveys  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Krieger, Herbert W. (Herbert William), 1889-1970  Search this
Phebus, George E.  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Washakie, approximately 1804-1900  Search this
Extent:
400 Prints (circa, silver gelatin (including contact prints))
Culture:
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Place:
United States -- Antiquities
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
The collection largely consists of photographs of specimens and artifacts, some of which were once in the collections of the Department of Anthropology, as well as images of anthropological exhibits in the National Museum of Natural History, circa 1950s and 1960s. Specimens and artifacts that are depicted include the Waverly Tablet from Waverly, Ohio; Richardson Tablet from near Wilmington, Ohio; Grave Creek Tablet from West Virginia; and Cincinnati Tablet from Cincinnati, Ohio; a Tuxtla statuette; artifacts from the Cascades area of Oregon and Washington collected by Herbert W. Krieger and George E. Phebus; bone and stone artifacts from River Basin Survey and BAE archeological sites in the Great Plains; and artifacts from Bluestone Reservoir, West Virginia, recovered by Ralph Solecki in 1948 together with a manuscript on the Round Bottom site.

The collection also includes images of items not in the department's collections but used for BAE or Smithsonian publications and those sent to the Smithsonian for examination. These include a copy of the winter count of the Yanktonai Long Dog; a war record by Shoshoni Chief Washakie; Folsom-like points from various parts of the United States, and various Hebrew, Italian, and other manuscripts.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 88-35, NAA Photo Lot 88-18
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photo Lot 88-18 has been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 88-35. These are also Processing Lab photographs of artifacts and form part of this collection.
The Department of Anthropology holds many of the artifacts shown in these images.
The National Anthropological Archives holds the River Basin Surveys records and Herbert William Krieger papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Folsom points  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 88-35, Department of Anthropology photographs of specimens and exhibits, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.88-35
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-88-35

Gene J. Crediford photographs of Native Americans of South Carolina

Creator:
Crediford, Gene J.  Search this
Extent:
2 Booklets (2 booklets with halftone images)
6 Mounted color prints
14 Mounted prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Pee Dee Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Booklets
Mounted color prints
Mounted prints
Date:
1984-1987
Scope and Contents note:
Images of Pee Dee, Edisto, Santee and Catawba people, Native American churches and religious practices, powwows, pottery and pottery making, and the interior of a home at Four Holes Indian Community. The photographs are part of a portfolio that also includes a brochure, entitled "Sara Ayers: the Most Noted Catawba Potter" and an exhibit guide, entitled "Contemporary Native Americans in South Carolina: A Photo Documentation Covering the Years 1983-1985," both illustrated by Gene Crediford photographs.
Biographical/Historical note:
Gene J. Crediford is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of South Carolina and a professional photographer. He previously taught in the Department of Media Arts at the University of Southern California, and has authored and illustrated books. His photographs have been exhibited in Pennsylvania, South Carolina, North Carolina, and West Virginia.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 89-31
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Thomas Cooper Library at the University of South Carolina holds photographs by Crediford.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Photographs are under copyright by the photographer.
Topic:
Christianity  Search this
Religion  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Powwows  Search this
Catawba Indians  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 89-31, Gene J. Crediford photographs of Native Americans of South Carolina, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.89-31
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-89-31

Richard H. and Nana Pratt photographs

Photographer:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Pratt, Nana  Search this
Extent:
30 Contact prints
30 Negatives (nitrate)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contact prints
Negatives
Date:
circa 1896
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs probably made by Richard Henry Pratt and his daughter Nana Pratt on a trip around the United States, circa 1896. They include images of Southwest and Northwest Coast Native peoples, waterways, dwellings and pueblos, a church, a totem pole, and a town in the Northwest.
Biographical/Historical note:
Richard Henry Pratt (1840-1924) was a United States Army officer and organizer of the Indian Division of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia. Pratt's theories about education of American Indians and their assimilation into American society led to the founding of the Carlisle School in 1879, where he served as superintendent until 1904.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81I
Reproduction Note:
Contact prints made by Smithsonian Institution from original negatives, 1966.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Richard Pratt donated drawings by the Kiowa artist Wohaw to the Smithsonian Institution. The drawings are now held in National Anthropological Archives MS 30740, MS 30747, and MS 30750, and in the Graphic Arts collection of the National Museum of American History.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds photographs of Richard Pratt (BAE historical negatives) and correspondence from Pratt (MS 4558, Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers).
Photographs relating to the Carlisle Indian Industrial School held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 73-8 and Photo Lot 81-12.
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Totem poles  Search this
Indians of North America -- Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 81I, Richard H. and Nana Pratt photographs, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.81I
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-81i

De Lancey W. Gill portraits of Native Americans of the Northeast and Plains

Creator:
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Extent:
12 Mounted prints (platinum)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Osage  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cayuga  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Studio portraits
Photographs
Date:
1901-1914
Scope and Contents note:
Studio portraits of Native Americans, including Thas-hunke-hine-kota (Roan Horse), Wa-sho-she (Brave), Cka-gthe (White Plume, Wa-Sho-She's wife), Shunga-neha-ga-he (Horse Chief Eagle), Me-kon-tunga (Big Goose), Apeyohantanka (Big Man), Yshidiapas or Aleck-shea-ahoos (Plenty Coups), Mary Baldwin, Imetacco (Little Dog), Kishkinniequote (Jim Deer), Ta-semke-to-keco (Strange Horse), and Hodjiagede (Fish Carrier). The prints were originally part of a framed display.
Biographical/Historical note:
De Lancey W. Gill (1859-1940) was a Washington, DC-based artist and photographer. Between 1884 and 1898, he served as a draftsman and illustrations editor for the United States Geological Survey. From 1889-1932, he also worked as illustrations editor for the Bureau of American Ethnology. While employed at the BAE, he took photographs of Native American visitors to Washington, continuing a BAE project that had started in the 1860s. Gill made over 2,000 portraits during his career, some during anthropological expeditions to Virginia, Arizona, New Mexico and northwestern Mexico.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 79-4
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original glass negatives for these prints can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE hisorical negatives.
Additional photographs by Gill can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 65, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 85, Photo Lot 87-2P, and Photo Lot 90-1.
The Wisconsin Historical Society holds additional platinum prints by Gill.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Studio portraits
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 79-4, De Lancey W. Gill portraits of Native Americans of the Northeast and Plains, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.79-4
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-79-4

Photographs of students at Hampton Institute

Names:
Hampton Institute.  Search this
Extent:
2 Prints (albumen)
Culture:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Studio portraits
Date:
circa 1879-1880
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting students on arrival at Hampton Institute and again eighteen months later. Identifications of individuals are printed on verso.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Hampton Institute was founded in the 1860s as the Hampton Normal School, a trade and industrial school initially for African Americans. The first Native American students arrived at the school in 1878 and the American Indian education program continued until 1923.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73-9
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs, manuscripts and artwork relating to the Hampton Institute and its students can be found in other collections within the National Anthropological Archives, including MS 4751, Photo Lot 4605, MS 7500, and the BAE historical negatives.
Hampton University (formerly Institute) in Hampton, Virginia, holds institutional records and photographs in the campus library.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Schools -- American Indian  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Studio portraits
Citation:
Photo lot 73-9, Photographs of students at Hampton Institute, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73-9
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73-9

Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Native Americans

Creator:
Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923  Search this
Names:
Phoenix Indian School  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Photographer:
Brady, Mathew B., approximately 1823-1896  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Gentile, Carlo, 1835-1893  Search this
Prando, Peter Paul Father  Search this
Sarony, Napoleon, 1821-1896  Search this
Extent:
171 Lantern slides
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Apache  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Montezuma Castle National Monument (Ariz.)
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1871-1913
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes hand-colored glass lantern slides collected by Dr. Carlos Montezuma and used for his lectures on Native American rights. Many of the photographs are portraits, some made at Ft. McDowell and Fort Apache. Other images show schools, reservations, dwellings, Charles Dickens (a Yavapai store owner), Montezuma's Castle, Casa Grande, and scenic views. A special series includes photographs made during a 1913 hunting and sightseeing trip that he organized, probably including photographs made by Montezuma's guests, John T. McCutcheon and Charles B. Gibson.

Some of the images were made by Charles (Carlos) Gentile, the photographer and benefactor of Montezuma in his early years. There are also several by Father Peter Paulus Prando and John N. Choate, and one portrait each by Napoleon Sarony and Matthew Brady. Otherwise, the photographers are unidentified.
Biographical/Historical note:
Carlos Montezuma (1866-1923, also called Wassaja) was an Native American activist and physician. He was Yavapai, though he often identified himself as Apache. He was captured by Pima Indians at a young age and sold in 1871 to Italian-immigrant and pioneer photographer Carlo (or Charles) Gentile, who adopted the child and took him to New York. Montezuma graduated from the University of Illinois (1884) and received his MD from the Chicago Medical College (1889). He developed a friendship with Richard Henry Pratt, head of the Carlisle Indian School, and took a post as reservation physician for the Bureau of Indian Services. During this time he developed an opposition to BIA policies and became an Native American advocate, speaking out against reservations. He gave numerous lectures on Native Americans at institutions around the United States, helped organize the Society of American Indians, and published a personal newsletter entitled Wassaja (1916-1922). In 1896, Montezuma established a medical practice in Chicago. He died in Arizona in 1923.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73
Varying Form of Title:
Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides
General note:
The handwriting on the slides has been identified as that of Dr. Carlos Montezuma by John Larner, the editor of Montezumaʹs papers. Information in this catalog record has been taken from Cesare Marino, Solving the Mystery: The Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides in the NAA : Report of Background Research and Interview with Mrs. Doris Collester, Donor of the Carlos Montezuma Collection of Hand-tinted Lantern Slides to the Smithsonian Institution, conducted in Williamstown, West Virginia, August 2013.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Correspondence from Montezuma is held in the National Anthropological Archives in the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Carlos Montezuma's papers are held in the Newberry Library, Roger and Julie Baskes Department of Special Collections; Arizona State University Libraries, Charles Trumbull Hayden Library; and University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 73, Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73
Online Media:

Herman J. Viola photograph collection relating to Star Hawk Pow Wow, American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, and acquisition trips for NAA

Creator:
Viola, Herman J. (Herman Joseph), 1938-  Search this
Names:
American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program  Search this
Smithsonian Institution, Department of Anthropology, National Anthropological Archives, Native American Cultural Resources Training Program  Search this
Hunt, Wolf Robe, 1905-1977  Search this
Photographer:
Genete, Rev. Salvatore  Search this
Krantz, Victor  Search this
Neufeld, Harry B.  Search this
Warren, Dave.  Search this
Extent:
120 Negatives (circa, 35 mm)
31 Color slides
300 Prints (circa, silver gelatin)
310 Negatives (circa, acetate)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Oneida  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Cree  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Makah  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Coos (Kusan)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Wyandot  Search this
Klallam (Clallam)  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Wintu  Search this
Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Osage  Search this
Nisqually  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute)  Search this
Puyallup  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Tunica  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Cayuga  Search this
Tulalip  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Color slides
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1970-1991
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Herman J. Viola, depicting the 1973 Institute of American Indian Art meeting, Wolf Robe Hunt and his Acoma pottery, the transfer of Blue Eagle collection from Mae Abbott home to National Anthropological archives, and the 1974 Star Hawk Pow Wow in Watonga, Oklahoma. Additionally, there are photographs of NAA staff and the 1974 Acee Blue Eagle reception at NAA, possibly made by Viola. The collection also contains some photographs of Wounded Knee taken by Rev. Salvatore Genete, and copies of official portraits of Governor Aquillar of San Ildefonso Pueblo made by Harry B. Neufeld. There are also National Archives photographs of Chinese Boxer Rebellion prints, and Young watercolors and Alden sketches of American landscapes.

