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Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E. G. (Ernst Gideon), 1895-  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37e032ce2-12b4-4c64-83be-ec51796c4bd6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

Cultural factors in the rehabilitation process proceedings of a short term training conference compiled and edited by J. Leonard Steinberg

Author:
Conference on Cultural Factors in Rehabilitation (1978 : Navajo Community College, Tsaile, Ariz)  Search this
Steinberg, J. Leonard (Jay Leonard) 1930-  Search this
United States Rehabilitation Services Administration  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 170 pages illustrations 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Southwestern States
Pacific Islands (Trust Territory)
États-Unis (Sud-Ouest)
United States
Date:
1978
Topic:
Vocational rehabilitation  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Réadaptation professionnelle  Search this
Navajo (Indiens)--Mœurs et coutumes  Search this
Navajo Indians--Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1118266

Painting of Pocahontas

Creator:
Shindler, Antonio(n) Zeno  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (8x10 in)
Culture:
Powhatan  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
ca 1890
Scope and Contents:
The original of this painting which has subsequently become the property of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., was then in England; therefore the artist copied this from some other source, such as an engraved reproduction or otherwise, because it varies in many respects from the original, which would not have been the case if the artist had been working from the original or from an accurate copy of it. At the time this painting was entered in the Museum (1921), Dr Walter Hough said it was made from "an old painting or engraving in the possession of the Rolfe family in England."

Pocahontas - Biographical sketch. Born in 1595, and died on board ship at Gravesend, England, in March, 1617. The daughter of Powhatan, chief of a group of Virginian tribes. Her real name was Matoaka (Matowaka), a word found also in the misspelled form of Matoka and Matoaks. The sole Algonquian root from which the name can be derived is metaw, 'to play,' 'to amuse one's self;' whence Metawake, 'she amuses herself playing with (something).'It was undoubtedly due to her innate fondness for playthings, play, and frolicsome amusement that the name was given her by her parents, as well as the expression "Pokahantes" used by her father when speaking of her. By reason of the alleged romance of her life, Pocahontas is one of the most famous of American women. She is said to have saved Captain John Smith from a cruel and ignominious death at the hands of Powhatan's people, whose prisoner he was at the time. She is also credited with enabling many other Englishmen to escape the wrath and vengeance of her tribespeople.

The truth about some of her alleged exploits can never be known; some writers have even doubted the episode with Captain Smith. After the departure of Captain Smith for England in 1609, faith was not kept with the Indians as promised, and Pocahontas, by the aid of a treacherous chief, was decoyed on board the ship of Captain Argall in the Potomac, carried to Jamestown (1612), and afterwards taken to Werawocomoco, Powhatan's chief place of residence where a sort of peace was effected and the ransom of Pocahontas was agreed upon. While among the Englishmen, however, Pocahontas had become acquainted with John Rolfe, "an honest gentleman, and of good behavior." These two fell in love, an event which turned out to the satisfaction of everybody, and in April, 1613, they were married, Pocahontas having previously been converted to Christianity and baptised under the name of "the Lady Rebecca."

This alliance was of great advantage to the colonists, for Powhatan kept peace with them until his death. In 1616 Mr and Mrs Rolfe, with her brother-in-law Uttamatomac and several other Indians, accompanied Sir Thomas Dale to England, where, owing to the previous misunderstanding of those times concerning the character and government of the American tribes, Mrs Rolfe was received as a "princess." In March 1617, while on board ship at Gravesend ready to start for America with her husband, she fell ill of smallpox, and died about the 22nd year of her life. In July 1907, a skeleton, believed to be the remains of Pocahontas, was unearthed within the site of Gravesend Parish Church. She left one son, Thomas Rolfe, who was educated by his uncle, Henry Rolfe, in England.
Biographical / Historical:
Date: About 1890 while he was staff artist for the Museum.
Local Numbers:
OPPS NEG.29760
Local Note:
Black and white copy negative
Genre/Form:
Photographs
See more items in:
Bureau of American Ethnology negatives
Bureau of American Ethnology negatives / Additional Materials / Shindler, Antonio(n) Zeno
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f8b971a0-61f2-486e-9818-fe31ebd49595
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-176-ref11193

Report on Indian education final report to the American Indian Policy Review Commission Task Force Five, Indian Education

Author:
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission Task Force Five, Indian Education  Search this
Scheirbeck, Helen M. (Helen Maynor)  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 382 pages illustrations 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1976
Topic:
Education  Search this
Education--Law and legislation  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Education--Law and legislation  Search this
Call number:
KF8205 .A3195 1976
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1118268

