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E.P. (Edgar Preston) and Constance Richardson papers

Richardson, Edgar Preston, 1902-1985  Search this
Richardson, Constance, 1905-  Search this
Archives of American Art  Search this
Castano Galleries (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum  Search this
Historical Society of Pennsylvania  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.)  Search this
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
White House (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Peale family  Search this
Allen, Joseph  Search this
Allston, Washington, 1779-1843  Search this
Andrews, Wayne  Search this
Aram, Siegfried F.  Search this
Bishop, Isabel, 1902-1988  Search this
Bostick, William A.  Search this
Bouché, Louis, 1896-1969  Search this
Boyd, Julian P. (Julian Parks), 1903-  Search this
Castano, Giovanni, 1896-1978  Search this
Cohn, Harold  Search this
Copeland, Lammot du Pont  Search this
Culver, Charles B. (Charles Beach), 1908-1967  Search this
Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997  Search this
Flexner, James Thomas, 1908-2003  Search this
Frankenstein, Alfred V. (Alfred Victor), 1906-1981  Search this
Fredericks, Marshall M., 1908-1998  Search this
Freeman, Michael W.  Search this
Garrison, Eve Josephson, 1903-2003  Search this
Groce, George C., 1899-  Search this
Hardy, Jeremiah Pearson, 1800-1889  Search this
Heil, Walter, 1890-1973  Search this
Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967  Search this
Jungwirth, Irene G. (Irene Gayas), 1913-  Search this
Krentzin, Earl, 1929-  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953  Search this
Lee-Smith, Hughie  Search this
Lewis, W. S. (Wilmarth Sheldon), 1895-1979  Search this
Lynes, Russell, 1910-1991  Search this
Marsh, Reginald, 1898-1954  Search this
Mast, Gerald, 1908-1971  Search this
McDermott, John Francis, 1902-  Search this
Middeldorf, Ulrich Alexander, 1901-  Search this
Morse, John D., 1906-  Search this
Moser, Liselotte, 1906-1983  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Oliver, Andrew, 1906-  Search this
Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827  Search this
Pleasants, J. Hall (Jacob Hall), 1873-1957  Search this
Ripley, Sidney Dillon, 1913-2001  Search this
Rockefeller, John D., 1906-  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich), 1908-1979  Search this
Rutledge, Anna Wells  Search this
Sellers, Charles Coleman, 1903-  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Simper, Fred, 1914-  Search this
Simpson, Corelli C. W.  Search this
Soria, Regina, 1911-  Search this
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David), 1898-1991  Search this
Speck, Walter, 1895-  Search this
Stevens, William B.  Search this
Valentiner, Wilhelm Reinhold, 1880-1958  Search this
Vose, Robert C. (Robert Churchill), 1911-1998  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Wedda, John  Search this
Woolfenden, William E. (William Edward), 1918-1995  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
28.7 Linear feet
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Detroit (Mich.)
bulk 1921-1996
The papers of art historian E. P. Richardson measure 28.7 linear feet and date from 1814-1996, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1921-1996. Within the papers are scattered biographical materials; acquisition files for Richardson's personal art collection; professional and personal correspondence with colleagues, art historians and critics, artists, museums, galleries, and dealers; numerous writings, including manuscripts and research files for his published books, articles, and lectures; general research notebooks and files compiled by Richardson on a wide variety of art-related topics and artists; professional and committee files; as well as a smaller amount of Constance C. Richardson's papers.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of art historian E. P. Richardson measure 28.7 linear feet and date from 1814-1996, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1921-1996. Within the papers are scattered biographical materials; acquisition files for Richardson's personal art collection; professional and personal correspondence with colleagues, art historians and critics, artists, museums, galleries, and dealers; numerous writings, including manuscripts and research files for his published books, articles, and lectures; general research notebooks and files compiled by Richardson on a wide variety of art-related topics and artists; professional and committee files; as well as a smaller amount of Constance C. Richardson's papers.

Biographical materials include certificates, awards, and honorary degrees, membership information, personal and family photographs, a few sketches, and a transcript of an oral history Interview with E.P. Richardson conducted by the National Endowment for the Humanities in 1982.

There are acquisitions files for the Richardsons' personal art collection that invoices, photographs, correspondence with galleries and collectors, appraisals, price lists, and artwork examination forms.

Correspondence is with colleagues, art dealers, collectors, museums and museum curators, foreign scholars, organizations, galleries, artists, art historians and critics, publishers, editors, librarians, friends, and family. Topics regard purchasing art for various collections, consultations about art and collecting including authentications and attributions, publishing, general art history, lectures, and personal matters, among other topics. There is correspondence with the Archives of American Art, Castano Galleries, Lawrence Fleischman, James Thomas Flexner, Alfred V. Frankenstein, George Croce, Walter Heil, Earl Krentzin, Wilmarth Lewis, Russel Lynes, John Francis McDermott, Philadelphia Museum of Art, J. Hall Pleasants, Anna Rutledge, Charles Sellers, Smithsonian Institution, Regina Soria, Victor Spark, William Stevens, Robert Vose, William Woolfenden, and many others. Scattered correspondence with artists is with Isabel Bishop, Louis Bouche, William Bostick, Eve Garrison, Edward Hopper, Irene Jungwirth, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Hughie Lee-Smith, Reginald Marsh, Gerald Mast, Georgia O'Keefe, Charles Sheeler, Walt Speck, and John Wedda, among many others. The greatest extent of correspondence is with Andrew Wyeth, Harold Cohn, and Frederick Simper. There is also personal correspondence with family and friends, and between E.P. and Constance Richardson.

E.P. Richardson's prominence as an art historian, writer, and expert on collecting is well documented through his prolific writings. Materials include drafts, notes, typescripts, and outlines for articles, exhibition catalog essays, and lectures. Also found are research files and publishing documentation for Richardson's books, including Washington Allston: A Study of the Romantic Artist in America (1948), Painting in America (1956), Charles Willson Peale and his World (1983), and American Romantic Painting (1944). There are also miscellaneous notes and four diaries. Two of the diaries comment on the social and cultural life of Detroit; the authenticity of paintings; Richardson's reflections on contemporary American painting, thoughts about museums, dealers, artists, and art historians (especially Wilhelm R. Valentiner); and travel.

Notebooks compiled by Richardson on a wide variety art-related topics cover nearly six decades. There are also numerous research files organized Richardson about individual artists and art history. And, the art collector files contain reference materials about art collectors and their collections including Lamont du Pont Copeland, Michael W. Freeman, Nelson Rockefeller, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Allen, and the Marquis de Somerlous. There are three index card file boxes containing bibliographic data on published books and articles.

Professional and committee files document Richardson's professional and consulting work for the Art Quarterly, Detroit Institute of Arts, National Collection of Fine Arts, the National Portrait Gallery, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the John D. Rockefeller III collection, Winterthur Museum, the White House, and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Constance C. Richardson's papers include business and professional correspondence with various institutions, most extensively with the Macbeth Gallery. In addition, there is a smaller amount of personal correspondence, photographs and slides of her artworks, printed materials, two illustrated notebooks on her work, and miscellaneous notes. Also included is Constance's artist palette.
Biographical / Historical:
Art historian, museum director, and writer E. P. (Edgar Preston) Richardson (1902-1985) served as director of the Detroit Institute of Arts (1945-1962) and Winterthur Museum (1963-1966). He was also a board member of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1966-1977 and, in 1954, co-founded the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

E. P. Richardson was born in 1902 in Glens Falls, New York and died in Philadelphia in 1985. He graduated from Williams College in Massachusetts in 1925 and studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts for the three years following graduation. In 1930 he became educational secretary at the Detroit Institute of Arts, was quickly named assistant director in 1933, and served as director from 1945 to 1962. He left Detroit to take the position of director of the Winterthur Museum, where he remained until 1966. Richardson married Constance Coleman in 1931. Born in Berlin, Germany in 1905, Constance Coleman Richardson was an award-winning and widely exhibited realist style painter of American landscapes. She gave up painting in the 1960s and died in 2002.

While at the Detroit Institute of Arts, E. P. Richardson co-founded the Archives of American Art with Lawrence Fleischman, and served as the Archives' first director. Richardson was also art advisor to John D. Rockefeller III for over ten years, editor of Art Quarterly from 1938 to 1967, and a member of various boards, including the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Arts Commission, and the National Portrait Gallery. He authored numerous books including ones on artists Washington Allston and Charles Willson Peale, and The Way of Western Art: American Romantic Painting (1939), Painting in America: The Story of Four Hundred and Fifty Years (1956), A Short History of Painting in America (1963), and American Art, an Exhibition of the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, 3d (1976).
Related Materials:
Related collections among the holdings of the Archives of American Art include an interview with E.P. Richardson dated February 6, 1978 conducted by Linda Downs; and several miscellaneous manuscripts that include an E.P. Richardson Letter to Rockwell Kent, June 15 1959; E.P. Richardson letters to Lawrence Arthur Fleischman, May 13, 1962 and August 22 1954; and a Yasuo Kunioshi letter to E.P. Richardson, July 25 1948.

Additional E.P. Richardson papers are found at the Detroit Institute of Arts and in the archives of the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel D46) including E.P. Richardson's research material on Jeremiah P. Hardy. These materials are housed at the Smithsonian American Art Museum Library and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Edith Wilkinson first donated a letter to E. P. Richardson from herself in 1957. E.P. Richardson donated papers to the Archives of American Art in 1958 and 1960 and lent materials for microfilming in 1961. Addition material was donated by Constance Richardson in 1985, and by Martha Fleischman in 2003.
Use of original material requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact References Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Authors -- Michigan -- Detroit  Search this
Art historians -- United States  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Romanticism in art  Search this
Art -- History -- Study and teaching  Search this
Edgar P. Richardson papers, 1814-1996, bulk 1921-1996. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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E.P. (Edgar Preston) and Constance Richardson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
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Art, Fashion, Performance: Seeing through Creative Collaboration

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
YouTube Category:
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Design  Search this
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Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
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Collection Creator:
Berryman family (Washington, D. C.)  Search this
Archival materials
1829-1953, undated
Scope and Contents note:
This series includes a scrapbook of greeting cards to family members illustrated by Clifford and Jim Berryman, but primarily contains letters written by presidents, notable politicians, and other political cartoonists, discussing Clifford Berryman's work.

See Appendix for list of notable correspondents from Series 1.3
Appendix: Notable Correspondents from Series 1.3.:
Adams, Alva B. (Senator, Colorado): 18 Oct 1938, 05 Apr 1941

Akerson, George (Secretary to the President): 10 Jul 1929

Albright, Horace M. (Director, National Park Service): 02 Dec 1932

Alexander, D. (Congressman): undated

Allen, Henry J. (Senator, Kansas): May 13, 1930

Allison, William B. (Senator, Iowa): 03 Jun 1906

Alston, Frank H., Jr. (artist): 22 Jul 1947

Anderson, Clint (Sec. of Agriculture): 13 Sep 1945

Andrews, Marietta (illustrator): undated, 05 Feb 1925 (illustrated letter), 16 Sep 1928 (illustrated letter), Jan 1930

Arnold, Oren (writer): 04 Mar 1944

Ashurst, Henry F. (Senator, Arizona): 11 Feb 1941

Astor, Vincent: undated (letter from C. Berryman), 11 Nov 1932, 12 Nov 1932 (letter from C. Berryman), 14 Nov 1932, 17 Nov 1932, 12 Apr 1933

Auchincloss, James C. (Congressman, New Jersey): 12 Nov 1947

Austin, Warren R. (Senator, Vermont): 24 Oct 1941, 28 Oct 1941, 29 Oct 1941 (letter from Mrs. Austin)

Babcock, J. W. (Congressman, Wisconsin): 12 Jun 1903

Bailey, Josiah William (Senator, North Carolina): 26 Jan 1938, 14 July 1938, 21 Jun 1939, 26 Jun 1939

Baird, G. W. (cartoonist?): 20 Jul 1914?

Baker, James M. (Senator): 05 Aug 1916

Baker, Newton D. (Secretary of War): 10 Mar 1916, 08 Jan 1917, 10 Feb 1920, 27 Mar 1920, 06 Apr 1920

Baldwin, Stanley (Prime Minister): 19 Apr 1929 (letter about him)

Ballinger, Richard A. (Secretary of the Interior): 08 Mar 1909, 23 Sep 1911, 08 Apr 1916

Barclay: undated (illustrated letter)

Barkley, Alben W. (Senator, Kentucky): 19 Feb 1943, 01 Dec 1943

Barrett, John (Director, Pan American Union): 06 Mar 1915

Barrett, Robert ( -- Evening World -- ): 07 Oct 1927

Bartlett, John H. (Asst. Postmaster General and Governor of New Hampshire): 02 Apr 1924, 11 Nov 1927, 30 Jul 1932, 15 Dec 1949

Baruch, Bernard M.: 09 Mar 1938, 16 Sep 1943

Bassford, Wallace (secretary of Speaker's Room, House of Representatives): 12 Dec 1913

Bastedo, P. H. (Rear Admiral): 09 May 1947

Beckham, J. Crepps Wickliffe (Senator, Kentucky): 07 Mar 1916, 29 Mar 1916, 20 Dec 1919

Berger, Victor L. (Congressman, Wisc.): 05 Feb 1924

Beveridge, Albert J. (Senator, Indiana): 21 Feb 1907, 30 Mar 1907, 18 May 1935

Biddle, Francis (Attorney General): 09 Jan 1942, 23 Mar 1942, 20 Apr 1942, 08 May 1942, 25 May 1942, 09 Jun 1942

Bittinger, Charles: 30 Nov 1931, 13 Feb 1938

Blackburn, J. C. S. (Senator): 09 Jan 1906

Bland, Schuyler Otis (Congressman, Va.): 30 Dec 1941

Bliss, Edward Goring: 21 Feb 1936

Bloom, Sol (Congressman, New York): 09 Apr 1928, 26 Apr 1928, 05 May 1931, 19 Feb 1932, 07 May 1932, 09 Mar 1933, 22 Oct 1934, 09 Nov 1934, 21 May 1935, 07 Mar 1936, 26 Mar 1936, 08 Jun 1936, 31 Aug 1936, 15 Dec 1936, 03 Jan 1938, 10 Jun 1940, 18 Jan 1941, 10 Mar 1941

Boardman, Mabel: 14 Apr 1912

Bolton, Frances P. (Congresswoman, Ohio): 05 Mar 1942

Bone, Homer T. (Senator, Washington): 19 Apr 1944

Bone, Scott C. (editor, -- The Washington Herald -- and the -- Post-Intelligencier -- ): 27 Jan 1908, 05 Oct 5 1911

Bone, Scott W. (son of Scott C. Bone): 10 Oct 1932

Borah, William E. (Senator): 03 Oct 1921 (letter about him)

Brayman, Harold (President, National Press Club): 07 Mar 1938, 03 May 1944

Bridges, H. Styles (Senator, N. H.): 28 Feb 1938

Britten, Fred A. (Congressman, Illinois): 25 Dec 1934

Brooke, Frederick (architect): undated, 12 May 1945

Browne, Edward E. (Congressman, Wisc.): 17 Feb 1931

Bruker, John (Governor, Ohio): 21 Feb 1944

Bryan, William Jennings: undated, 09 Dec 1907, 19 Jan 1908, 16 Jan 16 1913, 15 Aug 1914, 24 Feb 1915, 02 Mar 1915 (letter about him), 11 Feb 1917, 02 Apr 1917, 20 Mar 1919, 27 Apr 1920

