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Robert Burnette photograph collection

Collector:
Burnette, Robert, 1926-1984  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
McGovern, George S. (George Stanley), 1922-2012  Search this
Udall, Stewart L.  Search this
Photographer:
O'Neill Photo Co.  Search this
Extent:
149 Copy negatives (circa)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Date:
circa 1910-1970
Scope and Contents note:
Copies made from a photograph album compiled by Robert Burnett that appears to relate to three periods. A few photographs dated around 1910-1912 were likely received from Burnett's family and depict family members, ranchers, tipis, and people gathered for White River Frontier Days. Other photographs show Burnette and friends while he was in high school and then in the US Marine Corps during World War II. Many of the later photographs date around 1961-1964, when Burnette was Executive Secretary of the National Congress of American Indians; some of these depict Burnette and other Native Americans with John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, George McGovern, and Stewart L. Udall.
Biographical/Historical note:
Robert Burnette (1926-1984) was a Native American civil rights leader, Tribal Chair of the Rosebud Sioux, and Executive Secretary of the National Congress of American Indians. He is also the coauthor of The Road to Wounded Knee, published in 1974.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 92-45
Reproduction Note:
Copy negatives made by Smithsonian Institution, 1990.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds the National Congress of American Indians Records, 1933-1990.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 92-45, Robert Burnette photograph collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.92-45
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-92-45

Jim Wallace photographs of Trail of Self Determination demonstration

Creator:
Wallace, Jim (James H.)  Search this
Extent:
271 Contact prints ((proof sheets))
6 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contact prints
Prints
Photographs
Place:
White House (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1976
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs documenting Trail of Self Determination demonstration in front of the White House on July 2-5, 1976. They include images of demonstrators, White House security, people on a tour, press badges, demonstration paraphenalia, and waste cleanup. The collection includes proof sheets and six prints from the proofs.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jim Wallace was a photographer and director of the Smithsonian Institution's Office of Printing and Photographic Services. He photographed several civil rights demonstrations throughout his career, beginning in the early 1960s when he was a student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 80-5
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Information relating to Wallace's work for the Office of Printing and Photographic Services can be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in the office's administrative records (SIA Acc. 09-257).
The University Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill holds additional civil rights photography by Wallace.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Demonstrations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 80-5, Jim Wallace photographs of Trail of Self Determination demonstration, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.80-5
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-80-5

Festival Recordings: South Studio Stage: Ulali; Freedom Singers; Warwick with Louisiana Hayride Band

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. The American South Program 1996 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Patten, Marian (recorder)  Search this
Dennie, David (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Kreisberg, Jennifer  Search this
Fikes, Betty Mae  Search this
Harris, Rutha  Search this
Warwick, Margaret Lewis  Search this
Franks, Tillman  Search this
Ulali (Musical group)  Search this
Pura Fé  Search this
Freedom Singers  Search this
Louisiana Hayride Band  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Americans  Search this
Cherokee Indians  Search this
Tuscarora Indians  Search this
African American  Search this
Anglo-American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
North Carolina
New York
Georgia
Mississippi
Alabama
Louisiana
Shreveport (La.)
Date:
1996 July 5
Track Information:
101 Contemporary Native American A Cappella / Ulali (Musical group), Jennifer Kreisberg, Pura Fé.

102 Songs of Stuggle / Freedom Singers, Bettie Mae Fikes, Rutha Harris.

103 Country / Louisiana Hayride Band, Margaret Lewis Warwick, Tillman Franks. Hawaiian guitar,Keyboards (Music),Guitar,Fiddle.
Local Numbers:
FP-1996-CT-0032
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1996.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Acappella Vocal Band  Search this
Gospel music  Search this
Topical songs  Search this
Struggle  Search this
Country music  Search this
Hawaiian guitar  Search this
Keyboards (Music)  Search this
Guitar  Search this
Violin  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1996 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1996, Item FP-1996-CT-0032
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1996 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1996 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: The American South / 2.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1996-ref582

Notes

Creator:
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Collection Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
November 4, 1918
Scope and Contents:
"Notes, Ind Law--Suggestions--JM" Concern the civil rights of Indians in the army and the reaction of the Kiowas and Cheyennes.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1647(12)
Topic:
Federal-Indian relations  Search this
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 1647, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1647 Miscellaneous materials by Hewitt and others
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1647-ref9

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Border Stories: Crafts & Occupations

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Sierra Cruz, Francisco Paulino, 1955-  Search this
Collins, Julius, 1928-  Search this
Hernandez, Reynaldo B.  Search this
Herrera, Alonso Encina  Search this
López, Gloria López  Search this
López, Ofelia Santos  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Cajuns  Search this
Mixtec Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Texas
Arizona
Mexico
Tucson (Ariz.)
Brownsville (Tex.)
Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico
Durango
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
Date:
1993 July 2
Track Information:
101 Border Stories / Francisco Paulino Sierra Cruz, Julius Collins, Reynaldo B. Hernandez.

