Found here are writings by Grace Mott Johnson and others. Writings by Johnson include two brief autobiographical writings describing her early life, such as living on a farm, her interest in art, and her art education. Also found is a diary giving an account of her daily activities for one week in 1904, various handwritten recipes and menus, and several issues of "The Johnson Monthly" a home-made magazine written by Grace and her siblings and illustrated by Grace. Of particular interest is a writing entitled "Two Weeks in New Mexico," Johnson's detailed account of her stay in a cottage belonging to Mabel Dodge Luhan in Taos, New Mexico, their attempt to attend an Indian dance, and her interaction with Andrew Dasburg while there. Additional miscellaneous writings by Johnson include poems, writings about civil rights, loose diary-style writings in which she expresses her thoughts on her early life and experiences with psychoanalysis, notes, lists, and other writing fragments, some of which may be draft letters. Writings by others include a draft of an address on natural history given by her relative John Van Cleve, poetry by others, and an essay "Shall Women Vote?" by an unidentified author. Items are arranged chronologically within each folder.
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Andrew Dasburg and Grace Mott Johnson papers, 1833-1980 (bulk 1900-1980). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Funding for the processing and digitization of this collection was provided by the Terra Foundation for American Art.
The papers collected here relate to the life and work of Wayne Wolf Robe Hunt, a full-blood Acoma Indian (1905-1977). Born on the Acoma Reservation, Wolf Robe was the son of Chief Day Break (Edward Proctor Hunt), Chief of the Delight Makers -- a man instrumental in the improvement of relations between the Acomas and whites. His mother, Morning Star, whose own father was Governor of Acoma seven times, was a potter and weaver. Wolf Robe learned silver-smithing from his older brother on the reservation.
Wolf Robe achieved recovnition and fame for his jewelry and art work, winning the prestigious Philbrook Art Center's Grand Award in 1967. In addition, he was a businessman, with his own arts and crafts store in Tulsa, a lecturer, international traveller, author, and translator for the Bureau of American Ethnology. He assited L. A. White in his extensive studies of the Acoma Indians and made recordings for the National Anthropological Archives.
Wolf Robe was particularly interested in the preservation of tribal customs, language and culture, and devoted his own time to this and the encouragement of others in similar efforts. Of his work at BAE he said, "My work there as an interpreter is the highlight of my efforts in trying to preseve all of the rich and wholesome lore of my people."*
Not only was the preservation of the 'old ways' important to Wolf Robe, but also the representation and dissemination of his culture to whites, in an effort to promote their understanding and appreciation. He travelled all over Europe and to Australia for the Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, representing the American Indian to an appreciative audience. Much of the incoming correspondence stems from his travels, as do many of the "publicity" photographs.
This collection contains the personal and business papers of a man successfully part of two worlds. Married to a white woman, and devoted to representing, at home and abroad, his tribe and all Indians to whites, Wolf Robe managed to keep close to his tribal world, and actively promoted the preservation and revitalization of his cultural heritage.
*From a biographical sketch, written by Wolf Robe in 1957
Father: Edward Proctor Hunt (Chief Day Break)
Mother: Morning Star
Brothers: Wilbert Edward Hunt (Blue Sky Eagle), Allen J. Hunt, Irvin Hunt, Alfred Hunt, Clyde Hunt (Sunny Skies)
Sisters: Evelyn Hunt Orcutt, Ida Hunt Eduriger, Josephine Hunt Johnson
Daughter: LoWayne Hunt Craig (Lo Way Ne Ma)
Grandchildren: William Bryce Cadion, Carmen LoWayne Craig
Chronology of Wolf Robe Hunt
1905 -- Born October 14, on the Acoma Reservation, New Mexico
1932 -- Married Glenal Davis
1933 -- Daughter Lo Way Ne Ma (LoWayne) born
1936 -- Opened arts and crafts studio in Tulsa, Oklahoma
1937 -- Director of Indian Dances, Boy Scout Circus Pageant St. Louis, Missouri
1953 -- Indian Arts and Crafts Director, Philbrook Art Center
1963 -- Published Dancing Horses of Acoma (illustrator, co-author)
1964 -- Trip to Germany for the Department of Agriculture
1965-1969 -- Traveled for the Department of Commerce as part of the "Made in America" tours
1967 -- Grand Award at Philbrook Art Center
1970 -- Trip to Hawaii
1973 -- Oklahoma's Outstanding Indian of the Year
1974 -- Waite Phillips Victory Trophy at Philbrook Art Center for support and encouragement of other Indian artists
1977 -- Died
The papers of Wayne Wolf Robe Hunt (1905-1977) were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in 1979 by his widow, Glenal Davis Hunt, in accordance with his wishes.
