Photographs relating to Native Americans or frontier themes, including portraits, expedition photographs, landscapes, and other images of dwellings, transportation, totem poles, ceremonies, infants and children in cradleboards, camps and towns, hunting and fishing, wild west shows, food preparation, funeral customs, the US Army and army posts, cliff dwellings, and grave mounds and excavations. The collection also includes images of prisoners at Fort Marion in 1875, Sioux Indians involved in the Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, the Fort Laramie Peace Commission of 1868, Sitting Bull and his followers after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890.
There are studio portraits of well-known Native Americans, including American Horse, Big Bow, Four Bears, Iron Bull, Ouray, Red Cloud, Red Dog, Red Shirt, Sitting Bull, Spotted Tail, Three Bears, and Two Guns White Calf. Depicted delegations include a Sauk and Fox meeting in Washington, DC, with Lewis V. Bogy and Charles E. Mix in 1867; Kiowas and Cheyennes at the White House in 1863; and Dakotas and Crows who visited President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Images of schools show Worcester Academy in Vinita, Oklahoma; Chilocco Indian School; Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Haskell Instittue, and Albuquerque Indian School.
Some photographs relate to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876; World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, 1903; and Centennial Exposition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railraod, 1876. Expedition photographs show the Crook expedition of 1876, the Sanderson expedition to the Custer Battlefield in 1877, the Wheeler Survey of the 1870s, Powell's surveys of the Rocky Mountain region during the 1860s and 1870s, and the Hayden Surveys.
Outstanding single views include the party of Zuni group led to the sea by Frank Hamilton Cushing; Episcopal Church Rectory and School Building, Yankton Agency; Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking a photographs of a Zuni ceremony; John Moran sketching at Acoma; Ben H. Gurnsey's studio with Indian patrons; Quapaw Mission; baptism of a group of Paiutes at Coeur d'Alene Mission; court-martial commission involved in the trial of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, 1877; President Harding at Sitka, Alaska; Walter Hough at Hopi in 1902; and Mrs. Jesse Walter Fewkes at Hopi in 1897.
George V. Allen was an attorney in Lawrence, Kansas and an early member of the National Stereoscope Association. Between the 1950s and 1980s, Allen made an extensive collection of photographs of the American West, mostly in stereographs, but also including cartes-de-visite and other styles of mounted prints, photogravures, lantern slides, autochromes, and glass negatives.
Number 3300: Original (?) drawings "To accompany Cushing's Zuni Lecture." Used as illustrations in 4th AR, Bureau of American Ethnology. Number 1. Tipi, water jar beside entrance (not used in AR ?) See Figure 490 ? 2. Plan of pueblo structure of lava. Figure 492. 3. Plan of pueblo structure of lava. Figure 493. 4. A typical cliff dwelling. Figure 498. 5. Gourd vessel enclosed in wicker. Figure 500. 6. (out ?) 7. Zuni earthen ware roasting tray. Figure 502. 8. Havasupai boiling basket. Figure 503. 9. Sketches illustrating the manufacture of spirally coiled basketry. Figure 504-5. 10. Ditto. Figure 506. 11. Typical basket decorations. Figures 507-8-9. 12. Terraced lozenge decoration or "double-splint-stitch forms" Figures 510-511. 13. Double splint stitch. Figures 512-513. 14. Diagonal parallel-line decoration. Figure 514. 15. Splints at neck of unfinished basket. Figure 515. 16. Corrugated decorations to repeat bsketry forms preceding. Figure (?) 17. Cooking pot of corrugated ware, showing conical projections near rim. Figure 518. 18. Ditto, showing modified projections near rim. Figure 519. 19. Wicker water bottle showing double loops for suspension. Figure 520. 20. Water bottle of corrugated ware showing double handle. Figure 521. 21. Ditto, showing plain bottom. Figure 522. 22. Food trencher of wicker work. Figure 523. 23. Ditto, inverted as used in forming food bowls of earthen ware. Figure 524. 24 to 38 (out) 39. Example of pueblo painted ornamentation. Figure 542. 40. Amazonian basket decorations. Figures 543-544. 41 to 44 (out) 45. Double lobed or hunter canteen. Figure 550. 46. Painting of deer (Figure 551); painting of sea-serpent (Figure 552). 47. The fret of basket decoration (Figure 553); The fret of pottery decoration (Figure 554); Scroll as evolved from fret in pottery decoration (Figure 555). 48 to 51 (out) 52. Rectangular type of earthen vessel. Figure 561. 53. (out). 54. Iroquois bark vessel. Figure 563.