102 Crafts and Occupations / Alonso Encina Herrera, Gloria López López, Ofelia Santos López.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0086
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 2, 1993.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Storytelling  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Borderlands  Search this
Shrimps  Search this
Border patrols  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Basket making  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0086
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref708

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Guitar making Workshop: Border Stories

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Ramírez, Oscar, 1944-  Search this
Strong, Arturo Carrillo, 1930-  Search this
Bonaparte, Brad  Search this
Yucupicio, Peter S., 1957-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Americans  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Yaqui Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Durango
Mexico
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
Arizona
New York
Tucson (Ariz.)
Magdalena de Kino (Mexico)
Date:
1993 July 2
Track Information:
101 Guitarmaking Workshop / Oscar Ramírez. Guitar.

102 Border Stories / Arturo Carrillo Strong, Brad Bonaparte, Peter S. Yucupicio.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0087
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 2, 1993.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Guitar  Search this
Musical instruments -- Construction  Search this
Smuggling  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Drugs  Search this
Herbs -- Theraputic use  Search this
Borderlands  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0087
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref709

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Guitar making Workshop: Border Stories: Paper Crafts Workshop

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Ramírez, Oscar, 1944-  Search this
Strong, Arturo Carrillo, 1930-  Search this
Bonaparte, Brad  Search this
Bernholz, Richard M., 1954-  Search this
Rogues, Maria G. Moroyoqui'd de  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Americans  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Durango
Mexico
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
Texas
Arizona
New York
Tucson (Ariz.)
Presidio (Tex.)
Nogales (Nogales, Mexico)
Date:
1993 July 4
Track Information:
101 Guitarmaking Workshop / Oscar Ramírez.

102 Borders Stories / Arturo Carrillo Strong, Brad Bonaparte, Richard M. Bernholz.

103 Paper Crafts Workshop / Maria G. Moroyoqui'd de Rogues.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0094
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 4, 1993.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Storytelling  Search this
Musical instruments -- Construction  Search this
Border patrols  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Smuggling  Search this
Migrant workers  Search this
Borderlands  Search this
Paper flowers  Search this
Paper art  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0094
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref716

Anne Pearse-Hocker negatives, photographs, and other materials

Photographer:
Pearse-Hocker, Anne  Search this
Names:
American Indian Movement  Search this
Aquash, Anna Mae, 1945-1976  Search this
Banks, Dennis  Search this
Bellecourt, Clyde H. (Clyde Howard), 1936-  Search this
Bellecourt, Vernon  Search this
Black Elk, Wallace H.  Search this
Frizzell, Kent, 1929-  Search this
Means, Russell, 1939-  Search this
Extent:
54 Contact sheets (black and white)
35 mm. (black and white, 8 x 10 in.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contact sheets
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Pine Ridge (S.D.)
Wounded Knee (S.D.) -- History -- Indian occupation, 1973
Date:
1970-1973
Summary:
The majority of Pearse-Hocker's momentous negatives give eyewitness account to two weeks of both the mundane and brutal reality of daily life during the 1973 occupation of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. The takeover of the town and the conflict between about 200 members of AIM (American Indian Movement, the Native American civil rights activist organization begun in the 1968) and the United States Marshals Service began on February 27 and lasted for 71 days, resulting in tragedy on both sides of the conflict. Members of AIM along with some local Oglala (Lakota) Sioux from the local reservation took over the town in protest against the United States Government's history of broken treaties with various Native groups, the poverty and maltreatment of Native populations, as well as in defiance against the corruption and paternalism within the local subsidiary of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs). The siege finally came to an end on May 5 when members of AIM and the assistant attorney general for the Civil Division of the US Justice Department Harlington Wood Jr. settled on a ceasefire. Kent Frizzell served as Chief Government Negotiator in the capacity of Assistant Attorney General (Land and Natural Resources Division, U. S. Department of Justice) and later as Solicitor, U. S. Department of the Interior. Among those pictured both during and post-conflict are AIM activists Dennis Banks, Clyde and Vernon Bellecourt, Ted and Russell Means, Frank Clearwater, Wallace Black Elk and Anna Mae Pictou Aquash. A small number of negatives also document AIM's takeover of the BIA building and the AIM Powwow both in Minneapolis in 1970.
Arrangement note:
Negatives: organized in binders; arranged in sleeves by strip and image number, interspersed with relevant applicable contact sheets
Biographical/Historical note:
Anne Pearse-Hocker is a photojournalist who first encountered the American Indian Movement while a student on assignment for a journalism class at the University of Kansas. Her photographs document some very important moments in the early history of the American Indian Movement (AIM).