Books without bias through Indian eyes edited by Beverly Slapin and Doris Seale

Title:
Through Indian eyes
Editor:
Slapin, Beverly  Search this
Seale, Doris  Search this
Publisher:
Oyate (Organization)  Search this
Physical description:
462 pages illustrations 28 cm
Type:
Book reviews
Bibliography
Bibliographies
Juvenile works
Date:
1988
Topic:
Juvenile literature  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1159158

Writing their bodies restoring rhetorical relations at the Carlisle Indian School Sarah Klotz

Author:
Klotz, Sarah  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource illustrations (some color)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
Pennsylvania
Carlisle
United States
Pennsylvanie
Date:
2021
Topic:
Off-reservation boarding schools--History  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
English language--Study and teaching--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Cultural assimilation  Search this
Indians of North America--Ethnic identity--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Social conditions--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Education--History  Search this
Racism in education--History  Search this
Internats pour Autochtones--Histoire  Search this
Anglais (Langue)--Étude et enseignement--Histoire  Search this
Racisme en éducation--Histoire  Search this
LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES--General  Search this
LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES--Rhetoric  Search this
SOCIAL SCIENCE--Ethnic Studies--Native American Studies  Search this
Education--History  Search this
English language--Study and teaching  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Ethnic identity  Search this
Indians of North America--Social conditions  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools  Search this
Racism in education  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156590

A collection of lessons for American Indians and Canadian natives : (K-12, adult education) / [10th Annual National American Indian Cultural Curriculum Development Workshop, July 22-27, 1990, Greenbay, Wisconsin ; sponsor: American Indian Institute, Continuing Education & Public Service, University of Oklahoma ; booklet editor: Anita Chisholm ; booklet co-editors: Carolyn Holloway, Guyneth Cardwel...

Title:
Lessons for American Indians and Canadian natives
Author:
National American Indian Cultural Curriculum Development Workshop (10th : 1990 : Greenbay, Wis.)  Search this
Chisholm, Anita  Search this
Holloway, Carolyn  Search this
Cardwell, Guyneth  Search this
University of Oklahoma American Indian Institute  Search this
University of Oklahoma Continuing Education and Public Service  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 168 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Congresses
Place:
Canada
Date:
1990
1990]
Topic:
Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Education (Higher)  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Call number:
E97 .N27 1990
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472409

The Room in the McLean House, at Appomattox Court House, in which General Lee Surrendered to General Grant

Artist:
Major & Knapp Lithography Company, active 1864 - c.1881  Search this
Sitter:
Horace Porter, 15 Apr 1837 - 29 May 1921  Search this
George Armstrong Custer, 5 Dec 1839 - 25 Jun 1876  Search this
Cyrus Ballou Comstock, 03 Feb 1831 - 29 May 1910  Search this
Orville Elias Babcock, 25 Dec 1835 - 02 Jun 1884  Search this
Charles Marshall, 1830 - 1902  Search this
Walter Herron Taylor, 1838 - 1916  Search this
Robert Edward Lee, 19 Jan 1807 - 12 Oct 1870  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan, 6 Mar 1831 - 5 Aug 1888  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant, 27 Apr 1822 - 23 Jul 1885  Search this
John Aaron Rawlins, 13 Feb 1831 - 6 Sep 1869  Search this
Charles Griffin, 18 Dec 1825 - 15 Sep 1867  Search this
John Gibbon, 1827 - 1896  Search this
George Gordon Meade, 31 Dec 1815 - 6 Nov 1872  Search this
Ely Samuel Parker, 1828 - 31 Aug 1895  Search this
Wesley Merritt, 16 Jun 1834 - 3 Dec 1910  Search this
James William Forsyth, 08 Aug 1834 - 24 Oct 1906  Search this
Theodore Shelton Bowers, 10 Oct 1832 - 06 Mar 1866  Search this
Edward Otho Cresap Ord, 18 Oct 1818 - 22 Jul 1883  Search this
Medium:
Lithograph with tintstone on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 48.7 x 73.8 cm (19 3/16 x 29 1/16")
Mat (horizontal): 71.1 x 88.9 cm (28 x 35") - can be changed to standard E
Type:
Print
Date:
1867
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Artwork\Painting  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
John Aaron Rawlins: Male  Search this
John Aaron Rawlins: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of War  Search this
John Aaron Rawlins: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
John Aaron Rawlins: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Male  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\College administrator\President  Search this
George Gordon Meade: Male  Search this
George Gordon Meade: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
George Gordon Meade: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
George Gordon Meade: Science and Technology\Engineer\Military engineer  Search this
George Armstrong Custer: Male  Search this
George Armstrong Custer: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
Theodore Shelton Bowers: Male  Search this
Theodore Shelton Bowers: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
Edward Otho Cresap Ord: Male  Search this
Edward Otho Cresap Ord: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Edward Otho Cresap Ord: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Horace Porter: Male  Search this
Horace Porter: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer  Search this
Horace Porter: Politics and Government\Diplomat  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan: Male  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General  Search this
Ely Samuel Parker: Male  Search this
Ely Samuel Parker: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ely Samuel Parker: Science and Technology\Engineer  Search this
Ely Samuel Parker: Politics and Government\Government official\Commissioner  Search this
Ely Samuel Parker: Native American\Native American diplomat  Search this
Orville Elias Babcock: Male  Search this
Orville Elias Babcock: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Orville Elias Babcock: Science and Technology\Engineer\Military engineer  Search this
Charles Marshall: Male  Search this
Charles Marshall: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Charles Marshall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Walter Herron Taylor: Male  Search this
Walter Herron Taylor: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Wesley Merritt: Male  Search this
Wesley Merritt: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Wesley Merritt: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
James William Forsyth: Male  Search this
James William Forsyth: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Male  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of War  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
John Gibbon: Male  Search this
John Gibbon: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
John Gibbon: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General  Search this
Cyrus Ballou Comstock: Male  Search this
Cyrus Ballou Comstock: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor  Search this
Cyrus Ballou Comstock: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Cyrus Ballou Comstock: Science and Technology\Engineer\Military engineer  Search this
Charles Griffin: Male  Search this
Charles Griffin: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.80.114
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm42502dac2-5df0-433c-9103-f97ed3ddda9c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.80.114

