Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
15 documents - page 1 of 1

Chris Gjording papers

Creator:
Gjording, Chris N., 1943-1993  Search this
Names:
Jesuits  Search this
Extent:
6.34 Linear feet (15 document boxes, 1 cassette tape, and 37 computer disks)
Culture:
Ngäbe (Guaymi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Panama
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua.
Peru
Venezuela
Date:
1966-1991
bulk 1977-1991
Summary:
The papers of Chris Gjording primarily document his research and activities in Central America, particularly his research on the Guaymíes and the Cerro Colorado copper mining project in Chiriquí, Panama. Materials pertaining to Panama include Gjording's field notes (portions of which are missing due to severe insect infestation); photographs; reference materials he collected; and his writings, which include his articles, dissertation, and drafts of his dissertation revised for publication. In addition to his work in Panama are his field notes and photographs from his research on campesino communities in Guatemala and El Salvador. Gjording also kept subject files on Latin American countries, focusing on the poor and oppressed and the social and political climate. His writings on those subjects are present in the collection and include a draft of his unpublished paper on peasant uprising in El Salvador and issues of Informacciónes, the Spanish-language newsletter that Gjording published and wrote articles for in Honduras. The collection also contains correspondence and notes relating to his visits to the Guatemalan Indian refugee camps in Los Lirios and Maya Balam in Quintana Roo in Mexico. In addition, the collection contains some of his correspondence with his mentor Ricardo Falla, a Guatemalan Jesuit priest and anthropologist, whom he refers to as "RF" in his notes. The collection also contains computer disks with chapters in Spanish from Falla's book on Ixcán, possibly Masacres de la selva: Ixcán, Guatemala, 1975-1982 (1992).
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Chris Gjording primarily document his research and activities in Central America, particularly his research on the Guaymíes and the Cerro Colorado copper mining project in Chiriquí, Panama. Materials pertaining to Panama include Gjording's field notes (portions of which are missing due to severe insect infestation); photographs; reference materials he collected; and his writings, which include his articles, dissertation, and drafts of his dissertation revised for publication. In addition to his work in Panama are his field notes and photographs from his research on campesino communities in Guatemala and El Salvador. Gjording also kept subject files on Latin American countries, focusing on the poor and oppressed and the social and political climate. His writings on those subjects are present in the collection and include a draft of his unpublished paper on peasant uprising in El Salvador and issues of Informacciónes, the Spanish-language newsletter that Gjording published and wrote articles for in Honduras. The collection also contains correspondence and notes relating to his visits to the Guatemalan Indian refugee camps in Los Lirios and Maya Balam in Quintana Roo in Mexico. In addition, the collection contains some of his correspondence with his mentor Ricardo Falla, a Guatemalan Jesuit priest and anthropologist, whom he refers to as "RF" in his notes. The collection also contains computer disks with chapters in Spanish from Falla's book on Ixcán, possibly Masacres de la selva: Ixcán, Guatemala, 1975-1982 (1992).

Additional materials in the collection are copies of Gjording's curriculum vitae; his student papers; and his college and graduate school diplomas. In addition, the collection contains a letter approving Gjording's advancement to the diaconate and priesthood and his decree of dismissal from the Society of Jesus in 1991.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 7 series: (1) Correspondence, 1985-91; (2) Panama, 1977-91; (3) Latin America, 1977-90; (4) Journals, 1977-1982, 1988-1989; (5) Personal Files, 1966-1991; (6) Photographs, 1976-89; (7) Computer Disks
Biographical Note:
Chris Gjording was an anthropologist and Jesuit priest, best known for his research on the Guaymí people of Panama and how they were affected by a transnational copper mining project on their land.

Gjording was born on January 12, 1943 in Los Angeles, California. In 1960 he entered a Jesuit seminary in Sheridan, Oregon and obtained his A.B. in philosophy from Spring Hill College in 1966. After earning his M.A. in philosophy from Tulane University (1967) and his M.Div. in theology from the Toronto School of Theology (1973), he was ordained as a Jesuit priest in Spokane, Washington. He taught philosophy and liberation theology at Gonzaga University (1973-75) before continuing his education at the New School for Social Research, where he received his M.A. (1978) and Ph.D. (1985) in social and cultural anthropology.