Pearse-Hocker was scheduled to interview the area director of the BIA in Minneapolis in the spring of 1970 as part of an Investigative Reporting class, and walked into the middle of an AIM occupation of the building, which she documented on film and with taped interviews. She stayed well past her spring break plans to use this opportunity to develop contacts with AIM leaders Clyde Bellecourt and Dennis Banks.

Her connections came in handy in 1973 during the occupation of Wounded Knee. Pearse-Hocker sneaked into the compound with a CBS news crew at night, and was allowed to remain due to her acquaintance with Banks, who remembered her from Minneapolis. She had strategically arrived the evening before the standoff was supposed to end, but when the settlement negotiations fell through, she remained in the compound for an additional few weeks, documenting the daily events including the firefight that claimed Frank Clearwater's life.

Pearse-Hocker returned to Wounded Knee in 1998 to revisit the site on the 25th anniversary of the occupation, and documented the experience for the journal 'Native Americas' (Spring 1998 issue) with new photographs of some of the survivors of the event.

After a career of news photography in broadcast journalism, she is retired and living in Montana.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the Archive Center to make an appointment.
Rights:
Copyright: Anne Pearse-Hocker, 1973. Researchers must contact copyright holder for permissions, reproductions, and use.
Topic:
Teton Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Government relations  Search this
Oglala Indians -- Government relations  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Contact sheets
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.028
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-028

National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

Peratrovich family papers

Creator:
Peratrovich, Roy, Sr., 1908-1989  Search this
Peratrovich, Elizabeth, 1911-1958  Search this
Names:
Alaska Native Brotherhood  Search this
Alaska Native Sisterhood  Search this
Peratrovich, Elizabeth, 1911-1958  Search this
Peratrovich, Roy, Sr., 1908-1989  Search this
Extent:
0.42 Linear feet
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Tlingit  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1929-2001
bulk 1939-2001
Summary:
The Peratrovich family papers include correspondence, personal papers, and newsclippings related to civil rights work done by Elizabeth and Roy Peratrovich in Alaska in the mid-twentieth century.
Scope and Contents:
The Peratrovich family papers include correspondence, personal papers, and newsclippings related to civil rights work done by Elizabeth and Roy Peratrovich, Sr. in Alaska circa 1940-1960. Particular materials include draft legislation related to the 1945 Alaska anti-discrimination law providing for equal accommodation privileges to all citizens, the 1988 establishment of Elizabeth Wanamaker Peratrovich Day (February 16) in Alaska, and activities by Elizabeth and Roy on behalf of the Alaska Native Sisterhood and Alaska Native Brotherhood organizations. In addition to manuscript materials, two CDs of audio recordings include radio interviews about the life and work of Elizabeth. Most of the photographic materials in this collection are photocopies made by Roy Peratrovich, Sr.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection were removed from three-ring binders and placed in 7 folders. Original order was maintained.
Biographical / Historical:
Elizabeth Wanamaker Peratrovich (1911-1958) and her husband Roy Peratrovich, Sr. (1908-1989), both members of the Tlingit Nation, were prominent civil rights activists in Alaska. They worked on behalf of Alaska Natives, advocating for equality of all citizens, regardless of race. Both were influential in this work, with Elizabeth being credited with the passage of the 1945 Anti-Discrimination Act, and later honored posthumously by the Alaska Legislature when February 16 was established as Elizabeth Peratrovich Day. Both Elizabeth and Roy additionally served as leaders of the Alaska Native Sisterhood and Alaska Native Brotherhood, promoting Native rights and culture. After Elizabeth's death in 1958, Roy continued his and his wife's advocacy for Alaska Natives, as he worked with the Bureau of Indian Affairs for 38 years, eventually becoming superintendent of the BIA office in Anchorage.
Related Materials:
A similar manuscript holding, absent the two CDs of audio recordings, is held at the Alaska State Library Historical Collections in Juneau, Alaska, as MS 129: Peratrovich Family Papers.
Separated Materials:
A bust of Elizabeth Peratrovich, made of cast bronze on a walnut wood base, sculpted by her son Roy Peratrovich, Jr., was gifted to the NMAI along with the Peratrovich family papers. The bust of Elizabeth Peratrovich was assigned object number 25/5195, and is housed with the NMAI Object Collections.

