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Radical moves : Caribbean migrants and the politics of race in the jazz age / Lara Putnam

Author:
Putnam, Lara  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 322 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
West Indies, British
Date:
2013
C2013
20th century
Topic:
Black people--Migrations--History  Search this
Migrations--History  Search this
Black people--Social conditions  Search this
West Indians--Social conditions  Search this
Black people--Politics and government  Search this
West Indians--Politics and government  Search this
Anti-imperialist movements--History  Search this
Emigration and immigration--Political aspects--History  Search this
Racism--Political aspects--History  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1001133

The other Black Bostonians : West Indians in Boston, 1900-1950 / Violet Showers Johnson

Author:
Johnson, Violet Showers  Search this
Physical description:
x, 181 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Massachusetts
Boston
Boston (Mass.)
Date:
2006
C2006
20th century
Topic:
West Indian Americans--History  Search this
West Indian Americans--Social conditions  Search this
Black people--History  Search this
Black people--Social conditions  Search this
Immigrants--Social conditions  Search this
Migrations--History  Search this
Black people--Migrations--History  Search this
Race relations  Search this
History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_824460

Weaving Alliances with Other Women : Chitimacha Indian Work in the New South / Daniel H. Usner

Author:
Usner, Daniel H.  Search this
Subject:
Paul, Christine Navarro 1874-1946  Search this
Paul, Christine Navarro 1874-1946 Friends and associates  Search this
Bradford, Mary McIlhenny 1869-1954  Search this
Dormon, Caroline 1888-1971  Search this
Physical description:
xvi, 100 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
Louisiana
Date:
2015
20th century
Topic:
Chitimacha Indians  Search this
Indian women basket makers  Search this
Chitimacha Indians--Social conditions  Search this
Female friendship--Social aspects--History  Search this
White people--Relations with Indians--History  Search this
Race relations  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1078933

Urban American Indians : reclaiming native space / Donna Martinez, Grace Sage, and Azusa Ono

Author:
Martinez, Donna  Search this
Sage, Grace  Search this
Ono, Azusa  Search this
Physical description:
xxiii, 157 pages ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2016
Topic:
Urban Indians  Search this
Ethnic identity  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1092942

My grandfather's knocking sticks : Ojibwe family life and labor on the reservation / Brenda J. Child

Title:
Ojibwe family life and labor on the reservation
Author:
Child, Brenda J. 1959-  Search this
Subject:
Auginash, Fred 1888-1957  Search this
Auginash, Jeanette 1905-  Search this
Physical description:
242 pages : illustrations ; 22 cm
Type:
Anecdotes
Biography
Place:
Minnesota
Red Lake Indian Reservation
Red Lake Indian Reservation (Minn.)
Date:
2014
20th century
Topic:
Ojibwa Indians--History  Search this
Ojibwa Indians--Social life and customs  Search this
Ojibwa Indians--Social conditions  Search this
Subsistence hunting  Search this
Wild rice--Harvesting  Search this
Prohibition  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1050060

Indian Guatemala : path to liberation : the role of Christians in the Indian process / by Luisa Frank and Philip Wheaton

Author:
Frank, Luisa  Search this
Wheaton, Philip  Search this
Physical description:
112 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Guatemala
Date:
1984
©1984
20th century
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
History  Search this
Human rights  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Christianity  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1058347

The Meskwaki and anthropologists : Action Anthropology reconsidered / Judith M. Daubenmier

Author:
Daubenmier, Judith M  Search this
Subject:
Action Anthropology (Program) Influence  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 416 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Iowa
Date:
2008
C2008
20th century
Topic:
Social conditions  Search this
Ethnology--Fieldwork--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_903453

First to fight / Henry Mihesuah ; edited by Devon Abbott Mihesuah

Author:
Mihesuah, Henry  Search this
Mihesuah, Devon A (Devon Abbott) 1957-  Search this
Subject:
Mihesuah, Henry  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 103 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
Oklahoma
Duncan
Duncan (Okla.)
Date:
2002
C2002
20th century
Topic:
History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Land tenure--Government policy  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_749320

Chief Red Fox is dead : a history of native Americans since 1945 / James J. Rawls ; under the general editorship of Gerald D. Nash & Richard W. Etulain

Author:
Rawls, James J  Search this
Nash, Gerald D  Search this
Etulain, Richard W  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 290 p. : ill., maps, ports. ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1996
C1996
20th century
Topic:
History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_903630

Defamiliarizing the aboriginal : cultural practices and decolonization in Canada / Julia V. Emberley

Author:
Emberley, Julia 1958-  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 319 p. : ill., ports. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Canada
Date:
2007
C2007
20th century
Topic:
Indian women--Social conditions  Search this
Colonization  Search this
Cultural assimilation  Search this
Families--History  Search this
Kinship--History  Search this
Feminist theory  Search this
Indigenous peoples in literature  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_903015

Indians in contemporary society / Garrick A. Bailey, volume editor ; William C. Sturtevant, general editor

Author:
Bailey, Garrick Alan  Search this
Sturtevant, William C  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 577 p. : ill. (some col.), map ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2008
20th century
Topic:
History  Search this
Indians of North America--Government relations  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Civilization  Search this
Call number:
E77 .I544 2008
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_911221