Buck, Mrs. Solon J.: 08 Mar 1942

Burke, James Francis (Republican National Committee): undated

Burkett, E. J. (Congressman): 21 Jan 1905

Burroughs, Nannie H.: undated

Burton, Theodore E. (Congressman, Ohio): 25 Feb 1927

Burwell, J. Baldwin (Leader Publishing Co.): undated

Butler?, Harold H. (Senator): 10 May 1944

Butler, Hugh (Senator, Nebraska): 03 Apr 1944

Byrd, Curley (President, U. of Maryland): 10 Jun 1944

Byrd, Harry Flood (Senator, Virginia): undated, 10 Nov 1925, 27 Dec 1927 (letter about him), 17 Jun 1934, 23 May 1935, 26 Feb 1936, 25 Mar 1936, 27 Aug 1936, 10 Sep 1936, 08 Dec 1936, 19 May 1937, 07 Mar 1938, 16 Mar 1938, 05 Aug 1938, 06 Feb 1939, 18 Feb 1941, 09 Jun 1941, 16 Jun 1941, 26 Sep 1941, 02 Mar 1942, 09 Oct 1942, 29 Nov 1942, 28 Sep 1944, 28 Mar 1945, 24 May 1948, 25 May 1948, 11 Jun 1948, 07 Apr 1949, 22 Dec 1949, 02 Aug 1949, 19 Sep 1949, 21 Apr 1950

Byrnes, James F. (Senator, South Carolina): 31 Jan 1938, 02 Jan 1939 (letter about him), 08 Jun 1940, Dec 1942, 11 Apr 1944, May 1944

Cable, John L. (Congressman, Ohio): 14 Aug 1922

Calder, William M. (Senator, New York): 16 Feb 1920

Calderon, Madame Alvarez (Peruvian Legation): undated

Camden, Johnson N. (Senator, Kentucky): 04 Mar 1915

Campbell, L. H. (Major General): 25 Jan 1943

Caniff, Milton (President, National Cartoonists Society): 13 May 1948, 14 Dec 1949

Cannon, J. G. (Speaker of the House): 02 Dec 1910 (letter about him)

Capehart, Charles (editor, -- The Cartoon -- ): 06 Apr 1908 (C. Berryman drawing of Cannon)

Capper, Arthur (Senator, Kansas): 13 Feb 1920, 06 Dec 1935

Carlson, Frank (Congressman, Kansas): 02 Feb 1944

Carnegie, Andrew: 14 May 1911 (letter from C. Berryman)

Caughey, J. M. (cartoonist): 12 Nov 1915

Chamberlain, George E. (Senator, Oregon): 11 Mar 1916

Chamberlain, K. R. (cartoonist): 23 May 1914

Chandler, Albert B. (Senator,Kentucky): 07 Jul 1942, 11 Aug 1942 (letter from his wife), 28 Jun 1943, 30 Mar 1944, 20 Apr 1944, 26 Apr 1945, 17 May 1945

Chapple, Joe Mitchell ( -- National Magazine -- , Boston): 31 Dec 1904

Chiperfield, Burnett M. (Congressman, Illinois): 22 Apr 1916, 12 May 1916, 03 Jul 1929

Choate, H. Lawrence: 09 Feb 1939

Clapper, Raymond: 18 Jan 1939 (letter to Charles Dawes), 27 Jan 1939

Clark, Champ (Speaker of the House): 29 Jun 1906

Clark, P. L. ("Skippy" cartoonist): 25 Nov 1935

Clay, Henry: 22 Apr 1829 (letter to Mark Hardin, Shelbyville Ky), 21 Jun 1843 (letter to a gentleman)

Clements (Governor, Kentucky): 07 Jan 1948

Coffeen, R. A. (cartoonist): 09 Dec 1940

Colby, Bainbridge (Secretary of State): 01 Apr 1920

Cole, Cyrenus (Congressman, Iowa): 01 Feb 1928, 10 Mar 1936

Coleman, Harry ( -- Pontiac Press Gazette -- ): 12 Oct 1914

Collier, William Miller (President, George Washington University): undated, 12 Jan 1921, 22 Mar 1921

Connally, Tom (Senator, Texas): 06 Nov 1943

Coolidge, Calvin: 03 Mar 1927, 01 Aug 1927 (letter about him)

Cooper, Henry Allen (Congressman, Wisconsin): 14 Feb 1907, 24 Feb 1925

Corby, William Stephen: undated calling card, 20 Oct 1916 (2), 14 Feb 1920 (2), 19 Jul 1926, 13 Aug 1932

Cousins, A. G.? (cartoonist?): Dec 1904

Cousins, Robert G. (Congressman): 02 Feb 1907

Craig, Donald Alexander (author): 30 Sep 1924

Crisp, Charles R. (Congressman, Georgia): 03 Oct 1932

Culberson, C. A. (Senator, Texas): 07 Jul 1906

Cummings, Homer S. (Attorney General): 29 Sep 1933 (letter about him), 30 Sep 1933, 21 May 1934, 28 Jun 1934 (letter from his wife), 02 Jul 1934, 22 Oct 1934, 12 Mar 1945

Curran, Edward M. (U.S. Attorney, D.C.): 28 Oct 1946

Cushman, Francis W. (Congressman): 25 Dec 1899, 05 Jan 1904

Dale, Mrs. Thomas H. (Congressman's wife): 27 Apr 1906

Daniel, J. (Senator): 23 Dec 1903 (illustrated letter)

Daniels, Jonathan (son of Josephus Daniels): 15 Mar 1933, 29 Jan 1934, 16 Aug 1941

Daniels, Josephus (Secretary of the Navy): undated calling card (from Mrs. Daniels), 25 Mar 1913, 15 May 1913 (letter about him), 25 Aug 1913 (letter about him), 31 Oct 1913, 26 Oct 1914, 12 Jan 1915, 22 Aug 1916, 08 Sep 1916, 27 Mar 1917, 22 Nov 1917, 27 Nov 1917, 24 Jan 1918, 12 Feb 1920, 29 Mar 1920, 03 Apr 1920, 20 Nov 1920 (3), 11 Jan 1921 (letter about him), 02 Mar 1921, 05 Jun 1926, 05 Apr 1927 (2), 04 Aug 1927, 10 Dec 1928, 15 Mar 1933, 19 May 1934, 11 May 1937, 19 Oct 1937, 18 Nov 1937, 25 Mar 1938, 18 May 1938, 09 Aug 1941

Darling, Jay Norwood "Ding": undated (letter about him), 19 Nov 1934

Davies, Joseph E.: 09 Jun 1944, 16 Jun 1944

Davis, James J. (Sec. of Labor and Senator, Pa.): Feb 9, 1923, 24 Dec 1925, 16 Feb 1931

Davol, Ralph (Cosmos Club): 30 Mar 1920, 06 Apr 1925 (illustrated letter), 06 Apr 1930

Dawes, Charles Gates (Vice President): 19 Jan 1928 (printed invitation), 24 Jan 1939 (letter to Clapper)

Dawley, Mrs. M. Webster (League of Republican Women): 08 Feb 1938

Debs, Eugene: 17 Aug 1912

Delano, Frederic A. (Washington National Monument Society): 03 Feb 1944, 23 Feb 1944

Delano, Victor: 06 May 1941 (on USS WEST VIRGINIA, Pearl Harbor), 25 Mar 1942 (on USS SAN JUAN)

De Leon, T. C. (cartoonist?): 04 Aug 1904

Denby, Edwin (Secretary of the Navy): 04 Mar 1922

Depew, Chauncey: undated (2 printed invitations), 05 Jul 1923, 10 Feb 1926

Dern, George H. (Secretary of War): 27 Jan 1935 (printed invitation)

Dewey, Thomas E. (Governor, New York): 10 Oct 1944, 23 Jun 1947 (letter about him), 21 Nov 1947

Dial, Nathaniel B. (Senator, S. C.): 17 Jan 1925

Dickinson, L. J. (Congressman, Iowa): 09 Dec 1926

Dillingham, William P. (Senator): 10 Mar 1904, 08 Mar 1916

Dirksen, Everett M. (Congressman, Ill.): 09 Jun 1942

Donahey, James Harrison ( -- Plain Dealer -- ): 02 Oct 1908, 30 Jan 1927

Doughton, Robert L. (Congressman, N. C.): 10 Jan 1948

Dowling, James J. (Democratic County Committee, N.Y.): 19 Dec 1934

Downing, Robert L.: 19 Dec 1930, 05 Nov 1932

Drewry, P. H. (Congressman, Virginia): 26 Feb 1935, 28 Mar 1935

DuBois, James T. (State Department): undated, 26 Jan 1905, 26 Feb 1905, 06 Mar 1905, 24 Nov 1905, 22 Mar 1907, 18 Jul 1917

Dugal, J. (Congressman): 19 Jan 1908

Durkee, J. Stanley (President, Howard University): 11 May 1922, 24 May 1922, 03 Nov 1924, 24 Nov 1924

Eccles, Marriner S. (Chairman, Federal Reserve System): 03 Oct 1941

Edison, Thomas: 13 Aug 1914 (letter about him)

Edwards, J. H. (Treasury Department): 18 Aug 1905

Elliott, Richard (Asst. Comptroller General, GAO): 01 Dec 1932

Ernst, Richard P. (Senator, Kentucky): 22 Dec 1922, 10 Nov 1925 (2), 15 Mar 1926, 19 Sep 1929, 15 Jun 1929

Estopinal, Albert (Congressman, La.): 21 Mar 1914

Evans, Silliman (Publisher, -- Chicago Sun -- ): 14 Apr 1942

Fall, Albert B. (Secretary of the Interior): 28 Feb 1923, 01 Mar 1923

Farley, James A.: 20 Dec 1932, 03 Jan 1934, 30 Jan 1934 (letter about him), 11 May 1934, 21 May 1934, 13 Sep 1934, 18 Oct 1934, 26 Oct 1934, 04 Dec 1935, 28 Oct 1937, 10 Aug 1940, 16 Jan 1942, 01 Apr 1942, 03 Aug 1942, 13 Oct 1942, 12 Nov 1942, 26 Feb 1943, 11 Mar 1943, 06 Jul 1943, 17 Nov 1943, 29 Nov 1943, 29 Dec 1943, 03 Jan 1944, 27 Jan 1944, 29 Jan 1944, 05 May 1944, 21 Nov 1944

Farnum Jno. (cartoonist): 03 Jun 1908

Faulkner, Robert R. (attorney): 03 Jun 1935

Fawcett, James Waldo ( -- Washington Star -- ): 02 Apr 1939

Fenn, E. Hart (Congressman, Connecticut): 09 May 1929

Fenning, F. A. (Inaugural Committee): 14 Jan 1925

Fess, Simeon D. (Senator, Ohio): 19 Apr 1928 (letter about him), 28 Apr 1934

Finch, Frank J. (cartoonist): 03 Feb 1905, 08 Apr 1910, 06 Jun 1910

Fish, Hamilton, Jr. (Congressman, New York): 19 May 1936, 22 May 1936, 04 Jan 1937

Fishback, Fred L. (Senator, Mass.): 26 Sep 1912

Fisher, Walter L. (Sec. of the Interior): 25 Jan 1912

Fitzgerald, Roy G. (Congressman, Ohio): 23 Feb 1925

Foch, Le Marechal: Jun 1906

Foley, E. H. (Asst. Sec. of the Treasury): 01 Nov 1947

Foraker, Joseph B. (Senator, Ohio): 30 Aug 1905 (letter about him), 03 Sep 1905

Frelinghuysen, J. S. (Senator, New Jersey): 04 Apr 1917 (letter about him)

Galbraith, Alfred ( -- Flint Daily Journal -- ): 02 Jun 1907

Gallinger, Jacob H. (Senator): 02 Feb 1905

Gallivan, James A. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 05 Mar 1923

Galloway, Ewing (news editor, -- Collier's -- ): 07 Sep 1916

Gard, Warren (Congressman, Ohio): 31 Mar 1916, 13 Feb 1917

Gardner, A. P. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 09 Apr 1910 (letter about him), 26 Jan 1911, 31 Jan 1913, 28 Jun 1916, 20 Jul 1916

Garfield, James Rudolph (Interior Dept.): 08 Nov 1907

Garner, John Nance (Congressman, Texas): 16 Jan 1930, 15 Mar 1935

Garrison, Lindley M. (Secretary of War): 19 Dec 1914, 25 Dec 1914, 11 Jan 1915, 28 Apr 1915, 30 Aug 1915

Gerry, Peter G. (Senator): 06 May 1941

Gerth, Arthur W. (President, American University): 02 May 1928

Gibson, Charles D. (Division of Pictorial Publicity): 28 Dec 1917

Gibson, Ernest W. (Congressman, Vermont): 19 Feb 1925

Gilbert, Ralph (Congressman, Kentucky): 20 Oct 1921, 07 Jan 1922

Gillett, Frederick H. (Senator, Massachusetts): 10 Feb 1928, 14 Feb 1928

Gillette, Guy M. (Senator, Iowa): 05 Aug 1943

Gittins, Robert H. (Congressman, N. Y.): 01 Aug 1914

Glass, Carter (Secretary of the Treasury): 26 Jun 1903, 20 Jan 1919, 20 Jan 1919, 11 Feb 1920, 02 Dec 1929, 09 Nov 1936, 15 Mar 1937, 05 Apr 1937 (letter about him), 10 Apr 1937, 19 May 1937 (letter about him)

Glover, Charles C. (Inaugural Committee): 09 Dec 1904, 21 Dec 1904, 20 Dec 1911

Godwin, E. ( -- Washington Times -- ): 30 Dec 1918

Goethals, General: undated (letter about him)

Goff, "Roy": Dec 1949

Gore, Albert (Congressman, Tennessee): 25 May 1942

Gorman, Arthur P. (Senator, Maryland): 03 Mar 1898, 28 Jan 1902, 07 Mar 1903, 02 May 1903, 28 Oct 1903 (letter from Mrs. Gorman)

Grant, U.S., III: 15 Mar 1926, 22 Jun 1927, 03 Nov 1927, 20 Jun 1930

Grayson, Cary T. (Inaugural Committee): 18 Feb 1933

Green, Theodore Francis (Senator, R. I.): 17 Oct 1944

[Gregory?], Tom (Attorney General): undated

Grew, Joseph: 09 Apr 1943 (illustrated letter)

Grey, Kenneth? (Dept. of the Treasury): 27 Mar 1945

Grosvenor, Bert (National Geographic Society): 17 Mar 1940, 15 Apr 1940

Grosvenor, Gilbert (National Geographic Society): 21 Mar 1921, 27 Apr 1921, 21 Dec 1921, 15 Nov 1927, 16 Nov 1931, 15 Mar 1935, 11 Nov 1935, 04 Nov 1938, 08 Nov 1944, 23 Dec 1949

Guffey, Joseph F. (Senator, Pennsylvania): 16 Jun 1943, 29 Mar 1944

Halleck, Charles A. (Congressman, Ind.): 02 Jan 1948

Halsey, W. F. (Admiral): 24 Dec 1942

Hamilton, Ernest? ( -- Judge -- magazine): 19 Mar 1913

Hamilton, Norman R. (Congressman, Virginia): 21 Jun 1938 (3), 22 Jun 1938 (2), 02 Jul 1938

Hancock, Clarence E. (Congressman, N. Y.): 19 Apr 1941

Hannegan, Robert E. (Democratic National Committee): 01 Mar 1945

Harding, Warren G.: 06 Jan 1917, 11 May 1921 (printed invitation)

Harriman, William Averill: 03 Jan 1939

Harris, William J. (Senator, Georgia): 01 Nov 1913, 11 Feb 1920, 06 Apr 1920, 18 May 1920, 12 Dec 1922, 12 Jan 1923

Harrison, William Henry: 13 Apr 1936

Harvey, George (US Ambassador to England): 15 Oct 1914

Hatch, Carl N. (Senator, New Mexico): 06 May 1937

Hawley, Willis C. (Congressman, Oregon): 15 Mar 1929, 25 Mar 1930

Hay, John (State Department): 31 Oct 1904, 02 Nov 1904

Hays, Arthur: 27 Feb 1912

Hays, Will H. (Postmaster General and President of the Motion Picture Producers & Distributors of America): 14 Jun 1921 (letter about him), 27 Jan 1922, 28 Feb 1922, 31 Aug 1922, 20 Dec 1922, 03 Mar 1937

Heinl, Robert D.: 05 Feb 1912, 20 Mar 1913, 28 Jan 1915, 29 Jun 1920, 04 May 1938

Hicks, Frederick C. (Congressman, New York): 19 Feb 1922, 01 Dec 1922, Nov 1923

Hildreth, Melvin D. (Inaugural Committee): 28 Dec 1948

Hilles, Charles D.: 23 Jul 1935

Hitchcock, Ethan A. (Secretary of the Interior): 28 Jan 1908, 07 Mar 1916?

Hitchcock, (Senator): undated, 10 Sep 1930 (letter about him)

Hodges, John G.: undated

Holt, Rush D. (Senator, West Virginia): 23 May 1935, 22 Nov 1937, 04 Aug 1940, 30 Aug 1940

Hoover, Herbert: 03 Jan 1923 (letter from Hoover's secretary, Richard S. Emmet), 16 Aug 1949

Hoover, J. (John) Edgar: 29 Aug 1933, 20 Oct 1934, 29 Oct 1934, 23 Mar 1936, 26 Mar 1936, 01 Oct 1936, 14 Apr 1937, 03 Feb 1942, 05 Feb 1942, 01 Jul 1942, 15 Jul 1942, 02 May 1944, 21 Jun 1949, 08 Jul 1949

Hoover, Lou Henry: undated

Hopkins, Harry L.: 10 Apr 1935, 24 Mar 1942

Houston, David F. (Sec Treas): 12 Feb 1920

Howard E. P. (N.Y. Press): 03 Apr 1927, 26 Mar 1927, 15 Apr 1927, 23 Jan 1928

Hubbard, Kin (cartoonist, -- Indianapolis News -- ): 10 Feb 1913, 15 Feb 1913, 31 Jul 1914

Hughes, Charles Evans (Secretary of State): 15 Apr 1921 (printed invitation)

Hughes, R. E. (La. Purchase Exposition): 15 Mar 1904

Humphrey, William E. (Federal Trade Commission): undated (illustrated letter), 20 Jan 1933

Hutchison, George W. (National Geographic Society): 09 Dec 1935, 01 Apr 1937

Ickes, Harold L. (Secretary of the Interior): 09 Mar 1935, 08 Nov 1935, 20 May 1936, 29 Nov 1938, 11 Dec 1939, 05 Jun 1941, 09 Jun 1941, 13 Jun 1941, 17 Jun 1941 (letter from Mrs. Ickes), 13 Feb 1942, 27 Apr 1942, 04 May 1942, 15 Jun 1943, 21 Jun 1943, 05 May 1944, 15 Dec 1949

Ireland, William A. ( -- Columbus Dispatch -- ): 21 Mar 1913, 16 Mar 1917 (letter of introduction for Will Rogers), 01 Mar 1926

Jackson, Robert H. (Attorney General): 08 Feb 1938, 05 Dec 1938, 05 Dec 1940

James, Ollie M. (Congressman?, Kentucky): 20 Jan 1910

Johnson, Albert (Congressman, Washington): 24 Nov 1913, 20 Feb 1915, 02 Jun 1926, 18 Apr 1929, 31 Mar 1932

Johnson, Andrew: 19 Aug 1861 (letter to A. M. Coffin not in Johnson's hand)

Johnson, Herbert (art editor, -- Saturday Evening Post -- ): 09 Sep 1913, 16 Sep 1913, 23 Feb 1928, 11 May 1934

Johnson, Herschel V. (US Representative to UN): 12 Sep 1937, 22 Oct 1947

Johnson, Hiram W. (Senator, California): 11 Feb 1920, 01 Nov 1940

Johnson, Nelson T. (Asst. Sec. of State): 21 Dec 1928

Johnson, Philander Chase: 03 Jan 1908

Johnston, John A. (General): 05 Apr 1919

Jones, E. Lester (US Coast & Geodetic Survey): 10 Mar 1920

Jones, Jesse H. (Secretary of Commerce): 24 Dec 1941, 29 May 1942, 13 Oct 1943, 04 Dec 1943, 02 May 1944

Jones, Marvin (Congressman, Texas): 24 Feb 1936

Jones, Wesley L. (Senator): 07 May 1920, 18 Feb 1925

Kahn, Julius (Congressman, California): 17 Mar 1920, 13 Apr 1920

Kauffmann, Rudolph Max ( -- Washington Star -- ): 05 Oct 1920, 16 Apr 1947, 12 May 1947

Kearns, (Senator): undated

Keefe, Frank B. (Congressman, Wisconsin): 29 Jul 1947

Kelly, Clyde (Congressman, Pennsylvania): 14 Feb 1928

Kelly, Hugh A. (Governor, New Jersey): 14 May 1938

Kelly, J. (editor, -- Chicago Tribune -- ): 02 Jun 1906

Kendrick, John B. (Governor, Wyoming): 30 Sep 1916 (letter about him)

Kennedy, Joseph P. (Chairman, US Maritime Commission): 24 Sep 1937

Kenyon, William S. (Senator, Iowa): 29 Mar 1916, 27 Sep 1916

Keyes, Frances Parkinson: 18 Jul 1921

Keyes, Henry W. (Senator, New Hampshire): 25 Feb 1925

King, Ernest J. (Admiral): 24 Nov 1942, 06 Nov 1944

Kirchhope, Alt? ( -- Buffalo Evening News -- ): 26 Mar 1927

Kitchin, Claude (Congressman): 06 Mar 1916, 31 Mar 1916

Knutson, Harold, (Congressman, Minnesota): 04 Mar 1948

LaFollette, Robert M., Jr. (Senator, Wisconsin): 03 Jul 1929, 09 Mar 1931 (letter about him)

La Gorce, John Oliver (National Geographic Society): undated, 27 Feb 1912, 18 Jun 1943, 02 May 1944, 31 May 1949

Land, E. S. (Chairman, US Maritime Commission): 10 Mar 1941

Land, George A. (Congressman): 03 Mar 1904

Landis, C. B. (Congressman, Indiana): undated, 11 Nov 1904

Landon, Alf M. (Governor, Kansas): 30 Oct 1935, 14 Jan 1936, 24 Mar 1936, 08 Aug 1936, 26 Dec 1936, 02 Feb 1937, 27 Feb 1937, 13 Oct 1943, 16 May 1944, 20 Nov 1944, 01 Apr 1948

Lane, Franklin K. (Secretary of the Interior): undated, 15 Mar 1913, 18 Mar 1913, 31 Dec 1913, 06 Mar 1916, 13 Mar 1916, 08 Jan 1917, 21 Dec 1918, 11 Feb 1920, 13 Feb 1918, 12 Mar 1918, 19 Mar 1918, 22 Mar 1920

Lansburgh, Henry: 30 Dec 1915

Lansburgh, Mark (Lansburgh & Bro.): 16 Apr 1931, 05 Nov 1932

Lansing, Robert (Secretary of State): 28 Mar 1916, 25 Jan 1917, 08 Feb 1918, 24 Feb 1920, 29 Apr 1924

Lauder, Harry: undated

Lewis, B. J. ( -- Knickerbocker News -- ): 13 Mar 1941

Lewis, Fulton (WOL Radio): 17 Aug 1938

Lewis, James Hamilton, (Senator, Illinois): 30 Mar 1916, 15 Jan 1919, 26 Feb 1919, 07 Feb 1930, 16 Feb 1933, 13 May 1937

Lewis, John L.: 17 Apr 1937

Lewis, William Mather (Pres., George Washington U. and Pres., Lafayette College): 19 Sep 1924, 11 Oct 1929, 09 Dec 1931 (letter about him), 24 Mar 1942, 31 Mar 1942, 07 May 1944

Lindsay, R. C. (British Embassy): 26 May 1939

Lineberger, Walter F. (Congressman, Ca.): 01 Jun 1926

Lobeck, C. O. (Congressman, Nebraska): 11 Mar 1916, 01 Apr 1916

Locke, M. E. (Brigadier General): 24 May 1941

Lodge, Henry Cabot (Senator, Massachusetts): 18 Feb 1907, 22 Jul 1910, 22 Jul 1942

Lohr, Lenox (NBC): 29 June 1938, 29 Jul 1938

Long, B. (Asst. Secretary of State): 11 May 1942

Loring, Paule: undated, 13 Oct 1936 (illustrated letter)

Lowden, Frank O. (Governor, Illinois): 26 Jan 1920, 14 Feb 1920

Ludlow, Louis (Pioneer Book Co.): 14 Feb 1925, 25 Dec 1926, 20 Nov 1941, 20 Dec 1941

Luther, Dr. Hans (German Ambassador): undated

MacVeagh, Franklin (Sec. of the Treasury): 18 May 1911

Mahony, Felix: undated (illustrated letter)

Maloney, Francis (Senator, Connecticut); 11 Sep 1941, 22 Sep 1941, 06 Jan 1943, 02 May 1944

Mann, James R. (Congressman, Illinois): Oct 28, 1913, 07 Dec 1918, 01 Mar 1921

Marshall, George Catlett (General): 13 Jun 1940, 01 Apr 1944 (letter from his wife)

Martin, Joseph W., Jr. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 05 Jan 1942 (letter about him), 09 Mar 1942, 17 Apr 1943, 05 May 1944

Martin, Thomas S. (Senator): 07 Feb 1912

Marvin, Cloyd H. (Pres., George Washington U.): 06 Apr 1944

Maxwell, G. T. (cartoonist?): 14 Jul 1914

McAdams, Clark (President, St. Louis Artists' Guild): 06 Jan 1914, 20 Jan 1914

McAdoo, William G. (Secretary of the Treasury): 06 Jun 1914, 11 Jan 1914, 15 Feb 1917, 02 Mar 1917 (letter about him), 03 Sep 1918, 21 Nov 1922, 09 Aug 1925

McCarran, Patrick (Senator, Nevada): 23 May 1941

McClellan, George S.: 14 Feb 1938

McClure, Samuel G. (editor, -- Ohio State Journal -- ): 23 Jul 1903

McCormack, John W. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 06 Aug 1944

McCumber (Senator, North Dakota): 29 Oct 1919

McCutcheon, John T. ( -- Chicago Tribune -- ): 02 Dec 1907, 04 Apr 1913, 30 Dec 1913

McDonald, C. P. ( -- Chicago Tribune -- ): 19 Aug 1909

McDonald, Eugene F. (President, Zenith Radio Corp.): 20 Jan 1940 (letter to R. D. Heinl re FDR), 13 Nov 1939

McDuffie, John (Congressman, Alabama): 16 Apr 1934

McKellar, Kenneth (Senator, Tennessee): 19 Mar 1942, 31 Mar 1944

McKelway, Ben M. (ed., -- Washington Star -- ): 20 Oct 1947

McKenna, Joseph (Supreme Court Justice): 27 Feb 1923

McKinley, William B. (Senator, Illinois): undated, 06 Feb 1913, 03 Mar 1913, 04 Aug 1920

McLean, Edward B. (Inaugural Committee): 23 Dec 1920

McNair, Lesley James (General): 19 Jun 1944, 19 Jun 1944 (letter from his wife)

McReynolds, James C. (Supreme Court Justice): 11 Feb 1920, 09 Feb 1937 (letter from Mrs.McReynolds)

Mellon, Andrew (Secretary of the Treasury): 13 Apr 1925 (letter about him)

Meredith, Edwin T. (Sec. of Agriculture): 13 Feb 1920

Merrick, Frank L. (Louisiana Purchase Exposition): 18 Aug 1903, 20 Aug 1927

Meyer, George von L. (Sec. of the Navy): 23 Jan 1911

Meyers, Eugene ( -- Washington Post -- ): 14 Jun 1938, 27 Feb 1941 (printed invitation), 11 May 1944, 29 Jul 1949

Michelson, Charles (Democratic National Committee): 16 Oct 1935 (2), 21 Sep 1936, 29 Sep 1936

Millard, Charles D. (Congressman, N. Y.): 21 Feb 1935

Miller, James M. (Congressman): 17 Mar 1909 (letter from Mrs. Miller)

Mills, Ogden L. (Undersecretary of the Treasury): 22 Apr 1931

Minnigerode, C. Powell (Dir., Corcoran Gallery of Art): 27 Dec 1918 (2), 18 Jun 1943 (illustrated letter)

Minor, Benjamin S. (Inaugural Committee): 15 Jan 1913

Mitchell, Mrs. William Dewitt: 02 Mar 1931

Mondell, Frank W. (Congressman, Wyoming): 08 Apr 1920

Montgomery, James Shera (Chaplain, House of Representatives): 06 Aug 1918, 19 Jul 1919, 14 Jul 1945

Moore, J. Hampton (Congressman, Pa. and Mayor of Philadelphia): 17 Mar 1905, 28 May 1908, 29 Dec 1909, 29 Mar 1910, 01 Apr 1910, 04 Apr 1910, 07 Apr 1910, 27 Apr 1911, 27 Jan 1914, 23 Feb 1914, 08 Feb 1918, 14 Feb 1923, 09 Mar 1923, 23 Oct 1923, 05 Mar 1925, 31 Mar 1925, 15 Apr 1925 (2), 28 Jul 1925, 17 Oct 1925

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. (Secretary of the Treasury): 05 Mar 1936, 10 Dec 1936, 23 Apr 1937, 12 Dec 1940, 18 Mar 1941, 22 Apr 1941, 09 May 1941, 03 Jul 1941

Moses, George H. (Senator, N. H.): 19 Jan 1922, 25 Jul 1923, 10 Feb 1927, 15 Dec 1927, 17 Dec 1927, 16 Jan 1929, 15 Aug 1929 (letter about him)

Murdock, Victor (Congressman, Kansas): undated (2), 01 Mar 1915, 18 Oct 1940

Murphy, Francis P. (Governor, N. H.): 27 Jan 1938 (2)

Murphy, J. E. ( -- Oregon Journal -- ): 14 Sep 1913

Murphy, William C. ( -- Philadelphia Inquirer -- ): 12 May 1941

Neely, Matthew M. (Governor, W. V.): 16 Jan 1941

New, Harry S. (Postmaster General): 30 Jul 1924, 10 Jan 1927

Newcome, W. A. (Ambassador to Italy): 13 Feb 1913

Nimitz, Chester W. (Admiral): 28 Nov 1942 (letter from his daughter Catherine), 15 Mar 1944

North, James (cartoonist?): 14 May 1921, 16 May 1921

Norton, Mary T. (Congresswoman, New Jersey): 09 Aug 1937, 13 Aug 1937, 06 Dec 1937, 30 Jun 1942

Noyes, Newbold: 13 Jan 1927 (letter from Mrs. Clarence Williams)

Noyes, Theodore W.: undated (3), 01 Jul 1918, 13 Mar 1920, 08 Jul 1929, 23 Apr 1930, 27 Feb 1934

O'Connor, John H. (Congressman, New York): 05 Jan 1937

Oliver, W. B. (Congressman, Alabama): 16 Feb 1924

Olney, Richard (Congressman, Mass.): 01 Apr 1920

O'Neal, Sam (Pres., National Press Club): 22 Jun 1944

Osborn, F. H. (Brigadier General): 16 Jan 1942

Ourand, Chas. H. (Isthmian Canal Commission): 20 Mar 1913

Owen, Ruth Bryan (Congresswoman, Florida): 09 Nov 1932

Palmer, A. Mitchell (Attorney General): 12 Feb 1920, 01 Apr 1920

Parsons, R. C. (editor, -- Cleveland Leader -- ): 04 Mar 1898

Patrick, Geo. H.: 01 Jun 1906 (re McClellan statue), 07 Jun 1906

Peaslee, Horace W. (architect): 25 Mar 1941

Penrose, Boies (Senator, Pennsylvania): 15 Jun 1906

Pepper, Claude (Senator, Florida): 13 Mar 1942, 03 Nov 1943, 17 Apr 1945

Perkins, Francis (Secretary of Labor): 24 Jul 1942

Pershing, John J. (General): 28 May 1945 (autographed card)

Phelan, James D. (Senator, California): 28 Jun 1918, 05 Jun 1920

Phipps, Lawrence C. (Senator, Colorado): 07 May 1920, 03 Mar 1923

Pike, Albert (Department of the Interior): undated

Poindexter, Miles (Senator, Washington): 13 Feb 1920

Polk, Frank L. (Undersecretary of State): 25 Mar 1920

Pomerene, Atlee (Senator, Ohio): 01 Jun 1911 (letter from Mrs. Pomerene), 20 Feb 1920 (letter from Mrs. Pomerene), 01 Mar 1920 (letter from Mrs. Pomerene), 08 May 1920

Porter, Laura (League of Women Voters): 28 Dec 1930

Pou, Edw. W. (Congressman, North Carolina): 30 Sep 1904, 07 Oct 1904, 10 Oct 1904, 17 Oct 1904

Powers, Samuel Leland (Congressman, Massachusetts): 17 Feb 1905, 30 Dec 1925

Proctor, Redfield (Senator): 21 Jun 1906

Radcliffe, George L. (Senator, Maryland): 15 Sep 1938

Rainey, Henry T. (Congressman, Illinois): 07 Mar 1916

Ralston, Samuel M. (Senator, Indiana): 30 May 1924

Ramspeck, Robert (Congressman, Georgia): 28 Nov 1941

Rankin, J. E. (Congressman, Mississippi): 14 Feb 1942

Rathbun, Richard (Asst. Secretary of Smithsonian): 11 Apr 1912, 07 Dec 1915

Rayburn, Sam: 24 Mar 1944

Reams, Frank (White House staff): 10 Jan 1929

Redfield, William C. (Secretary of Commerce): 31 Aug 1912, 07 Nov 1913, 07 Apr 1915, 07 Mar 1916

Reed, Daniel (Congressman, New York): Apr 28, 1920

Reed, Stanley F. (Supreme Court Justice): 13 Mar 1948

Reed, Stuart F. (Congressman, W. V.): 27 Mar 1922

Reid, Albert T. (American Artists Professional League): 02 May 1944

Rhodes, John D. (Senator): undated, 01 Nov 1943

Ritchie, Albert C. (Governor, Maryland): 15 Nov 1923 (2), 14 May 1924, 23 Dec 1925, 28 Dec 1926, 09 Jan 1927, 14 Jan 1927, 10 Feb 1927, 20 Jan 1931, 07 Aug 1931, 30 Jan 1936

Robertson, David A. (President, Goucher College): 15 Dec 1939 (letter from Anne Robertson), 19 Apr 1932, 18 Dec 1942, 14 Aug 1943

Robinson, Boardman ( -- New York Tribune -- ): 21 Mar 1913, 02 Jun 1913

Robinson, Joe T. (Senator, Arkansas): 10 Mar 1916, 29 Nov 1921, 25 Apr 1936

Rodman, Hugh (Admiral): 10 Nov 1937

Rogers, Edith Nourse (Congresswoman, Massachusetts): 15 Feb 1937, 16 Feb 1937

Rogers, W. A.: 19 Mar 1925, 10 Apr 1925

Rogers, Will: 16 Mar 1917 (letter of introduction from Bill Ireland), 19 Aug 1927 (invitation to Press Club dinner in his honor)

Roosevelt, Franklin D.: 26 Apr 1935 (letter about him), 20 Jan 1940 (letter about him), 08 Jul 1940 (photograph of letter)

Roosevelt, Theodore: 29 Dec 1902, 09 Jan 1912

Root, Elihu (Secretary of State): 14 Dec 1905

Roper, Daniel C. (Secretary of Commerce): undated, 18 Aug 1913, 16 Sep 1932, 15 Aug 1933, 07 Sep 1933, 11 Nov 1933, 14 Aug 1934, 10 Dec 1934, 18 May 1936, 16 Nov 1937, 05 Aug 1938

Ross, Nellie Tayloe (Democratic National Committee): 10 Dec 1932

Roteler, J. Allen: 23 Feb 1936 (letter re Andrew Mellon and the Corcoran Gallery)

Russell, K. L. (cartoonist?): 11 Jun 1906 (illustrated letter)

Russell, Richard (Senator and Governor of Florida): 29 Mar 1944, 22 Mar 1949

Sabath, A. J. (Congressman, Illinois): 24 Feb 1941, 19 Jan 1945

Sackett, Frederic M. (Senator, Kentucky): 24 Oct 1925

Saltonstall, Leverett (Senator, Mass.): 12 Apr 1948

Sanders, Everett (Congressman, Indiana): 19 Feb 1925, 02 Jul 1932

Saulsbury, Willard (Senator, Delaware): 21 Oct 1918 (letter to Col. E. A. Halsey)

Scott, Hugh D., Jr. (Congressman, Pa.): 10 Oct 1949

Seger, George N. (Congressman, N. J.): 13 Jan 1925

Seton, Grace Thompson (National League of American Pen Women): 12 Mar 1927, 12 Apr 1927, 11 May 1927

Shaw, Albert P.: 08 Nov 1901, 08 Nov 1926, 09 Nov 1926, 09 Jan 1933 (letter from C. Berryman)

Shaw, Leslie M.: 11 Oct 1905 (printed invitation)

Sheppard, Morris (Senator, Texas): 08 May 1920, 10 Oct 1924, 15 Nov 1924, 05 Sep 1933, 31 Dec 1937, 13 Oct 1938, 08 Nov 1938, 10 Aug 1940, 19 Sep 1940

Sherman, Lawrence Y. (Senator, Illinois): 08 Feb 1918

Shih, Hu (Chinese Embassy): 07 Dec 1939, 27 Nov 1941

Shoemaker, Vaughn (cartoonist, -- Chicago Daily News -- ): 29 Mar 1945

Shoppell, R. W. ( -- National Tribune -- ): 02 Dec 1904

Slemp, C. B. (Congressman, Virginia): 31 Aug 1914, 10 Mar 1916

Smith, Alfred (Governor, New York): 07 May 1924

Smith, John Walter (Senator, Maryland): 11 Mar 1916

Smoot, Reed (Senator): 29 Jun 1906, 07 May 1920

Smoot, William (Governor, Pennsylvania): 13 Jan 1922

Snell, Bertrand H. (Congressman): 31 May 1929

Snow, William J. (Major General): 06 Jan 1919, 14 Jan 1921

Snyder, John W. (Sec. of the Treasury): 23 Jun 1947

Somerville, Harry P. (The Willard): 01 Apr 1936, 09 Jul 1936, 10 Apr 1942

Spooner, John C. (Senator, Wisconsin): 07 Mar 1907

Stand, Bert (Democratic County Committee): 02 Jun 1936

Stanley, Augustus O. (Senator, Kentucky): 20 Feb 1907, 25 Mar 1920, 13 Aug 1921, 19 Aug 1921, 09 Nov 1935

Stettinius, Edward R. (Secretary of State): 15 Sep 1944, 26 Oct 1944, 13 Mar 1945, 29 Mar 1945

Stimson, Henry L. (Sec. of State and Sec. of War): 06 Feb 1912, 21 Dec 1932, 29 Apr 1943

Stone, Harlan F. (Supreme Court Justice); 02 May 1944

Strick (National Press Club): undated

Sulzer, William (candidate for Governor): 21 Jul 1914 (3), 21 Jul 1914 (letter from Mrs. Sulzer)

Suter, John Wallace (Dean, Washington Cathedral): 13 Feb 1945, 12 Mar 1945

Sutherland, Howard (Senator): 10 Feb 1920, 07 May 1920

Swanson, Claude A. (Senator, Virginia): 18 Aug 1910, 15 Oct 1919

Swing, Phil D. (Congressman, California): 20 Dec 1932

Sylvester, Arthur ( -- Newark Evening News -- ): 23 Jun 1947

Sylvester, Richard (Inaugural Committee): 31 Dec 1904

Taft, William Howard: 10 May 1907, 30 Jun 1908, 18 Mar 1925 (letter about him)

Taliaferro, Sidney F. (DC Commissioner): 13 Apr 1927

Tharin, Charles E. (White House staff): 14 Jun 1905

Thomas, Elmer (Senator, Oklahoma): 02 Jul 1936

Thompson, Charles Willis ( -- New York Times -- ): 13 Mar 1905

Thornton, J. R. (Senator): 16 Dec 1910, 10 Dec 1912, 12 Dec 1912, 22 Nov 1913, 18 Mar 1914, 21 Mar 1914, 11 Feb 1915, 15 Mar 1915, 01 Jul 1916

Tilson, John Q. (Congressman, Conn.): 18 Apr 1929

Tobey, Charles W. (Senator, N. H.): 12 Jan 1948

Tony, F. A. ( -- Strand -- magazine): 06 Nov 1914

Towner, H. M. (Governor, Puerto Rico): 14 Jul 1924, 15 Apr 1925

Treadway, Allen T. (Congressman, Mass.): 25 May 1935

Trimble, South (Congressman): 24 Nov 1915, 11 Mar 1938

Trinkle, E. Lee (Governor, Virginia): 04 Feb 1925, 02 Mar 1925, 22 Jun 1925, 08 Jan 1926

Truesdell, George: 08 Jun 1906 (re McClellan statue)

Truman, Bess: 31 May 1949

Truman, Harry S: 07 Jun 1945 (copy of letter to Col. Johnson), 29 Mar 1946

Tydings, Millard E. (Senator, Maryland): 10 May 1935, 14 May 1935, 10 Jun 1938, 17 Jun 1938, 09 Sep 1938, 20 Sep 1938, 07 Mar 1944, 01 May 1944, 09 May 1944

Underwood, Oscar W. (Congressman, Alabama): 26 Feb 1912, 10 Mar 1916, 06 Jan 1917, 11 Feb 1920

Vincent, B. M. (Congressman, Kentucky): 07 Sep 1940 (letter about him)

Vinson, Carl (Congressman, Georgia): 09 Jun 1920

Wadsworth, James W. (Congressman, N. Y.): 13 Feb 1941

Walker, Frank C. (Postmaster General): 26 Nov 1941, 05 Nov 1943, 06 Jul 1943

Wallace, Henry A. (Secretary of Agriculture): undated (2), one illustrated), 01 Feb 1937, 06 Dec 1937

Ward, H. S. (Congressman, North Carolina): undated

Warner, V. (Congressman): 14 Jan 1905

Warren, Francis E. (Senator): 10 May 1920, 15 Oct 1924, 18 Oct 1924 (letter about him), 24 Nov 1924, 17 Feb 1925

Warren, Lindsay C. (Congressman, North Carolina): 11 Mar 1935, 13 Mar 1935

Watterson, Henry ( -- Courier-Journal -- ): 22 Apr 1912 (2)

Webster, Harold Tucker: 17 May 1918, 01 Jul 1918, 17 Jul 1918, 29 Aug 1918 (2), 09 Oct 1918, 06 Nov 1918

Westerman ( -- Ohio State Journal -- ): undated

Wetmore, A. (Smithsonian Institution): 26 Jul 1944

Wheeler, Burton K. (Senator, Montana): undated (letter from Mrs. Wheeler), 27 Jan 1937, 05 Aug 1941

White, Edward D. (Supreme Court Justice): 06 Feb 1917

Wickard, Claude R. (Secretary of Agriculture): 30 Jan 1942, 11 Feb 1942, 16 Apr 1942

Wickersham, George W.: 23 Dec 1930, 17 Dec 1934

Wile, Frederic William: 12 May 1924 (letter of introduction for William Schofield), 15 Nov 1928

Williams, John Sharp (Senator): 14 May 1914

Willis, Frank B. (Senator, Ohio): 13 Feb 1928

Willkie, Wendell L.: 02 May 1944

Wilson, Charles R. (candidate for Mayor, Huntington West Virginia): 21 Mar 1928, 14 May 1932

Wilson, Edith Bolling: 26 Mar 1916, 10 Feb 1917

Wilson, James (Secretary of Agriculture): 30 Jan 1909

Wilson, Lyle C. (United Press Assocs.): 29 Mar 1945

Wilson, Woodrow: 04 Dec 1916

Winslow, Samuel E. (Congressman, Massachusetts): 13 Feb 1920, 20 Feb 1925

Wood, Edwin O. (Democratic National Committee): 09 Dec 1911 (2), 24 Jul 1914, 10 Sep 1914

Wood, Will R. (Congressman, Indiana): 20 Jul 1916, 03 Mar 1925

Woodin, William H. (Sec. of the Treasury): 07 Jun 1933

Woodward, Donald (Woodward & Lothrop department store): 17 Jan 1921

Work, Hubert (Secretary of the Interior): 31 Dec 1926, 12 Jan 1927, 23 Jun 1928

Works?, John D. (Senator): 29 Mar 1916

Young, George M. (Congressman, N. D.): 07 Oct 1925

Zears, Guy (Congressman): 28 Dec 1940

Zihlman, Frederick N. (Congressman, Md.): 10 Feb 1927

Zimmerman, Eugene ZIM"; (cartoonist): 02 Jul 1929 (letter about him from Freeman H. Hubbard), 05 Jul 1929 (letter about ZIM from C.Berryman)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Berryman family papers, 1829-1984, bulk 1882-1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.berrfami, Subseries 1.3
See more items in:
Berryman family papers
Berryman family papers / Series 1: Clifford and Kate Berryman Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

Inventory of Charles Lang Freer's library

Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Freer Gallery of Art  Search this
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Collection Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
1 Item (typed, with handwritten edits)
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Comprehensive index of Charles Lang Freer's library, mostly relating to art and Asian culture. Headings include authors, countries, and topical subjects. Sections include locations in Freer's original Detroit home; an index of all books transferred to the Smithsonian; a list of collections and collectors catalogues of American and Near and Far Eastern art; sales catalogues, and books in Chinese language.
Organized in the original manner by the creator.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.01 05.22
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Art, Asian -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Book collecting  Search this
Collection Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
FSA.A.01, Item FSA A.01 05.22
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Charles Lang Freer Papers / Series 5: Art Inventories / 5.22: Printed Books [Library]
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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  • View Inventory of Charles Lang Freer's library digital asset number 2

The Garden Club of America collection

Garden Club of America  Search this
New York Flower Show  Search this
37,000 Slides (35mm slides)
33 Linear feet ((garden files))
3,000 Lantern slides
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Plans (drawings)
Slides (photographs)
circa 1920-present
This collection contains over 37,000 35mm slides, 3,000 glass lantern slides and garden files that may include descriptive information, photocopied articles (from journals, newspapers, or books), planting lists, correspondence, brochures, landscape plans and drawings. Garden files were compiled by Garden Club of America (GCA) members for most of the gardens included in the collection. Some gardens have been photographed over the course of several decades; others only have images from a single point in time. In addition to images of American gardens, there are glass lantern slides of the New York Flower Show (1941-1951) and trips that GCA members took to other countries, including Mexico (1937), Italy, Spain, Japan (1935), France (1936), England (1929), and Scotland.

A number of the slides are copies of historic images from outside repositories including horticultural and historical societies or from horticultural books and publications. The GCA made a concerted effort in the mid-1980s to acquire these images in order to increase its documentation of American garden history. Because of copyright considerations, use of these particular images may be restricted.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Garden Club of America was established in 1913 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when the Garden Club of Philadelphia and eleven other garden clubs met to create a national garden club. Its purpose is to foster the knowledge and love of gardening and to restore and protect the quality of the environment through educational programs and gardening and conservation efforts. The GCA was incorporated in Delaware in 1923, with its headquarters established in New York City. Today, local clubs are organized under twelve regional zones. The GCA continues its tradition of hosting flower shows and publishing material related to gardening in the United States.

The GCA's glass lantern slides were used by The GCA for presentations and lectures about notable gardens throughout the United States dating back to colonial times. An effort was made in the late 1980s, in preparation of the 75th anniversary of the Garden Club of America's founding, to collect the disbursed slides. These slides were to eventually form the Slide Library of Notable American Parks and Gardens. The informational value of this collection is extensive since a number of images of the more than 4,500 gardens represented show garden designs that have changed over time or no longer exist. While the majority of images document a range of designed upper and upper-middle class gardens throughout the U.S., the scope of the collection is expanding as volunteers photograph and document contemporary gardens including community and vernacular gardens.

The gardens illustrate the design work of dozens of landscape architects including Marian Coffin, Beatrix Farrand, Lawrence Halprin, Hare & Hare, Umberto Innocenti, Gertrude Jekyll, Jens Jensen, Warren Manning, the Olmsted Brothers, Charles Platt, Ellen Biddle Shipman, and Fletcher Steele. Because of their proximity to the gardens, works of notable architects and sculptors may also be featured in the images.
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Gardens -- France  Search this
Gardens -- Italy  Search this
Gardens -- Japan  Search this
Gardens -- Mexico  Search this
Flower shows  Search this
Gardening -- United States -- societies, etc  Search this
Gardens -- England  Search this
Landscape architecture  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Spain  Search this
Gardens -- Scotland  Search this
Plans (drawings)
Lantern slides
Slides (photographs)
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
Online Media:

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection

Landscape architecture
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Sears & Wendell  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
American Society of Landscape Architects  Search this
Tibbetts, Eleanor Sears  Search this
Tibbetts, Eleanor Sears  Search this
44.5 Cubic feet (4,317 glass negatives. 363 film negatives. 182 glass lantern slides. 12 photograph albums. 56 plans and drawings. 3 monographs. )
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Plans (drawings)
Lantern slides
The Thomas Warren Sears Photograph Collection documents examples of the design work of Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1966), a landscape architect and amateur photographer from Brookline, Massachusetts. Sears, who was based for most of his career in Philadelphia, designed a variety of different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments located primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. In addition to some of Sears' design work, images in the collection document Sears' domestic and foreign travels, design inspirations, and family. The collection includes over 4,800 black and white negatives and glass lantern slides dated circa 1899 to 1930. While most images show private and public gardens, there are a significant number of unidentified views and views photographed in Europe during two trips he took there in 1906 and 1908. Few images are captioned or dated. In addition, there are over 50 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and 3 monographs by or about Sears.
Scope and Contents note:
The Thomas Warren Sears Photograph Collection documents examples of the design work of Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1966), a landscape architect and amateur photographer from Brookline, Massachusetts. Sears, who was based for most of his career in Philadelphia, designed a variety of different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments located primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. In addition to some of Sears' design work, images in the collection document Sears' domestic and foreign travels, design inspirations, and family. The collection includes over 4,800 black and white negatives and glass lantern slides dated circa 1899 to 1930. While most images show private and public gardens, there are a significant number of unidentified views and views photographed in Europe during two trips he took there in 1906 and 1908. Few images are captioned or dated. In addition, there are over 50 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and monographs by or about Sears. Several of the glass lantern slides are duplicates of glass plate negatives in the collection. They apparently were chosen by Sears to illustrate some of his best design work, perhaps for lecture or client purposes.

In addition, there are 56 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. They range in date from 1917 to 1937 and from 1955 to 1964. Sears photographed some of his early plans; they are included in with the photographic images. Sears also photographed a handful of design plans by landscape architect Sibley Coslett Smith who practiced in Providence, Rhode Island; Sears and Smith shared the same business address there.

The Thomas Warren Sears Collection does not fully document the extent of Sears' design work. The use of glass plate negatives—which make up the bulk of the Thomas Warren Sears Collection—as a photography medium waned sometime during the first quarter of the twentieth century. As a result, the images in the Sears Collection capture examples of Sears' early to mid-career design work but they do not include jobs designed by Sears during the latter half of his design career.
Arrangement note:
The glass plate negatives were originally housed in numerous cardboard boxes manufactured for the sale of undeveloped glass plate negatives. Sears annotated the outside of the boxes with project or client names and/or locations, but the contents do not always match these labels. In addition, because very few of the glass plate negatives and lantern slides were labeled or captioned, it is not always evident where one job ended and another began if multiple projects were stored in the same carton. As a result, there are many instances in the Sears Collection where images have been inadvertently mislabeled because their identification is not apparent. Misidentified images are subject to correction as their proper identification is discovered. Each project has been assigned its own unique AAG job number based on its geographic origin. Those groups of images that have not been identified as to their location have been assigned a project number starting with 'SRS.' The collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Photographic images (including glass plate negatives, film negatives, glass lantern slides, and photograph albums) 2) Plans and Drawings 3) Monographs
Biographical/Historical note:
Thomas Warren Sears was born in 1880 in Brookline, Massachusetts. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Harvard University in 1903 and Bachelor of Science degree in landscape architecture from the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard in 1906. Sears was an amateur photographer who won awards for his photography while at Harvard. In 1915 his images were published in the monograph, Parish Churches of England. After graduation he worked for the firm of Olmsted Brothers Landscape Architects for two years and then briefly practiced in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1913, Sears established a landscape design office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he spent the remainder of his professional career. Sears at one point was in a professional partnership; some of his design plans list the firm name of Sears and Wendell. He was made a Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 1921.

Sears designed many different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments. His designs were primarily located in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. Just a few of his private landscapes include Marengo in Easton, Maryland; Sunnybrook, the Isaac H. Clothier, Jr. estate in Radnor, Pennsylvania; and Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland. In 1915, Sears started work on Reynolda, a country estate in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He generated design plans for the property intermittently over the next two decades. Reynolda's formal gardens, greenhouses, and acres of fields and woodlands subsequently became part of Wake Forest University.

During World War I, Sears designed Army camps in Battle Creek, Michigan and Spartanburg, South Carolina. He also helped lay out Langley Field, at that time an experimental aviation field in Hampton Roads, Virginia. In the 1940s, Sears designed the amphitheater at Swarthmore College in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania for concerts, outdoor performances, and other special events. During that decade he also worked on Colonial Revival gardens at Pennsbury, William Penn's country estate in Bucks County, Pennsylvania located by the Delaware River. Sears retired in 1964 and died in 1966.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Philadelphia Architects and Buildings Project (PAB), administered by The Athenaeum of Philadelphia, includes references to design projects by Sears.

Harvard University's Loeb Library includes a number of images by Sears, some of them documenting gardens that he designed.

Harvard University's Fine Arts Library, Special Collections includes a collection of photographs and negatives of English parish churches by Sears, c. 1908. Some of the images were published in the monograph, Parish Churches of England.

The Reynolda House Museum of American Art in Winston-Salem, North Carolina includes plans by Sears of Reynolda in its Estate Archives.
Gift of Eleanor Sears Tibbetts, Sears' daughter, to the Horticulture Services Division (later Smithsonian Gardens) in 1992.
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Photographers  Search this
Landscape architects  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
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Plans (drawings)
Lantern slides
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection.
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Color Cards

Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Archival materials
Abbreviations and Informational Sources:
Compiled September 2010 by AAG Volunteer, Marca Woodhams

Abbreviation Key for McFarland Color Cards

AAS: -- All-America Selections. Source: AAS.

Amling: -- A. F. Amling Co., Maywood, Illinois. Later Amlings Flowers, Chicago, Illinois. Source: FL '31

Armstrong: -- Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, California, est. 1889. Roses and fruit trees. Source: FL '31, JSA, ARM

Arnold Arb: -- Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. Source: FL '31, AA

B&A: -- Bobbink & Atkins, East Rutherford, New Jersey. Roses. Source: FL '31

Babcock: -- Babcock Peony Gardens, Jamestown, New York. George B. Babcock. Peonies. Source: FL '31, WEIN

Bailey: -- Mrs. Charles D. Bailey, Clerksville [Clarksville], Tennessee. Peonies. Source: FL '31

B.H.: -- Breeze Hill, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Home of J. Horace McFarland.

Bobbink & Atkins: -- Bobbink & Atkins, East Rutherford, New Jersey. Roses. Source: FL '31, TB p.219

Bodger Seeds: -- John Bodger and Sons, Inc., El Monte, California. Founded in 1890. Wholesale flower seed business. Heirloom standards-Gleam Nasturtium, Crackerjack Marigolds, Zinnia Envy, etc. Source: BOD, LOMPOC

Bosley: -- Bosley Nursery, Mentor, Ohio. Specialized in roses. Source: FL '31, MENT

Breck: -- Joseph Breck & Co., Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1818. Source: FL '32

Breeze Hill: -- Breeze Hill, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Home of J. Horace McFarland. Source: TB

Bristol: -- Bristol Nurseries, Bristol, Connecticut. Forest trees, fruit trees, evergreens. Source: BRIS

Burpee: -- W. Atlee Burpee & Co., Doylestown, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1876. Seed company. Source: BURP, VSC

Camp Hill: -- Camp Hill, Pennsylvania. 2 miles southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Carroll Gardens: -- Carroll Gardens, Westminster, Maryland. Source: CARR

Clint McDade: -- Founder of Rivermont Orchids, Signal Mountain, Tennessee. Also Clint McDade & Sons and Semmes Nursery [specialized in camellias and azaleas]. Orchid hybridizer. Source: AOS, AZO, PF

Conard & Jones: -- Conard & Jones Co., West Grove, Pennsylvania. Established in 1897. Roses and flowering plants. Source: FL '31

Conard-Pyle: -- Conard-Pyle, West Grove, Pennsylvania. After 1907 when Pyle purchased Conard & Jones Co. Roses. Source: FL '31

CP: -- Conard-Pyle, West Grove, Pennsylvania. Source: FL '31

C.P.: -- Conard-Pyle, West Grove, Pennsylvania. Source: FL '31

CP Co.: -- Conard-Pyle, West Grove, Pennsylvania. Source: FL '31

Dreer: -- Henry A. Dreer, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded 1838. Seed and florist. Source: FL '31, TB p. 219


Farr: -- Bertrand H. Farr Wyomissing Nursery Co., Wyomissing, Pennsylvania. Founded 1908. Nursery. Later called Farr Nursery and Landscape Company. Source: FL '31, FARR

Gl. St. Mary: -- Glen St. Mary Nursery Company , Glen St. Mary, Florida. Founded in 1882. Citrus plants, the weaver dogwood, magnolia St. Mary, and the George L. Taber azalea. Source: FL '31, , TB, MYFL

Glen St. Mary Nursery: -- Glen St. Mary Nursery Company , Glen St. Mary, Florida. Founded in 1882. Citrus plants, the weaver dogwood, magnolia St. Mary, and the George L. Taber azalea. Source: FL '31, TB, MYFL

Greenbriar: -- Greenbrier Farms, Chesapeake, Viriginia. Started by Robert Earl Thrasher. Fruit trees.

G.S.M.: -- Glen St. Mary Nursery Company , Glen St. Mary, Florida. Founded in 1882. Citrus plants, the weaver dogwood, magnolia St. Mary, and the George L. Taber azalea. Source: FL '31, TB, MYFL

Gulf Stream Nursery: -- Gulf Stream Nursery, Wachapreague, Virginia. Source: GEL

Hastings: -- H. G. Hastings Seed Co., Atlanta, Georgia. Founded 1889. Source: ART, VSC

Herbst Brothers, 92 Warren Street, New York, NY: -- Herbst Brothers, Seedsmen, Inc., New York, New York. Seedsmen. Source: OSU

Hicks: -- Hicks Nurseries, Inc., Westbury, New York. Founded 1853. Trees. Source: FL '30, HICKS

Hume: -- H. Harold Hume [Hardrada Harold Hume], botanist and dean of the College of Agriculture, University of Florida. Azaleas of the Glenn Dale type named after him. Source: PA


Indian Spring Farms: -- Indian Spring Farms, Inc., Baldwinsville, New York. Asters and peonies. Source: SHACK

J&P: -- Jackson & Perkins, Newark, New York. Founded in 1872. Roses. Source: FL '31

Jackson & Perkins: -- Jackson & Perkins, Newark, New York. Founded in 1872. Roses. Source: FL '31

J. H. Hill: -- Joseph H. Hill Co., Richmond, Indiana. Son of Edward Gurney Hill who started a business in 1881 called Hill & Co., later E. G. Hill Co., Richmond, Indiana. Later with his brothers-in-law, Fred Lemon and Earl Mann, he formed a distribution company called Hill Floral Products Co. The company closed in 2007. Roses. Source: FL '31, HR, AARS

Kelway: -- James Kelway. Kelways Plants, Ltd., Langport, Somerset Levels, England. Founded in 1851. Peonies. Source: CB

Lemoine: -- Victor Lemoine, Nancy, France. 1852 first mention of work in Revue Horticole. Hybridist of lilacs. Also Portulaca grandiflora, Begonias, Peony, Pelargoniums. Son Emile and Grandson Henri Lemoine carried on the business until 1960. Source: CB, TAY

Lindley Nurs.: -- J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, North Carolina and Lindley Nursery, Greensboro, North Carolina. Formerly Pomona Nursery est. in 1877. Peach trees. Source: FL '30, '31, GHM

Livingston: -- Livingston Seed Co., Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1850. Tomatoes, etc. Source: VSC

Lohrman Seed Co.: -- Lohrman Seed Co., 404 Macomb, Detroit, Michigan. Est. 1893. Source: OSU


Masonic Home "E" town: -- Masonic Home, Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania. Est. 1910. Now called Masonic Village.

McGinness: -- C. R. McGinnis, Reading, Pennsylvania. Rose hips. Source: FL '32


Miss Trump: -- Bess E. Trump, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Source: TRUMP, ARA

Mrs. Bailey: -- Mrs. Charles D. Bailey, Clerksville [Clarksville], Tennessee. Peonies. Source: FL '31

Mrs. Deeter: -- Mrs. Sarah Deeter, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Pentstemon. Source: FL '31

Mrs. Gleim

Murrell: -- Edwin Murrell est. Portland Nurseries, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. Rose nursery and seed shop. Sons Owen and Edwin Foley Murrell ran shop starting in 1928. Hilda Murrell, daughter of Owen ran Edwin Murrell Ltd. during its golden years, 1949-1970. Roses. Source: GAR


Oberlin Peony Gardens: -- Oberlin Peony Gardens, Sinking Spring, Pennsylvania. Tritomas and tree peony propagation. Source: OSU

Overlook Nurseries (I.S. Imura, Prop., Crichton, Ala.): -- Overlook Nurseries, Mobile, Alabama. Est. 1918. Camellias. Source: ACY

Pitzonka: -- Pitzonka Pansy Farm, Bristol, Pennsylvania. Gustav Pitzonka, prop. Pansies. Source: OSU

Prof. Connor, N.J. Exp.

Reutin (Rentin?)

Roehrs: -- Julius Roehrs Co., East Rutherford, New Jersey. Est. 1869. Now in Farmingdale, New Jersey. Orchids. Source: ROE, HORT

S&W: -- Stumpp & Walter Co., New York. Seeds. Source: FL '31, TB p.150

Schling: -- Max Schling Seedsmen, Inc., New York, New York. Started as a florist, Max Schling Flowers. Source: NY1, NY2


Stark, Calif.: -- Stark Bro's Nurseries & Orchards Co., Louisiana, Missouri. Est. 1816. Fruits. Source: FL '31, TB p.150, STAR

Sutton: -- Sutton's & Sons, Reading, England. Founded in 1806. Later Sutton's Seeds. Flower and vegetable seeds. Source: SUT

Vonnewitz: -- [This may be Lee R. Bonnewitz Peony and Iris Farm, Van Wert, Ohio.] Peonies. Source: DG, BONN, WEIN

Waller & Franklin: -- Waller-Franklin Seed Company, Guadalupe, California. Later, Waller Flower Seed Company. Source: OSU, WALL

Waller Seed Co.: -- Waller-Franklin Seed Company, Guadalupe, California. Later, Waller Flower Seed Company. Source: OSU, WALL

7Carter, Newport, RI (made for Wm. Hunt): -- William H. Hunt Co., New York, New York. Nerine. Source: FL ' 30, '31, '32, OSU

Informational Sources relating to Abbreviations Appearing on McFarland Color Cards

AA: -- "Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Our History." -- Arnold Arboretum -- . Web. 8 Apr. 2010. --

AOSB: -- "In Memoriam." [Clint McDade]. -- American Orchid Society Bulletin -- , v.55, 1986 p.1245

ARA: -- Trump, Bess E. -- Using America as a rose-test garden -- . The American Rose Annual, v.15, 1921 p.118-124.

ARM: -- "Armstrong's History." -- Armstrong Garden Centers -- . 2007. Web. 10 Jun. 2010. [Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, CA] --

ART: -- "F. J. Cooledge and Sons Company - Hastings' Seed Company." -- Marietta Street ARTery Association -- . Web. 22 Apr. 2010. --

AZO: -- "Did you ever wonder how an orchid hybrid got its name and information about the hybridizer?" -- The Arizona Orchidist -- , v.43 n.6, June 2007 p.4 [Clint McDade and Rivermont Orchids, Signal Mountain, Tennessee; later Semmes Orchids, Alabama]

BOD: -- "About Bodger." -- Bodger Seeds Ltd -- . 2005. Web. 18 Jun. 2010. --

BONN: -- "Book of Bonawitz and Bonewitz, part 2, chapter 18, page 1, Feb. 1969." -- Lee R. Bonnewitz -- . 1969. Web. 10 Jun.2010. --

BRIS: -- A Catalogue of forest trees, evergreen and flowering shrubs, fruit trees, herbaceous, green-house, and hot-house plants, cultivated and sold by John Miller, nurseryman, seedsman, and florist -- . Bristol, CT: Bristol Nursery, 1826.

BURP: -- "The legacy of W. Atlee Burpee." -- W. Atlee Burpee & Co -- . 2010. Web. 17 Jun. 2010. --

CARR: -- "Carroll Gardens is suspending business." -- Carroll Gardens, Inc -- . 2009. Web. 18 Jun. 2010 --

CB: -- Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia List of breeders, growers, nurseries, etc -- . Web. 10 Jun. 2010 [James Kelway and Victor Lemoine] -- http://www.paeo.ed/h1/sau_sil/wister/buch/135_137.html

DAV: -- PlantFiles -- Detailed information on garden epony Paeonia lactiflora 'Walter Faxon.' Web. 2010 --

FARR: -- "History of Farr Nursery and Landscape Company." -- Farr Nursery and Landscape Company -- . 2002. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. --

FL: -- Breeze Hill Gardens (Harrisburg, Pa.) -- Finding-list of plants at Breeze Hill Gardens, Harrisburg, Penna., at the residence of J. Horace McFarland. . .: including trial gardens of the J. Horace McFarland Company -- . Harrisburg, PA: s.n., 1930-1932. [These volumes were annotated by Glendon A. Stevens, J. Horace McFarland's gardener.]

GAR1: -- "Non-competitive exhibits," -- The Garden an illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches -- , v.62 n.1606, August 30, 1902 p.156. [Edward Murrell]

GAR2: -- "Victor Lemoine, plant hybridist, an appreciation." -- The Garden Magazine -- , May 1917 p. 234. Web. 20 Apr. 2010 --

GEL: -- Gelderen, D. M. van, Piet C. Jong, Herman John Oterdoom. -- Maples of the world -- . Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1994. p.309. [Gulf Stream Nursery, Virginia]

GHM: -- "Lindley Nurseries Collection, ca. 1839-1965, MSS. Collection #120." -- Greensboro Historical Museum Archives -- . 2001. Web. 17 Jun. 2010 --

HAR: -- Harper, Raymond L. -- A history of Chesapeake, Virginia -- . Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2008. p.62. [Greenbrier Farms Nursery, Chesapeake, Virginia; later Greenbrier Nursery Products]

HICKS: -- "History of Hicks Nurseries." -- Hicks Nurseries, Inc -- . 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. --

HORT: -- "The Boston Exhibition." -- Horticulture -- , v.4 n.19, Nov. 10, 1906 p.501. [Julius Roehrs Co., East Rutherford, NJ]

HR: -- "Hill's roses." -- Hill's Floral Products -- . Web. 10 Jun. 2010. --

JSA: -- John S. Armstrong Nursery Collection 1889-1984 -- . Ontario, CA: Ontario City Library Model Colony, 2007. [Finding Aid]

LOMPOC: -- Wallace, Glenn, "Bodger Seeds closing Friday," -- Lompoc Record -- , April 8, 2010. Web. 18 Jun. 2010 --

MENT: -- "History of Mentor Timeline." -- City of Mentor -- . Web. 2010. [Bosley Nursery, Mentor, OH] --

MOB: -- "Clint McDade dies." -- Mobile Register -- , Thursday, October 2, 1986.

MRM: -- McFarland, J. Horace. -- Memoirs of a Rose Man -- . Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1949.

MYFL: -- "The great Floridians 2000 program." -- My, Division of Historical Resources -- . Web. 15 Apr. 2010. [official portal of the state of Florida] [Glen St. Mary Nursery Co., FL] --

NY1: -- The Talk of the Town, "The Flower Man," -- The New Yorker -- , April 7, 1928, p. 17. [Max Schling]

NY2: -- Harriman, Margaret Case, Profiles, "For Any Occasion," -- The New Yorker -- , July 18, 1936, p. 18. [Max Schling]

OSU: -- "Nursery and seed trade catalogues, 1832-1966." -- Oregon State University Libraries, Special Collections -- . 2010.

PA: -- "J. Horace McFarland Papers Container Listings, MG-85 American Civic Association Correspondence, 1908-1924, Box 5." -- Pennsylvania State Archives -- . Web. 15 Apr. 2010. --

PL: -- "Catalogues, Seed." -- Planting Fields Foundation Archives, Plantings Fields Estate Collection -- . [Finding aid] Web. 2010. [Clint McDade] --

ROE: -- Fusco, Mary Ann Castronovo. "A family of some cultivation." -- New York Times, New Jersey Weekly Desk -- , March 28, 1999. Web. 18 Jun. 2010 [Julius Roehrs Co., East Rutherford, NJ] --

SHACK: -- "Baldwinsville's premiere flower businesses 1902-1934. The story behind the Museum's Heritage Peony Collection, Indian Spring Farms, Inc. and H. B. Williams Aster specialist." -- Museum at the Shacksboro Schoolhouse -- . 2008. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. --

STAR: -- "Our story." -- Stark Bro's Nurseries & Orchards Co -- . 2010. Web. 21 Apr. 2010. --

SUT: -- "History." -- Suttons Seeds -- . Web. 21 Apr. 2010. --

TAY: -- Taylor, Judith. "The legacy of Victor Lemoine: hybridizing on a heroic scale." -- Rare Book Review -- , June 2004 p. 42-43. Web. 20 Apr. 2010 --

TB: -- Morrison, Ernest. -- J. Horace McFarland: A Thorn for Beauty -- . Harrisburg, PA: commissioned by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1995.

TRUMP: -- Trump, Bess E. -- Handbook of botanical names of trees, shrubs, flowers, grasses, bulbs, etc -- . Harrisburg, PA: J. Horace McFarland Co., [19 ?]

VSC1: -- "Seed company histories and timelines, including selected seed related organizations." -- Victory Seed Company. 2009 -- . Web. 22 Apr. 2010 --

VSC2: -- "A.W. Livingston & Company, a business timeline." -- Victory Seed Company -- . Web. 22 Apr. 2010. --

WALL: -- "Waller Flowerseed Company and Lionel Waller. " Web. 21 Apr. 2010. [website by the grandson of Lionel Waller] --

WEIN: -- Weinard, F. F. and Dorner, H. B. -- Peonies: single and Japanese in the Illinois trial garden -- . Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 1938. [Babcock Peony Gardens, Jamestown, NY; Bonnewitz Gardens (Lee R. Bonnewitz), Van Wert, OH]
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens:
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
AAG.MCF, Series 3
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens

Chevalier Jackson Papers

National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences.  Search this
Jackson, Chevalier, Dr,, 1865-1958 (physician)  Search this
Jefferson Medical College.  Search this
Temple University.  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
University of Pittsburgh.  Search this
University of Western Pennsylvania.  Search this
Western Medical College.  Search this
Women's College of Pennsylvania.  Search this
Foster, Gilmore  Search this
Jackson, William Stanford  Search this
Mackenzie, Morell  Search this
Morage, Katherine Ann  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences.  Search this
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal documents
Personal papers
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Collection documents Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy.
Scope and Contents:
The Jackson papers include autobiographical notes, a draft of a brief biography for the National Cyclopedia of America Biography, some business papers among which are correspondence relating to a mill and to repairs to a dam, several legal papers including those concerned with real estate mortgages, and letters to and from Mrs. Jackson and household servants.

There are mementos such as dried flowers, family snapshots, final notes from Dr. Jackson to his wife, advising her of actions to be taken upon his death, and drafts of his obituary. There are a number of photographs, and negatives, primarily of Dr. Jackson.

The articles, reports and reprints are primarily by Dr. Jackson but include a few by or with his son and a few by other physicians. The papers include proofs and color proofs of equipment and procedures relating to Jackson publications and four books, one of which is by Dr. Jackson.

The material, most of which is relatively recent, is in good condition. Some of the notes are in pencil but are legible.

In addition to the papers in the Archives Center, the Division of Medical Sciences has a large number of surgical instruments including Dr. Jackson's bronchoscopes, esophagoscopes, laryngoscopes and microscopes, awards and medals, items of furniture from Dr. Jackson's study and oil paintings by him. The list of instruments is seven single-spaced pages. There are many Chevalier Jackson papers and memorabilia in the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, the Library and Museum of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia and the Library of Temple University.
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Personal Papers

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Legal Papers (including mortgages)

Series 4: Newsclippings, Articles and Book Reviews

Series 5: Photographs

Series 6: Chronological Journal

Series 7: Reports and Reprints

Series 8: Illustrations and Proofs

Series 9: Books
Biographical / Historical:
Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy, was born November 14, 1865 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and died August 16, 1958 in Philadelphia. His father, William Stanford Jackson, was a stock raiser and veterinarian. His mother was Katherine Ann Morage. Family financial reverses forced a move to Crafton, Pennsylvania, a working class community. Young Chevalier was not readily accepted by his classmates and seemed to have had a difficult time during his school years there. Money earned by decorating glass and pottery enabled Chevalier Jackson to attend the University of Western Pennsylvania (University of Pittsburgh) from 1878 to 1882. He then apprenticed himself to a local physician, Gilmore Foster. Continuing to paint china at night he earned enough to enroll at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1884, from which he graduated in 1886. During vacations he sold medical books and served as a cook on a fishing boat. Following his graduation from Jefferson Dr. Jackson went to England to pursue his interest in laryngology under a world-famous authority, Morell Mackenzie.

Upon his return to Pittsburgh, Dr. Jackson opened an office limited to the practice of laryngology. His patients were mostly indigent and income from the practice was limited. In 1890 he devised an instrument to remove a dental plate that a patient had swallowed. The news of this meant referral of other patients with similar problems that caused obstruction of the esophagus, including blockages in children from swallowing lye. From that time on Dr. Jackson carried on an unremitting campaign to have lye bottles labeled as poison, until in 1927 Congress passed the Federal Caustic Labeling Act.

On July 9, 1899, Chevalier Jackson and Alice Bennett White were married. They had one child, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson, who also became a surgeon. In the year of his marriage, Dr. Jackson developed a bronchoscope that could be passed through the larynx to visualize the bronchi. He became chief of laryngology at Western Medical College in 1900. In 1902 he adapted a suggestion of placing a light carrier at the far ends of the scopes used in bronchscopy and esophagoscopy, thus making those procedures relatively safe. He and a machinist friend built the instruments in the friend's shop in Pittsburgh.

Dr. Jackson developed tuberculosis in 1911. He spent the two years of convalescence writing an important text book, Peroral Endoscopy and Laryngeal Surgery, published in 1915, the year he was made head of the Department of Laryngology at Jefferson Medical College. Appointments at the Graduate School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania followed, and his 1930 appointment to the faculty at Temple meant that Chevalier Jackson held simultaneous appointments at five Philadelphia schools. He later relinquished all appointments except the chair at Temple from which he retired in 1938 to be succeeded by his son, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson. From 1935 to 1941 Chevalier Jackson was president of the Women's College of Pennsylvania. An early advocate of equal rights, he championed the role of women in medicine.

During his noted career Dr. Jackson wrote 250 papers, twelve text books, chapters in a number of other books, and an autobiography (1938). He was somewhat eccentric. He protected his hands by wearing silk gloves, even in summer, turned doorknobs by placing his hand in his coat pocket, preferred bowing to shaking hands, and developed a reputation for social aloofness.
Materials at the National Museum of American History:
The Division of Medicine and Science has surgical instruments, awards, medals, furniture, and oil paintings owned by Chevalier Jackson. See accession numbers are 300428.338 through .343.
Collection donated by Mrs. Joan Bugbee (a granddaughter of Dr. Jackson), date unknown.
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at or 202-633-3270.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Surgeons  Search this
Laryngoscopy  Search this
Esophagus  Search this
Esophagoscopy  Search this
Endoscopy  Search this
Bronchoscopy  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Legal documents
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Personal papers
Chevalier Jackson Papers, 1883-1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
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William J. Hammer Collection

Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Batchelor, George  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Berliner, Emile, 1851-1929  Search this
Curie, Marie  Search this
Curie, Pierre  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Jehl, Francis  Search this
Johnson, Edward H.  Search this
Sprague, Frank J.  Search this
Tesla, Nikola, 1857-1943  Search this
Upton, Francis R.  Search this
36 Cubic feet (124 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
circa 1847-1989
Original documents and papers generated by William J. Hammer and by various companies and individuals with whom he was associated. Includes material related to the research and inventions of Edison, Bell, Tesla, the Curies, etc.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes original documents and papers generated by Hammer and by various companies and individuals and various secondary sources assembled by Hammer between 1874 and 1934. Hammer's lifelong association with the foremost scientists of his day -- Edison, Bell, Maxim, the Curies, the Wright brothers, and others - afforded him a unique opportunity to collect materials about the development of science along many lines.

This collection, which includes rare historical, scientific, and research materials, was donated by the International Business Machine Corporation to the Museum of History and Technology in 1962 and held by the Division of Electricity. In 1983 it was transferred to the -Archives Center. The collection was badly disorganized when received and contained many fragile documents in poor condition. The collection was organized and arranged as reflected in this register.

The collection documents in photographs, manuscripts, notes, books, pamphlets, and excerpts, the beginnings of electrical technology. In its present state, it comprises four series: Series 1 contains twenty-two boxes of the William J. Hammer Papers, containing both biographical and autobiographical material; Series 2 has twenty boxes of material on Edison; Series 3 consists of thirty-three boxes of reference material; and Series 4 holds twenty-one boxes of photographs and portraits. See the container list beginning on page 39 for more detailed information on the contents of the collection.

Most of the material in the collection is chronologically arranged. However, in some cases alphabetical arrangement has been employed, for example, in the arrangement of portraits of eminent men of electrical science (Series 4, Boxes 78-80, 100-101), and the arrangement of publications (by authors' last names).

Hammer did original laboratory work upon selenium, radium, cathode rays, x-rays, ultra-violet rays, phosphorescence, fluorescence, cold light, and wireless. These aspects of his career are reflected in many parts of the collection: in Series 1 there are articles, notes, diagrams, sketches, graphs,, and correspondence; in Series 3 articles, magazines, news clippings, and bound pamphlets. Tie contributed many technical writings, some of which are found in Series 1.

Papers detailing Hammer's aeronautical activities were transferred to the National Air and Space Museum. They consist of two scrapbooks and one cubic foot of aeronautical photographs of balloons, airplanes, and gliders and one-half cubic foot of correspondence. For further information contact the National Air and Space Museum Archives at (202) 357-3133.
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: William J. Hammer Papers, 1851-1957

Series 2: Edisonia, 1847-1960

Series 3: Reference Materials, 1870-1989

Series 4: Photographs, 1880-1925
Biography of William J. Hammer:
William Joseph Hammer, assistant to Thomas Edison and a consulting electrical engineer, was born at Cressona, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1858, and died March 24, 1934. His parents were Martha Augusta Bech (1827-1861) and William Alexander Hammer (1827-1895). He attended private and public schools in Newark, New Jersey, and university and technical school lectures abroad.

On January 3, 1894, Hammer married Alice Maud White in Cleveland, Ohio. They had one daughter, Mabel (Mrs. Thomas Cleveland Asheton). Alice Hammer died in 1906.

In 1878 Hammer became an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In December 1879 he began his duties as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, he worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In this first year, the plant under general manager Francis Upton, turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of Incandescent Electric Lighting"! (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2).

In 1881 Edison sent Hammer to London as Chief Engineer of the English Electric Light Co. In association with E. H. Johnson, general manager, Hammer constructed the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This plant included three, thirty-ton "Jumbo" steam-powered dynamos (generators), and operated 3,000 incandescent lamps. Holborn was the first central station ever constructed for incandescent electric lighting. Hammer began its operation on January 12, 1882, by lighting the Holborn Viaduct.

In 1882 Hammer also installed a large isolated lighting plant containing twelve Edison dynamos at the Crystal Palace Electric Exposition and the Edison Exhibit at the Paris Electrical Exposition.

At this time Hammer also designed and built the first electric sign. The sign spelled the name "Edison" in electric lights, and was operated by a hand controlled commutator and a large lever snap switch. It was erected over the organ in the Crystal Palace concert hall.

In 1883 Hammer became Chief Engineer for the German Edison Company (Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft), later known as Allegemeine Elektricitaets Gesellschaft. Hammer laid out and supervised the installations of all Edison plants in Germany. While in Berlin he invented the automatic motor-driven "flashing" electric lamp sign. The sign, which flashed "Edison" letter by letter and as a whole, was placed on the Edison Pavilion at the Berlin Health Exposition in 1883.

On his return to the United States in 1884, Hammer took charge of some of Edison's exhibits, including Edison's personal exhibit, at the International Electrical Exhibition held under the authority of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. There he built the first flashing "Column of Light." He also became confidential assistant to E. R. Johnson, president of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. Together with Johnson and Frank J. Sprague, he became an incorporator of the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor company. He also was elected a trustee and the company's first secretary.

Hammer installed an all-electric house at Newark, New Jersey in 1884 and he devised various electrical devices and contrivances for an unusual party for friends and colleagues. (See "Electrical Diablerie" beginning on page 6).

At the end of 1884 Hammer became chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. For over two years he made financial, mechanical, and electrical reports on the various stations throughout the United States. During 1886-87 he was chief engineer and general manager of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. He also acted as contractor for the company. He laid $140,000 of underground tubing and installed Sprague Electric Motors.

In 1888, acting as an independent engineer, he was placed in charge of completing the 8,000 light plant of the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St.Augustine Florida. At the time this was the largest isolated incandescent lighting plant ever constructed. Also in 1888 Hammer was appointed consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinati Centennial Expostition, and as a contractor designed and installed over $40,000 worth of electrical effects.

Hammer was appointed Edison's personal representative remarked, "There are a lot of crowned heads in the Edison business. How many of them am I subservient to?" Mr. Edison answered "You take no instructions except from Thomas A. Edison." Hammer asked "What are your instructions?" Mr. Edison replied, 'Hammer, I haven't any. Go and make a success of it.' In Paris he set up and operated all of Edison's inventions, which embraced nineteen departments and covered 9,800 square feet of space. He also built a huge Edison lamp forty-five feet high employing 20,000 lamps. Edison remarked, 'He had entire charge of my exhibit at the Paris Exposition, which was very successful." This was the largest individual exhibit at the Exposition, costing $100,000. Mr. Edison replied, "I want you to go right out and have a card engraved William J. Hammer, Representative of Thomas A. Edison. You are the only representative I have here," and he complimented him on his work adding, "The French government will do something handsome for you for your work." Hammer replied that he would not raise his hand to get it and did not believe in giving such honors to people who seek them. Mr. Edison said, "You are wrong. You are a young man and such things are valuable. At any rate if there's anyone in this exhibition who deserves recognition, you do, and I'm going to see you get it' (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2). Thirty-four years later, in 1925, through the personal influence of Edison, Hammer was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French government.

In 1890 Hammer returned to the United States and opened an office as a consulting electrical engineer. He was in private practice until 1925, making reports, conducting tests, and giving expert testimony in patent suits.

On January 31, 1890, Hammer formed the Franklin Experimental Club of Newark where boys could come and carry on experiments, build apparatus, and listen to lectures. Hammer equipped the laboratory at his own expense. One side was an electrical laboratory and the other a chemical laboratory. About forty-five boys joined. Each boy had a key to the club and a section of a bench with his own drawer for keeping notes, tools, and other equipment. In 1892 the structure was destroyed by fire from a saloon next door, ending Hammer's plans for a large and useful institution.

In 1896 Hammer was elected president of the National Conference of Standard Electrical Rules, which prepared and promulgated the "National Electric Code."

In 1902 in Paris, Hammer visited Pierre and Marie Curie, the discoverers of radium and polonium. They gave him nine tubes of radium and one of polonium to bring back to the United States. He also acquired some sulphide of zinc, with which he mixed radium carbonates, producing a beautifully luminous powder. This was the first radium-luminous material ever made. By mixing the powder with Damar varnish he produced the first radium-luminous paint. He was also the first person to make colored (and white) luminous materials. In 1907 he invented and patented a process for producing colored phosphorescent materials by combining phosphorescent and fluorescent substances.

Back in the United States in the fall of 1902 and into 1903, Hammer applied his radium-luminous materials to thirty different objects: luminous dials for clocks and watches, toys, artificial flowers, radium luminous gun sights, taps and pulls for lamp sockets, switches, keyholes, push buttons, telephone transmitters, poison bottle labels, a small plaster figure, push pins, and writing implements among others. He did not patent the invention due to the scarcity and high cost of radium, but later in an important suit involving foreign and American patents of radium-luminous materials, his testimony and that of other noted scientists and professionals of the day who had visited his home and laboratory proved that his work completely anticipated that of all inventors both in the United States and abroad. In 1902 he was one of the first persons to be burned with radium.

Hammer gave eighty-eight lectures on the Curies' work and on radium and radioactive substances. He wrote the first book published on radium, Radium and other Radioactive Substances, 1903. Hammer proposed and used radium for cancer and tumor treatment, successfully treating and curing a tumor on his own hand in July 1903. Tie also supplied several hospitals with radioactive water he had made and conducted extensive experiments with x-rays, cathode-rays, radium-rays, ultraviolet lights, phosphorescence, fluorescence, and cold-light. He was probably the first to suggest many wartime uses for radium-luminous materials, such as airplanes, instruments, markers, barbed-wire, and landing fields.

Hammer also did important work with selenium, a nonmetallic element that resembles sulphur and tellurium chemically. It is obtained chiefly as a by-product in copper refining, and occurs in allotropic forms. A grey stable form varies in electrical conductivity depending on the intensity of its illumination and is used in electronic devices. Hammer invented selenium cells and apparatus, and suggested industrial uses for selenium and other light-sensitive cells.

In 1886 Hammer devised a system for automatically controlling street and other lights by use of a selenium cell. In 1892 he designed a torpedo that could be steered by searchlight and selenium cell. In the early 1900s he suggested many other uses for "light" cells, including burglar alarms, dynamo control, buoy, railroad signaling, automatic gun firing, transmission of music, stethoscope recorder, automatic operating shutters, automatic boiler feed, snow recorder, and electric motor control.

At the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 Hammer was Chairman of the Jury for Telegraphy, Telephony, and Wireless. He was also a member of the "Departmental" Jury ("Applied Science: Electricity") and of the committee appointed to organize the International Electrical Congress at St. Louis in 1904.

In 1906 Hammer received the "Elliott Cresson" gold medal from the Franklin Institute for his "Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps," accumulated over thirty-four years. This collection received a special silver medal at the International Electrical Exposition at the Crystal Palace, London, England, in 1882, and "the Grand Prize" at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904.

During the First World war Hammer served as a major on the General Staff of the, Army War College, Washington, D.C., where he was attached to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division and later to the operations Division at the war Department in charge of electrical and aeronautical war inventions. He did special work at the U.S. Patent office, marking and delaying patents that might be useful to the enemy and served on the Advisory Board of Experts attached to the Alien Property Commission. He was elected Historian general of the Military order of the World War (1926-1928) and was a member of the Society of American Military Engineers.

Hammer was an early aeronautics enthusiast and became the owner of one of the first airplanes sold in the United States to an individual. Even in his last few years of his life, Hammer's interest in airplanes did not wane. In 1931, by the permission of the Secretary of the -Navy, Hammer made a twelve-hour flight in the Los Angeles dirigible from the Lakehurst, New Jersey airdrome along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to New York, flying over New York City at night.

Hammer served on numerous committees. In 1916 he was a member of a special committee, appointed by the Aeronautical Society of America. one of his responsibilities on this committee was to recommend methods for the formation of a reserve force of civilian aviators for the Army. At the start of World War I, Hammer was appointed chairman of a committee on camouflage by the Aeronautical Society. During the war, he flew airplanes and tested sound devices and was also among the first five selected out of thousands for the dissemination of propaganda into many countries. He also examined documents and papers captured from spies and prisoners of war to see if these material contained any technical matter of value to the U. S. Army.

Hammer traveled extensively as a delegate of the Military Order of World War I. For example, in 1922 he attended the aeronautical Congress and Flying Meet in Detroit, Michigan. In the same year he also attended Immigration Conferences of the National Civic Federation in New York.

Between 1922 and 1928 Hammer intensified his efforts in collecting and organizing autographed portraits of eminent scientific men, a project he had been working on for over forty-five years. Tie displayed many of these portraits with his Historical Collection of Incandescent Electrical Lamps in -his New York home. At this time he also prepared an elaborate bibliography on selenium and its industrial and scientific applications.

Major William Joseph Hammer, described by Edison as "my most valuable assistant at Menlo Park" died of pneumonia March 24, 1934.
'Electrical Diablerie':

N.Y. World, January 3, 1885 and Newark, N.J. Daily Advertiser and Journal, January 3, 1885

Some years ago, (1884) on New Year's eve, an entertainment was given at the home of Mr. William J. Hammer, in Newark, N.J., which, for the display of the powers of electricity has seldom, if ever, been equaled. Mr. Hammer, who has for years been associated with Mr. Edison, both in this country and in Europe, desiring to give his old classmates, the "Society of Seventy-Seven," a lively and interesting time, invited them to "an electrical dinner"at his home.

The invitations which were sent out were written upon Western Union telegram blanks with an Edison electric pen. When the guests arrived and entered the gate, the house appeared dark, but as they placed foot upon the lower step of the veranda a row of tiny electric lights over the door blazed out, and the number of the house appeared in bright relief. The next step taken rang the front door bell automatically, the third threw open the door, and at the same time made a connection which lit the gas in the hall by electricity.

Upon entering the house the visitor was invited to divest himself of his coat and hat, and by placing his foot upon an odd little foot-rest near the door, and pressing a pear-shaped pendant hanging from the wall by a silken cord, revolving brushes attached to an electric motor brushed the mud and snow from his shoes and polished them by electricity. As he was about to let go of the switch or button, a contact in it connected with a shocking coil, caused him to drop it like a hot potato. Up-stairs was a bedroom which would be a fortune to a lazy man; he had only to step on the door sill and the gas was instantly lighted. The ceiling was found to be covered with luminous stars, arranged to represent the principal constellations in the heavens-while comets, moons, etc., shone beautifully in the dark. By placing one's head on the pillow, the gas, fifteen feet away, would be extinguished and the phosphorescent stars on the ceiling would shine forth weirdly, and a phosphorescent moon rose from behind a cloud over the mantel and slowly describing a huge arch disappeared behind a bank of phosphorescent clouds on the other side of the room; by pressing the toe to the foot-board of the bed the gas could again be relit.

Pouring a teacup of water into the water clock on the mantel and setting the indicator would assure the awakening of the sleeper at whatever hour he might desire. There was also in the hall outside the room a large drum, which could be set to beat by electricity at the hour when the family wished to arise. The whole house was fitted throughout with electric bells, burglar alarms, fire alarms, telephones, electric cigar lighters, medical coils, phonographs, electric fans, thermostats, heat regulating devices, some seven musical instruments, operated by electricity, etc.

Upon the evening referred to nearly every. piece of furniture in the parlor was arranged to play its part. Sit on one chair and out went the gas, take another seat and it would light again; sitting on an ottoman produced a mysterious rapping under the floor; pressure on some chairs started off drums, triangles, tambourines, cymbals, chimes and other musical instruments; in fact, it seemed unsafe to sit down anywhere. The quests stood about in groups and whispered, each hoping to see his neighbor or a new comer caught napping.

One visitor (Brown) secured an apparently safe seat, and was telling a funny story--he had left electricity far behind--but just as he reached the climax, a pretty funnel-shaped Japanese affair like a big dunce cap, that seemed but a ceiling ornament which was held in place by an electromagnet, dropped from overhead and quietly covered him up, thus silently extinguishing the story and the story-teller.

A big easy chair placed invitingly between the folding doors joining the double, parlors sent the unwary sitter flying out of its recesses by the sudden deafening clamor of twenty-one electric bells hidden in the folds of the draperies hanging in the doorway. In a convenient position stood the silver lemonade pitcher and cup, the former was filled with the tempting beverage, but no matter how much a guest might desire to imbibe one touch convinced him that the pitcher and cup were so heavily charged with electricity as to render it impossible for him to pour out a drink or even to let go until the electricity was switched off from the hidden induction coil.

Some one proposed music, and half a selection had been enjoyed when something seemed to give way inside the piano, and suddenly there emanated from that bewitched instrument a conglomeration of sounds that drowned the voices of the singers, and the keys seemed to beat upon a horrible jangle of drums, gongs and various noise-producing implements which were fastened inside of and underneath the piano.

After the guest were treated to a beautiful display of electrical experiments, under the direction of Mr. Hammer, and Professor George C. Sonn, they were escorted to the dining-room, where an electrical dinner had been prepared and was presided over by 'Jupiter," who was in full dress, and sat at the head of the table, where by means of a small phonograph inside of his anatomy he shouted, "Welcome, society of Seventy-Seven and their friends to Jove's festive board." The menu was as follows: "Electric Toast," "Wizard Pie," "Sheol Pudding," "Magnetic Cake," "Telegraph Cake," "Telephone Pie," "Ohm-made Electric Current Pie," "Menlo Park Fruit," "Incandescent Lemonade," "'Electric Coffee" and "Cigars," etc., and music by Prof. Mephistopheles' Electric Orchestra.

About the table were pretty bouquets, and among the flowers shone tiny incandescent lamps, while near the center of the table was placed an electric fan which kept the air cool and pure, and at each end was a tiny Christmas tree lighted with small incandescent lamps, planted in a huge dish of assorted nuts and raisins. Each lamp had a dainty piece of ribbon attached to it upon which the initials of the Society and the date were printed, and each guest received a lamp to take away with him as a souvenir of the occasion. Plates of iced cakes made in the form of telephones, switches, bells, electric lamps, batteries, etc., stood on each side of the center piece.

Promptly at 12 o'clock, as the chimes of the distant churches came softly to the ears of the assembled quests, pandemonium seemed to change places with the modest dining-room. A cannon on the porch, just outside the door, and another inside the chimney, were unexpectedly discharged; and at this sudden roar, every man sprang back from the table; the lights disappeared; huge fire-gongs, under each chair beat a tattoo. The concussion produced by the cannon in the fireplace caused several bricks to come crashing down the chimney, and as the year of 1884 faded away, the table seemed bewitched. The "Sheol Pudding" blazed forth green and red flames illuminating the room, tiny tin boxes containing 'Greek" fire which had been placed over each window and door were electrically ignited by spirals of platinum iridium wire heated by a storage battery and blazed up suddenly; the "Telegraph Cake" clicked forth messages said to be press reports of the proceedings (it was also utilized to count the guests and click off the answers to various questions put to it); bells rang inside the pastry; incandescent lamps burned underneath the colored lemonade; the thunderbolt pudding discharged its long black bolts all over the room (long steel spiral springs covered with black cloth) and loud spirit rapping occurred under the table. The silver knives, forks and spoons were charged with electricity from a shocking coil and could not be touched, while the coffee and toast (made by electricity) were made rapidly absorbed; the "Magnetic Cake' disappeared; the "Wizard" and "Current Pies' vanished, and 'Jupiter" raising a glass to his lips began to imbibe.