As both a priest and anthropologist, he felt that "field research essentially involves interpersonal relationships; and [he had] no category for engaging in such relationships with nothing in view as a potential benefit for the other." (Gjording's journal, January 11, 1978) Influenced by liberation theology, Gjording consequently focused his research on the rural poor of Central America during a period of social and political turmoil.

As a graduate student in 1977, Gjording spent the summer conducting ethnographic fieldwork among campesino communities in Chinacá, Guatemala and in Chirilagua, San Miguel, El Salvador. He returned to Central America the following year to work in Chiriquí, Panama with Centro de Estudios y Acción Social (CEASPA), a Jesuit-sponsored organization, as the anthropologist on an interdisciplinary team studying the Cerro Colorado copper mining project and its impact on Panama. Gjording's research focused on the Guaymí people, who lived on the land where the mining project was to occur. His research became the subject of his dissertation, "The Cerro Colorado Copper Project: Panama, Multinational Corporations and the Guaymi Indians." A revised version of the dissertation was published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 1991 as Conditions Not of Their Choosing: The Guaymí Indians and Mining Multinationals in Panama.

Gjording left Panama in 1982 but returned to Central America after completing his dissertation in 1985 to serve as codirector of Equipo de Reflexión, Investigación y Comunicación (E.R.I.C.), a Jesuit organization in El Progreso, Yoro, Honduras. As part of his responsibilities, he published and wrote many of the articles for Informaciones, a bimonthly newsletter in Spanish on the social, political, and economic situation in Honduras. In addition, he wrote articles for the Panamanian magazine Diálogo Social; due to the political climate in Panama, he wrote some of the articles under the pseudonym "Enrique Lobo," a name he chose in honor of the anthropologist Eric Wolf. From 1987 to 1989, he made several trips to the Guatemalan refugee camps in Quintana Roo, Mexico. He conducted informal research on the background and situation of the refugees and taught workshops that provided them guidance on whether to return to Guatemala or stay in Mexico.

Gjording returned to the United States in 1989 on a sabbatical from Central America. He left the priesthood in 1991 and obtained a position teaching anthropology and peace studies at Guilford College in Greensboro, North Carolina.

Gjording died of lung cancer on July 5, 1993 at the age of 50.

Sources Consulted

Gjording, Chris. 1978. [Daily Journal]. Chris Gjording Papers. National Anthropological Archives.

Roseberry, William. 1993. Chris N. Gjording. Anthropology Newsletter. 34(7): 44.

Chronology

1943 -- Born January 12 in Los Angeles, California

1966 -- Earns A.B. from Spring Hill College in Philosophy

1967 -- Earns M.A. from Tulane University in Philosophy

1973 -- Earns M.Div. from Toronto School of Theology Becomes an ordained Jesuit priest

1977 -- Spends summer in Central America conducting fieldwork in campesino communities in Guatemala and El Salvador

1978 -- Earns M.A. from the New School for Social Research in Anthropology

1978-1980 -- Conducts fieldwork in Chiriquí, Panama on the Guaymíes and the Cerro Colorado copper mining project

1985 -- Earns Ph.D. from the New School for Social Research in Anthropology

1985-1988 -- Codirector of E.R.I.C. (Equipo de Reflexión, Investigación y Comunicación), El Progreso, Yoro, Honduras

1989 -- Returns to United States

1991 -- Leaves priesthood Teaches Anthropology and Peace Studies at Guilford College in Greensboro, North Carolina

1993 -- Dies on July 5 at the age of 50

Selected Bibliography

1979 -- Gjording, Chris N. "Nicaragua's Unfinished Revolution," America 141 (October 6, 1979): 166-171.

1980 -- Lobo, Enrique. "La Nueva Política Indigenista (o bien: Acabemos con el Indio)," Diálogo Social 123 (May 1980): 15- 18. Lobo, Enrique. "El Pueblo Guaymí y el Gobierno Panameño (o bien: Acabemos con el Guaymí)," Diálogo Social 125 (July 1980): 22-25.

1981 -- Gjording, Chris N. The Cerro Colorado Copper Project and the Guaymí Indians of Panama. Occasional Paper No. 3. Cambridge: Cultural Survival, 1981.