Eatenonha native roots of modern democracy Georges Sioui

Author:
Sioui, Georges E. 1948-  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Place:
Canada
Date:
2019
Topic:
Wyandot Indians  Search this
Hurons  Search this
Canada  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156569

Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection

Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Extent:
3,710 Photographic prints (29 photograph albums)
3 Linear feet
1430 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
325 Lantern slides (colored)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Osage  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Rincon Band Luiseño  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Pala Band Luiseño (Agua Caliente)  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Bering Strait Inupiaq  Search this
Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Lantern slides
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Utah
Alaska
Oklahoma
Washington
Florida
Montana
Arizona
Arkansas
Missouri
North Carolina
Minnesota
New Mexico
California
Date:
1880-1928
bulk 1899-1909
Summary:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.

Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.

Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).

Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.

Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).

Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.

Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
Arrangement:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.

Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire. In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.

In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.

Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903

1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.

1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.

1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.

1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.

1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.

1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).

1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.

1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.

1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.

1902, May-June -- Visit to Winnebago Agency, Omaha Agency, Santee Agency.

1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.

1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.

1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.

1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.

1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.

1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.

1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.

Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905

1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.

1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).

1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.

1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).

1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.

1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.

1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.

1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.

1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.

1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.

1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.

1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.

Travels in Alaska, 1905

1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.

1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.

1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.

1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.

1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.

1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907

1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.

1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.

1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.

1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.

1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.

1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.

1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.

1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.

1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).

1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).

1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.

1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.

1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.

1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.

1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).

1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909

1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.

1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove

1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.

1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.

1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.

1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.

1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.

1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.

1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.

1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.

1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Provenance:
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Boarding schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45e31a2d8-afd7-4320-96c7-1f596f51c142
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-058
Online Media:

Stringing rosaries the history, the unforgivable, and the healing of Northern Plains American Indian boarding school survivors Denise K. Lajimodiere

Title:
History, the unforgivable, and the healing of Northern Plains American Indian boarding school survivors
Author:
Lajimodiere, Denise K  Search this
Physical description:
[xiii], 277 pages illustrations, 1 folded map 24 cm
Type:
Interviews
Biography
Entretiens
Biographies
collective biographies
HISTORY / Native American
HISTORY / United States / 20th Century
HISTORY / United States / State & Local / Midwest (IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, WI)
EDUCATION / General
History
Place:
Great Plains
Grandes Plaines
Date:
2019
20th century
20e siècle
Topic:
Off-reservation boarding schools--History  Search this
Indian children--Education--History  Search this
Indian children--Abuse of--History  Search this
Indians, Treatment of--History  Search this
Boarding school students  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools--Students  Search this
Hidatsa Indians  Search this
Internats pour Autochtones--Histoire  Search this
Enfants indiens d'Amérique--Éducation--Histoire  Search this
Enfants indiens d'Amérique--Violence envers--Histoire  Search this
Internes  Search this
Ojibwa (Indiens)  Search this
Hidatsa (Indiens)  Search this
Dakota (Indiens)  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Families  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Indian children--Abuse of  Search this
Indian children--Education  Search this
Indians, Treatment of  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156813