All copied from other Manuscripts in Bureau of American Ethnology, except for original notes in pencil in hand of Frank H. Cushing. 7 pages in Comparative Vocabulary form. Eaton vocabulary copied from Bureau of American Ethnology Number 1156-a (itself a copy); Whipple vocabulary copied from Bureau of American Ethnology Number 1153 (itself a copy); Palmer vocabulary copied from Bureau of American Ethnology Number 1155 (original).
Also with the file, added at Bureau of American Ethnology are an abstract of Dr. Coues' article and Cushing's remarks by J. Owen Dorsey. no date. 1 page and a copy (made 9/63) from a deteriorating original) of a note by "L.F.W.," October 8, 1881, 1 page commenting on the name, "Aguazul."
Biographical / Historical:
"The Aguazul or Blue Water Indians are a small out-lying band of the Hualapai or "Wood" Indians who occupy the surrounding country to the west and south."--Coues Manuscript page 11.
NAA MS 900
Manuscript document, clerk's copy, including transmittal correspondence
Previously titled: "Rough notes on the Aguazul Indians, with notes thereon by F.H. Cushing dated Whipple Barracks, Prescott, Arizona Territory, August 23, 1881"
Manuscript 900, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Includes draft of manuscript "Manual Concepts..."; water color and tempera drawings of Zuni dancers; ground plans of Zuni; copies of publications by Cushing, including poems entitled "Tenatsali's Leaves;" 2 photographic portraits of Cushing; and miscellaneous photographs of Alaskan Indians.
NAA MS 4780
Casts were referred to Anthropology Processing Lab. Among them was a face mask of the Zuni priest of the Macaw clan, Lai-iu-ah-tsai-lun-k'ai, Cushing's adoptive father.
Unbound parts: Folder Number 1 "A Zuni Prayer from F.H. Cushing." Text with interlinear translation, 4 pages. English "Paraphrastic Version," 1 page (Another draft of this is pasted to back cover of the notebook.) Notes on words in the text, 9 cards. Folder Number 2 Transcript by F.H. Cushing of a letter dictated to him by the Zuni governor, with interlinear translation and other comments by Cushing. No date. 3 pages. Working copy of same by Gatschet, with additional notes in handwriting of Gatschet and Cushing. No date. 4 pages. Folder Number 3 Zuni text of the Lord's Prayer in hand of F.H. Cushing. No date. 2 pages. Working copy, transcription and interlinear translation of same in hand of A.S. Gatschet. No date. 2 pages. Folder Number 4 Dance song. Text and interlinear translation in Gatschet's hand, 1 page. Folder Number 5 Miscellaneous notes, possibly relating to one of the above items. 3 pages. Folder Number 6 Newsclipping, "Zuni Superstition Regarding Portraits," reprinted from article by "Sylvester Baxter, in Harper's Magazine for June," 1 column.
Report on exploration of caves containing ceremonial paraphernalia, and request for assistance in further exploration and collecting. Refers to map and drawings which are not present with this copy. Map is in "Bureau of American Ethnology Correspondence-Letters Received 1/25/81" KTB, 1/30/85. [copy negative #83-112]. Added cover page carries title, "The Zunis." Pencil notation on cover in J.C. Pilling's hand reads, "Duplicate with drawings given Cushing, Oct. 25, '84."
Copies of Thomas's letter with attached letter of Frank Hamilton Cushing to Major Galen Eastman, October 11, 1882. The exchanges concern Cushing, in his capacity of First War Chief of the Zuni, firing into a herd of Navaho horses.