1983 -- Gjording, Chris N. "The Guaymí People and Cerro Colorado." In Panama in Transition: Local Reactions to Development Policies. Monographs in Anthropology 6, edited by John Bort and Mary Helms, 19-52. Columbia: Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri, 1983.

1987 -- Gjording, Chris N. "25 Años de Reforma Agraria . . . ¿Y Que?." Informaciones 8 (May-July 1987): 9-21.

1991 -- Gjording, Chris N. Conditions Not of Their Choosing: The Guaymí Indians and Mining Multinationals in Panama. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Karin Gjording.
Restrictions:
Computer disks in the collection are restricted due to preservation concerns.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Copper mining  Search this
Refugees -- Guatemala -- Ixcán  Search this
Mining -- Peru  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Anthropologists  Search this
Citation:
Chris Gjording papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2008-19
See more items in:
Chris Gjording papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2008-19

Photographs copied by George Peter Murdock's Strategic Index of Latin America

Creator:
Murdock, George Peter, 1897-1985  Search this
Extent:
700 Copy prints (circa)
Culture:
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Virgin Islands
Venezuela
British Honduras
Chile
Brazil
British Guiana
Colombia
Dominican Republic
Paraguay
Peru
Puerto Rico
Suriname
Leeward Islands (Federation)
Mexico
Nicaragua.
Panama
Ecuador
Honduras
Bolivia
Argentina
Date:
circa 1942-1948
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs assembled circa 1942-1948, probably as part of the Strategic Index of Latin America, and relating to people and scenery in Latin America. They depict transportation, irrigation, agriculture and industry (including rubber production), cities and villages, and archeological finds. The prints are arranged geographically into the following locations: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, British Guiana, British Honduras, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Leeward Islands, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, and Windward Islands. The photographs were copied from published sources (originals circa 1850s-1940s) and are individually labeled with source information and original captions.
Biographical/Historical note:
George Peter Murdock (1897-1985) was an anthropologist of comparative ethnology. Educated at Yale, he received a BA in History (1919) and PhD in Sociology (1925). He taught sociology and anthropology at the University of Maryland for two years before returning to Yale in 1928 as an assistant professor of physical anthropology. In 1931, Murdock was granted a joint appointment with Yale's newly formed anthropology department, in which he served as department chair (1938-1960) and full professor (1939-1960). During his time at Yale, Murdock embarked on his most notable project, the Cross Cultural Survey in 1937. Positioned within the Institute of Human Relations, the CCS was a catalog of anthropological data, indexed according to Murdock's Outline of Cultural Materials (1938) to enable quick reference of cultures and analyses of a unified theory of behavior. During the Second World War, the Strategic Index of Latin America, an auxiliary arm of the CCS, was created to focus on Latin American cultural questions and strategic decision making. After the war, the CCS was reorganized by a consortium of universities as the Human Relations Area Files, with Murdock at the head. Murdock left Yale in 1960 and served as Mellon Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh until 1973.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4632
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Murdock's Pacific Survey File.
Correspondence with Murdock held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7027, MS 4821, American Ethnological Society records, Handbook of South American Indians Records, and collections of personal papers.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Cities and towns  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4632, Photographs copied by George Peter Murdock's Strategic Index of Latin America, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4632
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4632

Photographs of Quiche peoples

Names:
Safford, William Edwin, 1859-1926  Search this
Extent:
3 Negatives (glass)
Culture:
Quiché Maya (Quiche)  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1890-1902
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs documenting Indigenous peoples of Guatemala and their daily activities, including painting ceramics, weaving, using a metate, and possibly carving. The photographs may have been collected by William Edwin Safford during his time in Peru and Bolivia or donated by Mary M. Owen with matching prints in 1902.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 134G
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs collected by William Edwin Safford are held in National Anthropological Archives MS 3366, Photo Lot 97, and Photo Lot 76-26.
Additional photographs donated by Mary Owen are held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 97.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pottery  Search this
Weaving  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 134, Photographs of Quiche peoples, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.134G
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-134g

Robert Thomas Hill photograph collection relating to the Indigenous peoples of Central America

