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Loving WR-3

Materials:
Wood structure covered with fabric
Dimensions:
Wingspan, ready for flight, 7.6 m (24 ft 10 in.)
Wingspan, folded for transport by road, 2.4 m (94 in.)
Length, 6 m (19 ft 9 in.)
Height, 2 m (6 ft 6 in.)
Weight, empty, 356 kg (785 lb.)
Weight, gross, 559 kg (1,232 lb.)
Engine, Continental 4-cylinder C-85-12F, 85 horsepower
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Credit Line:
Gift of the Hoosier Air Museum, Auburn, IN.
Inventory Number:
A20200176000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Boeing Milestones of Flight Hall
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9e5ed285f-4378-4a84-ae7d-8e0623e0581c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20200176000
Online Media:

BLK Vol. 3 No. 9

Published by:
Alan Bell, American  Search this
Edited by:
Alan Bell, American  Search this
Interview of:
Patti Labelle, American, born 1944  Search this
Subject of:
Phil Reed, American, 1949 - 2008  Search this
Magic Johnson, American, born 1959  Search this
Clarence Thomas, American, born 1948  Search this
Donna Summer, American, 1948 - 2012  Search this
Dionne Warwick, American, born 1940  Search this
Gladys Knight, American, born 1944  Search this
Arsenio Hall, American, born 1956  Search this
Debbie Allen, American, born 1950  Search this
Diahann Carroll, American, 1935 - 2019  Search this
Anita Hill, American, born 1956  Search this
National Association of Black and White Men Together, American, founded 1980  Search this
Jewel's Catch One, American, founded 1973  Search this
Rue's House, American, 1989 - 1997  Search this
Gay Men of African Descent, American, founded 1986  Search this
Steven Corbin, American, 1953 - 1995  Search this
Salsa Soul Sisters, American, founded 1974  Search this
GMHC, American, founded 1981  Search this
Audre Lorde, American, 1934 - 1992  Search this
Kurt L. Schmoke, American, born 1949  Search this
Ku Klux Klan, 3rd, American, founded 1946  Search this
Dr. Marjorie Hill, American  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Professor Griff, American, born 1960  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 1/4 × 1/8 in. (27.4 × 20.9 × 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Seattle, King County, Washington, United States, North and Central America
Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, United States, North and Central America
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
San Francisco, San Francisco county, California, United States, North and Central America
Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, United States, North and Central America
Malibu, Los Angeles County, California, United States, North and Central America
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, North and Central America
Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, United States, North and Central America
Alexandria, Virginia, United States, North and Central America
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Sacramento, Sacramento County, California, United States, North and Central America
Christiansted, Virgin Islands of the United States, United States, North and Central America
Long Beach, Los Angeles County, California, United States, North and Central America
Lancaster, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Miami, Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States, North and Central America
Vacaville, Solano County, California, United States, North and Central America
Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States, North and Central America
Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, United States, North and Central America
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
West Hollywood, Los Angeles County, California, United States, North and Central America
Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, United States, North and Central America
Date:
October 1991
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Communities  Search this
Health  Search this
Identity  Search this
Labor  Search this
Law  Search this
LGBTQ  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Police brutality  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Sexuality  Search this
Sports  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Alan Bell
Object number:
2018.108.34ab
Restrictions & Rights:
© BLK Publishing Company, Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
HIV/AIDS Activist Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5bcad8647-5969-4401-8f5d-1cd333d00f33
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2018.108.34ab

Writings: "Forty-Future of Finis?" Vogue

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 22
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1940
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2f1922907-92f8-4d70-9039-f887e39890b8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref135
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Writings:

Journals: Leaves of Wesley Heights

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg286c383c8-f28a-4af6-b59e-5e952f5fae8b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref139
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Journals: Leaves of Wesley Heights digital asset number 1

Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection

Creator:
National Philatelic Collection, Smithsonian Institution.  Search this
Blenkle, Victor A., Dr., 1900-1978 (physician)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Extractive Industries  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (29 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Picture postcards
Photographs
Photographic postcards
Place:
Europe -- Postcards
Date:
circa 1880-circa 1970
Summary:
This collection consists of postcards gathered by Dr. Victor A. Blenkle, a twentieth century physician. The postcards primarily concern geographical locations and landmarks in the United States and Western Europe, but also include materials from six other continents.
Scope and Contents:
The Blenkle Collection consists of 29 boxes of postcards, principally about geographical locations, landmarks, monuments and other buildings of interest around the world. The bulk of the cards are about the United States and Western Europe, but countries in 6 continents are represented. The earliest cards included date from the late 1880s and the latest card date from the mid-1970s. The cards are arranged in alphabetical order by state name, name of country, and then specific locations.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series:

Series 1 includes 16 boxes of cards about geographical locations within the United States. These cards are organized first by state in alphabetical order, secondly by city or place name (for example, Grand Canyon). Cities or locations with fewer than three postcards are arranged into general categories such as "Cities". Cards with no clear location are grouped by illustrated subject, such as "Winter Scenes."

Series 2 consists of 9 boxes of cards about places outside the United States. These cards are in alphabetical order by name Of country, and then by city, location or geographical name,also in alphabetical order. The names of countries are used as listed on the card. For example, most of the German cards appear to date from before the division into East and West Germany, consequently, the name is listed as Germany, with no regard for the location of a place between 1945 and 1990.

Series 3 consists of 4 boxes of cards organized by subject. These are the only cards without specific geographical locations.

Series 4 consists of 1 box of cards and letters written by Dr. Blenkle or what appear to be members of his family.

Divided into 3 series: (1) U.S.A., (2) Foreign (mostly Europe), (3) Subjects. Arranged geographically and alphabetically.
Biographical / Historical:
The Blenkle Collection of Postcards was collected by Dr. Victor A. Blenkle, who lived in New Jersey. Little was known about Dr. Blenkle until Ms. Lorraine Clemente, his great-niece, supplied biographical information in 2006. All relevant curators involved in this acquisition are now deceased. Through processing, some conclusions were reached based on evidence contained within the collection itself.

Victor A. Blenkle (born December 15, 1900; died April 15, 1978) was one of six children; his siblings were Ferdinand, Herbert, Albert, Helene, and Julius. His parents, Ferdinand and Bertha, probably emigrated to the United States from Germany in the 1890s (his father was born in 1871). Victor Blenkle practiced medicine in Teaneck, N.J., where he was affiliated with Holy Name Hospital; his wife's name was Elsie. Blenkle was active in medical organizations and was a founder of Family Practice of New Jersey. He served in both World Wars, attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel. Many of the postcards in this collection were from Blenkle's patients, as well as family members. (Ms. Lorraine Clemente, great-niece of Victor Blenkle, supplied biographical information in 2006.)

We do not know when Dr. Blenkle began collecting postcards, but cards sent to him or with what appears to be his handwriting begin in the 1920s. It seems as if Blenkle also either purchased or traded for collections that were originally owned by others. For example, within the overall Blenkle collection, there are three smaller groups of cards of earlier origin. Some of these include the earliest materials in the collection, dating from the late 1880s and 1890s. These three smaller groups include a group of cards sent to (and some sent by) a Reverend Leach in Noroton, Connecticut who was a Lutheran minister. He also apparently ran some kind of a Bible study by mail program and so received a number of cards from those interested in the Bible. Another group of cards sent to addresses in Elgin, Illinois and other related Midwestern locations by members of an extended family and some of their friends between about 1895 and 1910. A third set of cards includes smaller group of cards sent by a group of family and friends in Wisconsin, apparently centering on Milwaukee. All of these include messages written on front or back and postmarks.
Provenance:
Bequeathed to the Smithsonian Institution by Victor A. Blankle in 1977.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Monuments -- Postcards  Search this
Buildings -- Postcards  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Picture postcards -- Photomechanical
Picture postcards
Photographs -- Photomechanical prints
Photographs -- 19th century
Photographic postcards
Citation:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection, c. 1880-c. 1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution,
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0200
See more items in:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d59beafa-2e3c-45af-8857-05a524ac70a5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0200
Online Media:

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection

Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
5 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1907-2000
bulk 1911-1924
Summary:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are slides dcoumenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. As scientific managers, the Gilbreth's introduced new techniques to analyze work, the workplace, and work practices with the goal of eliminating waste to maximize productivity. The collection illustrates these new techniques and their application to a wide variety of studies. The collection is diverse and provides insight into understanding how Gilbreth approached his studies. Also included are slides documenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.

Series 1, Background Information, 1892-1997, includes biographical materials about Frank B. Gilbreth; copies of some of Frank Gilbreth's patents, 1892-1916; and printed materials, 1907-1997, that contain articles, newspaper and magazine clippings about Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and time and motion study generally. Black-and-white photo prints of Gilbreth or work Gilbreth documented from collections held at Purdue University and Ohio State University are included.

Series 2, Glass plate stereo slides, 1910-1924, consists of approximately 2,250 glass stereo slides photographed by Frank B. Gilbreth and others and intended for viewing through an optical viewing machine. Some are positive black and white, positive color, and negative black and white. The subject matter of the slides covers the work undertaken by Frank Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Many of the images serve as documentation for the studies the couple performed as they were hired by firms in an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of inefficiency. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

The slides are numbered sequentially. For example, a glass plate slide numbered 318949.001 will have a corresponding photoprint 318949.001 in Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides. Note: not all glass plate slides have corresponding photoprints. Additionally, there are Office of Photographics Services, Smithsonian Institution negative numbers assigned to many of the photo prints.

Some subject categories include:

Frank B. Gilbreth: working in motion laboratories, on factory inspections, seated in offices, with family and friends, in World War I uniform, watching and monitoring shop operations.