Encyclopedia of American Indian history & culture stories, time lines, maps, and more Cynthia O'Brien

Title:
Encyclopedia of American Indian history and culture
American Indian history & culture
National Geographic encyclopedia of American Indian history & culture stories, time lines, maps, and more
Author:
O'Brien, Cynthia (Cynthia J.)  Search this
Physical description:
303 pages illustrations (chiefly color), color maps 31 cm
Type:
Encyclopedias, Juvenile
Encyclopedias
Instructional and educational works
Encyclopedia
encyclopedias
Juvenile works
Matériel d'éducation et de formation
Encyclopédies
Place:
North America
Date:
2019
Topic:
JUVENILE NONFICTION / People & Places / United States / Native American  Search this
JUVENILE NONFICTION / Reference / Encyclopedias  Search this
JUVENILE NONFICTION / History / United States / General  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Juvenile literature  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1113546

Charles C. Painter the life of an Indian reform advocate Valerie Sherer Mathes

Title:
Life of an Indian reform advocate
Author:
Mathes, Valerie Sherer 1941-  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource illustrations
Type:
Biography
Biographies
Electronic books
History
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
États-Unis
Date:
2020
19th century
19e siècle
Topic:
History  Search this
Legal status, laws, etc  Search this
Government relations  Search this
Indigenous peoples--Civil rights--History  Search this
Lobbyists  Search this
Indiens d'Amérique--Histoire  Search this
Autochtones--Droits--Histoire  Search this
Lobbyistes  Search this
Employees  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Indians of North America--Government relations  Search this
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc  Search this
Indigenous peoples--Civil rights  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156971

Indians of North America television series collection

Creator:
InVision Communications  Search this
Schlessinger Video Productions  Search this
Extent:
382 Videocassettes (BetacamSP)
4 Linear feet
Culture:
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Chinook  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Narragansett  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes (betacamsp)
Date:
1994-1996
Summary:
This collection contains 382 videocassettes and 4 linear feet of notes and production bibles from the Indians of North American television series collection. This 20-part critically acclaimed educational video series designed for middle school students produced and distributed nationally by InVision Communications and Schlessinger Media in 1994 and 1996.
Scope and Contents:
The Indians of North America television series collection contains video and papers related to the production of the 20-part critically acclaimed educational video series designed for middle school students produced and distributed nationally by InVision Communications and Schlessinger Media in 1994 and 1996. This landmark series focused on individual tribes with the mission to tell the origin and history of American Indian cultures in North America to young student audiences; dispel stereotypes of popular culture; highlight contributions made by American Indians towards the development of the United States; educate about the genocide and cultural assimilation efforts of the U.S. government; highlight facets of contemporary Native lives; and tell the various stories and histories from American Indian perspectives.

The bulk of the materials in this collection was created in 1993 to 1994. The video assets include an average 10 hours of recordings per community recorded on BetaSP format analog videotape, with a total of 382 tapes. The footage includes interviews with many tribal elders, including Presidential Medal of Honor recipient Chief Joseph Medicine Crow and Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Native communities documented in the footage include Apache, Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Cherokee, Chinook, Diné (Navajo), Haudenosaunee (Iroquois- Seneca), Lenape (Delaware), Maya, Menominee (Menomini), Muskogee (Creek), Nahua (Aztec), Nakota (Yankton Sioux), Narragansett, Niuam (Comanche), Potawatomi, Pueblo, Seminole, Stockbridge-Munsee, Taos Pueblo, Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), and Wendat (Huron).

