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Indenture agreement contract, Late 20th Century

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 14 x 8.5;
Object Name:
Contract
Place made:
Thailand: Krung Thep
Associated Place:
United States: California, Los Angeles
United States: California, Los Angeles
Date made:
late 20th century
1990s
Credit Line:
U.S. Department of Justice. Immigration and Naturalization Service
ID Number:
1997.0268.15
Accession number:
1997.0268
Catalog number:
1997.0268.15
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
El Monte
Work
Sweatshops
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a6-f0bf-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_880951

Warsaw -- Sabine Hall

Former owner:
Carter, Robert Wormley, ca. 1735-1797  Search this
Wellford, Armistead Nelson  Search this
Wellford, Dabney S. Rev  Search this
Wellford, Hill B.  Search this
Carter, Landon, 1710-1778  Search this
Carter, Elizabeth, 1717-1806  Search this
Carter, Winifred, ca.1740  Search this
Wellford, Robert, 1775-1844  Search this
Wellford, Ida  Search this
Wellford, William  Search this
Wellford, Katherine Davis  Search this
Carter, Katherine  Search this
Carter, Elizabeth Merrie  Search this
Carter, Landon, II  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Sabine Hall (Warsaw, Virginia)
United States of America -- Virginia -- Richmond County -- Warsaw
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies from publications.
General:
Sabine Hall is a plantation residence in the Georgian style built by Robert "King" Carter for his son Colonel Landon Carter, circa 1730, on a property of 4,000 acres, in an axial plan with formal parterre gardens. Sabine Hall was named for Horace's Roman villa and passed down through the Carter family for nine generations. The family kept the original geometric plan intact, although not all the beds were planted over time. Facing the Rappahannock River, and encompassing several hundred feet are six terraced beds with connecting grass ramps, with a centered gravel walk nearly six feet wide leading from the porch steps into the first terrace. Gravel walks continued to at least the second and third terraces. The first terrace, planted in grass, was called a bowling green. There were formal flower beds planted in a symmetrical English style on the second terrace. The third terrace was likely planted in small fruits and medicinal herbs, the fourth and fifth terraces planted in vegetables, and the sixth with fruit trees. There was another vegetable garden (the kitchen garden) planted with necessities that did not conform to the aesthetics of the parterres, planted beyond the boxwood hedges, out of sight from the house. The fifth and sixth terraces were not maintained into the 20th century, but the outlines remain. The borders were hedged in boxwood. The front portico of the house has leads to a planted lawn surrounded and interplanted with both native and imported tree species.
Colonel Landon Carter is presumed to have been responsible for the initial geometrical design of the garden, based on 17th century English and Continental precepts. Indentured English gardeners may have been early workers, as well as slaves passed down through family bequests. The third owner, Robert Wormeley Carter, named slave gardeners in his will of 1794.
Flowers mentioned by Landon Carter include bulbs, roses, and wildflowers. Vegetables included artichokes, French beans, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, cauliflower, cucumbers, endives, lettuce, melons, mushrooms, onions, parsley, peas, potatoes, radishes, savoys, spinach, and turnips.
Following ownership by Colonel Landon Carter (1710-1778) and his wife Elizabeth Wormeley of Rosegill, the estate passed to Robert Wormeley Carter and his wife Winifred Beale; then to their son Colonel Landon Carter II and his wife Katharine Tayloe of Mount Airy; next to Robert Wormeley Carter II and his wife Elizabeth Merrie Tayloe of Mount Airy. Ownership then skipped a generation and went to Robert Carter Wellford (a grandson) in 1861, who married Elizabeth Harrison of Berkeley. She died in 1919, leaving Sabine Hall to two sons, Armistead Nelson Wellford and his wife Katherine Davis and William Harrison Wellford and his wife Ida Beverly. The property was passed on to ensuing sons, the Reverend Dabney S. Wellford and Hill B. Wellford.
Persons associated with the garden include the Carter family (1730) and their descendents.
Related Materials:
Sabine Hall related holdings consist of 1 folder (12 35 mm. slides (photographs))
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Virginia -- Warsaw  Search this
Plantations  Search this
Gardens, English  Search this
Vegetable gardening  Search this
Parterres  Search this
Terraces  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VA009
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6978b12aa-84e7-4a13-abe2-452ff77d35dd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref18924

Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company Records and Blumenthal Family Papers

Creator:
Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Illustrator:
Blumenthal, M.L.  Search this
Donor:
Blumenthal, Joseph  Search this
Blumenthal, Barbara B.  Search this
Names:
Blumenthal, Moses Lawrence  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Family papers
Indentures
Financial records
Legal records
Photographs
Clippings
Business records
Reports
Newsletters
Writings
Correspondence
Contracts
Articles
Advertising
Date:
1856-2010
bulk 1900-1969
Summary:
Records from Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company, manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa products, including well-known candies such as Snocaps, Raisinets, and Goobers. They were located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The company was sold to Ward Foods Incorporated in 1969. This collection also includes material collected by and about the Blumenthal family and from M.L. Blumenthal, noted illustrator of the early 20th century.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company (B*B) business from its founding in 1900. The collection also documents Blumenthal family history and contains material collected by them pertaining to the Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company. Family papers also include land indenture and real estate documents; photographs; letters, writings and ephemera relating to various family members, including papers relating to M.L. Blumenthal's (Moses Lawrence Blumenthal) career as an illustrator during the early 20th century.