Collector:
Hill, Robert Thomas, 1858-1941  Search this
Extent:
1 Letter
29 Mounted prints (albumen)
Culture:
Indians of Central America  Search this
Talamanca  Search this
Guatuso  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters
Mounted prints
Photographs
Correspondence
Place:
Colombia
Costa Rica
Guatemala
Panama
Date:
circa 1895
Scope and Contents note:
The bulk of the collection consists of photographs documenting Indigenous peoples of Central America, including Cheripo, Guatuso, Talamanca, and Guatemala people. Additional photographs document stone artifacts found at grave sites, Panamanian women, people in Bogata, and a museum in San Jose, Costa Rica. The photographs may have been collected by Robert Thomas Hill from H. N. Rudd, a postcard publisher in Costa Rica. A letter from Rudd to Hill is also in the collection.
Biographical/Historical note:
Robert Thomas Hill (1858-1941) was a geologist best known for his work in Texas for the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Hill was orphaned during the Civil War and raised by his grandmother. While employed at his brother's newspaper in Comanche, Texas, he developed an interest in collecting rocks and fossils. In 1887, he earned a BS in geology from Cornell University. Hill worked for the USGS from 1885 to 1903 and is credited with discovering the Comanche Series of the Lower Cretaceous strata. Additionally, he conducted some preliminary studies in Central America and the West Indies between 1894 and 1902, collecting for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States National Museum. Hill resigned from the USGS in 1903 to pursue personal interests in geology and Texas history.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 170
Location of Other Archival Materials:
This collection has been relocated from Photo Lot 123.
Correspondence from Hill is held in the National Anthropological Archives in records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Artifacts collected by Hill are held in the Department of Anthropology collections in accessions 035646, 053949, 028088, and 034831.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds a field notebook from Hill (1895, 1924) in SIA ACC. 12-126. Southern Methodist University, DeGolyer Library, and Autry Center's Braun Research Library, hold collections of Hill's papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Photo Lot 170, Robert Thomas Hill photograph collection relating to the Indigenous peoples of Central America, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.170
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-170

Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Names:
Ford-Bartlett East Greenland Expedition 1930  Search this
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Huntington Free Library  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research  Search this
Former owner:
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Extent:
400 Linear feet
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Date:
1890-1998
Summary:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Scope and Contents:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Arrangement:
The MAI, Heye Foundation records have been arranged into 21 series and 50 subseries: Series 1: Directors, 1908-1990 (1.1: George Gustav Heye, 1863-1962, 1.2: Edwin K. Burnett, 1943-1960, 1.3: Frederick Dockstader, 1950-1976, 1.4: Alexander F. Draper, 1972-1977, 1.5:Roland W. Force, 1963-1990, 1.6: George Eager, Assistant Director, 1977-1990) Series 2: Board of Trustees, 1916-1990 (2.1: Board of Trustee Minutes, 1916-1990, 2.2: Individual Board Correspondence, 1943-1990, 2.3: Subject Files, 1917-1990) Series 3: Administrative, 1916-1989 (3.1: Subject Files, 1904-1991, 3.2: Personnel, 1956-1991, 3.3: Legal, 1900-1989, 3.4: Task Force, 1976-1986, 3.5: George Abrams, 1980-1991) Series 4: Financial, 1916-1990 (4.1: Ledgers, 1900-1962, 4.2: Correspondence, 1905-1985, 4.3: Subject Files, 1916-1990) Series 5: Expeditions, 1896-1973Series 6: Collectors, 1872-1981Series 7: Registration, 1856-1993Series 8: Collections Management, 1937-1988Series 9: Curatorial, 1963-1990 (9.1: Curatorial Council, 1973-1990, 9.2: Gary Galante, 1979-1991, 9.3: Mary Jane Lenz, 1974-1994, 9.4: James G. E. Smith, 1963-1990, 9.5: U. Vincent Wilcox, 1968-1984, 9.6: Anna C. Roosevelt, 1973-1988) Series 10: Exhibits, 1923-1991 (10.1: MAI Exhibits, 1923-1990, 10.2: Non-MAI Exhibits, 1937-1991) Series 11: Public Programs, 1935-1990Series 12: Publications, 1904-1994 (12.1: Annual Reports, 1917-1989, 12.2: Publications by MAI, 1904-1990, 12.3: Publications by Other Sources, 1881-1990, 12.4: Administration, 1920-1988, 12.5: Archival Set of Official Publications, 1907-1976) Series 13: Public Affairs, 1938-1991Series 14: Development, 1927-1991 (14.1: Administration, 1979-1990, 14.2: Donors, 1978-1990, 14.3: Fundraising, 1973-1990, 14.4: Grants, 1970-1990, 14.5: Subject Files, 1976-1990) Series 15: Other Departments, 1914-1990 (15.1: Archives, 1914-1990, 15.2: Conservation, 1972-1989, 15.3: Education, 1921-1990, 15.4: Indian Information Center, 1977-1989, 15.5: Museum Shop, 1947-1989, 15.6: Photography, 1918-1990, 15.7: Physical Anthropology, 1919-1956) Series 16: Huntington Free Library, 1926-1991Series 17: Museum Relocation, 1969-1992 (17.1: Subject Files, 1979-1990, 17.2: American Museum of Natural History, 1980-1987, 17.3: Dallas, Texas, 1984-1987, 17.4: Smithsonian Institution, 1979-1990, 17.5: U.S. Custom House, 1977-1990, 17.6: Other Locations, 1974-1987) Series 18: MediaSeries 19: PhotographsSeries 20: Miscellaneous, 1837-1990Series 21: Oversize, 1873-1972 (21.1: Maps, 1873-1975, 21.2: Miscellaneous, 1884-1982)
History of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation:
The Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation was established by wealthy collector George Gustav Heye in 1908. Heye began collecting American Indian artifacts as early as 1897 and his collection rapidly increased over the next several years. Based in New York, Heye bought collections and documentary photographs, sponsored expeditions, and traveled and collected items himself. In addition, once MAI was established he sponsored numerous expeditions across the Western Hemisphere, including North American, Canada, South America and Central America.