Literary property rights to unpublished portions of the collection have been given to the public.
The Wolf Robe Hunt Papers are open for research. Access to the Wolf Robe Hunt Papers requires an appointment.
Wolf Robe Hunt papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Photographs made by Nellie Mae Whitted in Paguote (1939) and Acomita, New Mexico. They include images of Acomita day school and its students and teachers, as well as houses and Eagle dancers. The collection also includes postcards and commercial prints relating to Navajo, Santo Domingo Pueblo, Santa Clara Pueblo, Ildefonso Pueblo, Taos Pueblo, and Laguna Pueblo. There are also Christmas cards with reproductions of paintings by Joni Falk and other artists and some correspondence to Whitted.
Nellie Mae Whitted taught at the Acomita Day School set up by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico, circa 1938-1941.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 98-75
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Pottery, dolls, baskets, and other artifacts given to Whitted by students in Acomita held in the Department of Anthropology collections in accession 390889.
Photographs made by Edward Adamson Hoebel during a 1933 Laboratory of Anthropology field school session led by Ralph Linton. They consist of images of Comanche people, including a Comanche brush dance at Walters, Oklahoma, and images of Shoshoni people during a sun dance at Fort Hall, Idaho, in 1934.
Edward Adamson Hoebel (1906-1993) was an anthropologist and educator who pioneered studies of the legal systems of pre-literate societies. He received his PhD in anthropology from Columbia University in 1934, publishing his dissertation, "The Political Organization and Law-ways of the Comanche Indians," after conducting field research on Comanche legal systems at the Santa Fe Laboratory of Anthropology under the direction of Ralph Linton. Hoebel taught sociology and anthropology at New York University from 1929 until 1948 and later became a professor, head of the anthropology department, and Dean of Arts and Sciences at the University of Utah. Hoebel took visiting professorships at the universities of Harvard, Chicago, Nijmegen, Arizona, and Lehigh and served as president of the American Ethnological Society and the American Anthropological Association. He retired as Regents' Professor of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 91-9
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Reports and correspondence by Hoebel held in the National Anthropological Archives in the American Ethnological Society records, Bureau of American Ethnology Administrative File, Esther Schiff Goldfrank Papers, and Raoul Weston LaBarre Papers.
Additional photographs of Comanche Indians at Walters held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7505.
The American Philosophical Society holds the E. Adamson Hoebel Papers.
The William Wildschut photograph collection contains 183 photographic negatives, and 89 post cards. From 1917 to 1928 William Wildschut studied the Apsáalooke people through interviews, photography, and the collection of cultural objects. In 1921 Wildschut was hired as a field man by George Gustav Heye the director of the Museum of the American Indian, Wildschut officially collected and conducted field expeditions in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum until 1928. Wildschuts photographs include portrait style photos of Apsáalooke people, special events, daily reservation life, interments, and encampments. Tribes represented in this collection are primarily Apsáalooke, the postcard collection consists of other tribes including Lakota, Arapaho, and other unidentified tribes.