The effect was astonishing! The gas instantly went out, a gigantic skeleton painted with luminous paint appeared and paraded about the room, while Jupiter's nose assumed the color of a genuine toper! His green eyes twinkled, the electric diamonds in his shirt front (tiny lamps) blazed forth and twinkled like stars, as he phonographically shouted "Happy New Year'. Happy New Year!" This "Master of Cererionies' now becoming more gentle, the guests turned their attention to the beautiful fruit piece, over four feet high, that stood in the center of the table. From the fruit hung tiny electric lamps, and the whole was surmounted by a bronze figure of Bartholdils "Statue of Liberty;" uplifted in "Miss Liberty's" right hand burned an Edison lamp no larger than a bean.

The dinner finished, and there was much that was good to eat, notwithstanding the "magical" dishes which they were first invited to partake of, speeches were delivered by Messrs. Hammer, Rutan, McDougall, 'Brown, Duneka, and Dawson, and an original poem was read by Mr. Van Wyck. Upon repairing to the parlors the guest saw Mr. Hammer's little sister, May, dressed in white and mounted upon a pedestal, representing the "Goddess of Electricity:" tiny electric lamps hung in her hair, and were also suspended as earrings, while she held a wand surmounted by a star, and containing a very small electric lamp.

Not the least interesting display of electricity took place in front of the house, where a fine display of bombs, rockets, Roman candles, Greek fire and other fireworks were set off by electricity, which was by the way, the first time this had been accomplished. The guests were requested to press button switches ranged along the front veranda railing thus causing electricity from a storage battery to heat to a red heat tiny platinum iridium spirals attached to each fuse of the various pieces of fireworks thus sending up rocket after rocket, as well as igniting the other pieces which had been placed in the roadway in front of the house.

An attempt was made to send up a large hot air balloon to which was attached a tiny storage battery and an incandescent signal lamp but a sudden gust of wind caused the ballon to take fire as it rose fr(xn the ground. This constituted the only experiment made during the evening which was not an unqualified success. The innumerable electrical devices shown during the progress of the dinner were all operated by Mr. Hammer, who controlled various switches fastened to the under side of the table and attached to a switchboard, which rested on his lap, while the two cannons were fired by lever switches on the floor, which he operated by the pressure of the foot. Electricity was supplied by primary and storage batteries placed under the table. After an exhibition of electrical apparatus and experiments with a large phonograph, the guests departed with a bewildered feeling that somehow they had been living half a century ahead of the new year."
Expositions and Exhibitions:
The many Expositions held at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were important for the Edison Electric Company's future business. In particular the Paris Electrical Exposition, 1881, and the Crystal Palace Exposition in London in 1892 were introductions for the company's international business enterprises. Edison, therefore, sent his ablest men from the Menlo Park staff (Batchelor, Hammer, Jehl, Johnson) to Europe to oversee the installation and promotion of the company's exhibits.


The International Paris Electrical Exposition was held during the summer of 1881. Many of Edison's electric lighting systems, ranging from arc lights to incandescent devices, were exhibited. A model of the Edison central-station lighting system showed an arrangement of incandescent lights within a complete electrical distributing system, including novel appliances and controls of the Edison system. "The completeness of its conception made a profound impression on the foremost European electrical engineers of that era." (Josephson, Matthew. Edison, A Biography. p. 252). Edison also exhibited his first "Jumbon generator. It was "direct-connected" to its driving engine, another area in which Edison pioneered. Edison improved upon the original design of William Wallace's "Telemachon' - a generator coupled to a water-powered turbine. Wallace had earlier in the decade produced the first dynamo in America.

Charles Batchelor headed the Edison exhibits within Paris. Edison received many gold medals and diplomas and was awarded the ribbon of the Legion of Honor.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains various reports and catalogues exhibited at the International Exposition of Electricity. (Series 3, Box 44, Folders 1-4)


At the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1882 in London, Edison displayed a great many of his inventions, including: the steam dynamo; specimens of street pipes and service boxes used in the Edison underground system of conductors, and the system of house conductors with devices for preventing abnormal increase of energy in house circuits; apparatus for measuring the resistance of his lamps, for measuring the energy consumed in lamps, and rheostats for restoring currents; also thermogalvano-meters, carbon rheostats, dynamometers, photometers, carbon regulators, Weber meters,, current regulators, and circuit breakers for controlling electric light circuits; the carbon relay, the pressure relay, and the expansion relay; the telegraph system in Morse characters; and the Roman character automatic telegraph.

Thomas Edison also exhibited the carbon telephone, the musical telephonograph, telephone repeater, and numerous apparatus for demonstrating the method of varying the resistance of a closed circuit by contact with carbon, illustrative of the experimental factors of the Edison carbon transmitter. Incandescent lamps, the process of the manufacture of lamps, and various designs of electric light chandeliers were also on display.

Hammer won the silver medal at the exposition for the first complete development of the incandescent electric lamp from its initial stages to date. At the exhibition the first hand-operated flashing electric lamp sign was displayed, which was invented and built by Hammer.

The collection contains photographs of the Edison dynamo, and the Edison Electric Lighting Plant of 1882 erected by Hammer. The official Catalogue of the International Electric and Gas Exhibition, and various articles from the Daily Telegraph, Daily Chronicle, and Daily News are also included within the collection (Series 4, Box 99 and Series 3, Box 42, Folder 1-2).


The Berlin Exposition of 1883 had the first motored flashing electric sign designed, built and operated by Hammer. The electric sign spelled out the word "Edison" letter by letter and was used on the Edison pavilion in the Health Exposition. It has most features of today's flashing sign.

The collection contains two photographs of the first flashing sign (Series 4, Box 99).


The Franklin Institute International Electrical Exhibition was held in Philadelphia from September 2 to October 14, 1884. Many of Edison's companies had display booths at the exhibition. The Edison Electric Light Company showed in operation their system of house lighting as supplied from a central station. The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting exhibited their system of lighting factories, hotels, hospitals, and other places situated beyond the reach of a central lighting station. A full assortment of Edison lamps and dynamos also made up parts of other exhibits. Also displayed at the exhibition was the first flashing column of light, which Hammer designed and built.

Included within the collection are a variety of photographs of the exhibitions. Four pamphlets also are contained in the collection (Series 3, Box 1, Folder 3), (Series 4, Box 99).


The Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, in Cincinnati from July 4 to October 27, was in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the settlement of Cincinnati. The exposition showed the progress and ramifications of the first hundred years of this settlement.

The space occupied by permanent buildings was greater than that covered by any building for exhibiting purposes on the Western continent. T',ie exposition developed the Electric Light Plant to make a special feature of electric lighting in the evening. Several companies used this opportunity to make exhibits of their apparatus and for their equipment to be used for illumination. The Edison Lamps were used for displays in showcases and pavilions of exhibitors of the Park Building.

The collection contains photographs of the halls of the exposition and a poster which is a souvenir of the electrical display of the exposition. An official Guide of the Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States is included within the collection. (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 4).


The Summer Carnival and Electric Exhibition held at St. John, New Brunswick, Canada was to celebrate the opening of the Canadian Pacific Short Line to St. John and Portland. The Electrical Exhibition was the most popular of the displays present, containing the Monster Edison Lanm, the Mysterious Electric Fountain, and many other inventions.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a poster that illustrates some of the leading exhibits at the Electrical Exhibition (Series 4, Box 99).


The Universal Exposition of 1889 held in Paris was larger than all previous expositions held there. The famous Eiffel Tower was its principal attraction.

A large portion of the exhibit hall within the Palace of Mechanical Industries contained Thomas Edison's electrical inventions, including various electric lamps for use in houses. Variations of the telephone also were shown. During the Paris Exposition Europeans were exposed to the phonograph for the first time. Hammer represented Edison's interests at the Paris Exhibition.

The collection contains articles from New York World, New York Herald and Electrical World on Edison's exhibits at the Paris Exposition (Series 3, Box 44, folder 6). A scrapbook of photographs from the exhibition showing exhibit buildings and halls and loose photographs showing Edison's exhibits are included in the collection (Series 4, Box 98).


The Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1892 was held in London. Hammer displayed a great variety of products in the machine room of the Electrical Exhibition. Sockets for controlling individual incandescent lamps on alternating currents and the Ward Arc Lamp for use on incandescent circuits were just a few of the items displayed. Edison's companies displayed specimens of all types of incandescent electric lamps for public and private illumination. They also displayed primary batteries for use in telegraphy, telephony, household work, and engines.

The William, J. Hammer Collection contains a variety of photographs of the electrical exhibition. The Official Catalogue and Guide of the Electrical Exhibition is also contained within the collection (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Folder 2, Box 42).


The Louisiana Purchase Expostition of 1904, held in St. Louis, Missouri from April 30 to December 1, celebrated the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. The nineteen million people who attended made it the largest exposition ever. The year 1904 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Edison's invention of the carbon filament lamp and central power station system.

F.J.V. Skiff, the exhibits classifier for the fair, developed a twofold classificatory arrangement. He organized exhibits in a sequential synopsis corresponding to the sixteen different departments of the exposition. The principal exhibition buildings were built in the shape of a fan. The departments of education, art, liberal arts, and applied sciences-including electricity - headed the classification, Skiff noted, because they "equip man for the battle and prepare him for the enjoyments of life.' Departments devoted to displays of raw materials such as agriculture, horticulture, !inning, forestry, fish and game came next. Anthropology, social economy, and physical culture concluded the classification.

The Hammer collection contains photographs of Hammer with other Chairmen of Domestic and Foreign Jurors of the Electricity Section of the International Jury of Awards of the Louisiana Exposition and Hammer as chairman of the jury on telegraphy, telephony, and wireless. (Series 4, Box 102). A pamphlet by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company on the exhibit of the Radiophone at the Department of Applied Science is also part of the collection (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 5).


The Panama Pacific Exposition celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal and the four hundredth anniversary of the European discovery of the Pacific Ocean. It was held in San Francisco from February 20 to December 4, 1915. Approximately nineteen million people attended the exposition.

The eleven main buildings of the exposition were grouped around a central court of the Sun and Stars at the entrance of which was the famous Tower of Jewels. The main group of exhibits comprised the Palaces of Education, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries, Mines,

Transportation, Agriculture, Horticulture and all kinds of food products. During the exposition special days were set aside to honor industrialists Henry Ford and Thomas Edison. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company provided a large searchlight to flash out a Morse code greeting on the nighttime sky for their arrival.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a pamphlet on the "Illumination of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition." The pamphlet describes the lighting of the exposition, and the use of arc lamps ' searchlights, incandescent electric lamps, and gas lamps (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 43).
Collection donated by IBM, 1962.
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Fluorescence  Search this
Electrical engineering  Search this
Incandescent lamps  Search this
Phosphorescence  Search this
Selenium cells  Search this
Cathode rays  Search this
X-rays  Search this
Radium  Search this
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 20th century
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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Willow Grove Park Association Collection

Willow Grove Park Association  Search this
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Cayton, Howard  Search this
Cayton, Nathan  Search this
Sousa, John Philip, 1854-1932  Search this
1 Folder
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Membership cards
Montgomery County (Pa.) -- 1910-1930
Pennsylvania -- 1910-1930
1910, 1929
Collection consists of a guidebook and membership card from the Willow Grove Park Association.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of a guidebook which briefly describes events for the 1910 season with photographic illustrations. In addition, there is a 1929 membership card for the Willow Grove Park Association. The materials are housed in one box.
Collection is arranged in one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Willow Grove Park located in Pennsylvania was created by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company as a trolley park in 1896. The park provided an incentive for people to ride by serving as a destination on the trolley line. Initially the park offered a series of concerts and eventually evolved into an amusement park. Willow Grove Park closed in 1975 and is now the site of the Willow Grove Park Mall.
Related Materials:
National Museum of American History, Archives Center

Archives Center Carousel Collection NMAH.AC0675

Frederick and Mary Hill Fried Folk Art Archives NMAH.AC0528

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subject Amusements, NMAH.AC0060
The membership card was donated by Howard Cayton, brother of the late Nathan Cayton, who owned the card. The guidebook was found in the collections of the Division of Home and Community Life, National Museum of American History (NMAH), Smithsonian Institution (SI).
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Amusement parks -- 1910-1930 -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Guidebooks -- 1910-1920
Membership cards -- 1920-1930
Willow Grove Park Association Collection, 1910, 1929, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Willow Grove Park Association Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Funny story of the three bears. with six pictures

Entertaining story of the three bears
Story of the three bears
Three bears
Baker, William D (Wood engraver)  Search this
Cundall, Joseph 1818-1895  Search this
Southey, Robert 1774-1843  Search this
Hazard, Willis P (Willis Pope),) 1825-1913  Search this
Weir, Harrison 1824-1906  Search this
Physical description:
15, [1] pages illustrations 20 cm
Juvenile fiction
Cloth printings (Printing)
Folk tales
Juvenile literature
Juvenile works
Limp bindings (Binding)
Publishers' advertisements
Relief prints
Bears  Search this
Children's stories  Search this
Girls  Search this
Call number:
PZ8.T41 F8 1853
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

General report on the explosions of steam-boilers by a committee of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts

Steam boilers, 1836-1853 DSI
Franklin Institute (Philadelphia, Pa.) Committee on the Explosions of Steam Boilers  Search this
Physical description:
48 pages illustrations 23 cm
Steam-boiler explosions  Search this
Steam-boilers  Search this
Call number:
TJ284 .F73 1836
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Report of the Committee of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts, on the Explosions of Steam Boilers, of experiments made at the request of the Treasury Department of the United States Part II. Containing the report of the Sub-committee, to whom was referred the examination of the strength of materials employed in the construction of steam boilers

Steam boilers, 1836-1853 DSI
On the Explosions of Steam Boilers, of experiments made at the request of the Treasury Department of the United States
Franklin Institute (Philadelphia, Pa.) Committee on the Explosions of Steam Boilers  Search this
Johnson, Walter R (Walter Rogers),) 1794-1852  Search this
United States Department of the Treasury  Search this
Franklin Institute (Philadelphia, Pa.) Committee on the Explosions of Steam Boilers Sub-committee on the Strength of Materials  Search this
Yeager, Joseph approximately 1792-1859  Search this
Physical description:
[2], 254 pages, [10] folded leaves of plates illustrations (engravings) 23 cm
Steam-boiler explosions--Experiments  Search this
Strength of materials  Search this
Call number:
TJ284 .F73 1836
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Gems of the Centennial exhibition consisting of illustrated descriptions of objects of an artistic character, in the exhibits of the United States, Great Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Hungary, Russia, Japan, China, Egypt, Turkey, India, etc., etc., at the Philadelphia International Exhibition of 1876

Ferris, George T (George Titus),) 1840-  Search this
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Physical description:
iv, 164 pages illustrations 33 cm
Exhibition catalogs
19th century
Decorative arts  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Heinz Warneke papers, 1928-1987

Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Archer, Edmund  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland  Search this
Hopper, Inslee  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl  Search this
Corcoran School of Art (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
United States  Search this
Sculpture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art

Henry Ossawa Tanner papers, 1860s-1978, bulk 1890-1937

Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Carpenter, J.S.  Search this
Taverty, J.J.  Search this
Curtis, Atherton  Search this
Tanner, Jessie O.  Search this
Tanner, Jesse O.  Search this
Académie Julian  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
Old American Art Club (Paris, France)  Search this
Expatriate painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
African American artists  Search this
African American  Search this
American Art and Artists in a Global Context  Search this
Record number:
African American
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
Online Media:

Franklin C. Watkins papers, 1909-1973

Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Painting, American -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art

Russell, Xanthus, and Mary Smith family papers, 1793-1977, bulk 1826-1977

Smith, family  Search this
Smith, Xanthus, 1839-1929  Search this
Smith, family  Search this
Smith, Xanthus  Search this
Smith, Russell  Search this
Smith, Mary Russell  Search this
Smith, Mary Priscilla  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Educators -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 19th century -- Pensylvania  Search this
Landscape painting  Search this
Women painters -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Illustrators -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Poets -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
Online Media:

Jessie Willcox Smith papers, 1901-1931

Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Women artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art

Ada Clendenin Williamson papers, 1890-1957

Williamson, Ada Clendenin, 1880-1958  Search this
Williamson, Ada Clendenin, 1880-1958  Search this
Women painters -- Pennsylvania -- West Chester  Search this
Diaries  Search this
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art

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