Lillian M. Gilbreth: with family, during university graduation ceremonies, traveling and working with Frank and observing office workers.

Gilbreth Family: family on the road in an automobile, at home seated around the dinner table, in the parlor, in the garden, and with friends and relatives.

Gilbreth ship travel: contains views on steamer voyages to Europe, deck scenes, arrivals, departures, ship officers and crew, and other passengers.

Automobile assembly study: internal and external views of a warehouse/factory, including large piles or rows of metal car frames and other parts.

Benchwork study: images of a male worker standing or sitting in a chair while filing an object secured in a vice at a workbench.

Betterment: images of efforts whcih contributed to industrial betterment (the Gilbreth chair, employee library, and the home reading box).

Bricklaying study: view of men wearing overalls and caps, shoveling, and men laying bicks.

Business and apparatus of motion study: views of lectures, meetings, film showings, demonstrations, charts, drawings, motion models, charts amd some equipment.

Disabled study: views of partially blind World War I veterans, amputees using special tytpewriter, assembling machinery, use of cructhes, and a one armed dentist.

Factory bench work: table-top machines assembly operations, hand tools, orderly arrangement of parts prior to and during assembly and a variety of bench vises.

Factory documentation: various images of the interior and edterior of factories including heavy machinery.

Golfing study: various cyclegraphs of a man swinging a golf club.

Grid boards: back drops used by Gikbreth to isolate and measure worker motions. This includes walls, floors, desktops, and drop cloths divided into grids of various densities and scales.

Handwriting and cyclegraphs: finger lights moving in patterns of script.

Ladders: include step ladders and painters' ladders shown in use near shelving.

Light assembly study: wide variety of images ranging from cyclegraphs of women working, to the factory floor as well as tools and machinery.

Materials handling study: different angles of an empty cart, a cart oiled high with boxes, and a man pushing a cart illustrating different body positions.

Military study: illustrate work on the Army foot meausring machine, gun parts, men holding a rifle.

Motion models: images of simple wire motionmodels.

Needle trade study: views of textile machinery and workers.

Office study: various shots inside of an office with tables, desks, drawers, files, and typewriters. Some of the images are cyclegraphs of femal and male workers performing tasks, such as writing, both tin the context of an office as well as in front of a grdidded background. There are several close-ups of an organizer containing penciles, paperclips, pins and rubberbands.

Packing: methods of placing and arranging goods in boxes, such as soap packing.

Panama-Pacific Exposition 1915: contains views of statuary, fountains, and architecture of the exposition held in San Francisco.

Pure light cyclegraphs: no workers or grids visible only finger lights in motion.

Rubber stamping study: hand movements and access to ink pads and stamps.

Scenic views: views of buildings, landscapes, street scenes, and fountains from around the world documenting Gilbreth's travels.

Shoe making study: laboratory studies of shoe assembly operations with an emphasis on workers access to component pieces.

Shop machinery: various shots of machines and workers working with machines.

Signage: include organizational flow charts, shop floor plans, route maps, office layouts, numbering systems, exhibit display boards illustrating Frank Gilbreth's efficiency studies and techniques.

Stacking: views of the art and science of stacking boxes, clothing, equipment, containers, and vertical storage without shelves.

Stock bins: consists of storage pips, paper, other raw materials, shelves, and corridoe shots.

Storage: images illustrate contrast between old techniques and new.

Surgical and dental studies: thester views of surgeons, assistants, nurses, hand motions in grasping, placing surgical instruments, dental work and self inspection of teeth.

Tool cribs: storage of hand tools in shops with an emphasis on easy access and easy inventorying.

Typing study: various views of femaile s under observation using Remington typewriters.

Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides, 1910-1924, consist of black and white photoprints of the glass plate slides depicting the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

Series 5, Stereographs,1911-1914,

Series 6, Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 2000, and undated, is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated; Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1968 and undated; and Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990,. 2000 and undated. The series contains several formats: 7" open reel-to-reel audio tape, 1/2" VHS, Beta Cam SP, DVD, audio cassette, one inch audio tape, and 16 mm film.

Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1967-1968 and undated, consists of supplemental documentation for the film, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." Specifically, there are brochures and other printed materials detailing what the film is about and how copies may be obtained. This subseries also contains a copy of the book Cheaper by the Dozen, 1948. The book was written by Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey and tells the biographical story of Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth, and their twelve children. The book was adapted to film by Twentieth Century Fox in 1950.

Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1967, consists of one title, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." The film materials consist of the film's production elements: 16 mm black and white negative A-roll; 16mm black-and-white negative B-roll; and the optical track negative. Each is 800 feet in length.

The film presents a summary of work analysis films which were taken by Frank B. Gilbreth between 1919 and 1924 showing a number of industrial operations from which the motion study was developed. Demonstrates motion and fatigue study, skill study, plant layout and material handling, inventory control, production control, business procedures, safety methods, developing occupations for the handicapped, athletic training and skills, military training, and surgical operations as researched and developed by Gilbreth. Points out that Gilbreth created entirely new techniques on how to improve industrial efficiency, while at the same time significantly improving conditions for the workers. The film was produced by James S. Perkins in collaboration with Dr. Ralph M. Barnes and with commentary by Liilian M. Gilbreth and James S. Perkins. The film was presented on December 3, 1968 at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Annual Meeting in New York. The formats for this title include: 16 mm, Beta Cam SP, and DVD. Additionally, there is a one inch audio tape recording for the film.

Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000 and undated consist of a Smithsonian radio program titled "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," from 1980 and an recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Casey discussing Gilbreth Family photographs from 2000. Hosted by [Ann Carroll?], "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," featured Fred and Bill Gilbreth discussing their parents Frank and Lillian, Gilbreth, and the book Cheaper by the Dozen. The radio program coincided with the 100th Anniversary of the American Society of Mechancial Engineers (founded 1880)of which Lillian Gilbreth was the Society's first female member and showcased a single case exhibition at the Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) titled "Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: Motion Engineers." Inside Smithosnian Radio was a weekly program produced by the Office of Telecommunications. The recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Carey was recorded on July 9, 2000 and documents Ms. Carey's identification and discussion of Gilbreth Family photographs. David Ferguson assisted in the discussion. A hard copy index to the photographs Ms. Carey discusses is available.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1892-1997

Subseries 1.1: Frank B. Gilbreth, undated

Subseries 1.2: Frank B. Gilbreth patents, 1892-1916

Subseries 1.3: Printed Materials, 1907-1997

Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive), 1910-1924 and undated

Series 3: Photo prints of glass stereo slides, 1910-1924 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Photo Print Books, 1-9, undated

Subseries 3.2: Photo prints (duplicates), undated

Series 4: Stereo Autochromes, undated

Series 5: Stereograph Cards, 1911-1914

Series 6: Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 1990, 2000 and undated

Subseries 6.1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated

Subseries 6.2: Moving images, 1968 and undated

Subseries 6.3: Audio recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000, and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gilbreth is best known for his work on the efficiency of motion. Working with his wife and professional partner Lillian Moller Gilbreth, he applied modern psychology to his work with management. His innovative motion studies were used on factory workers, typists and the disabled. Gilbreth established the link between psychology and education to be succesful management.

Frank Gilbreth was born in Fairfield, Maine on July 7, 1868. His parents, John and Martha Bunker Gilbreth were New Englanders. John Gilbreth ran a hardware business, but died when Frank was only three. Bearing the responsibilty of raising her children alone, Martha moved the family twice in search of quality education for her children. Ultimately she decided to school the children herself. In 1885, Frank graduated from English High School in Boston. Despite gaining admission into the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Frank opted to enter the work world immediately as a bricklayer's apprentice with Whidden and Company, building contractors in Boston.

Smart and skilled, Gilbreth worked his way up in the company. He learned the trade quickly and soon was promoted to supervisor, foreman, and finally to the position of superintendent. To further his edcuation, he went to night school to study mechanical drawing.

At the age of 27, Gilbreth embarked upon his first business venture. He started his own contracting firm. His firm developed a fine reputation for quality work at a very rapid pace. He invented tools, scaffolding, and other contraptions to make the job easier. His company goals included the elimination of waste, the conservation of energy, and the reduction of cost. His work included canals, factories, houses, and dams. His clients came from all parts of the United States, and he performed some work in England.

In 1903, Frank Gilbreth met Lillian Moller (1903-1972) and married her on October 19, 1904. Lillian graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a BA (1900) and MA (1902). She later earned a Ph.D from Brown University (1915), earning a dissertation titled The Psychology of Management. Lillian's academic work, large family and integral role in Frank's consulting business kept her busy. Her contributions to the business led to a greater understanding of an individual's welfare in the work world. This becamme a key idea to increasing productivity through scientific management techniques.

Working together, the couple became leaders in the new field of scientific management. They published books, gave lectures, and raised tweleve children together: Anne, Mary (1906--912), Ernestine, Martha, Frank Jr., William, Lillian, Frederick, Daniel, John, Robert and Jane. Some of Gilbreth's books include Fields System (1908); Concrete System (1908); Bricklaying System (1909; Motion Study (1911); and Primer of Scientific Management (1911). Gilbreth co-authored with Lillian: Time Study (1916); Fatigue Study (1916); Applied Motion Study (1917); and Motion Study for the Handicapped (1919).

It wasn't long before Gilbreth moved away from construction. Together with his wife, they focused on the link between psychology and motion. With her strong psychological background, and his interest in efficiency, the Gilbreth's opened the School of Scientific Management in 1913. The school was in session for four years. Numerous professional attended the school, and soon the Gilbreth's had established a reputation as consultant's to the new field of scientific management.