A bust of Roy Peratrovich, made of cast bronze on a walnut wood base with plaque reading "Roy Peratrovich ANB Grand President Emeritus," sculpted by his son Roy Peratrovich, Jr., was gifted to the NMAI in 2003. The bust of Roy Peratrovich was assigned object number 26/1569, and is housed next to the bust of his wife in the NMAI Object Collections.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Roy Peratrovich, Jr., in 2001.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Race discrimination -- Law and legislation  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Civil rights -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Peratrovich family papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.078
See more items in:
Peratrovich family papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-078
Online Media:

Festival Recordings: Learning Center/Camp Fire: Fernando Cellicion; Flute Zuni Pueblo: Images, Tourists and Traditions

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. New Mexico Program 1992 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Place, Janet L. (recorder)  Search this
Bergeson, Kevin (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Cellcion, Fernando  Search this
Concha, Benito, 1965-  Search this
Martinez, Consuelo, 1948-  Search this
Garcia, Peter, 1927-2001  Search this
Atencio, Paulette, 1947-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Americans  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
New Mexico
Zuni (N.M.)
Taos (N.M.)
Mora (N.M.)
Santa Fe (N.M.)
Date:
1992 June 26
Track Information:
101 Fernando Cellicion- Zuni Flute / Fernando Cellcion. Flute.

102 Images, Tourists and Traditions / Benito Concha, Consuelo Martinez, Peter Garcia.

103 Cuentos: Stories from the Rio Grande Valley / Paulette Atencio.
Local Numbers:
FP-1992-CT-0133
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, June 26, 1992.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Storytelling  Search this
Flute  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Crafts & decorating  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Item FP-1992-CT-0133
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: New Mexico / Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref681

Teriananda papers

Author:
Teriananda, 1947-  Search this
Names:
Peltier, Leonard  Search this
Extent:
0.83 Linear feet (2 archival boxes )
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Writings
Letters
Clippings
Reports
Date:
1972 - 1999
Summary:
The Teriananda Papers, located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, contain writings authored by Teriananda, as well as various position papers, news articles, flyers, correspondence, and group newsletters that represent the political activities she participated in on behalf of Native American and other indigenous peoples.
Scope and Contents:
This collection, from the 1970s to the 1990s, is comprised of published and unpublished writings by Teriananda, as well as letters, reports, newspaper and magazine articles, group newsletters, flyers and announcements of political events, and news releases. The issues represented here, including support work for "The Longest Walk," the campaign for justice for Leonard Peltier, and the Big Mountain relocation are indicative of the concerns in parts of Indian country in the United States and elsewhere during these decades.
Arrangement:
The Teriananda papers are arranged into two series:

Series I: Writings (1978-1991)

Series II: Political Activities (undated; 1972-1996)
Biographical / Historical:
Teriananda was born in Manhattan in 1947, where she grew up and has continued to live throughout her adult life. Teriananda's father, born in Brooklyn, became a financial officer and independent scholar, her mother, born in British Guiana (now Guyana), was a classical pianist who immigrated to the United States and later became an editorial assistant, working part-time during Teriananda's childhood. Her parents instilled in Teriananda a belief that she was "a citizen of the world." She studied ballet as a youngster, and, as a teenager, immersed herself in the artistic and intellectual milieu of the Lower East Side and Greenwich Village. An improperly diagnosed back injury while she was a senior in high school resulted in severe back problems in the 1970s that have persisted throughout her life.