From 1908 to 1917 Heye housed his artifacts on temporary loan at the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, Pennsylvania, in lofts on East 33rd Street in New York City, and at other depositories. In 1917, the collections moved from his apartment to their permanent museum location at Audubon Terrace, at 155th Street and Broadway in New York City. The museum, containing ethnographic and archaeological collections from North, Central and South America, opened to the public in 1922. Less than ten years later, Heye completed a storage facility in the Pelham Bay area of the Bronx, known as the Research Branch. Heye served as Chairman of the Board and Museum Director until his death in 1957. After growing concern about the financial and other management of the collections came to a head, the museum became part of the Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and in 1994 opened exhibit space in the U.S. Customs House at Bowling Green near New York City's Battery Park. The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland later opened in 1999 and the main Washington, DC museum opened in 2004.

Please visit the following links for more information about the history of the museum; History of the Collection, Collections Overview, and Significance of the Collection. Moreover, for information about how the museum currently cares for and exhibits the collection, please see the Conservation department and recent entries regarding Exhibitions and Conservation on the NMAI Blog. In addition, see portions of the NMAI Archive Center's collections highlighted in the SIRIS Blog.
Related Materials:
In 2004, the Huntington Fee Library, once part of the MAI/Heye Foundation, was transferred to the Cornell University Library Rare Book and Manuscript Collection. While this collection mainly contained books, it also contained a significant amount of archival materials. The Huntington Free Library's Native American Collection contains outstanding materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America, as well as contemporary politics and human rights issues are also important components of the collection. Further information about the collection and links to finding aids can be found here: rmc.library.cornell.edu/collections/HFL_old.html.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Tennessee  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New York (State)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Panama  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Jersey  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Mexico  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Missouri  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Nevada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Indians of Central America  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Texas  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Ethnological expeditions  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Museums -- Acquisitions  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Cuba  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Ecuador  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Arkansas  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Canada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Guatemala  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Haiti  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001
Online Media:

Frederick Starr negatives and lantern slides

Creator:
Starr, Frederick, 1859-1933  Search this
Photographer:
Lang, Charles B.  Search this
Grabic, Louis  Search this
Extent:
152 Lantern slides
3344 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Zoque  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo  Search this
Mazatec [Huautla]  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Maya  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Mazahua  Search this
Ute  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tzeltal Maya  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Triqui (Trique) [San Joan Copala]  Search this
Shuar  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Chol Maya  Search this
Totonac  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Mixe  Search this
Chinantec  Search this
Mixtec  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Chibcha  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Mehináku (Mehinacu)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Haida  Search this
Karajá (Caraja)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Teotihuacán (archaeological culture)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Macushi (Macusi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives (photographic)
Negatives
Place:
Colombia
Washington
West Virginia
Kansas
Kentucky
New Mexico
Brazil
Ecuador
Missouri
Wisconsin
Oklahoma
Ohio
New York
Georgia
Mexico
Iowa
Arkansas
Illinois
Pennsylvania
Alaska
Date:
1894-1910
Summary:
The collection includes materials from cultures in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, and Guiana: Acoma Pueblo, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboine, Caddo, Cahuilla, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chinantec, Chippewa (Ojibwa), Choco, Chol, Chontal, Cochiti Pueblo, Crow, Cuicatec, Eskimo, Flathead, Haida, Hopi, Huastec, Huave, Iowa, Iroquois, Isleta, Karaja, Kwakiutl, Laguna Pueblo, Macusi, Mandan, Maya, Mazahua, Mazatec, Mehinaku, Menomini, Mixe, Mixtec, Navajo, Nez Perce, Osage, Otomi, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pima, Ponca, Potawatomi, Salish, San Blas, San Felipe Pueblo, Sauk & Fox, Shuar, Sioux, Taos Pueblo, Tarasco, Teotihuacan, Tepehua, Tlaxcala, Tlingit, Tonkawa, Totonac, Triqui, Tzental, Tzotzil, Ute, Wampanoag, Zapotec, Zoque, Zuni.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick Starr was born in Auburn, New York, on September 2, 1858. He received a Ph.D. in biology in 1884 at Coe College, where he was later appointed professor of biology. Starr did postgraduate work in anthropology at Yale. In 1889 he was appointed head of Ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History, and in 1892 he was chosen by William Harper to organize the Anthropology Department at the new University of Chicago. Starr remained at the University until his retirement in 1923. Besides his field studies with various Indian tribes in the United States, Starr traveled to Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Guiana, Japan, the Philippines, and Africa. He died in Tokyo, Japan, on August 14, 1933. Starr was the author of several books and scholarly articles.
General note:
Starr hired professional photographers Charles B. Lang and Louis Grabic to accompany him on his field trips. One lantern slide of Moses Ladd (Menomini) was taken by William H. Jackson.
Provenance:
Dr. Frederick Starr, Purchased, circa 1929
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Colombia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Alaska  Search this
Indians of North America -- Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Ecuador  Search this
Indians of South America -- Guiana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Lantern slides
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.052
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-052

Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection

Creator:
Jenkins, Dale  Search this
Extent:
145 Postcards
11 Photographic prints
0.5 Linear feet
Culture:
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Suquamish  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Cayuse  Search this
Northern Paiute (Paviotso)  Search this
Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute)  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Panama  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Photographic prints
Place:
Temuco (Chile)
Cuzco (Peru)
Date:
1890-1939
Summary:
This collection consists of 145 postcards and 11 photographs depicting indigenous peoples of the Americas, with dates ranging 1890 – 1930s. The bulk of the collection consists of postcards of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, basket-making, weaving, and crafts.
Scope and Contents:
The Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection consists of 145 postcards and 11 photographs with dates ranging 1890 – 1930s. The images depict indigenous peoples of the Americas, and spans a large geographical breadth extending from the Arctic in the north to Chile and Peru in South America. The bulk of the collection consists of postcards of Native communities throughout the United States, with a significant number of images depicting various Pueblo and Southwest cultural groups; many of these latter postcards were produced by the Fred Harvey Company. A number of the postcards and photographs include portrait images, dwellings, basket-making, weaving, and crafts. Also of particular note are 13 scenes of daily life at a number of different Indian Boarding Schools at the turn of the twentieth century. Finally, in addition to the postcard images are 11 photographs consisting of cabinet cards and other photographic prints.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 11 series, organized thematically (Indian Boarding Schools) and then regionally by location or culture group. Series 1: Indian Boarding Schools, Series 2: Arctic/Subarctic, Series 3: Northwest Coast, Series 4: California, Series 5: Great Basin/Plateau, Series 6: Southwest, Series 7: Plains, Series 8: Northeast/Great Lakes, Series 9: Southeast, Series 10: Mexico/Central America, Series 11: South America
Biographical / Historical:
Dale Jenkins is a retired Financial Planner living in California, having previously worked in the Aerospace industry. He has collected late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century American photographs and postcards for over 30 years. In addition to archival collections donated to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian, Jenkins has also donated postcard and photograph collections to the California Museum of Photography, the California Historical Society, and the Museum of the City of New York.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Dale Jenkins in 2013 and 2014.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools -- Photographs  Search this
Education -- Carlisle Indian School  Search this
Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians. Minnesota  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection, NMAI.AC.069, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.069
See more items in:
Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-069
Online Media:

S. K. Lothrop negatives, photographs and lantern slides

Creator:
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1,188 Acetate negatives
3 Photographic prints
18 Lantern slides
Culture:
Maya (archaeological culture)  Search this
Yámana (Yagán/Yahgan)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Selk'nam (Ona)  Search this
Kaqchikel Maya (Cakchiquel)  Search this
Tz'utuhil Maya (Tzutuhil/Zutigil)  Search this
Quiché Maya (Quiche)  Search this
Central America  Search this
Island Caribbean  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
K'iche' Maya (Quiché)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Acetate negatives
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Photographs
Negatives
Place:
North America
Zuni (N.M.) -- Photographs
Tierra del Fuego (Argentina and Chile)
Date:
1915-1928
Scope and Contents:
The S.K. Lothrop collection primarily contains negatives, photographic prints, and lantern slides made by Lothrop while employed by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Lothrop traveled on behalf of the Museum to New Mexico, Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Peru. The four New Mexico negatives in this collection date from 1915, before Lothrop worked for the Museum, and depict scenes around Zuni. During his 1924 trip to El Salvador, Lothrop photographed volcanos, archaeological sites, antiquities, the landscape, villages, and native peoples engaged in pottery and rope making, food preparation, house building, and ceremonial activities. The 1925 views particularly concentrate on Argentina (but also Chile and Peru). The Argentina materials include views made in the Tierra del Fuego (also part of Chile), including depictions of the daily lives and ceremonial activities of natives peoples of Tierra del Fuego--Selk'nam (Ona) and Yámana (Yagán/Yahgan); the Patagonia landscape; and excavations undertaken by the Museum's La Plata Expedition. The 1928 Guatemala views include depictions of Mayan ruins of Zaculeu and of Tz'utuhil Maya (Tzutuhil/Zutigil), Quiché Maya (Quiche), and Kaqchikel Maya (Cakchiquel) people engaged in weaving, rope making, canoeing, and ceremonial actitivies. The collection also contains photographs made by Lothrop before he worked for the Museum, including 1915 views of effigy mounds in Wisconsin and views at Hopi, Acoma, and Santa Clara; 1917 views of Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica, and El Salvador; and 1918 views of Guatemala, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, and Nicaragua.
Arrangement note:
Lantern slides Arranged by lantern slide numbers (L00101-L00103, L00577-L00579, L00584-L00585, L00589, L00597, L00622-L00629)

Negatives Arranged by negative numbers (N09139-N09140, N09147-N09308, N09316-N09389, N09760-N09997, N10310-N10577, N10803, N14031-N14212, N19372-N19620)

Prints Arranged by print numbers (P10108-P10110)
Biographical/Historical note:
Samuel Kirkland Lothrop was an archaeologist and photographer who extensively traveled and worked throughout Central America and South America. George Gustav Heye originally hired Lothrop to research native Guatemalan and El Salvadoran textiles and pottery. He subsequently excavated on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian in such places as the Tierra del Fuego. Here he photographed indigenous communities who would not survive the twentieth century as a distinct culture group. In 1923, he also photographed the activities of the Hendricks-Hodge Hawikku Expedition excavations. In addition to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, the Peabody Museum and the Carnegie Institute sponsored his research and archaeological work.
Provenance:
Historically, the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation managed all photographic and related manuscript collections separately. This collection description represents current management practices of organizing and contextualizing related archival materials.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian
Topic:
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of Central America -- El Salvador -- Photographs  Search this
Fuegians -- Social life and customs -- Photographs  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Argentina -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Photographs
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
S. K. Lothrop collection of negatives, photographs and lantern slides, 1915-1928, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.010
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-010