The collection is organized in two series.

Series 1: Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company Records, 1856-2009, undated. This series contains historical writings about the company; advertising; photographs of employees, packaging, machinery, and display of the products and the production process. There are also photographs of the company's buildings. This series also includes business papers such as correspondence, contracts, legal and financial documents; reports and papers relating to production; annual reports; account books, bound volumes of the company's newsletter, "Chocolate Chat"; news clippings, and deeds. There are also annual reports for Ward Foods Incorporated, the successor to Blumenthal Brothers after its purchase of the company in 1969. The series is arranged chronologically.

Series 2: Blumenthal Family Papers, 1902-2010, undated. This series includes material collected by various family members pertaining to Blumenthal Brothers as well as family history. These items include correspondence, photographs, advertising, e-mails, and family information in many forms. This series includes copies of formal histories compiled by Mike Blumenthal. This series also includes material relating to the career of Moses Lawrence (M.L.) Blumenthal as an illustrator, including correspondence with major publications of the early 20th century, travel writings, personal correspondence, and a letter from James Montgomery Flagg, creator of one of the iconic depictions of "Uncle Sam". The series is arranged chronologically.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized in two series.

Series 1: Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company, 1856-2007, undated

Series 2: Blumenthal Family Papers, 1902-2010, undated
Biographical / Historical:
According to family research, Samuel Blumenthal entered the United States from Bavaria, Germany in 1849 and his future wife, Henrietta Sternberger, entered the United States in 1859. They married in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1864 and settled in Wilmington, North Carolina where they began a family. They moved to Philadelphia in 1887.

Samuel and Henrietta's son, Joseph, founded the Peerless Extract Company in 1895, and by 1900 the business has become Blumenthal Brothers Extract Company. Brothers Joseph, Abraham, Aaron, Jacob, and Moses signed a partnership agreement in 1905. By 1909 they began cocoa cake and powder production. In 1910 they purchased land in the Bridesburg section of Philadelphia for a new factory and by 1911 the building was in use. This site was expanded over the years and was the main office and plant for the company.

Over the course of the next fifty years, the company developed and introduced well-known chocolate candies such as Goobers (1925), Raisinets (1926) and later Snocaps and Buddy Bars. Blumenthal Brothers products and their logo B*B became familiar to the chocolate-buying public. The brothers ran the company collectively with Joseph Sr. as president and material buyer, Aaron as factory manager, Jacob as coating department sales manager, Meyer as the New York City sales manager, Abraham as the southern states salesman, and Moses as a part-time employee. Moses' primary career was as the illustrator, M.L. Blumenthal, doing work for such publications as The Saturday Evening Post, The National Magazine, Collier's, the Associated Press, and others.

Blumenthal Brothers candies took advantage of the burgeoning motion picture business. One of their early molded chocolates was in the shape of Jackie Coogan who had become famous playing "the Kid". The B*B candies were boxed and portioned perfectly for the sale to and enjoyment of the movie going public. They also produced cocoa and coating products for the industrial and home markets.

In the late 1930s and 1940s the second generation of Blumenthals joined the company, sons of the founding brothers. These were Bernhard "Bud", Samuel, Joseph Jr., Lawrence, Mike, J. Robert, and Jack. Joseph Jr., Bud, and Larry joined the armed forces during World War II. Additional real estate was purchased in 1948 as the company expanded and sales grew. By 1950, the company's Golden Jubilee, sales topped $10,000,000. They began producing holiday specific candies in 1951 and issued public bonds for investors beginning in 1958.

The 1960s saw the company employing television advertisements beginning in 1961 on the National Broadcasting Network (NBC). In 1968 papers for a merger with Ward Foods Incorporated were signed and as of January 30, 1969 the sale was finalized. By May 1969 the company name was changed to Ward Chocolate Company and was out of Blumenthal family control.
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry holds the following objects: one metal tin stamped "Sweet Milk Chocolate Raisinets"; one small pasteboard box marked, "Raisinets", circa 1960; and one metal tin stamped, "Sunny South Sweet Milk Chocoate Peanuts", circa 1930. See accession 2015.0112.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015, by Joseph and Barbara B. Blumenthal.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Real property  Search this
Cocoa  Search this
Chocolate industry -- History -- United States  Search this
Chocolate factories -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Chocolate  Search this
Candy  Search this
Factories -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Family papers -- 20th century
Indentures -- 19th century
Financial records -- 20th century
Legal records -- 20th century
Indentures -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Reports -- 1910-1940
Newsletters -- 1940-1950
Reports -- 1970-1980
Writings
Family papers -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Contracts -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Advertising -- 20th century
Citation:
Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company Records and Blumenthal Family Papers, 1856-2010, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1344
See more items in:
Blumenthal Brothers Chocolate Company Records and Blumenthal Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85eb8e539-4a39-4543-9a5f-27ba063c0710
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1344
Online Media:

Stephanos Stephanides videos of Hail Mother Kali

Creator:
Stephanides, Stephanos  Search this
Extent:
9 Videocassettes (U-matic) (9 hours, color sound)
15 Videocassettes (VHS) (15 hours, color sound)
Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes (u-matic)
Videocassettes (vhs)
Video recordings
Place:
Caribbean Area
Guyana
Date:
1988
Scope and Contents:
Full video record of an annual three-day Kalimai (Mother Kali) puja held in Berbice, Guyana. Footage documents various aspects of the worship of the Hindu Mother which was brought to Guyana by predominatly south Indian indentured laborers (known as Madrasi) from the mid 19th to early 20th century. In contemporary Guyana this Creolized tradition continues to be known as Madrasi religion. Documentation features invocatory chants sung in Tamil and bhajans (devotional songs) and kathas (stories) in Hindi and English. Included are interviews with the pujaris (principal ritual specialists) who direct the event; preparations in the temple; and drumming, dancing, and chanting which leads to devotional possession of various participants. The video also depicts the religious sacrifice of goats and the ritual flagellation of and fire-eating by devotees and includes an ethnohistory of the pujari who helped establish the Mother Kali tradition in Guyana.

Supplementary material: monograph; glossary of Hindi/Tamil/Creole terms used by devotees and bibliography of related materials

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or Anthropology Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Local Number:
HSFA 1991.1.1
Provenance:
Received from Stephanos Stephanides in 1991.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Citation:
Stephanos Stephanides videos of Hail Mother Kali, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
HSFA.1991.01
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc902e6f7de-c79e-49b3-a6d3-d929df3c6dee
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-hsfa-1991-01

The 17th-Century English Who Settled in the Southern U.S. Had Very Little to be Thankful For

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 21:22:37 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_ed97b949e109c10c223eea48596f214f

Pacific Islands history : journeys and transformations / Brij V. Lal, editor

Author:
Lal, Brij V  Search this
Australian National University Department of Pacific and Southeast Asian History  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 255 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Congresses
Conference papers and proceedings
History
History (form)
Place:
Pacific Area
Oceania
Pacifique (région)
Océanie
Date:
1992
©1992
Topic:
15.90 history of Australia and Oceania  Search this
History  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Congrès  Search this
Call number:
DU28.11 .P117 1992
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_485023

Charles Henry Hart autograph collection

Collection Creator:
Hart, Charles Henry, 1847-1918  Search this
Extent:
230 Items (Box 1-6)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1731-1918
Scope and Contents:
"The History of Art in America as Told in a Remarkable Collection of Autograph Letters and Documents of Celebrated American Artists of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Century" is a collection of signatures of 18th, 19th, and 20th Century American artists on letters, receipts, an indenture, and exhibition announcements. Also found are twenty-six prints, most of which are portraits of artists.
Arrangement:
The documents are arranged in rough alphabetical order and reflect Charles Henry Hart's original order.
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Charles Henry Hart autograph collection, 1731-1918. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hartchar, Series 1
See more items in:
Charles Henry Hart autograph collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9287efa2a-a606-4d04-a580-ff2359af2d80
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-hartchar-ref1

The Ndzundza Ndebele : indenture and the making of ethnic identity, 1883-1914 / by Peter Delius

Author:
Delius, Peter (Peter Nicholas St. Martin)  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Physical description:
p. 227-258
Type:
Books
Date:
1989
Topic:
Ethnic identity  Search this
History  Search this
Ndebele (African people)--Government relations  Search this
Ndebele (African people)--Economic conditions  Search this
Call number:
VF-- South Africa
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1018547

158 Resources for Understanding Systemic Racism in America

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Symposia
Lectures
Interviews
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 04 Jun 2020 15:47:44 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_6b096a925ec98d5da6f18ad673b18b5c

What Made the Battle of Blair Mountain the Largest Labor Uprising in American History

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 25 Aug 2021 18:19:42 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_6155359d0ddfa1215b7b921adba79892

South Africa and the dream of love to come : queer sexuality and the struggle for freedom / Brenna M. Munro

Author:
Munro, Brenna M  Search this
Physical description:
xxxiii, 337 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Criticism, interpretation, etc
History
Place:
South Africa
Date:
2012
©2012
20th century
Topic:
South African literature (English)--History and criticism  Search this
Homosexuality in literature  Search this
Literature and society--History  Search this
Intellectual life  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1097452

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