In 1912, Frank won a contract with the New England Butt Company in Providence, Rhode Island. There he installed his system of scientific management in a factory setting for the first time. Contracts with the Hermann-Aukam handkerchief manufacturing company in New Jersey and the Auergessellschaft Company in Germany followed. Using motion study, Gilbreth studied and reoganized the factories, attempting to find "the one best way" to do work.

Gilbreth traveled to Germany to continue his work was a scientific manager. He visited factories and hospitals, working to improve procedures and eliminate waste. Using micro-motion study and the chronocyclegraph procedure, he analyzed and dissected motion, discovering therblings, the seventeen fundamental units of any motion. World War I slowed Gilbreth's progress abroad, so he focused his consulting business on firms n the United States.

After World War I, Gilbreth's business thrived. in 1920, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers instituted its Management Division, something Gilbreth had been demanding for years. He was now a famous American engineer, gaining financial rewards as as professional honors.

Frank Gilbreth died suddenly of a heart attack on June 14, 1924, still in the middle of three contracts. He was honored after his death in 1944 by the American Society of Engineers and the American Management Association with the Gant Gold Medal. After Frank's death, Lillian moved the family to California where she continued to work on efficiency and health in industry issues. She was a respected buiness woman and was hired by several companies to train employees, study working conditions, and reduce fatigue. She lectured at several universities (Newark College of Engineering and the University of Wisconsin), and joined the faculty at Purdue University in 1935 as the first woman professor in the engineering school.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth often used their large family (and Frank himself) as guinea pigs in experiments. Their family exploits are lovingly detailed in the 1948 book Cheaper by the Dozen, written by Frank Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey.
Related Materials:
Material in Other Institutions

Purdue University, Archives and Special Collections

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth papers, 1869-2000

The Gilbreth Papers documents the professional and personal lives of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth. The collection consists of personal papers, letters, correspondence, photographs, and other memorabilia that Lillian Gilbreth collected during her life regarding her youth, marriage, family, and career.

Collection of materials related to Lillian Gilbreth, 1964-2006

One folder of items relating to the life of Lillian Gilbreth, and her family, collected by her granddaughter, Lillian (Jill) Barley and Nancy Weston. Materials include clippings relating to the Lillian Gilbreth postage stamp (1984); obituaries and memorial programs for Peter Barney, Ernestine Carey, Lillian Gilbreth, Anne Gilbreth Barney, Charles Carey, and Frank Gilbreth Jr.; programs and photographs relating to Lillian Gilbreth's visit to Athens in 1964; and biographical information on Lillian Gilbreth.

Cornell University, Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives

Frank Gilbreth Papers on Microfilm, Collection Number: 5424 mf

Selected papers pertaining to industrial engineering. Original materials are held by Purdue University. Microfilm copied purchased from Purdue University in April 1968.
Provenance:
The collection materials were donated by several individuals: New Jersey Institute of Technology (1975); Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr., (1980); Ernestine Gilbreth Carey (1995); Daniel B. Gilbreth (1998); and James Secor Perkins in 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. Boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Researchers must use digital copies. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motion study  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0803
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a48e652d-6387-4a23-98c0-299772c454d5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0803
Online Media:

You Are Needed Now / Join the Army Nurse Corps / Apply at Your Red Cross Recruiting Station. U.S

Creator:
Green, Ruzzie (illustrator)  Search this
United States. Army Nurse Corps  Search this
Collection Creator:
Princeton University  Search this
Extent:
1 Poster (1/2 size; Multi-color, 79 x 52 cm)
Container:
Map-folder 428
Type:
Archival materials
Posters
Place:
United States
Date:
1943 Jun
Image:
Main Image: Young Woman in a Army Nurse Corps uniform
Local numbers:
Princeton Poster# 3315
General:
Issued by: Army Nurse Corps

Artist(s): Ruzzie Green
Series:
Poster 710-A
Printing Info:
Printing Information: Racine, Wisconsin Other Printing Info: LIPABA Union Label S.A. No.54

Property of Princeton [...] Received FEB 4 1944
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status of items varies. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Recruiting and enlistment  Search this
Women's War Work  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Women in war  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Posters -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters
Posters -- World War, 1939-1945 -- United States
Collection Citation:
Princeton University Posters Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Princeton University Poster Collection
Princeton University Poster Collection / Series 4: World War Two / United States
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85df91488-17f9-43c0-94b0-4ef6d3d57191
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0433-ref14960

R-W, 1907-1947 Rensselaer Poly. I., U. of San-Francisco, Stanford U., Temple U., Tulane U., U. of Tulsa, Valparaiso U., U.S.A.F. Academy, Virginia Military I., Vanderbilt U., U. of Washington, Washington and Lee U., West Point Academy, William and Merr...

Series Creator:
DeVincent, Sam, 1918-1997  Search this
Extent:
27 Items
Container:
Box 6, Folder I
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Contains: "Bow Down to Washington," "The Cardinal Forever," "Falcons Victory March," "Fight Song," "Fight,Temple, Fight," "Fight Wooster Fight," "Hurry, Hurricane, Score!," "Indian Warriors' Song," "On, Brave Old Army Team," "On to Victory," "On Wisconsin," "Roll On, Tulane!," "The Stanford Scalp Song," "University of San-Francisco Victory Song," "V.M.I. Spirit," "Vanderbilt Forever," "Washington and Lee Swing," "When Vandy Starts to Fight," and "Wisconsin Sue."
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
The Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 7: Sports
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 7: Sports / 7.4: Football / General Songs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85a72d992-19f7-4921-94b8-29522b863af5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0300-s07-ref120

Roll On, Tulane (The Olive and Blue) [sheet music]

Composer:
Hoor, Marten Ten  Search this
Lyricist:
Goldshtein, Walter  Search this
Publisher:
Allen, Thornton W., Co.  Search this
Names:
Tulane University  Search this
Series Creator:
DeVincent, Sam, 1918-1997  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Sheet music
Date:
1925
Scope and Contents:
Cover: image of a football player in action.
Local Numbers:
AC0300-0000732.tif (AC scan no.)

90-17413 (OPPS Neg.)
General:
Subseries 7.4, box 6, folder I.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Football -- Songs and music -- 1920-1930  Search this
College sports -- 1920-1930  Search this
Sports -- Songs and music -- 1920-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music -- 1920-1930
Series Citation:
The Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 7: Sports
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 7: Sports / 7.4: Football / General Songs / R-W, 1907-1947 Rensselaer Poly. I., U. of San-Francisco, Stanford U., Temple U., Tulane U., U. of Tulsa, Valparaiso U., U.S.A.F. Academy, Virginia Military I., Vanderbilt U., U. of Washington, Washington and Lee U., West Point Academy, William and Merry C., Wisconsin U., and C. of Wooster.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e3c0aabe-cccf-4dfe-9f2a-631c9c678f30
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0300-s07-ref827

Isedale : history, tradition and cosmogony

Title:
History, tradition and cosmogony
Author:
Campbell, Bolaji  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Subject:
Obatala (Yoruba deity)  Search this
Oduduwa (Yoruba deity)  Search this
Type:
Articles
Date:
2001
Topic:
Mythology, Yoruba  Search this
Cosmology, Yoruba  Search this
Religion  Search this
Orishas  Search this
Call number:
ND2867.6.N5 C179 2001
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_758325

Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection

Collector:
Sultner-Welles, Donald H. (Sultner, Donald Harvey), 1914-1981  Search this
Printer:
Janus, Allan  Search this
Interviewee:
Hanfstaengl, Erna  Search this
Names:
Baltimore Symphony Orchestra  Search this
Chautauqua Institute  Search this
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation  Search this
Holland-America Cruises  Search this
Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945  Search this
Extent:
87.6 Cubic feet (331 boxes, 2 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Passports
Photographs
Travelogs
Receipts
Ephemera
Files
Filmstrips
Lecture notes
Personal papers
Silver-dye bleach process
Contracts
Notebooks
Prints
Press releases
Ships' passenger lists
Project files
Magnetic tapes
Posters
Postcards
Vertical files
Dye destruction process
Travel diaries
Letters (correspondence)
Professional papers
Bank statements
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Series 12.
Clippings
Card files
Concert programs
Dye destruction photoprints
Biography files
Awards
Business records
Birthday cards
Date:
circa 1790-1981
bulk 1945-1980
Scope and Contents:
This collection is primarily the work of one individual, Donald Harvey Sultner, known professionally as Donald Sultner-Welles (1914-1981). The collection forms a written and visual record of Sultner's family, life, and career from 1913-1980. Its major strength is Sultner's photographic documentation of the world during his travels, ca. 1950-1980. Work by other photographers and artists, correspondence, greeting cards, and contemporary memorabilia and ephemera are included, along with fewer than fifty examples of earlier materials, ca. 1790-1900, collected by Sultner.

The entire collection reflects Sultner's lifework and interests. Housed in boxes the collection is organized into eleven series: Personal Papers; Professional Papers; Lecture Materials; Biographical Materials; Transparencies; Photoprints; Photonegatives; Prints, Drawings, Mixed Media; Audio Tapes; Miscellaneous; and Steve Eyster Addenda. The arrangement within each series is based as closely as possi-ble on Sultner's own organization of the materials. However, in several instances similar materials were found separated and have been placed together. In addition, obvious filing mistakes and spelling errors have been corrected. The spelling of geographic place names is based on Official Standard Names prepared by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, Office of Geography, U.S. Department of the Interior. Not all names given by Sultner were found in the gazetteers, so there may be errors.