Teriananda became interested in indigenous struggles in the 1970s following a "back crisis" that almost took her life yet proved to be psychically transformative. In seeking to know who she was, she realized she needed to know where she was, and this led her to ask who the original inhabitants of the continent were. She soon became involved in activist struggles for indigenous rights, and worked with a number of Native American groups during the 1970s and 1980s, including, among other things, the International Treaty Council's attempts to found the U.N.'s permanent Working Group on Indigenous People, support for Yvonne Wanrow and Leonard Peltier, the issue of uranium contamination from mining on Native American land, and the problem of the Joint Land Use Area near Big Mountain on the Hopi and Navajo reservations.

Teriananda also worked on issues surrounding the AIDS crisis after the death of several friends from this disease. She had become familiar with the possibilities of natural medicines, partly through contact with traditional Native teachers, and she became active promoting the benefits of nutritional, herbal and other natural therapies to sufferers of AIDS. As Teriananda's own health issues persisted and worsened, she turned to Tibetan Buddhism, and has devoted herself to artistic pursuits influenced by this spiritual path, although she has worked artistically since the early 1970s, when she stopped dancing. Although she has cut back on her activism, due to health problems and family demands, Teriananda remains a committed political activist who stays informed of current issues and is determined to pass on the heritage of struggles for peace and justice to the next generation.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of the American Indian Archives by Teriananda in March 2003
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the NMAI Archivist. The Archives has no information on the status of literary rights for the work of others found in these papers; researchers are responsible for determining any question of copyright.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Relocation  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Traditional medicine  Search this
AIDS (Disease)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Indians of Central America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Writings
Letters
Clippings
Reports
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Teriananda papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.009
See more items in:
Teriananda papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-009

National Congress of American Indians Audio and Film Recordings

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Delacruz, Joseph B.  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
24 Videoreels (1/2 inch)
1 Videocassettes (Hi8)
3 Sound cartridges
1 Sound recording (dictaphone belt)
10 Videocassettes (VHS)
442 Sound tape reels (1/4" open reel)
30 Videocassettes (U-matic)
713 Sound cassettes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes (hi8)
Sound cartridges
Sound recordings
Videocassettes (vhs)
Sound tape reels
Videocassettes (u-matic)
Sound cassettes
Audiotapes
Audiovisual materials
Audiocassettes
Date:
1952-1997
Summary:
The National Congress of America Indians (NCAI), which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO and is still active today. NCAI was founded to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government but also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare. This collection of National Congress of America Indians Audio and Film Recordings contains materials created by and for NCAI to maintain a record of organizational proceedings and events between 1952 and 1997. Recorded in various formats, the bulk of this collection is on 1/4" open reel to reel tapes and sound cassettes. The events represented in this collection include annual and mid-year conventions, executive council meetings, congressional hearings, intertribal institutes and a variety of workshops and meetings regarding economic, civil and educational issues facing indian country.
Scope and Contents:
This collection of National Congress of America Indians Audio and Film Recordings contains materials created by and for NCAI to maintain a record of organizational proceedings and events between 1952 and 1997. Recorded in various formats, the bulk of this collection is on 1/4" open reel to reel tapes and sound cassettes. The collection also contains smaller numbers of EIAJ open reel videotapes, U-Matic, VHS and Hi-8 videocassettes and well as dictaphone belts and audio cartridges. The first series in this collection contains audio recordings from NCAI annual and mid-year convetions held in different locations all over the United States. The second series includes events hosted by NCAI or attended by NCAI representatives. These include executive council meetings, congressional hearings, intertribal institutes and a variety of workshops and meetings regarding economic, civil and educational issues facing indian country. Several larger events include the Arizona Intertribal Institute (1955), The National Indian Policy Conference (1974), LEAA Conference (1978), Environmental Protection Hearings and Seminars (1988) and the Senate Indian Affairs Special Investigations Subcommittee meetings (1989). A conference held in 1993 also documents the early history of NCAI with speakers such as Helen Peterson, John Rainer and Erma Hicks Walz.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series and chronologically within each series. Series 1: Annual and Mid-Year Conventions, 1953-1989, Series 2: Chronological Events, 1952-1997, and Series 3: Commercial Audio/Video, 1972-1989.
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

National Congress of American Indians records,1933-1990 (NMAI.AC.010)

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.AC.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.AC.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.AC.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.AC.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.AC.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Government relations  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Congresses and conventions  Search this
Legislative hearings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Audiovisual materials
Audiocassettes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); National Congress of American Indians Audio and Film Recordings, Box Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010.001
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians Audio and Film Recordings
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010-001