Scope and Contents:
The William Wildschut collection contains 183 photographic negatives, and 21 photographic prints. The photographic negatives were made by Wildschut between 1917 and 1928. The majority of the photographs in this collection are of Apsáalooke people and their reservation, however the postcard collection consists of over 14 instances of people from unidentified tribes. Wildschut photographed Apsáalooke chiefs, leaders and their families in portrait style poses and his subjects are usually dressed in their finest. He also photographed events such as Crow fair, veteran celebrations, parades, ceremonies, and interments.
The Apsáalooke are a people of the northern plains, their ancestral territory is in Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River. Today the Crow Indian Reservation in located in south-central Montana which covers roughly 2,300,000 acres of land and it is the fifth-largest Indian reservation in the United States. The Crow are known for their horsemanship, exquisite beadwork, clan system, historic war societies, 7th Calvary scouts, prolific chiefs, and beautiful homeland.
Series 1: Apsáalooke chiefs and leaders photographed in portrait style taken between 1917-1928. Wildschut captured images of many of the last Apsáalooke war chiefs who were, at the time, adjusting to a new life on the reservation. Many of the chiefs and leaders Wildschut photographed were dealing with new issues such as the Allotment Act, the Indian Citizenship Act, implementation of boarding schools, and government imposed regulations on traditional practices.
Series 2: Groups of Apsáalooke people in various situations. These photographs were taken at social events such as parades, dances, celebrations, and at the 45th annual Battle of the Little Big Horn.
Series 3: Apsáalooke people (individuals and families) in various situations. Some photographs are portrait style poses and others are casual instances. The Crow, who call themselves Apsáalooke or Biiluuke, are people of the Northern Plains. The Apsáalooke people continue to maintain their language and remain resilient in their cultural practices, they still identify themselves through a clan system, these clans are Ashshitchíte/the Big Lodge, Ashhilaalíoo/ Newly Made Lodge, Uuwatashe/ Greasy Mouth, Ashíiooshe/ Sore Lip, Xúhkaalaxche/ Ties the Bundle, Biliikóoshe/ Whistling Waters, Ashkápkawiia/ Bad War Deeds, and the Aashkamne/ Piegan clan.
Series 4: Photographs of the reenactment of the Battle of the Little Big Horn in Garryowen, MT in 1921. The Battle of the Little Bighorn was fought along the banks of the Little Bighorn River, in south central Montana on June 25-26, 1876. The 7th Regiment of the U.S. Cavalry engaged in armed combat with the Lakota, Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes. The site of the battlefield is located on the Crow Indian reservation which is where Wildschut photographed the re-enactment. This event involved actual survivors of the event and many other re-enactors.
Series 5: Casual photographs of non-ceremonial dances, parades, fairs, races and rodeos. The Apsáalooke enjoy a very social culture, they revel in coming together to sing, dance, and celebrate as often as possible. This is called baasaxpilúua (Celebration). Baasaxpilúua allows families and clans to reunite and solidify their bonds. One such occasion is the annual Crow Fair celebration that takes place on the Crow reservation, on the third week of August. The Crow parade is a stunning exhibition of beadwork adorning people, horses and various types of floats. The beadwork of the Crow people is among the most technically proficient and visually exquisite in the world.
Series 6: Encampments with tipis (ashtáale) and tents. Wildschuts photographs of encampments are on the Crow reservation, Fort Custer, and at the Billings fair (a fair that Crows would go to parade, dance, camp and watch races and rodeos). The Apsáalooke call the tipi ashtáale, which translates to real home. Wildschut was not allowed into the tipi to photograph, there is only one photographic instance where he took photographs of a family in a tipi [N31145] and [N31146].
Series 7: Restricted Photographs of interments, ceremonies, sacred spaces and objects). As an ethnographer William Wildschut spent time studying Crow culture. He interviewed Crow people and even witnessed ceremonial events. Wildschut developed relationships with certain Crows who allowed him the honor of being present when private sacred bundles where opened. In some cases Wildschut was allowed to photograph these sacred events. Not all Apsáalooke people agree with these permissions, however the Crow people understand that those who allowed Wildschuts presence did so for their own purposes. The Apsáalooke come from a living culture and still maintain their language, culture and beliefs. They have respectfully requested that these photographs not be made public.