Biologia Centrali-Americana, or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Archaeology / by A.P. Maudslay ; appendix by J.T. Goodman ; edited by F. Ducane Godman and Osbert Salvin

Title:
Archaeology
Biologia Centrali-Americana
Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America
Author:
Maudslay, Alfred Percival 1850-1931  Search this
Goodman, J. T  Search this
Godman, Frederick Du Cane 1834-1919  Search this
Salvin, Osbert 1835-1898  Search this
Greve, W. lithographer  Search this
Griggs, William 1832-1911  Search this
Hunter, Ada  Search this
Purkiss, W. lithographer  Search this
Shawe, W  Search this
Sweet, H. N (Henry N.)  Search this
Physical description:
4 v. : ill., ports. ; 32 cm. + atlas (4 v. : all ill., facsims., maps, plans, ports. (some col., some folded) ; 36 x 54 cm.)
Type:
Pictorial works
Place:
Central America
Date:
1889
1902
1889-1902
Topic:
Mayas--Antiquities  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Inscriptions, Mayan  Search this
Maya calendar  Search this
Call number:
F1435 .M38 1899
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_839893

John Peabody Harrington papers: Quiche, 1922-1948

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961  Search this
Gates, William 1863-1940  Search this
Physical description:
12 boxes
Culture:
Quiché Indians  Search this
Indians of Central America Guatemala  Search this
Type:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Dictionaries
Folklore
Date:
1922
1922-1948
Topic:
Quiché language  Search this
Cakchikel language  Search this
Esselen language  Search this
Mayan languages  Search this
Language and languages--Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Phonetics  Search this
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions on access
Contact the repository for terms of use
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers: Mexico/Central America/South America, circa 1907-1960
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_363580
Online Media:

Children of the Maya : a Guatamalan Indian odyssey / Brent Ashabranner ; photographs by Paul Conklin

Author:
Ashabranner, Brent K. 1921-  Search this
Conklin, Paul  Search this
Physical description:
97 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Juvenile literature
Place:
Guatemala
Florida
Indiantown (Fla.)
Date:
1988
1988, c1986
Topic:
Social conditions  Search this
Mayas--Social conditions  Search this
Political refugees  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_749209

Mesoamerica's ancient cities : aerial views of pre-Columbian ruins in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras / William M. Ferguson and Richard E. W. Adams

Author:
Ferguson, William M  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 260 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 28 cm
Type:
Aerial photographs
Place:
Central America
Mexico
Date:
2001
C2001
Topic:
Antiquities  Search this
Extinct cities  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_628757

Mesoamerica's ancient cities : aerial views of precolumbian ruins in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras / William M. Ferguson and Arthur H. Rohn ; photographs by John Q. Royce and William M. Ferguson ; foreword by R.E.W. Adams

Author:
Ferguson, William M  Search this
Rohn, Arthur H. 1929-  Search this
Royce, John Q  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 251 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 29 cm
Type:
Aerial photographs
Place:
Mexico
Central America
Date:
1990
C1990
Topic:
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
F1219.F35 1990X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_414076

Unfinished conquest : the Guatemalan tragedy / Victor Perera ; photographs by Daniel Chauche

Author:
Perera, Victor 1934-  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 382 p. : ill., map ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Guatemala
Date:
1993
C1993
20th century
1985-
Topic:
Mayas--Government relations  Search this
Government relations  Search this
Victims of state-sponsored terrorism--History  Search this
Human rights--History  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_459217

Unfinished conquest : the Guatemalan tragedy / Victor Perera ; photographs by Daniel Chauche

Author:
Perera, Victor 1934-  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 392 p., [27] p. of plates : ill., map, plates ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Guatemala
Date:
1995
1993
1995, c1993
20th century
1985-
Topic:
Mayas--Government relations  Search this
Mayas--Crimes against  Search this
Government relations  Search this
Victims of state-sponsored terrorism--History  Search this
Human rights--History  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Call number:
F1466.7 .P47 1995
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1018003

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By