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Charles Pollock papers

Creator:
Pollock, Charles C.  Search this
Names:
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Extent:
3.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Cartoons (humorous images)
Date:
1875-1994
Summary:
The papers of painter, muralist, and educator Charles Pollock measure 3.1 linear feet and date from 1875 to 1994. Found within the papers are biographical materials; family and personal correspondence; subject files on art and professional topics; writings; printed material; artwork, including political cartoons and figurative sketches; and photographs of Pollock, his family and friends, and his work.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, muralist, and educator Charles Pollock measure 3.1 linear feet and date from 1875 to 1994. Found within the papers are biographical materials; family and personal correspondence; subject files on art and professional topics; writings; printed material; artwork, including political cartoons and figurative sketches; and photographs of Pollock, his family and friends, and his work.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1945-1988 (7 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1927-1994 (1 linear foot; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1931-1988 (0.8 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 4: Writings, 1935-1965 (2 folders; Box 2)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1930-1990 (4 folders; Box 2)

Series 6: Artwork, 1925-1949 (0.7 linear feet; Box 3, OV 5-8)

Series 7: Photographic Materials, 1875-1987 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 3-4)
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, muralist, and educator Charles Pollock (1902-1988) lived and worked in East Lansing, Michigan, New York City, Detroit, and Paris, France and painted in a social realist style early in his career before transitioning to abstract works in the 1940s. He is also the eldest brother of the abstract expressionist Jackson Pollock.

Born in Denver, Colorado to Stella McClure and LeRoy Pollock, Pollock received his early art training at the Otis Institute in Los Angeles, California. In 1926, he moved to New York City to attend the Art Students League where he studied under Thomas Hart Benton, with whom Jackson also studied after joining Charles in New York in 1930. In New York, he met and married his first wife, Elizabeth Feinberg Pollock, in 1931.

Pollock moved to Washington, D.C. in 1935 to work for the Resettlement Administration, and after two years, accepted a position as the political illustrator for the United Automobile Workers' newspaper in Detroit. After a short stint as the illustrator and layout editor for the paper, Pollock served as the supervisor of the Michigan WPA Mural Painting and Graphic Arts division from 1938 to 1942.

Upon completion of a three panel mural for Michigan State University in 1942, Pollock was invited to join the faculty of the art department, where he taught lettering, printmaking, typography, and design. During his twenty-five year tenure at the University, he also served as a book designer for the University's Press and continued to develop his abstract painting style. He met and married his second wife, Sylvia Winter Pollock, in 1957. Pollock served as the University of Pennsylvania's artist in residence in 1965 and 1967, and was the recipient of a National Foundation of Arts Grant (1967) and a Guggenheim Grant (1967-1968). The Pollocks moved to Paris in 1970, where Charles died of complications from a stroke in 1988.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are the Elizabeth Feinberg Pollock memoirs and the Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers.
Separated Materials:
Nine works of art included in the 1975 gift from Elizabeth Pollock were transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum, formerly the National Collection of Fine Arts, in 1976.
Provenance:
The papers were donated in 1975 by Pollock's first wife, Elizabeth Feinberg Pollock, with assistance from Charles Pollock on the selection of items. Additional materials were donated in 1988 by his second wife, Sylvia Winter Pollock. From 1991 to 1994, Elizabeth Pollock gifted additional correspondence and photographs to the Archives.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Charles Pollock papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Art teachers -- France  Search this
Muralists -- France -- Paris  Search this
Muralists -- Michigan  Search this
Painters -- Michigan  Search this
Topic:
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art teachers -- Michigan  Search this
Painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Expatriate painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Cartoons (humorous images)
Citation:
Charles Pollock papers, 1875-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.pollchar
See more items in:
Charles Pollock papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-pollchar
Online Media:

Allen Tupper True and True family papers, 1841-1987

Creator:
True, Allen Tupper, 1881-1955  Search this
Subject:
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Pyle, Howard  Search this
Brangwyn, Frank, Sir  Search this
Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketches
Diaries
Drawings
Christmas cards
Illustrated letters
Cartoons (working drawings)
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Portraits  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Muralists -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Illustrators -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10219
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213295
AAA_collcode_truealle
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213295
Online Media:

Tony Ortega papers, 1984-2010

Creator:
Ortega, Tony, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
Rivera, George F.  Search this
Artnauts (Art collective)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketches
Topic:
Illustrators -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Muralists -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Political activists  Search this
Chicano movement  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16300
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)373784
AAA_collcode_ortetony
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_373784
Online Media:

George Elbert Burr papers, 1885-1972

Creator:
Burr, George Elbert, 1859-1939  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6864
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208992
AAA_collcode_burrgeor
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208992

Allen Tupper True and True family papers

Creator:
True, Allen Tupper, 1881-1955  Search this
Names:
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Brangwyn, Frank, Sir, 1867-1956  Search this
Pyle, Howard, 1853-1911  Search this
Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945  Search this
Extent:
8.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Diaries
Drawings
Christmas cards
Illustrated letters
Cartoons (working drawings)
Sketchbooks
Date:
1841-1987
Summary:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers date from 1841 to 1987 and measure 8.2 linear feet. The collection presents a good overview of True's personal life and and his career as mural painter and illustrator specializing in Western themes.
Scope and Content Note:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers date from 1841 to 1987 and measure 8.2 linear feet. The collection presents a good overview of True's personal life and and his career as mural painter and illustrator specializing in Western themes. Through art work, project files, photographs, and printed material, the collection offers a rich resource, both textually and visually of True's research and work on documenting early twentieth century Native Americans cultural traditions. The papers also document True's childhood and his relationship with his family through various family papers, such as correspondence, genealogies, subject files, photographs, and a scrapbook. The collection is a particularly rich resource for the study of Allen Tupper True's work, as well as original documentation of the American West and Native American culture.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into thirteen series according to material type. The contents of each series have been arranged chronologically. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1895-1964, undated (box 1, 7 folders)

Series 2: Subject Files, 1873-1955 (box 1, 23 folders)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1841-1956 (boxes 1-4, 3.5 linear ft.)

Series 4: Business Records, 1903-1951 (box 4, 4 folders)

Series 5: Notes, 1902-1920 (box 5, 10 folders)

Series 6: Writings, 1896-1926 (box 5, 5 folders)

Series 7: Artwork, 1897-1923 (boxes 5, 10, and OV 11, 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 8: Project Files, 1912-1987 (boxes 5-6 and 10, 0.75 linear ft.)

Series 9: Photographs, 1859-1950 (boxes 6-7, 1.5 linear ft.)

Series 10: Scrapbook, 1934 (box 7, 1 volume)

Series 11: Printed Material, 1875-1981 (box 7, 21 folders)

Series 12: Artifacts, ca. 1863 (boxes 7 and 10, 9 items)

Series 13: Glass Plate Negatives, undated (boxes 8-9, 0.8 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Allen Tupper True (1881-1955) was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1881. He was a student at the University of Denver, and studied at the Corcoran School of Art, Washington, D.C. between 1901 and 1902. In 1902, he was accepted into Howard Pyle's classes in Chadd's Ford, Pennsylvania, and studied there until 1908, befriending classmates George Harding, Gordon McCouch, Thornton Oakley, and N.C. Wyeth. Through Pyle, True began his career as a magazine illustrator.

From approximately 1913-1915, True worked with British muralist Frank Brangwyn, assisting Brangwyn in the execution of murals at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, California.

After marrying Emma Goodman Eaton in 1915 (divorced 1934), True launched his career as a mural painter. His most notable works include the mural decorations in the state capitol buildings of Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wyoming, as well as murals for the Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Company Building and the Civic Center in Denver, Colorado. True specialized in depicting Western and Native American themes.

From 1934-1945, True acted as consultant for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, in charge of and designing all decoration and color schemes for the Boulder Dam power plant, Grand Coulee Dam, and the Shasta Dam, among others.

True was a Unitarian Mason, and a member of the Mural Painters of America, Beta Theta Pi, Cactus Club of Denver, and the Author's Club, London. He died in 1955.
Provenance:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers were donated in February and April 1988 by True's daughter Jane True Mueller and his son, Frank True.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Portraits  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Muralists -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Illustrators -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Diaries
Drawings
Christmas cards
Illustrated letters
Cartoons (working drawings)
Sketchbooks
Citation:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers, 1841-1987
Identifier:
AAA.truealle
See more items in:
Allen Tupper True and True family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-truealle
Online Media:

Tony Ortega papers

Creator:
Ortega, Tony  Search this
Names:
Artnauts (Art collective)  Search this
Rivera, George F.  Search this
Extent:
0.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Date:
1984-2010
Summary:
The papers of muralist, illustrator, and Chicano activist Tony Ortega measure 0.9 linear feet and date from 1984 to 2010. The papers are comprised of project and exhibition files for murals, public art projects, and children's book illustration exhibitions. Also found are printed materials consisting of articles about Ortega, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and a calendar and note cards featuring artwork by Ortega.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of muralist, illustrator, and Chicano activist Tony Ortega measure 0.9 linear feet and date from 1984 to 2010. The papers are comprised of project and exhibition files for murals, public art projects, and children's book illustration exhibitions. Also found are printed materials consisting of articles about Ortega, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and a calendar and note cards featuring artwork by Ortega.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as two series.

Series 1: Project and Exhibition Files, 1989-2006 (Box 1, OVs 3, 5; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Printed Materials, 1984-2010 (Boxes 1-2, OV 4; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Tony Ortega (1958- ) is a muralist, illustrator, and Chicano activist in Denver, Colorado.

Ortega received a bachelor's degree in Spanish and Latin American studies from the University of Colorado in Boulder where he also received a master's in fine arts. Ortega has been a professor in the fine and performing arts department at Regis University in Denver since 2004.

Community activism has been an ongoing theme in Ortega's career. He is a member of Artnauts, an artist collective founded by George Rivera that connects artists globally. He also uses art as a way to connect communities through numerous commissions and volunteer projects that engage children and adults in the creation of public artworks and murals.

Ortega is also the illustrator of Day of the Dead: Aztec Adventure of Cholo, Vato and Pano and Who am I? Family Adventures of Cholo, Vato, and Pano, children's books written by George Rivera about Mexican and Chicano cultures.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by Tony Ortega in 2015.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival born-digital records with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Topic:
Illustrators -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Muralists -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Political activists  Search this
Chicano movement  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Citation:
Tony Ortega papers, 1984-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ortetony
See more items in:
Tony Ortega papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ortetony

George Elbert Burr papers

Creator:
Burr, George Elbert, 1859-1939  Search this
Extent:
3.1 Linear feet (ca. 3500 items (on 4 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Date:
1885-1972
Scope and Contents:
A family history; income tax records and miscellaneous documents; correspondence, 1885-1939, including letters to Burr family friends the Smurthwaites concerning Burr; clippings and articles; writings; printed material; a scrapbook containing drawings and reproductions of Burr's work; photos of Burr, his family, his studio, subjects, and travels; printed material and photos from an 1891 western tour with President Benjamin Harrison; picture postcards; business records from the Biltmore Gallery, Phoenix, Arizona, and consignment records from Cyrus Boutwell, Denver, Colorado, and the Miller-Sterling Company, Phoenix, Arizona; exhibition catalogues and invitations; two publications illustrated by Burr; an etching, "Arizona Night"; and reproductions of Burr's work. Burr's palette and miscellaneous items have not been microfilmed.
Biographical / Historical:
Printmaker and etcher; Phoenix, Ariz.
Provenance:
The donor, Carolann Smurthwaite, was a friend of Burr. Six sketchbooks by Burr are at the National Museum of American Art.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Etchers -- Arizona -- Phoenix  Search this
Printmakers -- Arizona -- Phoenix  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Identifier:
AAA.burrgeor
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-burrgeor

Giulio V. Blanc papers

Creator:
Blanc, Giulio V.  Search this
Names:
Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture (Miami, Fla.)  Search this
Brito, Maria, 1947-  Search this
Cano, Margarita, 1932-  Search this
Cano, Pablo  Search this
Carreño, Mario  Search this
Carulla, Ramón, 1938-  Search this
Demi, 1955-  Search this
Garcia, Hernan, 1935-  Search this
Gattorno, Antonio  Search this
Gaztelu, A. (Angel)  Search this
Goldman, Shifra M., 1926-2011  Search this
Gómez-Peña, Guillermo  Search this
Lam, Wifredo  Search this
Larraz, Julio  Search this
Libin, Victoria  Search this
Macia, Carlos A., 1951-1994  Search this
Martínez-Cañas, María  Search this
Riverón, Enrique  Search this
Rodríguez, Arturo, 1956-  Search this
Sánchez, Juan, 1954-  Search this
Sí, Juan  Search this
Trasobares, César  Search this
Vater, Regina  Search this
Vázquez Lucio, Oscar E. (Oscar Edgardo), 1932-  Search this
Interviewee:
Cabrera, Lydia  Search this
Gómez Sicre, José  Search this
Extent:
11 Linear feet
0.001 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sound recordings
Date:
1920-1995
Summary:
The dates for the Giulio V. Blanc papers range from 1920-1995. Measuring a total of eleven linear feet and 0.001 GB, the collection provides documentation of the art exhibitions Blanc curated during his career, including original writings and exhibition catalogs. The extensive artists files in the collection provide information on numerous Latin American and Caribbean artists. The collection also provides historical information on the life and culture of Cuba.
Scope and Content Note:
The Giulio V. Blanc papers measure approximately 11 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from 1920 to 1995. Compiled by Blanc since the beginning of his curatorial, writing, and research career in the 1980s, the papers consist primarily of artist files on Cuban, Cuban-American, and Latin American artists (1920-1995 and undated). Also found is biographical information (1994-1995), interviews by Blanc (1984-1987, 1994) and miscellaneous letters from artists and friends (1983-1995 and undated).

The first series, Biographical Files, 1994-1995 includes information about Blanc's career. Series 2: Miscellaneous Letters, 1983-1995, undated, consists of letters from artists and friends on various topics. Series 3: Artist Files, 1920-1995, undated, represents the bulk of the collection (approximately 300 artists in all, 6 linear feet), and contain materials either collected by Blanc or received by Blanc from the artists themselves. These consist of biographical material about the artist, usually two or three paragraphs written by Blanc, scattered resumes and copies of fellowship applications. Also found are newspaper clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and letters or correspondence between Blanc and the artists. Of special interest in this series are numerous taped interviews with celebrated Cuban artists and art historians such as José Gómez Sícre, founder and first director of the Art Museum of the Americas, Organization of American States. Gómez-Sícre describes his early career and involvement with acquisitions for the museum's permanent collection as well as his working relationship with Alfred H. Barr, first director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Gómez-Sícre's notable book, Pintura Cubana de Hoy, published in Havana in 1944 is included in the files.

Elena Peláez de Medero, another interviewee, discusses her sister, Cuban painter Amelia Peláez (1896-1968). Blanc interviewed Elena Peláez in Miami for his 1988 exhibition Amelia Peláez: A Retrospective. The Peláez file includes Blanc's correspondence with her as well as copies of rare 1930s and 1940s exhibition catalogs from Amelia Peláez's early career. Among the catalogs is a copy of Modern Cuban Painters from the 1944 exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Also found are rare French, German and Spanish newspaper clippings on Peláez dating back to the 1920s. Of interest is a copy of Amado Blanco's 1937 poetry book, Poema desesperado. Published in Havana, the book is dedicated to the memory of Federico García Lorca and includes illustrations by Peláez.

Another prominent artist whom Blanc interviewed was Enrique Riverón (b. 1901) leader of the Cuban vanguardia. He was a member of El Grupo de Montparnasse, a talented group of painters and writers living in the southern district of Paris in the late 1920s, an area noted for its boisterous after-hour activities. The interview was published in the Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts in 1997. Also found in the papers are illustrated letters and greeting cards addressed to Blanc and his parents, Baron Lodovico Blanc and María V. Blanc.

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1977-1995, undated, consists primarily of material Blanc compiled for exhibitions he curated. Found here are letters from museum directors, artists and colleagues, drafts and finished essays for exhibition catalogs, and printed material such as newspaper clippings of art reviews. This series also includes files on exhibitions Blanc did not curate.

Series 5: Subject Files, 1933-1995, undated, are files relating to Cuban art, culture, and society, the Cuban revolution, book projects, Biennials in Havana and São Paulo, the 1988 controversy surrounding the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture (Miami, FL) and other topics. Found are letters, drafts of writings, notes, printed material such as newspaper clippings and magazine articles, press releases, and exhibition announcements.

Particularly extensive is the documentation about the 1980s conflict at the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture. In April 1988, a fund-raising auction at the 24-year-old 'little Havana' institution resulted in heated disputes that escalated to violence. The works auctioned were by Cuban artists still living on the island. Many in Miami's Cuban community considered these artists to be supporters of the Communist regime and were outraged. One of the disputed works purchased the night of the auction, a drawing by Manuel Mendive, was taken across the street by its successful bidder and burned. In addition, the museum building was damaged by a pipe bomb shortly after the sale. In the National Public Radio news story (available in Blanc's papers on audio cassette) Helen Kohen, critic for the Miami Herald commented, "We're not talking about paintings. We're talking about `my brother's in jail'. That's what we're talking about." The situation intensified quickly; transcending local politics and involving the Treasury and Justice Departments, the American Civil Liberties Union, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Sotheby's and Christie's auction houses. Ramón Cernuda, the museum vice-president who organized the auction also had his personal collection of Cuban art impounded by the FBI. A second bombing took place in 1989 to protest an exhibition of Cuban artists who came to the U. S. during the early 1980s Mariel boatlift.

The seriousness of the conflicts in the Miami museum prompted the Museum of Modern Art in New York to withdraw an offer to lend three paintings to the Cuban museum for the 1988 exhibition Amelia Peláez: A Retrospective scheduled to open later that year. Curated by Giulio Blanc, it was the first U.S. retrospective of this important Cuban artist and the exhibition helped situate her work. The Cuban Museum of Art in Daytona Beach, an institution that helped start the Miami museum, also withdrew an offer to lend "Amelias". The result was an exhibition devoid of works owned by the Museum of Modern Art, important paintings created after 1963, the year President Kennedy imposed economic sanctions on Cuba.

To publicize the Peláez exhibition and boost attendance, the museum placed a public invitation in the Spanish section of the Miami Herald. The half page ad, also found in the Blanc papers, lists more than 100 intellectuals and professionals who supported the exhibition. Blanc stated in a letter to the Miami Herald, "It is horrifying to think there are those in Miami who would burn a painting for the sake of politics. This was the same reasoning utilized by Joseph Goebbels when he made bonfires of books and paintings by anti-Nazi and `degenerate' artists and writers in 1930s Germany... One can only pity the ignorance of those who play into the hands of the Castro regime by resorting to uncivilized tactics that can only hurt the image of the Cuban-exile community and of Miami in general."

The files concerning the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture contain exhibition announcements, copies of court orders, press releases and correspondence between Blanc and the Museum of Modern Art in New York regarding the museum and the Peláez exhibition. Also included are a great number of newspaper articles printed in two of Miami's major newspapers, the Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald which covered the story until it was resolved in the early 1990s. Offering additional information on the controversy are a number of letters addressed to either Blanc or his parents from artists and friends expressing either discontent with the museum's state of affairs or gratitude for the Blanc's financial support during the museum's reconstruction. These provide remarkable insight into a relatively heterogeneous Cuban community.

Series 6: Sound Recordings, 1992, 1994 consists of two untranscribed audio cassette tapes. One is of the 1992 College Art Association's session: Artistic Voices of Latin America: The Aesthetics of Anti-Colonialism held in Chicago, Illinois in which Giulio V. Blanc was a panelist. The other is a rare 1994 interview conducted by Blanc with poet-priest Monseñor Angel Gaztelu, a friend of many Cuban writers and artists, and who presided over Peláez's funeral service in 1968.

The last series, Series 7: Photographs, 1981-1993, undated, includes black and whiteportraits of artists, group shots of Blanc with "Miami Generation" artists María Brito, Pablo Cano, María Martínez-Cañas, Carlos Macía, Arturo Rodríguez, and César Trasobares, and photos of other artists.
Arrangement:
The Giulio V. Blanc papers are arranged into seven series primarily according to type of material. Within each series, materials are arranged chronologically, except for Artist Files and Subject Files which are arranged alphabetically by either name or subject.

Series 1: Biographical Files, 1994-1995, undated (box 1; 3 folders)

Series 2: Miscellaneous Letters, 1983-1995, undated (box 1; 3 folders)

Series 3: Artist Files, 1920-1995, undated (boxes 1-8, ER01; 6 linear ft., 0.001 GB)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1977-1995, undated (box 8; 1 linear foot)

Series 5: Subject Files, 1933-1995, undated (boxes 8-12; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Untranscribed Sound Recordings, 1992-1994 (box 12; 2 folders)

Series 7: Photographs, 1981, 1993, undated (box 12; 2 folders)
Biographical Note:
Independent curator, critic, art historian and consultant Giulio V. Blanc (1955-1995) specialized in Cuban and Latin American art history and in his lifetime collected a wealth of material on the subject. Through his numerous exhibitions and keen articles appearing in national and international art journals, Blanc became a leading authority on Latin American art and successfully established himself as a link between Cuban and Cuban-American artists and US galleries and museums. The Miami Generation (1983) and Amelia Peláez: A Retrospective (1988) are two significant exhibitions Blanc curated for Miami's Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture in addition to the celebrated Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries, 1938-1952 (1992) for New York's Studio Museum in Harlem. Giulio V. Blanc was among the key figures that catapulted Latin American art onto the mainstream in the early 1980s.

Giulio V. Blanc was born in Havana in 1955 to Baron Lodovico Blanc and María V. Blanc. The Blanc name hails from Italy and the title of Baron was awarded to Alberto Blanc, Lodovico Blanc's grandfather, while he was Secretary of State in 1873 under Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. As young advocates of Cuban culture, the Blanc's collected a number of paintings by Cuban artists but were forced to leave behind the works of Cuban masters such as Carlos Enríquez, Victor Manuel, René Portocarrero, Fidelio Ponce and others to facilitate an uncomplicated exodus from the country during the revolution. Lodovico and María were in their thirties and Giulio was five years old when the family settled in Miami.

Giulio Blanc completed his undergraduate education at Harvard and proceeded to Brown University and the Institute of Fine Arts in New York for graduate work (1979-1980). During his career, he served as an independent curator and consultant to The Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture (Miami), The Metropolitan Museum (Miami), and The Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art (New York) among others. He also lectured on Latin American art history at the Art Museum of the Americas, OAS (Organization of American States), Washington, DC, The University of Miami, and El Museo Nacional de Arte in La Paz, Bolivia. In addition, he worked as a consultant in the Latin American Paintings Department at Sotheby's auction house in New York and served on the editorial board of the magazine Art Nexus. Blanc was pursuing a doctoral degree in art history at the City University of New York before his premature death in 1995 at the age of thirty-nine.

1955 -- Born November 1 in Havana, Cuba to Baron Lodovico and Baroness María V. Blanc, young collectors of Cuban art. The title of Baron was awarded to Alberto Blanc, Lodovico Blanc's grandfather, in 1873 while Alberto was Secretary of State under Victor Emmanuel II of Italy.

1960 -- The Blanc family migrates to the United States because of the escalating revolution. Lodovico and Maria V. Blanc are in their thirties when they flee the island. The works of Cuban painters such as Carlos Enríquez, Victor Manuel, René Portocarrero, Fidelio Ponce and others were left behind to facilitate an uncomplicated exodus.

1976 -- Giulio V. Blanc serves as research assistant for one year at the Tozzer Library, Peabody Museum, Harvard University.

1977 -- Graduates cum laude from Harvard College with a B.A. in Archeology.

1979 -- Graduates from Brown University with a M.A. in Archeology. Was a research assistant until 1980 at the Gallery of the Center for Inter-American Relations, New York city.

1980 -- Receives a certificate in Museum Studies from the Graduate School of Arts and Science, New York University. Curates Emilio Sánchez: Lithographs which opens at the Pagoda, Ransom-Everglades School, Coconut Grove, Florida. Co-curates Cuba in the Nineteenth Century for Miami's Miami-Dade Public Library.

1981 -- Joins the Latin American Paintings Department, Sotheby's Auction House, New York and serves for two years.

1982 -- Co-curates Young Hispanics, USA which opens at the Lehigh University Museum, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and curates Ten Out of Cuba for INTAR Latin American Gallery in New York.

1983 -- Curates Cuban Fantasies at the Kouros Gallery in New York and Pablo Cano en Paris for the 4 Place de Saussaies in Paris, France. Also curates The Miami Generation: Nine Cuban-American Artists for the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture in Miami and the Meridian House in Washington, DC.

1984 -- Serves as independent curator and consultant to Miami's Metropolitan Museum and Art Center and The Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture; The Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art in New York and other institutions. Lectures at the Art Museum of the Americas (Organization of American States) in Washington, DC; The University of Miami; The Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture (Miami); The Center for the Fine Arts (Miami); Rockland Center for the Arts (West Nyack, NY); and the National Museum of Art, La Paz, Bolivia. Curates Young Collector's of Latin American Art which opened at Miami's Metropolitan Museum and Art Center.

1985 -- Curates Dancing Faces: An Exhibition of Mexican Masks for the Metropolitan Museum and Art Center in Miami and Nuevas Vistas: Latin American Paintings which opens at the Wistariahurst, Holyoke, Massachusetts. Curates Architecture in Cuban Painting, for the Miami Dade Public Library.

1986 -- Receives and M.A. in Art History at New York University's Institute of Fine Arts. Curates Carlos Enríquez for the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture, Miami, Florida and Into the Mainstream: Ten Latin American Artists Working in New York for the Jersey City Museum in Jersey City, New Jersey.

1987 -- The exhibition Aurelia Muñoz: Selections, curated by Blanc, opens at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in Miami, Florida. Serves as juror for Expresiones Hispanas: Coors National Hispanic Art Exhibition, Denver, Colorado. Curates Visions of Self: The American Latin Artist for the Miami-Dade Community College gallery.

1988 -- Receives a grant from the NY State Council on the Arts for research on Cuban artist Wifredo Lam for the exhibition at the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York. Enrolls in the art history Ph.D. program at the City University Graduate Center, New York city. First bombing of the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture in Miami takes place. Blanc's Amelia Peláez: A Retrospective successfully opens at the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture despite much controversy.

1989 -- Curates Urgent Dream: New Work by Mario Bencomo at the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art (MoCHA), New York. Second bombing of the Cuban Museum of Arts and Culture, Miami FL.

1990 -- New York correspondent for Arte en Colombia, Bogota. Serves as adjunct lecturer at Queens College (CUNY) for the Fall semester. Curates the exhibition, The Post-Miami Generation for the Inter-American Gallery in Miami, Florida. Co-curates Figurative Perspectives: Six Artists of Latin American Background for the Rockland Center for the Arts, West Nyack, NY.

1991 -- Visiting scholar at University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Writes a small play, Tía Carmela: A Cuban Tragicomedy, illustrated by Cuban artist and friend Pablo Cano.

1995 -- Dies at the age of forty of AIDS related complications.
Provenance:
Margherite Blanc, sister of Giulio V. Blanc, donated her brother's papers in 1998 to the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. This collection, along with numerous other Latino collections, was acquired through the 1996 Latino Art Documentation Project in South Florida. Initiated to chronicle the thriving art scene so apparent in the city's galleries, museums, and private collections, the project resulted in numerous acquisitions described in the revised edition of the Papers of Latino and Latin American Artists. Both the project and the publication were made possible, in part, with funding provided by the Smithsonian Institution's Center for Latino Initiatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. research facility.
Rights:
The Giulio V. Blanc papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Cuban American art -- Florida -- Miami  Search this
Art, Latin American  Search this
Artists -- Cuba  Search this
Cuban American artists  Search this
Art historians -- Florida -- Miami  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Citation:
Giulio V. Blanc papers, 1920-1995. Smithsonian Institution. Archives of American Art.
Identifier:
AAA.blangiul
See more items in:
Giulio V. Blanc papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-blangiul
Online Media:

Jesse Walter Fewkes photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde National Park

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Publisher:
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad Company  Search this
Photographer:
Beam, George L. (George Lytle), 1868-1935  Search this
Extent:
45 Prints (silver gelatin and photostat)
3 sketches on graph paper
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Maps
Drawings
Place:
Mesa Verde National Park (Colo.)
Colorado -- Antiquities
Date:
circa 1919-1921
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs, drawings, and maps relating to Jesse Walter Fewkes' excavations in Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado. Photographs depict the ruins and paths through the park before and after excavation and repair. There are also original photographs by George L. Beam made for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. Some of the drawings are original illustrations for Fewkes' publications.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850‐1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist who served as chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1918 to 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877, and was curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. Some of his research focuses on the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians, an interest he developed while on a collecting trip in the western United States. In 1891, Fewkes became director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology. Embarking on various archeological explorations for the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1895, he conducted excavations in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida. During the summers of 1908‐1909, 1915‐1916, and 1918-1922, Fewkes worked almost exclusively on excavations and repairs of ruins in Mesa Verde National Park.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 30
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Fewkes photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4321, Photo Lot 1, and Photo Lot 86 (his negatives).
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Fewkesʹs field notes and papers (MS 4408).
Correspondence from Fewkes held in the National Anthropological Archives in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
See others in:
Jesse Walter Fewkes photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde National Park, circa 1919-1921
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Maps
Drawings
Citation:
Photo lot 30, Jesse Walter Fewkes photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde National Park, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.30
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-30
Online Media:

Noreen Color Hair Rinse, Today's Rule For Your Hair Is Color

Designer:
Herbert Bayer, (American, born Austria, active Germany and USA, 1900–1985)  Search this
Client:
Noreen, Denver, Colorado, USA  Search this
Medium:
Offset lithograph on glossy white paper
Type:
graphic design
Print
Object Name:
Print
Made in:
Aspen and Denver, CO, USA
Designed in:
Aspen, CO, USA
Produced in:
Denver, CO, USA
Date:
1950–55
Credit Line:
Museum purchase with funding provided by the Buddy Taub Foundation, Dennis A. Roach and Jill Roach Directors
Accession Number:
2016-54-171
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4e33eabab-cb7e-400a-885d-12b2cab7b1a0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_2016-54-171

Noreen Color Hair Rinse, She Was Fashionable and Absolutely Natural

Designer:
Herbert Bayer, (American, born Austria, active Germany and USA, 1900–1985)  Search this
Featured Artist:
Sandro Botticelli, Italian, 1444/1445–1510  Search this
Client:
Noreen, Denver, Colorado, USA  Search this
Medium:
Offset lithograph on glossy white paper
Type:
graphic design
Print
Object Name:
Print
Made in:
Aspen and Denver, CO, USA
Designed in:
Aspen, CO, USA
Produced in:
Denver, CO, USA
Date:
ca. 1953
Credit Line:
Museum purchase with funding provided by the Buddy Taub Foundation, Dennis A. Roach and Jill Roach Directors
Accession Number:
2016-54-172
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4905a372d-068a-4158-b116-5f069b2316a3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_2016-54-172

Noreen Color Hair Rinse, She Wore Ornaments to Put Color in Her Hair

Designer:
Herbert Bayer, (American, born Austria, active Germany and USA, 1900–1985)  Search this
Client:
Noreen, Denver, Colorado, USA  Search this
Medium:
Offset lithograph on glossy white paper
Type:
graphic design
Print
Object Name:
Print
Made in:
Aspen and Denver, CO, USA
Designed in:
Aspen, CO, USA
Produced in:
Denver, CO, USA
Date:
ca. 1953
Credit Line:
Museum purchase with funding provided by the Buddy Taub Foundation, Dennis A. Roach and Jill Roach Directors
Accession Number:
2016-54-173
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq439e797c1-185a-4ffd-bfe5-3add5a6729b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_2016-54-173

1962 World Ice Hockey Championships, The Broadmoor, Colorado Springs, Colorado

Designer:
Herbert Bayer, (American, born Austria, active Germany and USA, 1900–1985)  Search this
For:
Broadmoor World Arena, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA  Search this
Medium:
Offset lithograph on white wove paper, folded
Type:
graphic design
Brochure
Object Name:
Brochure
Made in:
Aspen, CO, USA
Date:
1962
Credit Line:
Museum purchase with funding provided by the Buddy Taub Foundation, Dennis A. Roach and Jill Roach Directors
Accession Number:
2016-54-182
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq42cfbd2f2-3779-423d-abbf-9b8ad804ede6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_2016-54-182
Online Media:

Robco Architects Handbook, Structural Glazed Tile

Designer:
Herbert Bayer, (American, born Austria, active Germany and USA, 1900–1985)  Search this
Medium:
Two-color offset lithograph on glossy white paper
Type:
graphic design
Print
Object Name:
Print
Designed in:
USA
Date:
20th century
Credit Line:
Museum purchase with funding provided by the Buddy Taub Foundation, Dennis A. Roach and Jill Roach Directors
Accession Number:
2016-54-198
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4e9456d16-c294-4e59-8be4-bf9f6b5cf193
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_2016-54-198

Analytical Balance

Maker:
William Ainsworth and Sons  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 48.3 cm x 51.3 cm x 26.7 cm; 19 in x 20 3/16 in x 10 1/2 in
Object Name:
Analytical Balance
Object Type:
Balances
Place made:
United States: Colorado, Denver
Date made:
early twentieth century
Subject:
Weights & Measures  Search this
Credit Line:
National Bureau of Standards
ID Number:
CH.326618
Catalog number:
326618
Accession number:
261654
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-418e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_2493

Lockwood-Greene Records

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated  Search this
Lockwood-Greene Company  Search this
Whitman, David  Search this
Greene, Stephen  Search this
Lockwood, Amos  Search this
Former owner:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (233 boxes, 850 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs
Trade literature
Date:
1784-2004
bulk 1915-1930
Summary:
The engineering firm that became Lockwood Greene was founded by David Whitman, a mill engineer, in 1832. Amos D. Lockwood, a consultant, succeeded Whitman and entered a partnership with Stephen Greene in 1882. The firm specialized in industrial engineering and construction; they designed and built a wide variety of structures and work environments worldwide over the next century. Lockwood Greene was acquired by CH2M HILL in December, 2003. Before its acquisition by CH2MHILL it was reportedly the oldest industrial engineering, construction, and professional services firm in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Lockwood Greene records are a comprehensive range of documents related to the appraisal, building, construction, design, evaluation, and engineering of facilities for a variety of clients. The material covers the entire period of industrialization of the United States, and, provides a thorough record of the textile industry, both in New England and the South. Some of the textile mills are documented with unusual completeness, showing water and steam power layouts, factory village plans, and landscaping schedules. A broad range of other building typologies is also covered, including projects with public or retail functions, such as early automobile showrooms, hospitals, apartments and private dwellings, churches, and schools.

In-depth study of the company's earliest history is hampered by a scarcity of records, many of which were lost in the great fire that destroyed Boston's city center in 1872. Nevertheless, graphic and textual evidence does exist within the collection that illuminates these early projects, in addition to the fabric of surviving buildings. The Lockwood Greene records document several commissions that the firm would return to again and again over the course of many decades as clients requested plant additions, upgrades to mechanical and operating systems, and other substantive changes. Researchers are encouraged to examine the blueprints, elevations, and plans for these later additions in order to find illustrations of the firm's earlier interventions at the site. In addition to drawings, other visual evidence for nineteenth-century projects can be found in the company's extensive photo files, which often document structures for which drawings do not exist.

The Lockwood Greene records contain an abundance of graphic and textual evidence for structures designed after 1910 until the 1930s. After this period, visual documentation becomes much more limited. This is partially due to the evolution of drafting tools and information management technologies within the architecture and engineering profession. Lockwood Greene was an early adopter of technological innovations in rendering and data capture, beginning with the introduction of aperture cards and microfilm and extending to the adoption of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. These more modern formats were not part of the acquisition, and, at the time of writing, still reside with the company.

The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of interest to historians of architecture and engineering, as well as those that study the history of business and labor relations. It provides extensive textual and documentary evidence on the evolution and growth of American engineering and the increasing professionalization of the discipline through specialization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rich holdings of architectural drawings, photographs, and specifications provide unparalleled resources that trace the evolution of industrial buildings and their typologies; experimentation with building materials and systems, particularly with regards to fireproofing; and the history of textile manufacture in the United States. In addition, there is also rich visual and documentary evidence of the changing relationships between corporations and their employees through photographs, plans, and designs for company towns and mill villages, as well as through corporate records that illustrate the work culture of Lockwood Greene itself. The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of special interest to historic preservationists as the awareness of the significance of industrial and vernacular buildings continues to grow, and detailed design drawings and other visual material will be of especial value for restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive-reuse projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Project Drawings, Renderings, and Plans, 1784-1969, undated

Series 2, Photographs and Slides, 1881-2001, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photo Albums, 1906-1934

Subseries 2.2: Photographic Files, 1881-1956

Subseries 2.3: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1948-1974

Subseries 2.4: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1919-1999

Subseries 2.5: Project Negatives and Transparencies, 1956-1970

Subseries 2.6: Project Slides and Transparencies, 1985-2001

Subseries 2.7: Project Slides and Transparencies, Culls, 1974-2001

Subseries 2.8: Project Slides and Transparencies, Corporate Photography, 1976-1998

Subseries 2.9: Photograph Album Covers, 1920, undated

Series 3: Job Files, 1872-1957, undated

Subseries 3.1, Specifications, 1913-1942, undated

Subseries 3.2: List of Drawings, 1872-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3: Project Files, 1919-1969, undated

Subseries 3.4: Reports, 1913-1969

Subseries 3.5: Job Cost Records, 1913-1957, undated

Series 4, Corporate Records and History, 1881-2004, undated

Subseries 4.1: Meeting Minutes, 1913-1995

Subseries 4.2: Corporate Files, 1891-2004, undated

Subseries 4.3: Historical Research and Reference Files and Photographs, 1881-1983, undated

Subseries 4.4: Corporate Publications, 1917-2001, undated

Series 5, Non-Lockwood Greene Publications, 1910-1984, undated

Series 6, Audio-Visual, 1964
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood Greene, one of the nation's oldest engineering firms, traces it roots to 1832, when Rhode Island native David Whitman began a machinery repair service. Riding the wave of the early industrial revolution in textile manufacturing, Whitman added mill design services to his repertoire, which formed the backbone of a flourishing consulting business for the rest of the century. Whitman was one of the first itinerant mill engineers or "doctors" that traveled throughout New England advising various industrialists on the placement, design, and construction of their factories and the layout of the complicated system of machinery and shafting that they contained. His largest commission was the design of the Bates Manufacturing Company complex in Lewiston, Maine, which was incorporated in 1850 and soon became one of the largest textile producers in New England.

Upon Whitman's death in 1858, his unfinished work was assumed by Amos D. Lockwood, a prominent mill agent and astute businessman who had built a name for himself in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The successful completion of the projects at Lewiston brought enough additional demand for Lockwood's services to prompt him to relocate to Boston, where he formally opened an independent consulting office with partner John W. Danielson in 1871. For the next ten years, A.D. Lockwood & Company was involved in a least eight major mill design projects, half of which were for new construction. One of these projects, the design and construction of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company in Greenville (now Piedmont), South Carolina was especially significant and is considered to be a prototype for the Southern textile industry.

In 1882, Lockwood established a new business, Lockwood, Greene and Company, with Stephen Greene, a professionally-trained civil engineer who had joined the firm in 1879. As the firm grew, it expanded its scope as consultants supplying all of the necessary architectural and engineering services a prospective owner needed to initiate, equip, and run a complete plant. Acting as the owners' representative, the company supervised construction and installation but did not directly act as builders or contractors. Lockwood

Greene's objective expertise was legendary and made it a leader in this emergent field. As Samuel B. Lincoln explains in his history of the company:

"The new firm's knowledge and experience in the textile industry enabled it to analyze samples of cloth and, from such samples, to provide everything necessary for a completed plant to make such goods in any desired quantity. It did not at any time act as selling agents for machinery or equipment, neither did it accept commissions or rebates from suppliers: by this policy it maintained a position as impartial and independent engineer." (pages 105-107)

Greene became president of the company upon Lockwood's death in 1884. Under his leadership, the company expanded into additional industries and designed an array of other industrial building types that would prefigure the diversity of later work. In 1893, the company revolutionized American industry by designing and constructing the first factory whose operating power was provided entirely over electric wires from a remote power plant, rather than relying upon a water source or a stockpiled fuel supply. The Columbia Mills project created a great deal of publicity for the firm and was a signal to other manufacturers that there were viable alternatives to the use of steam power.

As changing economic conditions led Lockwood Greene to move away from its traditional reliance upon the textile manufacturing industry, it was very successful at soliciting projects for a wide variety of structures, from newspaper plants and automotive factories to convention halls and schools. After 1900, Lockwood Greene expanded its operations and opened branch offices in other cities, including Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Atlanta, and Charlotte. In 1915, Edwin F. Greene, president and son of Stephen Greene, reorganized the firm as Lockwood, Greene & Company, Incorporated This new entity served as the parent company and controlled three subsidiaries: one to own and operate cotton mills that Greene had acquired; one to manage other companies' textile mills; and one to provide engineering services.

Lockwood Greene expanded its operations tremendously as the textile industry boomed under wartime demand and in the years following. The severe textile depression from 1923 to 1928 caused the collapse of this structure, however, as Lockwood Greene continued to suffer deep losses in the textile mills that it owned. The parent company was dissolved in 1928 and the engineering subsidiary, which had remained profitable, was salvaged as Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated.

After a rocky start with the onset of the Depression, the company began to prosper during the Second World War and its growth continued steadily throughout the next several decades. In the late 1960s, as a result of declining business, the company's headquarters was transferred from Boston to Spartanburg, South Carolina. In 1981, Phillipp Holtzman USA, a subsidiary of Phillipp Holtzman AG of Frankfurt, Germany, acquired a majority interest in Lockwood Greene. In 2003, CH2M Hill, a global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services based in Denver, Colorado, acquired the company.

From its beginnings under David Whitman, Lockwood Greene has become one of the most diversified engineering firms in the United States. The firm is best known as a designer of industrial and institutional buildings, but the company has become a leader in many additional areas in recent years. Lockwood Greene dominates the market in the design and production of the germ- and dust-free "clean room" facilities required by the pharmaceutical industry and micro-electronics manufacturers. The company has also developed expertise in designing integrated security and networking systems for industrial plants, international port facilities, and military installations worldwide.

Banham, Raynor. A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

Biggs, Lindy. The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Bradley, Betsy Hunter. The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Greene, Benjamin Allen. Stephen Greene: Memories of His Life, with Addresses, Resolutions and Other Tributes of Affection. Chicago, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1903.

Heiser, William J. Lockwood Greene, 1958-1968, Another Period in the History of an Engineering Business. Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated, 1970.

Lincoln, Samuel B. Lockwood Greene: The History of an Engineering Business, 1832-1958. Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1960.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated The Lockwood Greene Story: One-Hundred-Fifty Years of Engineering Progress. Spartanburg, South Carolina: Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated; undated.
Related Materials:
"[Trade catalogs from Lockwood, Greene & Co.]", Trade Literature at the American History Museum Books, Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lockwood Greene, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1997 (original drawings). An addendum to the collection was donated by CH2M HILL in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Architects  Search this
Architecture, Commercial  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Construction industry  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Textile mills  Search this
Mills  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Industrial buildings -- Design and construction  Search this
Industrial buildings  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Factories -- Power supply  Search this
Factories -- Design and construction  Search this
Factories  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Commercial buildings  Search this
Electric power production  Search this
Genre/Form:
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Trade literature
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Lockwood Greene Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1113
See more items in:
Lockwood-Greene Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1113
Online Media:

Display of samples of radioactive and luminescent substances

Maker:
Hammer Laboratories  Search this
Physical Description:
glass (overall material)
wood (overall material)
various radioactive and luminescent minerals (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
Measurements:
panel: 10.5 cm x 22.5 cm; 4 1/8 in x 8 27/32 in
wooden frame: 2 cm; 25/32 in
Object Name:
display of samples of radioactive and luminescent substances
Date made:
ca 1920s
Subject:
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
Credit Line:
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Department of Chemistry
ID Number:
1994.0125.20
Accession number:
1994.0125
Catalog number:
1994.0125.20
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Modern Physics
Science & Mathematics
Modern Physics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-a74e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_472813

U.S. landscape ordinances : an annotated reference handbook / Buck Abbey

Title:
US landscape ordinances
United States landscape ordinances
Author:
Abbey, D. Gail  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 438 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1998
©1998
Topic:
City planning and redevelopment law--States  Search this
Landscape protection--Law and legislation--States  Search this
City planning and redevelopment law--U.S. states  Search this
Landscape protection--Law and legislation--U.S. states  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_564725

Settlers in Collingsworth County (study for mural, Wellington, Texas Post Office)

Artist:
Bernard Arnest, born Denver, CO 1917-died Colorado Springs, CO 1986  Search this
Medium:
oil and pencil on illustration board
Dimensions:
sheet: 16 x 30 in. (40.7 x 76.0 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1939
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Figure group\male  Search this
Landscape\Texas\Collingsworth County  Search this
History\United States\westward expansion  Search this
New Deal\Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the General Services Administration
Object number:
1974.28.80
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7a4ce231b-7351-4088-8e3e-3ca839ca4d55
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1974.28.80

Assay Balance

Maker:
William Ainsworth and Sons  Search this
Measurements:
beam: 16 cm; 6 5/16 in
case: 42 cm x 50.5 cm x 25.5 cm; 16 9/16 in x 19 7/8 in x 10 1/16 in
each dish: 2 cm; x 13/16 in
Object Name:
Assay Balance
Object Type:
Balances
Place made:
United States: Colorado, Territory of, Denver
Date made:
early twentieth century
Subject:
Weights & Measures  Search this
Credit Line:
Colorado School of Mines Department of Metallurgical Engineering
ID Number:
CH.328132
Accession number:
270025
Catalog number:
328132
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-e73b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_2536

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