This collection is arranged into eight series by people, events, locations and postcards.
Series 1: Apsáalooke Chiefs (Bacheeítche), Series 2: Apsáalooke Groupings, Series 3: Apsáalooke People, Series 4: 45th Annual Battle of the Little Big Horn, Series 5: Parades, Dances, and Events, Series 6: Encampments, Series 7: Restricted Content, Series 8: Postcards.
William Wildschut was born Willem Wildschut on March 30, 1883, in Jisp, Holland. He married in 1909 in Leicester, England, and moved with his wife to Trier, Germany, where he was in charge of a cigarette factory. This began a long period during which Wildschut and his family moved frequently between Holland, Canada, and the western United States, usually while Wildschut was managing factories. In 1917 Wildschut moved his family to Billings, Montana where he worked in Farm Mortgages, this work took him to Hardin, Mt. (a small farming community 43 miles east of Billings), which borders the Crow Indian reservation and once served as an economic hub for the Apsáalooke people. William was fascinated with the Crow and began purchasing medicine bundles, war shirts, and various other items from the Crow which he found a market for with George Gustav Heye the founding Director of the Museum of the American Indian. In 1922, Heye purchased Wildschut's medicine bundle collection and hired him as a field man. From 1921 to 1928 Wildschut officially collected and conducted field expeditions in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum. Wildschut was also a collector of photographs. In the late 1920's he distributed a series of postcards that featured Native American people. These postcards featured his own photos as well as those of other photographers. During his employment with the Museum of the American Indian he was made a member of the Explorer's Club, and published several articles in the Museum's series "Indian Notes". On May 1, 1928, after the death of two of Heye's major benefactors, Wildschut was let go. In 1929 Wildschut and his family relocated to California where he worked for different mortgage companies. 1936 he was transferred to Oakland, California where he remained until his passing on January 7, 1955.
According to letters from him wife, William Wildschut was given a Crow name and was close friends with many Crow people. She also wrote that he believed it was his calling to do the work with Indians, however when he was released from employment with MAI he became distraught and never spoke of Indian people again. There are few stories about William Wildschut that remain in Crow Country, one is that his name was "Xaapaliiashilish" (Bundle Buyer) which is fitting considering he purchased and hundreds of sacred bundles from the Crow, which are now in Museums and Private Collections all over the world.
William Wildschut wrote several book manuscripts during his time with the Crow, three were later edited and published, these include: Crow Indian Beadwork (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation: 1959), Crow Indian Medicine Bundles (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation: 1960) and Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior which was published in 1967.
Additional William Wildschut papers (WA MSS S-2386) are located at Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, and The Yale Collection of Western Americana, New Haven, Connecticut.
The National Museum of the American Indian holds additional William Wildschut material such as letters, notes, receipts, and objects descriptions in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records, 1890-1989. They can be found in Series 6: Collectors, Box 284, Folder 14 to Box 286, Folder 6.
Originally, a collection of Fred E. Miller photographs purchased by William Wildschut were marked as William Wildschut photographs and were included in this collection. They have since been identified by Dorothy Munson, curator of the Fred E. Miller Collection, in Housatonic, Massachusetts, and have been processed separately as the Fred E. Miller photograph collection.
The Wildschut photograph collection was purchased from William P. Wreden of Palo Alto, California, by Frederick Dockstader, director of the Museum of the American Indian, in 1964. Mrs. Wildschut had given the negative collection to Frederick Moore, a friend of the Wildschuts, for his personal collection. However, when Moore's bookselling business went bankrupt the Wildschut images ended up as part of the bankruptcy sale and were purchased by Wreden. Many of the postcards in this collection were taken years after Wildschuts death, these post cards were possibly added to the collection by Fredrick Moore or William P. Wreden.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: firstname.lastname@example.org). Certain photographs have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to email@example.com. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Crow Indians -- Social life and customs -- Photographs Search this