Sieben Monate unter Indianern / Horst Hartmann

Author:
Hartmann, Horst  Search this
Physical description:
p. 163-188 : ill. (1 col.) ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Great Plains
West (U.S.)
Date:
1965
20th century
Topic:
Indians of North America--Social conditions  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
E78.G73 H372 1965
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1050651

The decline of community in Zinacantán : economy, public life, and social stratification, 1960-1987 / Frank Cancian

Author:
Cancian, Frank  Search this
Physical description:
xix, 300 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Zinacantán (Mexico)
Date:
1992
C1992
20th century
Topic:
Economic conditions  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_466490

Cherokee Americans : the eastern band of Cherokees in the twentieth century / John R. Finger

Author:
Finger, John R. 1939-  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 246 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1991
C1991
20th century
Topic:
History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_415255

Memoria baldía : los tojolabales y las fincas : testimonios / edición, Antonio Gómez Hernández, Mario Humberto Ruz

Author:
Gómez Hernández, Antonio  Search this
Ruz, Mario Humberto  Search this
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México  Search this
Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas  Search this
Physical description:
404 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm
Type:
Texts
Sources
Place:
Mexico
Chiapas
Chiapas (Mexico)
Date:
1992
20th century
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Tojolabal language  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Haciendas  Search this
History  Search this
Sources  Search this
Call number:
F1256 .M53 1992
F1256.M53 1992
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_442090

Indians of the southeastern United States in the late 20th century / edited by J. Anthony Paredes

Author:
Paredes, J. Anthony (James Anthony) 1939-  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 240 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Southern States
Date:
1992
C1992
Topic:
Social conditions  Search this
Government relations  Search this
Call number:
E78.S65I53 1992X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_431424

Cherokee Americans : the eastern band of Cherokees in the twentieth century / John R. Finger

Author:
Finger, John R. 1939-  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 246 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1991
C1991
20th century
Topic:
History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
E99.C5 F49 1993
E99.C5 F49 1991
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_455690

National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4710475fc-a6c0-427e-ad01-f83634f2caa5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

National Congress of American Indians Audio and Film Recordings

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Delacruz, Joseph B.  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
24 Videoreels (1/2 inch)
1 Videocassettes (Hi8)
3 Sound cartridges
1 Sound recording (dictaphone belt)
10 Videocassettes (VHS)
442 Sound tape reels (1/4" open reel)
30 Videocassettes (U-matic)
713 Sound cassettes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes (hi8)
Sound cartridges
Sound recordings
Videocassettes (vhs)
Sound tape reels
Videocassettes (u-matic)
Sound cassettes
Audiotapes
Audiovisual materials
Audiocassettes
Date:
1952-1997
Summary:
The National Congress of America Indians (NCAI), which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO and is still active today. NCAI was founded to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government but also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare. This collection of National Congress of America Indians Audio and Film Recordings contains materials created by and for NCAI to maintain a record of organizational proceedings and events between 1952 and 1997. Recorded in various formats, the bulk of this collection is on 1/4" open reel to reel tapes and sound cassettes. The events represented in this collection include annual and mid-year conventions, executive council meetings, congressional hearings, intertribal institutes and a variety of workshops and meetings regarding economic, civil and educational issues facing indian country.
Scope and Contents:
This collection of National Congress of America Indians Audio and Film Recordings contains materials created by and for NCAI to maintain a record of organizational proceedings and events between 1952 and 1997. Recorded in various formats, the bulk of this collection is on 1/4" open reel to reel tapes and sound cassettes. The collection also contains smaller numbers of EIAJ open reel videotapes, U-Matic, VHS and Hi-8 videocassettes and well as dictaphone belts and audio cartridges. The first series in this collection contains audio recordings from NCAI annual and mid-year convetions held in different locations all over the United States. The second series includes events hosted by NCAI or attended by NCAI representatives. These include executive council meetings, congressional hearings, intertribal institutes and a variety of workshops and meetings regarding economic, civil and educational issues facing indian country. Several larger events include the Arizona Intertribal Institute (1955), The National Indian Policy Conference (1974), LEAA Conference (1978), Environmental Protection Hearings and Seminars (1988) and the Senate Indian Affairs Special Investigations Subcommittee meetings (1989). A conference held in 1993 also documents the early history of NCAI with speakers such as Helen Peterson, John Rainer and Erma Hicks Walz.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series and chronologically within each series. Series 1: Annual and Mid-Year Conventions, 1953-1989, Series 2: Chronological Events, 1952-1997, and Series 3: Commercial Audio/Video, 1972-1989.
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

National Congress of American Indians records,1933-1990 (NMAI.AC.010)

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.AC.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.AC.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.AC.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.AC.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.AC.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Government relations  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Congresses and conventions  Search this
Legislative hearings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Audiovisual materials
Audiocassettes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); National Congress of American Indians Audio and Film Recordings, Box Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010.001
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians Audio and Film Recordings
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv418f7d1de-5bd0-4621-8926-1c4a55579201
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010-001

¡Zapatistas! : making another world possible : chronicles of resistance, 2000-2006 / John Ross

Author:
Ross, John 1938 Mar. 11-2011  Search this
Subject:
Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Mexico)  Search this
Physical description:
385 p. : maps ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Mexico
Chiapas
Chiapas (Mexico)
Date:
2006
C2006
20th century
Peasant Uprising, 1994-
1988-2000
Topic:
Social conditions  Search this
History  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_824315

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