Much of the collection consists of portraits of participants in the NAA's American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program made by Smithsonian photographers, including Victor Krantz. These individuals include: Harry Walters, Navajo; Anna Walters, Otoe-Pawnee; George Sutton, Southern Arapaho; Sarah Yazzie, Navajo; Rubie Sootkis, Norther Cheyenne; David Fanman, Cheyenne; Augustine Smith, Navajo; Lorraine Bigman, Navajo; Jim Jefferson, Southern Ute; Rose Marie Pierite Gallardo, Tunica-Biloxi; George Horse Capture, Gros Ventre; Violet Zospah, White Mountain Apache; Gloria Anderson, Mille Lacs; Wenonah Silva, Wampanoag; Claire Lamont, Oglala; George Wasson, Coos-Coquille; Virginia Martin, Yakama; Gary Roybal, San Ildefonso; Richard Ground, Sihasapa; Almeda Baker, Hidatsa; June Finley, Hidatsa; Lida Young Wolf, Hidatsa; Christine Webster, Menominee; Rose Marie Roybal, Puyallup; Vivienne Jake, Kaibab-Paiute; Kim Yerton, Hupa; Dean Jacobs, Ojibwa; Lois Nowlin, Shawnee; Bonita McCloud, Nisqually; Gloria Maude Blackbird Cheswalla, Osage; Emily Peake, Ojibwa; Gordon McLester, Oneida; Mary Seth, Nez Perce; Bill Tohee, Oto-Missouria; Frank LaPena, Wintu; Juanita McQuistion, Wyandot; Carson Waterman, Seneca; Elton Stumbling Bear, Kiowa Apache; Patrick Chief Stick, Chippewa-Cree; Lynne Walks-on-Top, Spokane; Ethelyn Garfield, Paiute; Nora Dauenhauer, Tlingit; Caroline B. Jones, Tulalip; Grace F. Thorpe, Sauk and Fox; Dixie Lee Davis, Yavapai; Lynn D. Pauahty, Kiowa; David Lee Harding, Ojibwa; Robert V. Bojorcas, Klamath; Patty Leah Harjo, Seneca-Cayuga; Steven DeCoteau, Clallam; Robert Van Gunten, Ojibwa; Danny K. Marshall, Steilacoom; Meredith P. Flinn, Makah; Rhonda Hulsey, Chickasaw; Betty J. Brown, Choctaw; Vernon Calavaza, Zuni; Jack Bowen Jr., Upper Skagit; and Harry William Jr., Pima.
Biographical/Historical note:
Herman Joseph Viola is a historian of Native Americans who was director of the National Anthropological Archives from 1972-1989 and founding editor of Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives. In 1973, he launched the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, designed to encourage Native Americans to become professional archivists, librarians, curators, and historians through research and internships at the NAA.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-17
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds Viola's papers from 1980-1981.
Records relating to the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the Records of the National Anthropological Archives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archives -- Acquisitions  Search this
Powwows  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 74-17, Herman J. Viola photograph collection relate to Star Hawk Pow Wow, American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, and acquisition trips for NAA, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.74-17
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-74-17

Jesse Walter Fewkes photograph collection relating to archaeological subjects

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Photographer:
Beam, George L. (George Lytle), 1868-1935  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth  Search this
McKee, Thomas M., 1854-1939  Search this
Poley, H. S. (Horace Swartley)  Search this
Rowland, Wesley R.  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Artist:
Gill, Mary W.  Search this
Mullett, G. M.  Search this
Extent:
9 Prints (cromolithograph)
40 Prints (circa, halftone)
77 Prints (circa, albumen)
84 Drawings (circa 84 drawings (some mechanically produced))
1,655 Prints (circa, silver gelatin)
71 Copy negatives
43 Copy prints
363 Negatives (circa, nitrate)
7 Paintings
1 Print (cyanotype)
1 Print (photogravure)
1 Postcard (collotype)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Huastec  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Drawings
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Negatives
Paintings
Postcards
Photographs
Place:
Tennessee -- Antiquities
Stikine River (B.C. and Alaska)
South Carolina -- Antiquities
New Mexico -- Antiquities
Huasteca Region (Mexico)
Maryland -- Antiquities
Louisiana -- Antiquities
Alabama -- Antiquities
Arizona -- Antiquities
Colorado -- Antiquities
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Park (Ill.)
Florida -- Antiquities
Mexico -- Antiquities
Hovenweep National Monument (Utah and Colo.)
Utah -- Antiquities
Mesa Verde National Park (Colo.)
Navajo National Monument
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1890-1928
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs and drawings mostly relating to archeological subjects, collected and arranged by Jesse Walter Fewkes for his reference. Subjects include burial mounds, excavations, drawn maps, as well as urns, implements, idols, pottery, and other artifacts found in excavations, and Hopi, Zuni, and Piegan ceremonies and dances. Many of the photographs and drawings were probably made by Fewkes. Publication information is noted on some. The collection also includes newspaper clippings and correspondence.

Photographs were taken in Alabama, Arizona (including Casa Grande, Elden Pueblo, Navajo National Monument, and Wupatki National Monument), Colorado (including Mesa Verde and Montezuma Valley), Florida (including Weeden Island), Illinois (Cahokia Mound), Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico (including La Huasteca Region), Mississippi Valley, New Mexico (including Chaco Canyon, Hawikuh, and Mimbres Valley), South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah (including Hill Canyon, McElmo Canyon, and McLean Basin Ruins), Hovenweep National Monument, the West Indies (including Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Cuba), and West Virginia.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850-1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist, and chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1918 to his death in 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877, and acted as curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. While on a collecting trip in the western United States, he developed an interest in the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians. In 1891, Fewkes became director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology, studying and recording Hopi ceremonials. In 1895, he embarked on various archeological explorations for the Bureau of American Ethnology, excavating ruins in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida. He was appointed chief of the Bureau in 1918, and played an important role in the creation of Hovenweep National Monument in Colorado and Wupatki National Monument in Arizona.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4321
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Jesse Walter Fewkes Papers (MS 4408), his photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde (Photo Lot 30), his negatives (Photo Lot 86), and other manuscript collections by and related to Fewkes' ethnological research and archeology and his work with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Correspondence from Fewkes held in the National Anthropological Archives in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
The anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History hold artifacts collected by Fewkes, including USNM ACC 048761 (relating to Casa Grande excavations) and USNM ACC 050765 (relating to Mesa Verde excavations).
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Burial  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4321, Jesse Walter Fewkes photograph collection relating to archaeological subjects, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4321
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4321

Photographs relating to Native Americans and buildings

Photographer:
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Dinwiddie, William, 1867-1934  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Matteson, Sumner W., 1867-1920  Search this
Mcbride, C. C.  Search this
Smillie, T. W. (Thomas William), 1843-1917  Search this
Extent:
49 Prints (albumen and silver gelatin)
5 Copy prints
3 Prints (collotype)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Wanapum Indians  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Deadwood (S.D.)
Fort Cummings (N.M.)
White Earth Indian Reservation (Minn.)
Florida
West Virginia
Salt Lake City (Utah)
New Mexico
Charleston (S.C.)
Utah
Washington (State)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of various subjects, including portraits of Native Americans made from negatives by the Bureau of American Ethnology and United States National Museum. Depicted individuals include Lamar Richards (also known as Ostin, Tonkawa) and Grant Richards (also known as Sentele, Tonkawa); Turning Hawk, Crow Dog, Spot Tail, Red Leaf, and White Thunder. There are also images of Shuswap people dressing hides; Smohalla and Sokulk followers at Priests Rapids, Washington; and Native Americans around a campfire at Fort Marion, Florida.

Additionally, there are photographs of St. Columba's Church, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota; Otoe Industrial School; a chapel at the Cheyenne Mowerʹs place, with Mower's son; a sketch of Fort Cummings, New Mexico; buildings and a mound at Charleston, West Virginia; the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City; an American Indian camp with hides drying; Native Americans dragging brush in preparation of a medicine lodge; and a wood engraving of a Dakota Ghost Dance, taken from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.

Photographers include William Dinwiddie; De Lancey W. Gill; Sumner W. Matteson; Thomas William Smillie; Cross, of Hot Springs, South Dakota; and C. C. McBride.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 66F
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by Dinwiddie can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 78, Photo Lot 89, Photo Lot 141A, Photo Lot 144, Photo Lot 80-18, the BAE historical negatives, and the Herbert William Krieger Papers.
Additional Gill photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 65, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 85, Photo Lot 79-4, Photo Lot 87-2P, and Photo Lot 90-1.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds the Sumner W. Matteson collection of photographs, negatives and lantern slides.
Additional Smillie photographs held in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 79, and the BAE historical negatives. The Archives Center, National Museum of American History also holds the Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Camps  Search this
Mounds  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 66F, Photographs relating to Native Americans and buildings, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.66F
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-66f

Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest

Photographer:
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Milner, James W.  Search this
Mindeleff, Cosmos, 1863-  Search this
Mindeleff, Victor, 1860-1948  Search this
Rennick, L. C. (Leverett C.), 1887-1953  Search this
Artist:
Rogers, W. A. (William Allen), 1854-1931  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving
1 Print (platinum)
18 Prints (silver gelatin)
38 Prints (albumen)
Culture:
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Engravings
Prints
Place:
Pennsylvania -- Antiquities
West Virginia -- Antiquities
Louisiana -- Antiquities
Alabama -- Antiquities
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.)
Zuni Indian Reservation (N.M.)
Wyoming -- Antiquities
Date:
circa 1880s-1920s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to archeology, most of which were made by Bureau of American Ethnology photographers and ethnologists. Much of the collection consists of photographs by Cosmos and Victor Mindeleff of Southwest pueblos. Images depict mounds and excavations (including Grant Mound in Pennsylvania and additional mounds in West Virginia, Alabama, Louisiana, and elsewhere); Hopi Sipaulovi village; petroglyphs in Wind River, Wyoming; ancient artifacts; Standing Rock; Tohono O'odham Indians; Canyon de Chelly; and Clear Creek. Photographers represented include John K. Hillers; C. H. Bryan of Mt. Sterling, Kentucky; the Mindeleff brothers; Henry Bascom Collins; L. C. Rennick; J. W. Milner; Hattons Studio in Lansing, Michigan; and a drawing by W. A. Rogers.

Collection may contain images of human remains.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 28
Location of Other Archival Materials:
William Dinwiddie photographs documenting Papago Indians, previously filed in Photo Lot 28, have been relocated to National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 89.
Additional Mindeleff photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 4362, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 78, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Hillers photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 143, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 87-2N, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Collins photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 82-23, Photo Lot 86-42, Photo Lot 86-43, and Photo Lot 86-59.
See others in:
Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest, 1880s-1920s
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Mounds  Search this
Pueblos  Search this
Petroglyphs  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 28, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to archeology and burial mounds, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.28
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-28

John K. Hillers photographs of Pueblos

Photographer:
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Artist:
Nichols, Hobart, 1869-1962  Search this
Names:
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Extent:
40 Mounted prints (circa, albumen)
Culture:
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Photographs
Place:
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.)
Date:
1870s-1880s
bulk 1879-1879
Scope and Contents note:
The collection primarily consists of photographs made by John K. Hillers for the Bureau of American Ethnology documenting pueblos, cliff and rock dwellings, and people in Arizona and New Mexico. The photographs depict Navajo, Zuni, Taos, Oraibi, Walpi, Tesuque, Sichomovi, Cochiti, Mishongnavi, and Shipaulovi Pueblos. There are also pictures of mounds, possibly in West Virginia, and a Hobart Nichols drawing of the interior of a Pueblo dwelling. The bulk of the photographs are on BAE mounts, of which some are stamped "Compliments of J. W. Powell". Several of the images were made during the United States Geological Survey in 1885.
Biographical/Historical note:
John K. Hillers (1843-1925) immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1852. He spent almost twenty years photographing Native Americans, largely for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States Geological Survey. He began work on the Survey as a boatman on John Wesley Powell's second expedition down the Colorado River in 1871. He soon became the assistant, and then main photographer (1872) for the expedition. From 1879 to 1900, Hillers served as the first staff photographer of the Bureau of Ethnology, and in 1881 he took pictures for the United States Geological Survey.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 143
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Hillers photographs in the National Anthropological Archives can be found in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 28, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 87-2N, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Hillers's diary from 1871-1872 and 1874, 1875 (MS 4410).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pueblos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 143, John K. Hillers photographs of Pueblos, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.143
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-143

MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers

Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Bushotter, George, 1864-1892  Search this
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Riggs, Stephen Return, 1812-1883  Search this
Extent:
30 Linear feet (70 boxes, 1 oversized box, 20 manuscript envelopes, 4 rolled maps, and 23 map folders)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Tutelo  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Chiwere  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Osage  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Dhegiha Indians  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Tututni (Tutuni)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Siletz  Search this
Coos (Kusan)  Search this
Yaquina (Yakwina)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Takelma (Rogue River Indians)  Search this
Klikitat  Search this
Chasta Costa (Chastacosta)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Drawings
Vocabulary
Folklore
Sermons
Manuscripts
Obituaries
Correspondence
Newspaper clippings
Place:
Siletz Indian Reservation (Or.)
Date:
circa 1870-1956
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Reverend James Owen Dorsey (1848-1895) was a missionary and Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist who conducted extensive research on Siouan tribes and languages.The papers of James Owen Dorsey comprise mostly ethnographic and linguistic materials on various tribes of the Siouan language family as well as tribes from Siletz Reservation in Oregon. These materials include texts and letters with interlineal translations; grammar notes; dictionaries; drawings; and his manuscripts. In addition, the collection contains Dorsey's correspondence, newspaper clippings, his obituaries, and reprints.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains James O. Dorsey's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist, as well as his earlier work as a missionary among the Ponca. The vast majority of the collection pertains to his research on Siouan-Catawban languages, including the Dakota and Dhegiha languages, Chiwere, Winnebago, Mandan, Hidatsa, Tutelo, Biloxi, and Catawba. His research on Athapascan, Kusan, Takilman, and Yakonan languages from his field work at Siletz Reservation are also present, as well as some notes on the Caddoan languages. Dorsey's research files include linguistic and ethnological field notes, reading notes, stories and myths, vocabularies, drawings, and unpublished and published manuscripts. The collection also contains Omaha, Ponca, Quapaw, and Biloxi dictionaries that he compiled and materials relating to his work editing Steven Riggs' Dakota-English Dictionary. Additional noteworthy materials in the collection are Teton texts and drawings from George Bushotter and drawings by Stephen Stubbs (Kansa), Pahaule-gagli (Kansa), and George Miller (Omaha). The collection also contains Dorsey's correspondence, newspaper clippings, obituaries, and his collection of reprints.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: 1) Siouan; 2) Siletz Reservation; 3) Caddoan; 4) General Correspondence; 5) Personal Papers; 6) Miscellaneous & Reprints.
Biographical Note:
Reverend James Owen Dorsey (1848-1895) was a missionary and Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist who conducted extensive research on Siouan tribes and languages.

Dorsey was born on October 31, 1848 in Baltimore, Maryland. He exhibited a talent for languages at an early age. At age 6 he learned the Hebrew alphabet and was able to read the language at age 10. In 1867 Dorsey attended the Theological Seminary of Virginia and was ordained a deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1871. In May of that year, Dorsey traveled to the Dakota Territory to serve as a missionary among the Ponca. Plagued by ill health, Dorsey was forced to end his missionary work in August 1873. By that time, however, he had learned the Ponca language well enough to converse with members of the tribe without an interpreter.

Dorsey returned to Maryland and engaged in parish work while continuing his studies of Siouan languages. His linguistic talents and knowledge of these languages attracted the attention of Major John Wesley Powell. Powell arranged for Dorsey to work among the Omaha in Nebraska from 1878 to 1880 to collect linguistic and ethnological notes. When the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was established in 1879, Powell recruited Dorsey to join the staff.

As an ethnologist for the BAE, Dorsey continued his research on Siouan tribes. His studies focused on languages but also included Siouan personal names, folklore, social organization, religion, beliefs, and customs. He conducted fieldwork among the Tutelo at Six Nations on Grand River in Upper Canada (1882); the Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw in Indian Territory (1883-1884); the Biloxi at Lecompte, Rapides Parish, Louisiana (1892); and again with the Quapaw at the Quapaw Mission (1894). He also worked with Native Americans that visited DC, including George Bushotter (Teton), Philip Longtail (Winnebago), Samuel Fremont (Omaha), and Little Standing Buffalo (Ponca). He also spent time at Siletz Reservation in 1884 to collect linguistic notes on the Athapascan, Kusan, Takilman, and Yakonan stocks.

In addition to his research, Dorsey helped found the American Folklore Society and served as the first vice-president of the association. He also served as vice-president of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

At the age of 47, Dorsey died of typhoid fever on February 4, 1895.

Sources Consulted

1st-16th Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 1881-1897.

Hewitt, J.N.B. 1895. "James Owen Dorsey" American Anthropologist A8, 180-183.

McGee, W.J. 1895. "In Memoriam." Journal of American Folklore 8(28): 79-80.

1848 -- Born on October 31 in Baltimore, Maryland.

1871 -- Ordained a deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church.

1871-1873 -- Served as a missionary among the Ponca in Dakota Territory.

1878-1880 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Omaha in Nebraska.

1879 -- Joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

1882 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Tutelo at Six Nations on Grand River in Upper Canada.

1883-1884 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw in Indian Territory.

1887 -- Worked with George Bushotter to record information regarding the language and culture of the Dakota.

1884 -- Conducted fieldwork at Siletz Reservation.

1892 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Biloxi at Lecompte, Rapides Parish, Louisiana.

1894 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Quapaw at the Quapaw Mission in Indian Territory.

1895 -- Died of typhoid fever on February 4th at the age of 47.
Restrictions:
The James O. Dorsey Papers are open for research. Access to the James O. Dorsey Papers requires an appointment
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Catawba Indians  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Social structure  Search this
Kinship  Search this
Manners and customs  Search this
Shahaptian languages  Search this
Yakonan languages  Search this
Athapascan languages  Search this
Kusan languages  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Siouan languages  Search this
Dhegiha language  Search this
Siuslaw Indians  Search this
Hidatsa language  Search this
Omaha language  Search this
Dakota language  Search this
Catawba language  Search this
Biloxi language  Search this
Caddoan languages  Search this
Osage language  Search this
Alsea language  Search this
Kansa language  Search this
Mandan language  Search this
Chastacosta language  Search this
Coquille language  Search this
Tutelo language  Search this
Winnebago language  Search this
Siuslaw language  Search this
Takelma language  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Drawings
Vocabulary
Folklore
Sermons
Manuscripts
Obituaries
Correspondence
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Manuscript 4800 James O. Dorsey papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4800
See more items in:
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4800
Online Media:

Helen C. Rountree papers

Creator:
Rountree, Helen C., 1944-  Search this
Names:
Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe  Search this
Extent:
27 Sound recordings (1/4" reels and cassettes)
2.4 Linear feet (4 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Upper Mattaponi  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Algonquin (Algonkin)  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Interviews
Field notes
Place:
Virginia
Date:
1969-1990
Summary:
Helen C. Rountree is emeritus professor of anthropology at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. She studied the history of the Virginia Tribes from the 17th century to the 21st century and is considered a leading expert on Pocahontas. The Helen C. Rountree papers include field notes, correspondence, and sound recordings relating to her field work among the Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Monacan, as well as the area around Nottoway Reservation and Gingaskin Reservation.
Scope and Contents:
The Helen C Rountree papers contain correspondence, field notes, and sound recordings relating to her field work primarily among Virginian tribes including the Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Rappahannock, Chickahominy, Monacan, as well as the area around Nottoway Reservation and Gingaskin Reservation. Correspondents include Robert Y. Barham, Christian F. Feest, Samuel Proctor, C.G. Holland, Frank Porter, Marshall Becker, and Nancy Oestreich Lurie.

The sound recordings relate to Rountree's fieldwork and contain recordings of the Chickahominy Fall Festivals, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1978, 1981-1986 and a Chickahominy tribal meeting 1987; Nansemond Tribe Spring Festival, 1984, and Homecoming, 1988. Also included are recordings among the Pamumkey; Mattaponi; Shoshoni; Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada; meetings; public events, and some lectures by Helen Rountree and others. There is one unidentified sound cassette.
Arrangement note:
The collection contains: Correspondence, 1969-1985; Field notes, 1969-1988; Cook Books, 1981, 1983; Audio Ephemera, undated; Sound Recordings, 1969-1990.
Biographical/Historical note:
Helen C. Rountree earned an A.B. in Sociology & Anthropology from the College of William and Mary, an M.A. in Anthropology from the University of Utah, and a Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She joined the faculty of Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia as an Instructor in 1968 and retired as a full Professor in 1999. Dr. Rountree worked initially with the Shoshone in Nevada, then began research on the Algonquian-speaking Native Americans of eastern Virginia, becoming an honorary member of the Nansemond and Upper Mattaponi tribes in Virginia. She is acknowledged as a leading researcher and writer on Virginia Indians from the 17th century to the present and is considered an expert on Pocahontas.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Helen C. Rountree in 2005.
Restrictions:
Materials related to interview notes are restricted until June 2025.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Folk songs, Shoshoni  Search this
Indians of North America -- Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Interviews
Field notes
Citation:
Helen C. Rountree Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2005-22
See more items in:
Helen C. Rountree papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2005-22

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