The bulk of the collection consists of 2-1/4-inch by 2-1/4-inch color transparencies (Series 5). However, the manuscript materials (Series 1-4) provide a detailed complement to the transparencies. For example, from the mid-1950s until the late 1970s, Sultner kept a travel diary (Se-ries 1). Written on the backs of postcards, this stream-of-consciousness journal reflects not only his daily trips, but his impressions of the countries and thoughts on his photography. A juxtaposition of cards with images is especially useful in understanding what Sultner photographed as well as why and how he photographed it. Sultner's professional corre-spondence (Series 2) documents the various types of groups before which he performed and equipment manufacturers dealt with for cameras, projectors, and so on. Notes, drafts, and final lectures (Series 3) present the performance side of Sultner. This material, when viewed with tapes of concerts and slides, begins to recreate the photo-concert as Sultner presented it. Scrapbooks (Series 4), kept by Sultner from the 1940s to the 1980s, present Sultner's life and career in chronological fashion.

The transparency portion of the collection (Series 5), containing over 87,000 images, is especially rich because of its documentation of the countries of the world. People are seen at their daily tasks, such as washing clothes, marketing, shopping, and eating. Cities are documented as they changed over the years. Two areas in particular will be of spe-cial interest to European and Asian researchers. The first is Sultner's USIS Asian tour in 1959. He visited Japan, Java, India, Korea, the Phil-ippines, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. The serene, prewar cities and coun-tryside of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam evince nothing of the devastation to come in the 1960a and 70s.

The second area of interest is Sultner's passion for documenting archi-tecture. As a guest of the German government in 1954, Sultner documented the devastation of World War II and photographed both the reconstruction of bombed buildings and the construction of buildings reflecting "new" postwar architectural styles. In addition to photographing post-WW II styles, throughout his career Sultner documented Palladian, baroque and Rococo architecture. This interest manifested itself in several of his lectures.

A third subject area of interest to Sultner was gardens. Among his first lectures following his USIS tour was "Gardens of the World." Sultner de-veloped this theme into an ongoing commitment to ecology, culminating in a filmstrip, "The Time is Now" (Series 10), prepared for the Hudson River Conservation Society in the 1960s. Carl Carmer, a noted author, wrote the text for the filmstrip. Sultner's taped interviews, lectures, and program music (Series 9) complement the transparencies. During his USIS-sponsored Asian tour in 1959, Sultner recorded impressions of his trip on tape. Interviews with people living in the countries he visited, radio interviews, and his own personal reflections are included. Of particular interest are his "No Harm Asking" interviews in Manila (tape #2), his interview of two French hotel managers in Saigon discussing post-French control conditions (tape #9), and--perhaps the most unusual--his discussion with Erna Hanfstaengl about her personal relationship with Adolf Hitler (tape #107). Scripts for lectures (Series 3) round out the documentation of Sultner's profes-sional work.

Because of the arrangement of the transparencies, it is necessary to check several areas for the same subject. For example, Vietnam images are in the "World" section alphabetically under Vietnam (box 81). Sult-ner also lectured on Vietnam, so there are Vietnamese images in the "framed subjects" (Boxes 137-138). Another example, perhaps more compli-cated, but more common to Sultner, was his distinguishing between images of unidentified "People" and identified "Portraits." Transparency stud ies of human beings will be found under the subseries "People." "Subjects --Portraits," various countries in the subseries "World," and "Lectures." There are also individuals in the black-and-white photoprints (Series 6), and photonegatives (Series 8). The painter and print-maker Charles Shee-ler appears in a number of locations, as does tenor Roland Hayes. Another area of complexity with regard to people concerns the transparencies and negatives. Sultner interfiled his transparencies and negatives of iden-tified individuals. For appropriate storage, these two different formats have been arranged in separate series. Therefore, instead of container lists for the two series, there is a combined alphabetical index to both (pp. 166-206).

Of tangential interest are the photoprints (Series 6), etchings, wood-cuts, and other prints (Series 8) collected by Sultner. One particular subseries of interest contains photographs presented to Sultner by Asian photographers during his 1959 tour. Over 45 images were given to Sultner and represent the standards of camera-club photography in the 1950s. Thesecond subseries consists of over 25 prints by the Italian-American art-ist Luigi Lucioni (1900- ). For further information on this artist,see The Etchings of Luigi Lucioni, -A Catalogue Raisonne', by Stuart P.Embury (Washington, 1984). Lucioni also painted Sultner's portrait in1952 and the "People" section of the transparencies contains a number of images of Lucioni at work. Another significant category is the Japanese prints, including two by a major nineteenth-century artist, Ando Hiro-shige (1797-1858).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eleven series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1923-1981

Series 2: Professional Papers, 1954-1980

Series 3: Lecture Materials, 1952-1980

Series 4: Biographical Materials, 1954-1980

Series 5: Transparencies, 1947-1980

Series 6: Photoprints, 1913-ca. 1980

Series 7: Photonegatives, 1929-1981

Series 8: Prints, Drawings, Mixed Media, ca. 1790-1979

Series 9: Audio Tapes, 1947-1980

Series 10: Miscellaneous, 1947-1980

Series 11: Steve Eyster Addenda, 1937-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Donald Harvey Sultner was bom in York, Pennsylvania, on April 13, 1914, the son of Lillian May Arnold Sultner and Harvey A. Sultner. In 1923 Sultner attended the Lewis Institute in Detroit, Michigan, to overcome a speech impediment. He entered the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1932 and graduated in 1936. Sultner studied merchandising and sang in the glee club, then under the direction of composer Harl MacDonald. Sultner, a baritone, continued his interest in music and studied voice with Reinald Werrenrath and with Florence Benedict and Bruce Benjamin in New York City. In the late 1940s and early 1950s he appeared in concert with accompanists at schools, clubs, and resort hotels along the East Coast. It appears that photography was always an important part of Sultner's life. Using a small format (120) camera, he recorded his vacation travels around the United States and Canada, parties, and his family. While living in New York, Sultner continued photographing friends and family and began photographing the famous people he encountered on his concert tours. In the early 1950s he began taking 2-1/4-inch by 2-1/4-inch color transparencies (slides) of landscapes and architecture as he traveled giving concerts.

Sultner, who had taken the stage name of "Sultner-Welles," began what was to be his lifework as a professional "photo-lecturer" in 1952. He illustrated his talks on nature, art, architecture, and the environment with his color slides. In 1954 Sultner toured West Germany as a guest of the Bonn government, and in 1959 he lectured in Asia under the auspices of the U.S. State Department. He was dubbed the "camera ambassador." Constantly adding new material to his collection of slides, Sultner traveled extensively throughout the United States, speaking before garden clubs, cultural organi-zations, and schools. He also appeared aboard various ships of the Holland-America line during a number of cruises abroad.

Sultner had established his performance style by the early 1960s. He expanded his lectures to include a combination of art, words, and music. The expanded presentation resulted in the "photo-concert," a unique synthesis of light and sound that Sultner frequently per-formed with a symphony orchestra. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra commissioned "Concertino for Camera and Orchestra" by Eric Knight with Sultner in mind. The world premiere was in Baltimore in March 1979. While he spoke on many art, garden, and architectural topics, Sultner specialized in subjects relating to the baroque and rococo periods and Palladian architecture.

Sultner died of cancer in York, Pennsylvania, on March 25, 1981, at the age of 67.

1914 -- April 13, born York, Pennsylvania.

1929 -- In Detroit at Lewis Institute to overcome a speech impediment.

1932 -- To University of Pennsylvania.

1935 -- Summer trip to Roanoke (VA), Picketts, Hershey (PA); fall trip to New England for fraternity (AXP) convention.

1936 -- Spring glee club trip; graduated from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania; summer trips to Newport News (VA), northern trip to Canada, Picketts (PA).

1937 -- Fall trip to Williamsburg (VA), Duke University (NC); Sultner family begins building "Glen Hill" (Dover, PA).

1938 -- Summer at home, and Picketts (PA), Camp Pratt.

1939 -- Spring trip to Washington, D.C.; September trip to The Homestead (WV), Hot Springs (WV), Virginia; Lake Mohonk (NY).

1940 -- Summer trip to New Orleans, Blowing Rock (NC); winter trip to Skytop Club (NY); fall trip to Atlantic City (NJ), Philadelphia (PA), Annapolis (MD).

1941 -- Winter 1941-42 appearance in "Hit the Deck." Lake Mohonk (NY) with Ted Walstrum (Sept. 22-23); Skytop Club (NY) (February); summer trip to Canada, Lake Chazy (NY) (Aug. 17-23).

1942 -- Spring in Atlantic City (NJ); summer to Buck Hill Falls, Lakes Chazy and Mohonk.

1943 -- Summer trip to Mohonk (NY).

1944 -- Summer: To Toronto (Ontario), Muskoka Lake, Bigwin Island, Montreal (Quebec), Mohonk (NY).

1945 -- Summer: To Winnepesauke (ME), Woodstock (NY), Ogunquit (ME), Bridgeport (CT).

1946 -- To Mohonk (NY), Ogunquit (ME), Old Saybrook (CT), Nantucket (RI).

1947 -- Singing tour of Canada and New England; winter-spring tour to Georgia and Florida.

1948 -- To Florida and Nassau, Feb.-Mar., Vermont, July-Aug.; Nassau-Havana-Miami-Bermuda, October.

1949 -- Singing tour of North and South Carolina.

1950 -- Summer trip to South.

1951 -- To District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, [New Jersey?], New York, Vermont.

1952 -- January 9: first public photo-concert, Pennsylvania Academy of the Arts, Philadelphia; trips to Connecticut, Florida, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont.

1953 -- To Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont.

1954 -- Guest of German government for a study tour in the fall. To District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia.

1955 -- To Holland; Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia.

1956 -- To California, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.

1957 -- Holland-America Cruise to Germany, Austria, Italy. To Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1958 -- Holland-America Cruises to Germany, Austria, Holland, Italy, Switzerland. To Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota., Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Wisconsin.

1959 -- United States Information Service (USIS)-sponsored tour of Asia: Burma, Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaya, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam. Also visited Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Spain; Alaska, California, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania.

1960 -- Holland-America Cruise to Austria, Belgium, Caribbean, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Morocco. To Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.

1961 -- To Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland; Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode.Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.

1962 -- Portfolio, "Autumn in Vermont," with introduction by Carl Carmer, published in Autumn issue of Vermont Life. Holland-America Cruise to Denmark, England, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Sweden. To Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia.

1963 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Canada, Sweden, Thailand. To Alabama, California, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, N;w York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington.

1964 -- Holland-America Cruise to Germany, Canada, England, Holland, Wales. To Delaware, District of Columbia, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia.

1965 -- Holland-America Cruise to Austria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Holland, Portugal, Wales. To Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Indiana, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1966 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Germany, France, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland. To New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.

1967 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Austria, Denmark, England, Germany, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Wales. To Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia.

1968 -- To Germany; Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1969 -- To England, France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland; Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

1970 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Denmark, Iceland, Sweden. To Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia.

1971 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Portugal, Sweden. To Alabama, Georgia, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania.

1972 -- Holland-America Cruise to Asia, Pacific, Caribbean, Africa, Austria, Italy, Japan, Thailand, Turkey. To California, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia.

1973 -- Holland-America Cruise to Austria, Denmark, Germany, Holland, Iceland, Sweden. To California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont.

1974 -- To Germany, Switzerland; California, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

1975 -- To Austria; California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

1976 -- To Canada; Connecticut, District of Columbia, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah.

1977 -- To Canada, Germany; New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1978 -- To Scotland; Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina.

1979 -- To England; Florida.

1980 -- To Florida.

1981 -- March 25: Sultner dies of cancer, York, Pennsylania.
Introduction:
The Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection, ca. 1790-1981, came to the National Museum of American History in 1982 from the estate of Mr. Sultner. The collection was created by Sultner over his adult life and represents one of the most extensive collections of color transparencies created by one individual and held in a public repository. Sultner's emphasis was on world culture. He took the majority of his photographs in the eastern United States, western Europe, and Asia. Gardens, architecture, and people are the three major subject areas represented in the collection. Of additional interest are Sultner's taped impressions of his 1959 United States Information Service (USIS)-sponsored Asian tour. The collection occupies 309 boxes and covers more than 83 cubic feet.

The Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection is open to researchers in the Archives Center, third floor east, of the National Museum of American History, between 12th and 14th Streets, on Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20560. The Archives Center is open Monday through Friday from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Written and telephone (202/357-3270) inquiries are welcome and researchers are encouraged to contact the Archives Center before their arrival. The FAX number is 202/786-2453.

This is the eleventh in a series of occasional guides to collections in the Archives Center. Finding aids to other collections are available. The Guide to Manuscript Collections in the National Museum of History and Technology (1978) and an updated compilation contain brief descriptions of all archival holdings in the Museum. All current Archives Center holdings are available for search on the Smithsonian Institution Bibliographic Information System (SIBIS), an online database.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

A small number of letters and photographs are restricted until the year 2031. Identification list in box.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Lecturers  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Gardens -- Photographs -- 1300-1980  Search this
Architecture -- Photographs -- 1300-1980  Search this
Travel photography -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Passports
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Travelogs
Receipts -- 20th century
Ephemera
Files
Filmstrips
Lecture notes
Personal papers -- 20th century
Silver-dye bleach process
Contracts
Notebooks
Prints
Press releases
Ships' passenger lists
Project files
Magnetic tapes
Posters
Postcards
Vertical files
Dye destruction process
Travel diaries
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Professional papers
Bank statements
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- Phototransparencies -- 20th century
Audiotapes -- 1940-1980
Series 12. -- Cibachrome (TM)
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Card files
Concert programs
Dye destruction photoprints
Biography files
Awards
Business records
Birthday cards
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0145
See more items in:
Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c00c15e0-d905-4a3c-ab89-6fbd2f9c5f7d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0145
Online Media:

Stone Implement - Bannerstone (Cast)

Donor Name:
Frederick S. Perkins  Search this
Culture:
Archaic  Search this
Object Type:
Cast
Place:
Paris, Kenosha County, Wisconsin, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1873
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
002684
USNM Number:
A11691-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/307ecd7fc-4b29-480a-b00b-c392fa5fd24b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8009156
Online Media:

Annual Reports

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Container:
Box 404, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1917 - 1920
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 12: Publications / 12.1: Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv47d653f6c-cdf9-45cd-9231-bc116ffdeaea
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15240
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  • View Annual Reports digital asset number 1

Annual Reports

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Container:
Box 404, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1925 - 1927
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 12: Publications / 12.1: Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4baa74eba-582b-4879-9270-61b3ccf8a888
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15242
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Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs

Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
86 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1895-2001
bulk 1898-1951
Scope and Contents:
The Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs, circa 1895-2001 (bulk 1898-1951) primarily relate to Curtis's work on his opus, the North American Indian (NAI), although other subjects are documented as well. The papers relate closely to the Edward S. Curtis papers at the University of Washington Libraries Special Collections (UW), as that collection was donated by Curtis's daughter Florence Graybill and appears to be part of the same body of materials that was maintained by Curtis, and after his death, by Florence. Occasionally a correspondence exchange or manuscript draft is divided between the National Anthropological Archives and UW. Also found in both collections are notes, mostly dated 1951, in Curtis's handwriting on slips of paper or the document itself that gives an explanation of the document.

The collection includes correspondence, research notes, NAI files and promotional material, writings and memoirs, a small amount of material relating to a complaint regarding his reporting in NAI of certain Pueblo ceremonies, and correspondence and other documents relating to his gold mining interests. Also included are papers of Florence Graybill, who published on Curtis after his death and maintained contacts with various individuals and entities involved in Curtis exhibits, publications, and sales.

The correspondence exchanges are almost exclusively NAI related and document the relationships Curtis had with various influential people, including Gifford Pinchot, Joseph Blethen, Jacob Riis, William Farabee, Smithsonian scholars Frederick Webb Hodge and Matilda Coxe Stevenson, and the immediate and extended family of Theodore Roosevelt. Included are letters of introduction for Curtis as he sought to promote his work.

The research notes consist of a small mixture of writings on field experiences as well as maps used during his fieldwork (the bulk of Curtis's fieldnotes and NAI manuscripts are at the Seaver Center in the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History). The NAI files chiefly contain material promoting the work, such as published reviews, articles, and ephemera, but there are a few North American Indian Inc. business records (the bulk of the business records are maintained at the Pierpont Morgan Library). Of note is a lengthy annual report for the North American Indian, Inc., in which Curtis explains difficulties encountered in the fieldwork and volume publication. Related to his NAI work are letters and other materials documenting a 1934 complaint from Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior on Curtis's reporting of certain Pueblo ceremonies, as well as Curtis's response.

The writings comprise manuscript drafts on various topics. Most are short, stand-alone stories relating to his NAI work, often relaying a story about his own experiences. Similar stories can be found in Florence Graybill's papers, as she published some of them after his death. Also part of the writings are drafts for several chapters of Curtis's unpublished memoir, "As it Was."

Curtis's interest in gold mining is represented in correspondence and other material dating from 1938-1950. Most of the letters are between Curtis and his son Harold. Curtis's invention of a concentrator for separating fine gold from placer tailings is also documented in photographs and drawings.

Florence Graybill's papers pertain to writings, talks, and projects relating to Curtis after his death. Included are publication files for Graybill's biography of Curtis written with Victor Boesen, Visions of a Vanishing Race, as well as other of her articles and book reviews. Graybill's correspondence reveals her commitment to assist scholars and others interested in researching and exhibiting Curtis material, as well as her communication with individuals having a commercial interest in Curtis. Also present are Graybill's lecture notes for talks given, and articles and newspaper features on Curtis written by others.

The photographs in this collection primarily relate to Curtis's NAI work (1898-1927) and are a mix of original and working copy negatives, prints, and transparencies. The original negatives are remarkable in that they reveal some of Curtis's working methods in crafting his images through pencil and other enhancements, as well as showing removal of unwanted items from the image. Also of note are two original logbooks used for recording negatives from approximately 1895-1916. The majority of the prints appear to be silver gelatin prints made for reference; however, there are a fair number of platinum prints as well as several blue-toned silver prints in the collection. There are only a few cyanotypes.

Among the photographs is a deerskin-bound photograph album containing Harriman Alaska Expedition and NAI photographs, representing some of Curtis's earliest Native American subjects. These include images of people from the Puget Sound area as well as from his 1900 trip to the Blackfoot reservation. There are no annotations in the album; however, tucked among the pages are a few small notes of identification in Curtis's handwriting.

Photographs documenting other subjects are also present to a lesser degree. Among these are photographs of Curtis's Seattle photography studio, a 1915 Grand Canyon trip, hop field workers in the Puget Sound area, and Curtis's illustrations for Marah Ryan's book Flute of the Gods. Additionally, the collection contains a number of photographs of Curtis, his children, and portraits of various individuals including Theodore Roosevelt and actor Anna May Wong.
Arrangement:
The Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs are arranged into the following 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical information, 1919-1952

Series 2: Correspondence, 1904-1951

Series 3: Research notes, 1900-1930, undated

Series 4: North American Indian, circa 1906-1920

Series 5: Writings, 1906, 1948, undated

Series 6: Complaint regarding Curtis's reporting of Pueblo ceremonies, 1924-1935

Series 7: Gold mining, 1938-1950

Series 8. Florence Curtis Graybill papers, 1948-2001

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1896-1927

Series 10: Duplicate material, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sherriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer famous for his photographs of the indigenous peoples of North America. His work was highly influential in shaping a sympathetic yet romantic view of cultures that he and many others believed to be "vanishing." Over the course of 30 years, Curtis visited more than 80 Native American communities and published his photographs and ethnographies in the twenty-volume North American Indian (NAI) (1907-1930).

Curtis was born in Whitewater, Wisconsin, to Ellen and Johnson Curtis in 1868. In about 1874, his family moved to a farm in Cordova, Minnesota. At a young age, Curtis built a camera, and it is possible that he may have worked in a Minneapolis photography studio for a time. In 1887, Curtis and his father moved West and settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, with the rest of the family joining them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, 20-year-old Curtis became the head of the family.

In 1891, Curtis moved to Seattle and bought into a photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he and Thomas Guptill formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers." The endeavor became a premier portrait studio for Seattle society and found success in photoengraving for many local publications. In 1892, Curtis married Clara Phillips (1874-1932) and in 1893 their son Harold was born (1893-1988), followed by Elizabeth (Beth) (1896-1973), Florence (1899-1987) and Katherine (Billy) (1909-?). Around 1895, Curtis made his first photographs of local Native people, including the daughter of Duwamish chief Seattle: Kickisomlo or "Princess Angeline." Curtis submitted a series of his Native American photographs to the National Photographic Convention, and received an award in the category of "genre studies" for Homeward (later published in volume 9 of the NAI). In 1896, the entire Curtis family moved to Seattle, which included Curtis's mother, his siblings Eva and Asahel, Clara's sisters Susie and Nellie Phillips, and their cousin William Phillips. Most of the household worked in Curtis's studio along with other employees. Curtis became sole proprietor of the studio in 1897, which remained a popular portrait studio but also sold his scenic landscapes and views of the Seattle Area. Curtis also sent his brother Asahel to Alaska and the Yukon to photograph the Klondike Gold Rush, and sold those views as well. Asahel went on to become a well-known photographer in his own right, primarily working in the American Northwest.

Curtis was an avid outdoorsman and joined the Mazamas Club after his first of many climbs of Mount Rainier. On a climb in 1898, Curtis met a group of scientists, including C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell, and Gifford Pinchot, who had lost their way on the mountain, and led them to safety. This encounter led to an invitation from Merriam for Curtis to accompany a group of over 30 well-known scientists, naturalists, and artists as the official photographer on a maritime expedition to the Alaskan coast. Funded by railroad magnate Edward Harriman, the Harriman Alaska Expedition left Seattle in May of 1899, and returned at the end of July. Curtis made around 5000 photographs during the trip, including photographs of the indigenous peoples they met as well as views of mountains, glaciers, and other natural features. Many of the photographs appeared in the expedition's 14 published volumes of their findings.

In 1900, Curtis accompanied Grinnell to Montana for a Blackfoot Sundance. Here, Curtis made numerous photographs and became interested in the idea of a larger project to document the Native peoples of North America. Almost immediately upon returning from the Sundance, Curtis set off for the Southwest to photograph Puebloan communities. By 1904, Curtis had already held at least one exhibit of his "Indian pictures" and his project to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, the NAI) had taken shape and already received some press coverage. With his fieldwork now increasing his absences from home, Curtis hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank Rinehart, to help manage the Seattle studio.

In 1904, Curtis was a winner in the Ladies Home Journal "Prettiest Children In America" portrait contest. His photograph of Marie Fischer was selected as one of 112 that would be published and Fischer was one of 12 children selected from the photographs who would have their portrait painted by Walter Russell. Russell and Curtis made an acquaintance while Russell was in Seattle to paint Fischer's portrait, and not long afterwards, Russell contacted Curtis to make photographic studies of Theodore Roosevelt's children for portraits he would paint. Curtis subsequently photographed the entire Roosevelt family, and developed a social connection with the President. Several important outcomes came of this new friendship, including Roosevelt eventually writing the foreword to the NAI, as well as making introductions to influential people.

Key among these introductions was one to wealthy financier John Pierpont Morgan, in 1906. After a brief meeting with Curtis during which he viewed several of Curtis's photographs of Native Americans, Morgan agreed to finance the fieldwork for the NAI project for five years, at $15,000.00 per year. It was up to Curtis to cover publishing and promotion costs, with the publication being sold as a subscription. In return, Morgan would receive 25 sets of the 20-volume publication. The ambitious publication plan outlined 20 volumes of ethnological text, each to be illustrated with 75 photogravure prints made from acid-etched copper plates. Each volume would be accompanied by a companion portfolio of 35 large photogravures. With high-quality papers and fine binding, a set would cost $3000.00. 500 sets were planned. Under Morgan, the North American Indian, Inc. formed as body to administer the monies. Also around this time, Frederick Webb Hodge, Director of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology, agreed to edit the publications.

Curtis then began more systematic fieldwork, accompanied by a team of research assistants and Native interpreters. In 1906, Curtis hired William E. Myers, a former journalist, as a field assistant and stenographer. Over the years, Myers became the lead researcher on the project, making enormous contributions in collecting data and possibly doing the bulk of the writing for the first 18 volumes. Upon meeting a new community, Curtis and his team would work on gathering data dealing with all aspects of the community's life, including language, social and political organization, religion, food ways, measures and values, and many other topics. (See box 2 folder 1 in this collection for Curtis's list of topics.) Curtis and his assistants, especially Myers, brought books and papers to the field relating to the tribes they were currently concerned with, and often wrote from the field to anthropologists at the Bureau of American Ethnology and other institutions for information or publications. In addition to fieldnotes and photographs, the team also employed sound recording equipment, making thousands of recordings on wax cylinders. Curtis also often brought a motion picture camera, although few of his films have survived.

The first volume of the NAI was published towards the end of 1907. Already, Curtis was encountering difficulty in finding subscribers to the publication despite great praise in the press and among those who could afford the volumes. Curtis spent progressively more of his time outside the field season promoting the project through lectures and in 1911, presenting his "Picture Musicale"—a lecture illustrated with lantern slides and accompanied by an original musical score—in major cities. After the initial five funded years, only eight of the twenty volumes had been completed. However, Morgan agreed to continue support for the fieldwork and publication continued.

Starting in 1910, Curtis and his team worked among the Kwakwaka'wakw First Nation on Vancouver Island, and in 1913 began to develop a documentary film project featuring the community in Alert Bay. In 1914, Curtis produced the feature-length film, In the Land of the Headhunters. The film showcased an all-indigenous cast and included an original musical score. Screened in New York and Seattle, it received high praise. However after this initial success, it did not receive the attention Curtis had hoped for, and resulted in financial loss.

Meanwhile, Curtis's prolonged absences from home had taken a toll on his marriage and in 1919 Clara and Edward divorced. The Seattle studio was awarded to Clara, and Curtis moved to Los Angeles, opening a photography studio with his daughter Beth and her husband Manford "Mag" Magnuson. Daughters Florence and Katherine came to Los Angeles sometime later. Curtis continued with fieldwork and promotion of the project, and in 1922 volume 12 of the NAI was published. Also in 1922, Curtis was accompanied during the field season in California by his daughter Florence Curtis Graybill, the first time a family member had gone to the field with him since the Curtis children were very small.

Curtis continued to push the project and publications along, yet never without financial struggle and he picked up work in Hollywood as both a still and motion picture photographer. John Pierpont Morgan, Jr., continued to provide funding for the fieldwork in memory of his father, but with the various financial upsets of the 1910s and 1920s, Curtis had a difficult time getting subscribers on board. In 1926, Myers, feeling the strain, regretfully resigned after the completion of volume 18. Anthropologist Frank Speck recommended Stewart Eastwood, a recent graduate from the University of Pennsylvania, to replace Myers as ethnologist for the final two volumes.

In 1927, Curtis and his team, along with his daughter Beth Curtis Magnuson, headed north from Seattle to Alaska and Canada on a final field season. Harsh weather and a hip injury made the trip difficult for Curtis, but he was very satisfied with the season's work. The party returned to Seattle, and upon arrival Curtis was arrested for unpaid alimony. He returned exhausted to Los Angeles, and in 1930 the final two volumes of NAI were published without fanfare. Curtis spent the next two years recovering from physical and mental exhaustion. Beth and Mag continued to run the Curtis studio in LA, but for the most part, Curtis had set down his camera for good. With the NAI behind him and his health recovered, Curtis pursued various interests and employment; he continued to do some work in Hollywood, including working on The Plainsman, starring Gary Cooper.

In 1933 Curtis was publicly criticized by John Collier, the Commissioner for Indian Affairs for some of the statements he had made on certain Pueblo ceremonies in the NAI volume 16, published in 1924. In September of 1934 Curtis received a letter from Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior regarding the claims published in volume 16, demanding a printed apology to be distributed among the text of the book as well as removal of the offending text from any undistributed copies of the publication. Curtis spent months writing and compiling supporting documentation in his defense, which he submitted to Ickes in January 1935. Also in 1935, the Morgan estate liquidated the North American Indian, Inc. and sold the remaining sets of the NAI volumes and unbound pages, photogravures, and copper printing plates along with the rights to the material to Boston bookseller Charles Lauriat for $1000.00.

Curtis's interest in gold prospecting took a front seat in the mid-1930s. While he scouted for potentially profitable mines in Northern California, his friend Ted Shell and possibly his son Harold sought investors. However, nothing ever fully panned out, though Curtis did design and build a concentrator for separating fine gold from placer tailings. He later sold the patent for ten dollars. Eventually, Curtis settled down on a farm outside Los Angeles, moving later to live with Beth and Mag, where he stayed until his death. In the mid to late 1940s Curtis began to write his memoirs. His daughter Florence visited him regularly and typed as Curtis dictated his recollections, and at some point he completed a draft of a memoir titled "As it Was." He also went through his papers and annotated or tucked notes among the correspondence and other material giving a brief explanation of the item or its context. Curtis died at home in 1952.

Prior to his death, Curtis had been out of the public eye for some years, and the NAI had slipped into relative obscurity. The Curtis studio in Los Angeles continued to sell Curtis's Native American photographs, and Florence gave occasional talks on her father, but it wasn't until the early 1970s that Curtis's work saw a renewed interest. This renaissance took place largely in the art photography market, but Curtis's biography and the NAI were also getting treatment in publications. Florence Curtis Graybill partnered with Victor Boesen to produce two narrative histories of Curtis and his work, and these were followed by many others. Florence continued to publish short works on her father for many years, and stayed in touch with numerous people involved in projects both scholarly and commercial that related to Curtis's work.

Sources Cited

Davis, Barbara. Edward S. Curtis: the life and times of a shadowcatcher. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1984.

Gidley, Mick. The North American Indian, Incorporated. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Chronology

1868 -- Curtis is born in Whitewater, Wisconsin

circa 1874 -- Curtis family moves to Cordova, Minnesota

1887 -- Moves with his father to Washington territory to be joined by his mother and siblings in 1888

1891 -- With Rasmus Rothi forms Rothi & Curtis photography studio in Seattle

1892 -- Marries Clara Phillips With Thomas Guptill forms Curtis & Guptill Photographers and Photoengravers in Seattle

circa 1895 -- Becomes interested in photographing the indigenous people of the area

1897 -- Guptill leaves, Curtis establishes himself as Edward S. Curtis, Photographer and Photoengraver

1898 -- Meets C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell, and Gifford Pinchot during climb on Mount Rainier Receives first place award from the National Photographic Convention in the "Genre Studies" for his photographs of Native Americans

1899 -- Joins Harriman Alaska Expedition as official photographer at request of C. Hart Merriam and George Bird Grinnell

1900 -- Accompanies George Bird Grinnell to Blackfoot reservation in Montana for Sundance Becomes interested in a major project to document Native American tribes Travels to Arizona to photograph Hopi communities

circa 1902 -- Travels again to the southwest to photograph Native communities

1903 -- Holds first formal exhibit of Native American photographs in his studio

1904 -- Publicly announces intention to produce major publication on Native Americans Portrait entered in the Ladies Home Journal "Prettiest Children in America" contest is selected for publication and as a result, Curtis is asked to photograph President Theodore Roosevelt's family

circa 1904-1906 -- Conducts fieldwork among Native communities of the southwest

1906 -- Meets with J. P. Morgan, who agrees to finance the fieldwork for Curtis's project Hires William E. Myers as researcher and writer for the project

1907 -- Volume 1 of NAI is published

1908 -- Volumes 2 and 3 of NAI are published

1909 -- Volumes 4 and 5 of NAI are published

1911 -- Volumes 6, 7, and 8 of NAI are published Presents and tours the "Picture Musicale"

1913 -- J. P. Morgan dies, but his son agrees to continue to provide support for NAI Volume 9 of NAI is published

1914 -- Releases film In the Land of the Headhunters

1915 -- Volume 10 of NAI is published

1916 -- Volume 11 of NAI is published

1919 -- Edward and Clara Curtis divorce and the Seattle studio is awarded to Clara Moves to Los Angeles and opens new studio with daughter Beth and her husband, Manford Magnuson

1922 -- Volume 12 of NAI is published Conducts fieldwork in California with daughter Florence Curtis Graybill

1924 -- Volumes 13 and 14 of NAI are published

1926 -- Volumes 15, 16, and 17 of NAI are published William E. Myers resigns as chief writer and ethnologist of NAI

1927 -- Conducts fieldwork in Alaska and Canada for final NAI volume with daughter Beth Curtis Magnuson

1928 -- Volume 18 of NAI is published

1930 -- Volumes 19 and 20 of NAI are published

circa 1930-1950 -- Applies himself to various interests, especially gold mining

1952 -- Dies in Los Angeles at the home of Beth and Manford Magnuson
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds additional Curtis papers and photographs in MS 2000-18, the Edward Curtis investigation of the battle of Little Bighorn and Photo Lot 59, the Library of Congress copyright prints collection.

The Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University holds Curtis's wax cylinder audio recordings from 1907-1913.

The Braun Research Library at the Autry Museum of the American West holds the Frederick Webb Hodge papers (1888-1931), which contain substantial correspondence from Curtis. The Braun also holds a small amount of Curtis papers and photographs, including some of Curtis's cyanotypes.

The Getty Research Institute holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1900-1978), which include the original manuscript scores for the Curtis Picture Musicale and film In the Land of the Headhunters.

The Palace of the Governors at the New Mexico History Museum holds original Curtis negatives pertaining to the southwest.

The Pierpont Morgan Library holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1906-1947), which contain the records of the North American Indian, Inc., as well as Curtis's correspondence to librarian, and later library director, Belle Da Costa Greene. The library also holds a large collection of Curtis's lantern slides, used in his Picture Musicale.

The Seattle Public Library holds correspondence of Curtis to Librarian Harriet Leitch (1948-1951), pertaining to his career.

The Seaver Center for Western History Research at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History holds collection GC 1143, which contains Curtis's field notes as well as manuscript drafts for the North American Indian.

The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian holds NMAI.AC.080, the Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs, as well as NMAI.AC.053, the Mary Harriman Rumsey collection of Harriman Alaska Expedition photographs.

The University of Washington Libraries Special Collections holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1893-1983). Additionally, the Burke Museum holds papers and photographs of Edmund Schwinke, which relate to Curtis's work with the Kwakwaka'wakw community.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts collected by Curtis that were a part of this donation comprise Accession No. 2058745 in the collections of the Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History.
Provenance:
The papers and photographs were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jim Graybill, grandson of Edward S. Curtis, in 2010 and 2011.
Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives and transparencies requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Identifier:
NAA.2010-28
See more items in:
Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d9637048-0e34-47a7-8fd4-210055d47c69
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2010-28
Online Media:

Chicago, Illinois, Art Institute of Chicago

Collection Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Container:
Box 109, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1941-1944
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records / Series 1: Correspondence / 1.4: Museum Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw908e823d2-161e-4082-88b3-3bd1f4021037
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-jacqself-ref11798
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The Czech Republic: Tradition and Transformation

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
In 1989, the people of Czechoslovakia rose in peaceful protest against the Communist regime, in what was called the "Velvet Revolution". In the years immediately following, Western cultural productions, some of dubious quality, inundated Czech society. The reaction was a new interest in traditional folklore. For instance in 1995 the Folklore Association of the Czech Republic listed some 12,000 active members of folklore ensembles. It seemed that the Czech people remain loyal to the culture that, a century earlier, some had claimed was on the verge of extinction.

In fact, most Czech citizens still know hundreds of folk songs. Time-honored customs have survived, even if only as aesthetic or amusing reminders of a proud past. Traditional weddings are still held in rural areas and to some extent in the urban centers where they had once disappeared. In other areas, the transmission and transformation rather than disappearance of older folk traditions served as a mechanism of maintaining contemporary regional identity. Music can be taken to illustrate the diversity of Czech traditions around the then-new country.

The Festival program was organized only two years after the Czech Republic separated peacefully from Slovakia. In 1995, the Czech Republic was still grappling with the repercussions of independence and changed borders. The Festival program provided Czech scholars with an opportunity to revisit and revalue folklore traditions such as Easter-egg decorating, puppetry, dulcimer bands, and bagpipe ensembles in light of the sociopolitical changes reshaping their society. At the same time they studied contemporary, urban grassroots traditions such as Czech country and western singers, Romany popular music, and pub songs, which might not have been previously considered folklore.

At the time of the 1995 Festival, Czechs were experiencing transitions in every sphere of communal life. In the process of framing a joint Festival program, Czech and U.S. scholars shared an opportunity to witness cultural tradition and transformation at a unique historical moment. The issues they grappled with enhanced the scope of the immediate Festival goal, resulting in a presentation that covered the full range of grassroots, popular, and official folkloric expressions.

Amy Horowitz served as Curator, and Tom Vennum, Jr. as Czech American Curator, with Jaroslav Stika as Czech Research Director. Irena Zikova was U.S. Program Coordinator, and Jaroslav and Vera Cerny (Carousel Agency) were Coordinators in the Czech Republic.

The Czech Republic: Tradition and Transformation was made possible with the support of the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, the Embassy of the Czech Republic in the United States, the Trust for Mutual Understanding, Samson Brewery from the south Bohemian town of Česke Budějovice, the Ford Motor Company Fund, and Area Medica Holding s.r.o., and was produced in collaboration with the Open-Air Museum of Wallachia.
Researchers:
Stanislav Brouček; Věra Černá, Jaroslav Černý, Jiří Černý, Zdeněk Cvikl, Alena Divínová, Milena Habustová, J. Hrdá, Josef Jančar, Jiří Kosík, Jiří Langer, Václav Mikušek, Anna Mlýnková, Jiří Pavlica, Martina Pavlicová, Vladimir Scheufler, Daniela Stavélová, Ivo Stolařík, Dalibor Štrunc, Jaromír Štrunc, František Synek, Zdenék Uherek, M. Weinerová
Presenters:
Betty Belanus, Vera Cech, Val Cech, Věra Černá, Jerry Černý, Jiří Černý, Jana Kansky, Paul Kapic, Pavla Kostková, Dawn Orsak, Irena Přibylová, Heather Slosar, Lucie Zálešáková, Dick Zika
Participants: Czech-American:
FOODWAYS

Helen Cyr, sausage maker, Freeport, Texas

Roseanne Hauger, sausage maker, Floresville, Texas

Zdena Sadlik, cook, Washington, D.C.

MUSIC

TUBA DAN BAND -- TUBA DAN BANDGene Burmeister, trumpet, Green Bay, WisconsinJohn Hall, trumpet, saxophone, clarinet, Omro, WisconsinDan "Tuba Dan" Jerabek, Sr., tuba, Ripon, WisconsinDan Jerabek, Jr., accordion, tuba, Ripon, WisconsinDavid Jerabek, trombone, tuba, accordion, Ripon, WisconsinLila Jerabek, drums, Ripon, WisconsinJay Yungwirth, piano, Manitowoc, Wisconsin
Participants: Czech Republic:
MUSIC

HRADIŠTAN: CONTEMPORARY MORAVIAN DULCIMER BAND -- HRADIŠTAN: CONTEMPORARY MORAVIAN DULCIMER BANDDavid Burda, clarinet, vocals, Uherské Hradištĕ, Czech RepublicAlice Holubová, vocals, Uherské Hradištĕ, Czech RepublicMiroslav Juračka, violin, vocals, Uherské Brod, Czech RepublicOldřich Kučera, double bass, vocals, Kunovice, Czech RepublicMilan Malina, dulcimer, vocals, Uherské Hradištĕ, Czech RepublicJiří Pavlica, vocals, violin, Brno, Czech RepublicLubomír Svatoš, violin, vocals, Uherské Hradištĕ, Czech Republic

POLAJKA: WALLACHIAN WOMEN SINGERS, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm -- POLAJKA: WALLACHIAN WOMEN SINGERS, Rožnov pod RadhoštěmIrena Dĕcká, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicJarmila Maleňáková, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicEva Porubová, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicPavla Porubová, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicEva Šťiková, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicJaroslava Štruncová, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Republic

POSTŘEKOV FOLKLORE ENSEMBLE: CHODSKO BAGPIPE AND WHIRLING DANCE -- POSTŘEKOV FOLKLORE ENSEMBLE: CHODSKO BAGPIPE AND WHIRLING DANCEPetr Buršík, dance, vocals, Postřekov Mlýnec, Czech RepublicJan Holoubek, bagpipe, double bass, Postřekov Mlýnec, Czech RepublicJiřina Holoubkova., Vtolin, Postřekov Mlýnec, Czech RepublicJiří Kapic, vocals, dance, Postfekov Mlynec, Czech RepublicJiří Konop, vocals, dance, percussion, Postřekov, Czech RepublicIvana Konopová, dance, Postřekov, Czech RepublicJana Královcová, dance, vocals, Postřekov, Czech RepublicMiroslav Královec, vocals, dance, Postřekov, Czech RepublicKarel Pivoňka, vocals, dance, Postřekov, Czech RepublicAnna Pivoňková, vocals, dance, bobbin lace maker, Postřekov, Czech RepublicVeronika Poláková, dance, Postřekov, Czech RepublicJan Řezníčěk, clarinet, Postřekov, Czech RepublicJaroslav Řezníčěk, clarinet, Postřekov, Czech RepublicRichard Vísner, bagpipr, Domažlice, Czech RepublicMilan Vrba, dance, Postřekov Mlýnec, Czech RepublicAnna Vrbová, dance, Postřekov Mlýnec, Czech Republic

RADHOST: TRADITIONAL MORAVIAN VIOLIN, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm -- RADHOST: TRADITIONAL MORAVIAN VIOLIN, Rožnov pod RadhoštěmIvan Bělunek, dulcimer, vocals, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicHelena Dobrovolná, dance, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicVěra Dobrovolná, dance, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicPetr Dobrovolny, dance, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicOndřěj Dobrovolný, dance, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicCtimír Štrunc, Double bass, vocals, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicJaromír Štrunc, violin, vocals, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicJaromír Štrunc, Jr., violin, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech RepublicVladimír Štrunc, violin, vocals, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Republic

TOČKOLOTOČ: CONTEMPORARY ROMANY BAND, SVITAVY -- TOČKOLOTOČ: CONTEMPORARY ROMANY BAND, SVITAVYPavel Bolček, bass guitar, vocals, Svitavy, Czech RepublicAntonín Janko, guitar, vocals, Svitavy, Czech RepublicGejza Pešta, vocals, composer, arranger, Svitavy, Czech RepublicJiří Pešta, guitar, composer, arranger, Svitavy, Czech RepublicMilan Pešta, percussion, vocals, Svitavy, Czech RepublicMirek Pešta, mandolin, vocals, Svitavy, Czech RepublicBartoloměj Vaško, guitar, vocals, Svitavy, Czech Republic

VLADEK ZOGATA'S GAJDOŠ BAND: SILESIAN BAGPIPE MUSIC -- VLADEK ZOGATA'S GAJDOŠ BAND: SILESIAN BAGPIPE MUSICAleš Adamík, vocals, violin, Třinec, Czech RepublicVladislav Zogata, bagpipe player, vocals, bagpipe maker, Třinec, Czech Republic

URBAN SINGER -- URBAN SINGERVladimír Merta, guitar, vocals, Praha, Czech Republic

CRAFTS AND OCCUPATIONS

František Gajda, woodcarver, accordionist, Strážnice, Czech Republic

Milena Habustová, cook, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Republic

Zina Juřicová, egg decorator, doll maker, Valtice, Czech Republic

Josef Kopčan, carpenter, woodworker, Valašská Bystřice, Czech Republic

Vitězslav Martinák, stone carver, restorer, Uherské Hradištĕ, Czech Republic

Bohumil Mlýnek, handloom weaver, Strážnice, Czech Republic

Anna Mlýnková, assistant handloom weaver, Strážnice, Czech Republic

Svatava Pavlicová, egg decorator, Bečva, Czech Republic

Jiří Sedlmaier, Egg decorator, Přerov, Czech Republic

Petr Stoklasa, split-wood dove maker, Velké Karlovice, Czech Republic

Antonin Závorka, carpenter, woodworker, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Republic

PUPPETEERS

Vladimíra Kopecká, puppeteer, actress, Praha, Czech Republic

Matěj Kopecký, Jr., puppeteer, actor, Praha, Czech Republic

Antonín Maloň, puppet maker, woodcarver, decorator, Brno, Czech Republic
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1995, Series 3
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5cfe9f83d-c4b5-4243-88d3-46f8e5204a41
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1995-ref26

[Newspaper Articles]

Container:
Box 1, Folder 30, Box 2
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1930, 1931, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Walter and Arthur Wellman Collection, Acc. 2004-0007, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Walter and Arthur Wellman Collection
Walter and Arthur Wellman Collection / Series 2: Miscellaneous
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2fd920555-e0d5-45ae-928d-bde342a3fc6f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2004-0007-ref48
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View [Newspaper Articles] digital asset number 1

Earl's Canoe: A Traditional Ojibwe Craft

Publisher:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Language:
English
Object type:
Lesson Plan
Date created:
2013-01-01 00:00:00
Topic:
Social Sciences  Search this
Cultural Anthropology  Search this
American History  Search this
Heritage Groups  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Wisconsin  Search this
Indian  Search this
Boat  Search this
Building  Search this
Bark  Search this
Madelaine Island  Search this
American Indian Art  Search this
Typical age range 2-5  Search this
Typical age range 5-8  Search this
Typical age range 8-10  Search this
Typical age range 10-12  Search this
Typical age range 12-14  Search this
Typical age range 14-16  Search this
Typical age range 16-18  Search this
Educational alignment:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.K.1
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.K.4
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.K.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.K.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.K.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.K.2
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.1.10
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.1.4a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.1.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.1
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.3
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.5
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.10
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.2.4a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.2.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.2.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.2.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.2.2
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.3.1
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.3.3
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.3.10
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.3.4a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.3.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.3.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.3.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.3.1d
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.3
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.10
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.4.4a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.6
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.3c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.3
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.10
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.4a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.5.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.5.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.5.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.6
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.7.3
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.7.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.1d
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.8.1d
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1c
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1d
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.7
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.8
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1a
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1b
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1c
Data source:
SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SCLDA_1370

Buthograptus laxus Hall

Collector:
Hoy  Search this
Hale  Search this
Hall  Search this
Type Citation:
Whitfield. 1894. Am.Mus.Nat.Hist.Bull. 6: 357, pl.11,f.1-3.
Type Status:
holotype
Place:
Wisconsin, United States, North America
Taxonomy:
Plantae
Published Name:
Buthograptus laxus Hall
USNM Number:
PAL339997
See more items in:
Paleogeneral
Paleobotany Type and Illustrated
Plant Type
Paleobiology
Data Source:
NMNH - Paleobiology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37bf9ec49-59e5-4f6b-8be1-5980a5208314
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhpaleobiology_3337706
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