The White Eagles/Black Indians of New Orleans

Artist:
Marilyn Nance, born New York City 1953  Search this
Medium:
gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
sheet: 15 7/8 x 19 7/8 in. (40.4 x 50.4 cm.)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
1980
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Ethnic\African-American  Search this
Performing arts\music  Search this
Cityscape\Louisiana\New Orleans  Search this
Dress\costume\Indian costume  Search this
Ceremony\festival\New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Fest.  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase made possible by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment and the Smithsonian Institution Collections Acquisition Program
Copyright:
© 1980, Marilyn Nance
Object number:
1994.66.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk72c6c750b-6bf1-4122-8f7b-24bd624def86
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1994.66.2

Cartoon, "Move On!", 1871

Producer:
Nast, Thomas  Search this
Maker:
Nast, Thomas  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
black; white (overall color)
Measurements:
overall: 10 1/2 in x 16 in; 26.67 cm x 40.64 cm
Object Name:
sheet
cartoon
Date made:
April 22, 1871
Copyright date:
April 22, 1871
Subject:
Voting Rights  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Political Caricatures  Search this
Credit Line:
Marcia B. Kass
ID Number:
2009.0245.098
Accession number:
2009.0245
Catalog number:
2009.0245.098
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-562d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1464139
Online Media:

"La Tierra Nueva en Aztlán"

Artist:
Moya, Manuel  Search this
Physical Description:
cotton (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 40.5 cm x 40 cm; 15 15/16 in x 15 3/4 in
average spatial: 18 in x 15 in; 45.72 cm x 38.1 cm
Object Name:
handkerchief
Place Made:
United States: New Mexico, Albuquerque
Date made:
1986
Subject:
Prisons  Search this
Latino  Search this
Civil Rights Movement  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
La Tierra Nueva en Aztlan  Search this
ID Number:
1991.0431.01
Catalog number:
1991.0431.01
Accession number:
1991.0431
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Ethnic
Cultures & Communities
Mexican America
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-a214-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1121879

poster

Depicted (sitter):
United Farm Workers  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 22 in x 17 in; 55.88 cm x 43.18 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Subject:
Bicentennial  Search this
Protest and Civil Disobedience  Search this
Minorities  Search this
Chicano movement  Search this
Civil Rights Movement  Search this
Police Brutality  Search this
Puerto Rico  Search this
Asian  Search this
Blacks  Search this
African American  Search this
Strikes and Boycotts  Search this
imperialism  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Credit Line:
Gary D. Yanker
ID Number:
1986.1035.007
Catalog number:
1986.1035.007
Accession number:
1986.1035
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Princeton Posters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-b63c-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1052598

poster

Depicted (sitter):
United Farm Workers  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 22 1/2 in x 17 in; 57.15 cm x 43.18 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Referenced:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Date made:
1976
Associated Date:
July 4, 1976
Subject:
Minorities  Search this
Chicano movement  Search this
Civil Rights Movement  Search this
Police Brutality  Search this
Puerto Rico  Search this
Asian  Search this
Blacks  Search this
Strikes and Boycotts  Search this
imperialism  Search this
Bicentennial  Search this
Protest and Civil Disobedience  Search this
African American  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Credit Line:
Anne B. Zill
ID Number:
1986.0231.065
Accession number:
1986.0231
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History
Princeton Posters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-6608-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_535224

poster

Depicted (sitter):
King, Jr., Martin Luther  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 22 1/2 in x 17 in; 57.15 cm x 43.18 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Associated Place:
United States: California, Davis
Associated Date:
1960s
Subject:
Protest and Civil Disobedience  Search this
Civil Rights Movement  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Credit Line:
Anne B. Zill
ID Number:
1986.0231.097
Accession number:
1986.0231
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History
Princeton Posters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-a966-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_535256

Button, "We Shall Overcome"

Depicted:
Sitting Bull  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
white, red (overall color)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/2 in; x 3.81 cm
Object Name:
Button
Subject:
Civil Rights Movement  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Credit Line:
U.S. Legislative Branch, Library of Congress, Exchange and Gift Division
ID Number:
1984.1081.223
Accession number:
1984.1081
Catalog number:
1984.1081.223
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Reform Movements Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith
Exhibition:
American Democracy
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a3-70f8-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_535142
Online Media:

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