The collection also includes 4 cubic feet of 'production bibles.'
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged by community.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1988, Henry Nevison and Jacqui Neulinger, founded InVision Communications. In 1994 and 1996, InVision Communications along with Schlessinger Media produced a 20-part series of 35-minute segments exploring various Native American cultures. These tapes were distributed to schools nationwide for educational purposes. The series won the Silver Medal at the New York Festivals.
Provenance:
Gift of Henry Nevison, 2017.
Restrictions:
Due to the fragile nature of the materials, this collection is currently closed to researchers until it has been digitized.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Indians of North America television series collection, NMAI.AC.124; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.124
See more items in:
Indians of North America television series collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4f1e5d095-b9e6-44c1-9bb6-3591988fef90
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-124

St. Christopher's Mission, Bluff, Utah [picture postcard]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Photographer:
Thompson, George  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Philatelic Collection, Smithsonian Institution.  Search this
Blenkle, Victor A., Dr., 1900-1978 (physician)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (black-and-white, 3-1/2" x 5-1/2".)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Missions  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
Bluff (Utah)
Date:
1946
Scope and Contents:
A black-and-white photograph of a woman teaching in front of Navajo students of varied ages and genders. Caption: "This mission to the Navajo Indians was begun in 1943 by the Episcopal church near Bluff, Utah in an area where primitive Indians had no medical, educational or spiritual care before that time." Image bears postal cancellation dated 1946. The photo credit is George Thompson, 1946.
General:
Series 1, Box 13, U.S.A.--Utah--Cities.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Missionaries  Search this
Christian education  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards -- 1940-1950
Picture postcards -- 1940-1950
Collection Citation:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection, c. 1880-c. 1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution,
See more items in:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection / Series 1: Geographical Locations within United States / Utah - Cities
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85ce63c2e-5afd-4048-9161-a96c016e6cde
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0200-ref2246

Potomac Creek Ware Sherds, Potomac Creek Ware Sherds, Prehistoric Pottery Fragments

Discipline:
Anthropology  Search this
Region:
US Mid Atlantic (PA, NJ, MD, DE, DC, VA, WV)  Search this
Material:
Ceramic, Sand, Quartz
Culture:
Woodland  Search this
Object Type:
Education and Outreach collections
Collecting Locality:
Chesapeake area, North America, United States
Topic:
Education & Outreach  Search this
USNM Number:
EO2056
See more items in:
Q?rius, The Coralyn W. Whitney Science Education Center
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e991cdde-db1d-49b5-9b55-b559041adb5f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnheducation_10000061
Online Media:

Shell Tempered Sherds, Shell Tempered Sherds, Prehistoric Pottery Fragments

Discipline:
Anthropology  Search this
Region:
US Mid Atlantic (PA, NJ, MD, DE, DC, VA, WV)  Search this
Material:
Ceramic, Shell
Culture:
Woodland  Search this
Object Type:
Education and Outreach collections
Collecting Locality:
North America, United States
Topic:
Education & Outreach  Search this
USNM Number:
EO2081
See more items in:
Q?rius, The Coralyn W. Whitney Science Education Center
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/39c8dc33b-a4cd-44e4-a3c6-f903b55b0f91
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnheducation_10000086
Online Media:

Quartz Tempered Sherds, Quartz Tempered Sherds, Prehistoric Pottery Fragments

Discipline:
Anthropology  Search this
Material:
Ceramic, Quartz
Culture:
Woodland  Search this
Object Type:
Education and Outreach collections
Topic:
Education & Outreach  Search this
USNM Number:
EO2089
See more items in:
Q?rius, The Coralyn W. Whitney Science Education Center
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3bdfca39f-4758-4c35-9cce-6297463bd407
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnheducation_10000094
Online Media:

Limestone Sherd and Ground Limestone Temper, Limestone Sherd and Ground Limestone Temper, Prehistoric Stone Material for Pottery

Discipline:
Anthropology  Search this
Material:
Ceramic, Limestone
Culture:
Woodland  Search this
Object Type:
Education and Outreach collections
Topic:
Education & Outreach  Search this
USNM Number:
EO2183
See more items in:
Q?rius, The Coralyn W. Whitney Science Education Center
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/33b7f3e19-89fc-4f1c-bc8b-265168c647a0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnheducation_10000188
Online Media:

Culinary Vessel Sherds, Prehistoric Southwestern Pottery Fragments

Discipline:
Anthropology  Search this
Region:
US Southwest (NM, AZ, UT, NV)  Search this
Material:
Ceramic
Culture:
Zuni  Search this
Object Type:
Education and Outreach collections
Collecting Locality:
Hawikuh, North America, United States, New Mexico, Cibola County
Topic:
Education & Outreach  Search this
USNM Number:
EO2531
See more items in:
Q?rius, The Coralyn W. Whitney Science Education Center
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30588eff2-4d89-4696-9a01-5bc6b411c042
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnheducation_10000536
Online Media:

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