NAA MS 7384
Manuscript 7384, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Apache terms obtained from some Chiricahua Apaches, sent as delegates to the U. S. Government from the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona, and present at the Fremont House, Washington, on February 12, 1884, pages 5-6; terms of the Tsigakina dialect, pages 7-8; Sentences in the Navajo dialect of Apache, obtained from Frank Hamilton Cushing, 1882, and Single terms in the Navajo dialect of Apache, obtained from the same, pages 9-12; Navajo terms obtained from the interpreter of a Navajo delegation present in Washington in 1885, Saturday, November 28, 1885, pages 14-16; and Some words of Jicarilla Apache, from Eski'e, present in Washington, D.C. January 5, 1884, with comparison from Buschmann's Collection, pages 18-19.
Informants for Apache data on pages 1-8 (according to account in Washington Evening Star noted by Gatschet, page 8): Antonio (San Carlos); Chiquito Hey (Tonto); As-Kadsdilges (Chiricahua); Sergeant Not (Knott?), scout for the army division under General Crook. The informant, Eski'e, called himself a Mescalero Apache. (page 19).
A note on page 8, referring to the foregoing vocabulary, reads, "Original in my folio manuscript XX, page 189. (This original not located as of 12/1969).
Army Medical Museum photographs prepared under the supervision of John Shaw Billings and Washington Matthews, and created by superimposing images of several skulls for comparative purposes. Each image has a caption that includes tribal or racial identification, number of skulls photographed, photograph number, negative number, and data on photographic technique.
The collection represents of Aleut, Apache, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Dakota, Eskimo, Hidatsa, Navajo, Oglala, Ojibwa, Paiute, Piegan, Ponca, Wichita, African American, Hawaiian, people, and people of San Miguel and San Nicholas Islands (California).
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased Native Americans. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 6A
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 73-26C, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
The National Anthropological Archives holds microfilm of the papers of Washington Matthews, circa 1864-1905, and records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution from the Army Medical Museum.
See others in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, circa 1884-1885
Lantern slides depicting the people and landscape of the American Southwest. Images include those of Puebloan people, dwellings, churches, dances and ceremonies, archaeological excavations (including Pueblo Bonito and Neil M. Judd with his excavation party), pictographs, and landscapes. Tribes represented include Acoma, White Mountain Apache, Hopi (Mishongnovi), Laguna, Navajo, Taos, and Santa Clara. The slides were largely commercially distributed by the George W. Bond, Chicago Slide Company, Chicago Transparency Company (for the Santa Fe Railroad), Detroit Slide Company, Edward H. Kemp, National Geographic Society, and United States Bureau of Reclamation. The collection was listed as the "Casey collection" by Father John Montgomery Cooper when it was brought to the museum.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 32, USNM ACC 211312
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Artifacts donated by the Department of Anthropology, Catholic University of America in accession 211312 held in the anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History. Additional photographs donated by Catholic University of America can be found in Photo Lot 20 in the National Anthropological Archives.
Includes vocabulary and other notes on Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Sinecu, Sumas, "Pueblita three miles from Jemez," Isleta, Peyote, Macuchi (?), and "Tepehuan[e]." Also 14 loose pages, various sizes, containing miscellaneous bibliographic notes and extracts relating to several of the above, and to Piro and "Quivira."
Biographical / Historical:
Front pages have been cut out; these may have been dated from 1894-5. Sinecu and Isleta notes marked "D7-97" and "D15-97" respectively; evidently dated December 7 and 15, 1897. See 19th Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology for year 1897-98, page xvi, referring to Mooney's trip to this area in December, 1897. --MCB 1/67.
In the foreground is a man standing next to a foot bridge over a stream. The pueblo is in the background. The item is number 1111 in the series Views of New Mexico. The item is identical to numbers 116 and 745 of Photo Lot 90-1.
Views of New Mexico
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo Lot 90-1, George V. Allen collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution