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Marilyn Houlberg Nigeria collection

Photographer:
Houlberg, Marilyn  Search this
Extent:
6567 Slides (photographs) (11 Binders, color)
14 Documents (1 Binder)
1,946 Slides (Color, 35 mm)
Culture:
Yoruba (African people)  Search this
Nigerians  Search this
Tuaregs  Search this
Fulani  Search this
Nuba  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Turkana  Search this
Pokot  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Documents
Slides
Color slides
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Nigeria
Africa
Lagos (Nigeria)
Date:
1961-circa 2005
Summary:
The collection consists of 8,515 color slides taken by Dr. Marilyn Houlberg during various field studies among the Yoruba in southwest Nigeria between 1961 and circa 2007. The images depict Yoruba art and culture with a special focus on artisans, art objects, body arts, costume, festivals, hairstyles, indigenous photography, weaving and textiles. Cultural events depicted include Balufon festivals, Egungun and Gelede masquerades, social events (weddings, christenings, funerals), and religious ceremonies (initiation and animal sacrifice). Also included are various scenes of daily life, architecture, food preparation, markets, portraits and landscapes. Houlberg extensively documented Yoruba artists in the process of creating their art, including carvers Yesufu Ejigboye, Runshewe, and Lamidi Fakeye, as well as the final pieces themselves. Houlberg documentated art in situ, such as Yoruba house posts, shrines, wall art and wood doors and art objects, including Gelede masks, Ibeji (twin) and Eshu figures, Osanyin staffs, and Ogboni and Shango shrines. Manuscript and printed materials, including Houlberg's resume, thesis, and numerous published articles are also available in this collection.
Scope and Contents note:
This 6,567 slide collection documents Houlberg's studies in Southwestern Nigeria spanning from 1961 to circa 2005. In 2015, Houlberg donated an additional 1,948 color slides to the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives. These slides have been added to the EEPA 2005-002 finding aid, bringing the total to 8,515 slides.

The collection primarily includes photos of people, including the Ogboni, Pokot, Yoruba, Turkana and Igbo, shrines, festivals and rituals, art objects, and artists. A particular strength of the collection are photos of Balufon festivals, Egungun and Gelede masquerades, social events (weddings, christenings, funerals), and religious ceremonies (initiation and animal sacrifice). Also included are various scenes of daily life, architecture, food preparation, markets, portraits and landscapes. Houlberg mostly photographed in Ilishan, Ikenne, Ilara, Shagamu, Lagos, Ijebu-Ode, and Egbe.

Houlberg extensively documented Yoruba artists in the process of creating their art, including carvers Yesufu Ejigboye, Runshewe, and Lamidi Fakeye, as well as the final pieces themselves. Houlberg documentated art in situ, such as Yoruba house posts, shrines, wall art, wood doors and art objects, including Gelede masks, Ibeji (twin) and Eshu figures, Osanyin staffs, and Ogboni and Shango shrines. Several Yoruba art forms, including photography, scarification tattoos, and textiles (both cloth and dress), are represented in the collection. Additionally, there are numerous slides of Yoruba hairstyles, many of which she published in her article, Social Hair: Tradition and Change in Yoruba Hairstyles in Southwestern Nigeria.

Yoruba ritual specialists, such as Ife-olu Solaru, Olufunke, and Yesufu Ejigboye, appear frequently throughout the collection. Houlberg documented her many stays with these individuals over the years.

There is also one binder of manuscript and printed materials, including Houlberg's resume, thesis, and numerous published articles.
Arrangement note:
The collection is organized into 29 series according to subject. The series descriptions correspond with particular subjects used in Houlberg's teaching and lectures, and based on donor's notes. All slides were kept in the order in which they were donated.

Series 1: African Hairstyles, circa 1973-1994 (Binder 1; 212 slides)

Series 2: Egungun Festival, 1961-circa 1988 (Binder 1; 362 slides)

Series 3: Gelede, circa 1969-circa 1989 (Binder 2; 301 slides)

Series 4: Ibeji Twins, circa 1969-circa 1990 (Binders 2-3; 854 slides)

Series 5: Ogboni Art Objects and Shrines, circa 1969-circa 1982 (Binder 4; 92 slides)

Series 6: Art Objects Depicting Ogun, circa 1969-circa 1983 (Binder 4; 56 slides)

Series 7: Olojufoforo Art and Festivities, circa 1968-circa 1975 (Binder 4; 21 slides)

Series 8: Yoruba People, Architecture, and Art, circa 1969-circa 1985 (Binder 4; 260 slides)

Series 9: Carving, Art Objects and Artists, and Scenes of Daily Life, circa 1973-circa 1988 (Binder 4; 201 slides)

Series 10: Yoruba Art, circa 1971-circa 1983 (Binder 5; 49 slides)

Series 11: Yoruba Textiles, circa 1973-circa 1983 (Binder 5; 84 slides)

Series 12: Yoruba, Miscellaneous, circa 1967-circa 1989 (Binder 5; 251 slides)

Series 13: African Art, Textiles People, and Dwellings, circa 1963-circa 1983 (Binder 6; 58 slides)

Series 14: Ibo Mbari and Igbo Peoples and Artwork, circa 1967-circa 1985 (Binder 6; 212 slides)

Series 15: Art and Ceremonies, circa 1967-circa 1991 (Binder 6; 493 slides)

Series 16: Body Arts, Nuba People (Sudan) and Fulani and Bororo People (Niger), circa 1973-circa 1979 (Binder 7; 64 slides)

Series 17: People, Scenic Views and Animals of Kenya, Sudan, Angola, and Ghana, circa 1972-circa 1985 (Binder 7; 168 slides)

Series 18: Peoples and Arts of Ghana, Mali, and the Ivory Coast, circa 1966-circa 1992 (Binder 7; 406 slides)

Series 19: Published Maps and Photos, circa 1968-circa 1985 (Binder 8; 70 slides)

Series 20: Nigerian Masks and Art Objects, circa 1967-circa 1978 (Binder 8; 396 slides)

Series 21: Yoruba Festivals, People, and Art in Nigeria, circa 1967-circa 1988 (Binders 8-9; 128 slides)

Series 22: Yoruba Photography and Textiles, circa 1975-circa 1983 (Binder 9; 54 slides)

Series 23: Ife-Olu, Ilishan, circa 1980-circa 1988 (Binder 9; 87 slides)

Series 24: Yoruba Festivals, People, Hairstyles, Ibeji Objects, Eshu Figures, and Oya and Orishala Priests, Priestesses, and Shrines, circa 1966-circa 1988 (Binder 9; 168 slides)

Series 25: Shango, circa 1970-circa 1983 (Binder 10, 162 slides)

Series 26: Ara Festival, 1975 (Binder 10; 174 slides)

Series 27: Ceremonies and Festivals, Portraits, Art and Ceremonial Objects, Domestic and Market Scenes, circa 1969-circa 2005 (Binders 10-11; 759 slides)

Series 28: Yoruba Art Objects, and Domestic, Work, and Festival Scenes, circa 1971-circa 1983 (Binder 11; 104 slides)

Series 29: Manuscript and Printed Materials, 1973-circa 2005 (Binder 12)
Biographical/Historical note:
Artist, anthropologist, and art historian Dr. Marilyn Hammersley Houlberg was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1939. Houlberg received an Associate of Arts degree from Wright Junior College (1959) and a BFA from the University of Chicago (1963). After graduating, she traveled to North Africa and explored Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. In 1964, Houlberg researched Haitian art, religion, and indigenous photography in Haiti and in 1965 was awarded a scholarship for graduate study from the University of Chicago. There she completed her MAT in Art History in 1967. Following graduation, Houlberg worked at the Nigerian Museum in Lagos, where she documented Yoruba sculpture, masquerades, religion, body art, and indigenous photography.

She began her teaching career at the University of Chicago as a lecturer on African art and African civilization, working there from 1971 to 1973. At the University of London, Houlberg earned a Masters in Anthropology, producing the thesis Yoruba Twin Sculpture and Ritual (1973). She also extensively photographed her travels abroad in Yorubaland. Between 1974 and 1990, Houlberg taught at the University of Chicago, Columbia College, Kalamazoo College, and Northwestern University. From 1974 to 2008 she continued teaching at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, lecturing on Yoruba art and ritual in West Africa and the New World, and the art and ritual of Vodou in Haiti.

Houlberg has lectured worldwide at numerous museums and symposiums since 1972, including in Lagos, Nigeria; Jacmel, Haiti; Toronto, Canada; Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; and Cologne, Germany. Her essays have been published in several issues of African Arts. Some of Houlberg's significant publications include Arts of the Water Spirits of Haitian Vodou, in Sacred Waters: Arts for Mami Wata and Other Divinities in Africa and the Diaspora (2008) and Water Spirits of Haitian Vodou: Lasiren, Queen of Mermaids, in Mami-Wata: Arts for Water Spirits in Africa and the African-Atlantic World (2008). The exhibition Mami-Wata at the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art (2009) featured her photographs.
Provenance:
Marilyn Houlberg, 733 West 18th St., Chicago, IL 60616, Donation, 20050320, 2005-0002
Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Weavers  Search this
Artists  Search this
Topic:
Shrines  Search this
Masks  Search this
Domestic scenes  Search this
Egúngún (Cult)  Search this
Ethnology -- Nigeria  Search this
Gelede (Yoruba rite)  Search this
Hairstyles -- Africa  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Ere ibeji  Search this
Works of art in situ  Search this
Art, African  Search this
Vernacular architecture  Search this
Festivals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Photographic prints
Photographs
Citation:
Marilyn Houlberg Nigeria Collection, EEPA 2005-002, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.2005-002
See more items in:
Marilyn Houlberg Nigeria collection
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo729173a75-b645-455f-b66b-ae08d0d2102e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-eepa-2005-002

The politics of Biafra and the future of Nigeria Chudi Offodile

Author:
Offodile, Chudi 1964-  Search this
Physical description:
xxiii, 229 pages maps 22 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Nigeria
Nigeria, Eastern
Nigeria (Est)
Eastern Nigeria
Date:
2016
Civil War, 1967-1970
1967-1970 (Guerre civile)
Topic:
Politics and government  Search this
Central-local government relations  Search this
Relations gouvernement central-collectivités locales  Search this
Nigeria  Search this
Nigerian-Biafran War  Search this
Igbo  Search this
political history  Search this
1950-1999  Search this
Autonomy and independence movements  Search this
Igbo (African people)--Politics and government  Search this
History  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Autonomie et mouvements indépendantistes  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1115679

Festival Recordings: Palaver Stage: Nigerian (Igbo) Naming Ceremony; Somali Oud

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. African Immigrant Program 1997 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Milgram, Donna (recorder)  Search this
Miller, Mark K., 1953- (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Anioma Association (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Gure, Hassan  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Nigeria
Maryland
Somalia
Date:
1997 July 6
Track Information:
101 Nigerian (Igbo) Naming Ceremony / Anioma Association (Washington, D.C.).

102 Somali Oud / Hassan Gure. Oud.
Local Numbers:
FP-1997-CT-0253-7
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 6, 1997.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. SI Permission.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
World music  Search this
Oud  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Names  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1997, Item FP-1997-CT-0253
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: African Immigrant Folklife / 2.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5f3455566-20cf-4848-b60f-5b8b81ec9695
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1997-ref616

Festival Recordings: Palaver Stage: Somali Oud; Nigerian (Igbo) Naming Ceremony

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. African Immigrant Program 1997 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Milgram, Donna (recorder)  Search this
Miller, Mark K., 1953- (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Gure, Hassan  Search this
All NGWA Society  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Somalia
Nigeria
Date:
1997 July 6
Track Information:
101 Somali Oud / Hassan Gure. Oud.

102 Nigerian (Igbo) Coming of Age Cermony / All NGWA Society.
Local Numbers:
FP-1997-CT-0254-7
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 6, 1997.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. SI Permission.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
World music  Search this
Oud  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1997, Item FP-1997-CT-0254
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: African Immigrant Folklife / 2.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5695584af-60e2-4b7b-84f3-4bde81f102ef
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1997-ref617

Festival Recordings: Palaver Stage: Nigerian (Igbo) Naming Ceremony; Street Theater: Theater of the Diaspora

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. African Immigrant Program 1997 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Milgram, Donna (recorder)  Search this
Miller, Mark K., 1953- (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
All NGWA Society  Search this
Theatre of the Diaspora  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Nigeria
Date:
1997 July 6
Track Information:
101 Nigerian (Igbo) Coming of Age Ceremony / All NGWA Society.

102 Street Theatre: Theatre of the Diaspora / Theatre of the Diaspora.
Local Numbers:
FP-1997-CT-0255-7
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 6, 1997.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. SI Permission.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
World music  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Theater  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1997, Item FP-1997-CT-0255
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: African Immigrant Folklife / 2.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk55b9a6fe0-27df-48f0-a012-eeaaacf1bf0a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1997-ref618

Beauty in context (part two) : aesthetic preference and sociocultural ideals among the Igbo and the Asante / William Van Damme

Author:
Van Damme, Wilfried  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Date:
1996
Topic:
Aesthetics, Igbo  Search this
Aesthetics, Ashanti  Search this
Sculpture, Igbo  Search this
Ikenga  Search this
Asante  Search this
Call number:
BH39 .V29 1996X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_539826

Africa is My Home

Collection Film distributor:
Pennsylvania State University. Audio-Visual Services  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (21 minutes, black-and-white sound; 770 feet, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
circa 1960
Scope and Contents:
Edited film produced in cooperation with the Teacher Training College at Issele-Uku, Western Region, Nigeria, is a fictionalized account of a young Ibo girl growing up in Nigeria as the country gains independence and begins to establish itself as a modern state. The "old Nigeria" of mud huts, carved wooden dolls and ju-ju worship gives way to Christianity, higher education and modern cities. Included are scenes of daily life in a rural village (going to market, gathering water, washing clothes and children in school) and Ibadan and the University College of Ibadan. Historical footage shows Nigerian Independence Day, Abubakar Tafawabalewa with retinue, the Governor General of Nigeria reviewing troops and handing over the reins of government to Tafawabalewa. Sound track features traditional songs and Christian hymns sung in a variety of Nigerian languages.

Legacy Keywords: J. Michael Hagopian Ph.D. ; South America ; Nigeria ; Igbo (African people) ; Hausa (African people) ; Yoruba (African people)
General:
Local Number: HSFA 1994.19.7
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Penn State educational film collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Penn State educational film collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc90d77aef0-2f1e-4852-addd-602e4206d4c6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-1994-19-ref3

Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal Collection

Creator:
Drewal, Henry John  Search this
Drewal, Margaret Thompson  Search this
Extent:
10,000 Slides (color)
10,617 Copy slides
Container:
Item 10000
Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3
Volume 4
Volume 5
Volume 6
Volume 7
Volume 8
Volume 9
Volume 10
Volume 11
Volume 12
Volume 13
Volume 14
Volume 15
Volume 16
Volume 17
Culture:
Ewe (African people)  Search this
Yoruba (African people)  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Slides
Copy slides
Color slides
Place:
Togo
Africa
Nigeria
Ghana
Sierra Leone
Date:
1970-1989
Summary:
Both Henry John Drewal and Margaret Drewal traveled to Nigeria, Ghana and Togo (West Africa) for extended periods from 1967-1986. During their trips to Nigeria they conducted research into the ritual performance, masking traditions, and traditional sacred rites of the Yoruba people as well as Mami Wata devotes of Togo, Ghana, and Nigeria. They are the co-authors of Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba (1993).Both Henry John Drewal and Margaret Drewal traveled to Nigeria, Ghana and Togo (West Africa) for extended periods from 1967-1986. During their trips to Nigeria they conducted research into the ritual performance, masking traditions, and traditional sacred rites of the Yoruba people as well as Mami Wata devotes of Togo, Ghana, and Nigeria. They are the co-authors of Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba (1993).

Photographs taken by Henry John and Margaret Thompson Drewal during the 1970s and 1980s of Yoruba and Ewe art and culture.
Scope and Contents:
The Drewal collection is a photographic documentation of several trips made to the West African countries of Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo to conduct field research. This collection, which consists of over 10,000 color slides (35mm), represents a major portion of the photographs taken by the Drewals during their visits to West Africa from 1967-1986 to conduct field work.

There are several subjects present in this collection. The most prominent being the Egúngún and Gelede rituals and festivals of the Yoruba people of Nigeria. Other subjects found in the collection are Ifá initiation, Òrìsà and Mami Wata festivals, Òrìsà shrines, sacred arts, beading techniques, and traditional and modern architecture. There is a large selection of images specifically of shrines and festivals for Òrìsà such as Sango, Ògún, Agemo, Eyinle and others. Details of implements like the ose Sango, opa Osanyin, and opa Osun can also be seen in the collection.

The Drewals also photographed and documented Yoruba sacred art (i.e. shrine objects; masks) in a number of international museums in Africa, Europe and the United States. Their collection contains images of Yoruba art in the British Museum, London; Nigeria National Museum, Lagos; National Museum of African Art, Washington, D.C.; Everton Museum, New York; and Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. For a complete listing of slides depicting museum collections see pages 28-33. These images are restricted and can not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder.
Organization of the Finding Aid:
Drewal, Margaret Thompson. "Symbols of Possession: A Study of Movement and Regalia in an Anago-Yoruba Ceremony." -- Dance Research Journal -- 7, no. 2 (1975).

Drewal, Margaret Thompson and Henry John Drewal. "Gelede: Dance of the Western Yoruba," -- African Arts -- 8, no. 2 (Winter 1975).

Drewal, Henry John. "Efe: Voiced Power and Pagenatry." -- African Arts -- 7, no. 1 (Autumn 1973).

Drewal, Margaret Thompson and Henry John Drewal. "More Powerful than Each Other: An Egbado Classification of Egungun." -- African Arts -- 11, no. 3 (April 1978).

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. "Projections from the Top in Yoruba Art." -- African Arts -- 11, no. 1 (October 1977).

Drewal, Henry John. "Gelede Masquerade: Imagery and Motif." -- African Arts -- 7, no. 4 (Summer 1974).

Drewal, Henry John. "Pageantry and Power in Yoruba Costuming." Justine M. Cordwell and Ronald M. Schwarz, ed. -- The Fabrics of Culture -- . Hauge: Mouton, 1979.

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. "Art and Trance Among Yoruba Sango Devotees." -- African Arts -- 20, no. 1 (November 1986).

Drewal, Henry John. "Flaming Crowns, Cooling Waters: Masquerades of the Ijebu Yoruba" -- African Arts -- 20, no. 1 (November 1986).

Drewal, Henry John. "Mermaids, Mirrors, and Snake Charmers: Igbo Mami Wata Shrines" -- African Arts -- 21, no. 2 (February 1988).

Drewal, Henry John. "Performing the Other: Mami Wata Worship in Africa" -- TDR -- 32, no. 2 (Summer 1988).

Drewal, Henry John. "Beauty and Being: Aesthetics and Ontology in Yoruba Body Art." Arnold Rubin, ed. -- Marks of Civilization: Artistic Transformation of the Human Body -- . Los Angeles, CA, 1988.

Drewal, Henry John, John Pemberton III, Rowland Abiodun. -- Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought -- . NY: Center for African Art in Association with H.N. Abrams, 1989.

Homberger, Lorenz ed. -- Yoruba Art and Aesthetics -- . Zurich: Museum Rietberg; New York: Center for African Art, 1991.

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. -- Yoruba Ritual: Performers, Play, Agency -- . Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Drewal, Henry John and Margaret Thompson Drewal. -- Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba -- . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Abiodun, Rowland, Henry J. Drewal, and John Pemberton III, editors. -- The Yoruba Artist: New Theoretical Perspectives on African Arts -- . Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Drewal, Henry John. "Yoruba Beadwork Beauty Brightness." -- Faces -- 12, no. 1 (September 1995).

This finding aid was organized according to the inherent value of the Drewal collection to art historians, ethnographers, anthropologists, and cultural historians. It has been kept simple but made as detailed as possible while still providing the researcher with references to the images and other valuable research information. The finding aid has been organized into three principal sections:

A. Bibliography of Drewal publications with image numbers; B. Primary keyword subjects: Field images; C. Primary keyword subjects: Art images; and D. Restricted images: B/W copy slides and non-Drewal color slides

A. Bibliography of Drewal publications: The first section contains a bibliography of primary Drewal publications and lists the image numbers for reproductions that appear in either black-and-white or color. These publications are listed chronologically with a corresponding list of image numbers. For the researcher's convenience, all images from the Drewal collection that have been published are listed in a separate column beside the publication in which the picture appears. Due to space restrictions, only the last five digits of the accession numbers are listed in the Image # column.

**Please note that some of the color slides in the collection have been reproduced as black-and-white images in several Drewal publications. A separate column in the bibliographic section indicates whether the image was reproduced in black-and-white or color in the publication. The Elisofon Archives does not currently possess any of the Drewal's black-and-white negatives. For additional information on these images, please contact Drs. Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal.

Example:

Publication Title Image # Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba, 1993

To further assist researchers, two additional columns have been created to indicate if the image is published in color or black/white.

Example: Publication Title Image # Color Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba, 1993 • 00000 

B & C. Primary keyword: Field and Art images The second section contains a complete list of images available in the collection, subdivided by field and art images. Field images refer to cultural or natural landscapes shot in Africa and Art images refer to images of objects in museums (or photographed in the field as an object by itself). These images have been categorized by primary keywords (i.e. artisan; leadership; masquerade) and subdivided into subcategories or type within these general keyword subjects (i.e. carvers; chiefs; Egungun).

Example:

Primary Keyword Subcategory Image # Architecture • Modern • 00000

D. Restricted images: The final section lists restricted images in the collection: b/w copy slides from publications and color slides not produced by the Drewals. These images are for study purposes only and not for reproduction.
Arrangement note:
The slides were sent to the Elisofon Archives in several batches. They were arranged according to the Drewals' own system of classification and field notes (see below). This arrangement is roughly by subject and further subdivided by subcategory or type. Slides of museum objects are grouped with field images of similar subject matter. For instance, museum object related to Sango worship can be found with the field images of Sango devotees and shrines.

The Drewals donated copies of their field notes (Red and Blue Books) which correspond to most of the slides found in the collection. The Red and Blue books are arranged in reverse chronological order starting with Blue Book 1977-78.1. Reference numbers to these books appear on the upper left hand corner of the slide (e.g. 78.34.6; 28-11). The majority of the field notes give the date and place where the photos were taken as well as a brief descriptive of the subject of the image related to the note. In some cases, the Òrìsà of a particular town was recorded in addition to how many Òrìsà are worshipped. The Drewals attended several private ceremonies and there are some descriptions of their experiences, however, in most cases not in extensive detail.

There is an additional notebook containing more field notes for years prior to 1975. This notebook has information about the images of museum objects and is a collection of Xeroxed copies of notes on index cards. There are no dates on the copies, but there are reference numbers as with the Red and Blue Books.

Images indexed by negative number.
Biographical / Historical:
Art historian Henry John Drewal received his BA from Hamilton College and two Masters' degrees and a PhD from Columbia University (1973). In between college and graduate school, Drewal served in the Peace Corps, where he taught French and English, organized arts camps in Nigeria, and apprenticed himself to a Yoruba sculptor.

He taught at Cleveland State University (Chair of the Art Department), and was a Visiting Professor at UC-Santa Barbara and SUNY-Purchase. Since 1991 he has been the Evjue-Bascom Professor of Art History and Afro-American Studies at UW-Madison. He has published several books, edited volumes, exhibition catalogues, and many articles and produced a number of films documenting African and African Diaspora arts, and lectured widely on these topics. He has received several NEH and NEA grants, three Fulbright Research Awards (Brazil, Benin, Morocco), a Metropolitan Museum of Art Fellowship, and a Guggenheim Fellowship.

Dr. Margaret Thompson Drewal is an ethnographer, performance theorist, and dance historian. She has conducted extensive research on Yoruba and Afro-Brazilian ritual dance with a special interest in the poetics and politics of performance discourse. She is the author of Performers, Play, and Agency: Yoruba Ritual Process (1989). She has also authored numerous articles that have appeared in such journals as TDR: A Journal of Performance Studies, African Arts, and The Journal Ritual Studies. She is also a trained dancer and choreographer. At present, Dr. Drewal is the Chair of the Department of Performance Studies at North Western University.

There are also video productions by Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal available in the Warren M. Robbins Library. The videos available are "Ẹfẹ/Gẹlẹdẹ Ceremonies among the Western Yoruba," by Henry John Drewal; "Yoruba Performance," by Henry John Drewal; and "Yoruba Ritual: A Companion Video," by Margaret Thompson Drewal.
Cultural Information and Background:
The information found here goes slightly beyond the notes of the Red/Blue Books and index card that accompany the images. Because the Drewal Collection primarily centers on the Yoruba and Mami Wata spiritual traditions and material cultures, the focus of images are of specific implements of the deities and priests, such as staffs, pots, stools, thrones, statues, and bells. Also included in the collection are images of divination, sacrifice, and other important rituals, festivals and ceremonies. What is given here is pertinent background information on the cosmology of the Yoruba and Mami Wata spiritual traditions as it relates to the iconographical focus of the slides.

In Yoruba cosmology, there is a supreme being commonly referred to as Ọlọdumare. Ọlọdumare is essentially understood as being genderless or androgynous. There are no shrines or spiritual implements dedicated to Ọlọdumare. The Yoruba believe that Ọlọdumare is too vast and its power too strong to be channeled into one building or space. Everything is a part of or expresses an aspect of Ọlọdumare. Through the appeasement of the Òrìsà Ọlọdumare is served. The Òrìsà are the emissaries of Ọlọdumare sent to the world to assist their devotees in every day life. There are hundreds of Òrìsà within the Yoruba pantheon. Deities such as Ọbatala, Ifá, Èshù, Ọshún, Shango, Ọsanyin, Yemọja and Oya are worshipped throughout Yorubaland; there are also deities that are specific to particular locations and are not as popular as the aforementioned eight.

Implements of the priests are classified as sacred art. These spiritual tools are not only instruments of the priests, but ultimately, they are tools for the Òrìsà. It is important to understand that the shrines are not the Òrìsà. This very prominent misconception has plagued traditional practitioners both in and out of Yorubaland for centuries. The emphasis of reverence is placed on the spirit associated with the materials used to construct a shrine or ceremonial item and not the item itself. The shrine and other sacred tools serve as vortices to channel the ashe or power of the Òrìsà into the physical world.

Ifá is a term that has been used to refer to the Yoruba traditional spiritual system. However, Ifá also refers to the Òrìsà of divination, Ọrunmila, as well as the system of divination used by the priests of Ọrunmila. Ifá's role as a diviner is so important in Yoruba cosmology that he is referred to as Ẹlẹri ipin, ibikéjì Ọlọdumare (witness to all destinies, second only to Ọlọdumare). The Drewals were allowed to follow the process of three initiations and other sacred rituals performed by priests. Certain rituals cannot be witnessed by non-initiates; however the Drewals were able to photograph many of the sacred rites of the initiation process. The roles of the Ifá priest vary. Divining is a very important role of the Ifá priest, and the tools used to divine are also sacred. There is a section of the collection dedicated to images of divination tools and the Ifá shrine.

Èshù is another one of the most important deities within Yoruba cosmology. Èshù is the keeper of ashe and the inspector of all sacrifices. His image is carved into the top of the Ifá divination tray (ọpọn Ifá) because he is a witness to all actions, thoughts, and events. According to Yoruba cosmology, he is an unbiased observer who will convey only the truth of any subject. Both Ifá and Èshù assist devotees in overcoming unsavory circumstances and bad luck, according to the Yoruba. There are many roads (aspects) of Èshù, each performing a specific duty in a devotee's life. Shigidi is one of the more powerful aspects of Èshù. One can see the noticeable differences between the Shigidi and the yangi (laterite or sculpted clay used to create an Èshù shrine).

The implements that are found on traditional Òrìsà shrines are based on Yoruba mythology. For instance, the odo Shango, ritual mortar, is found on almost all shrines dedicated to this particular Òrìsà. The legend goes that he used an inverted mortar to kill a leopard that was terrorizing the people of Enpe. The odo Shango is sometimes used to support the container that holds the "thunderstones" (lightning struck stones) of Shango's shrine. The inverted mortar is also used as a stool for priests or initiates to sit. Shango's priests usually keep their hair braided, even if the priest is male. Equestrian figures are utilized in both Shango and Oya sacred art. Oya is the only female deity in the Yoruba pantheon that has ever been depicted riding a horse. Yoruba mythology states that Oya is a warrior goddess who accompanies her husband, Shango into battle and fights by his side. Together the husband and wife team is associated with thunderstorms. Oya is mythically related to the winds that precede the thunder and lightning that are both said to be associated with Shango.

There are several types of staffs or dance wands seen in the Drewal collection. In the case of dance wands, they are often times utilized during spirit possession. In some instances, the shrine of the Òrìsà is only the staff of that particular deity. Such is the case with the ọpa Osun, a deity associated with Ifá and his devotees and the ọpa Òrìsà Oko, the deity of agriculture.

The Ogboni society (also known as Osugbo) possesses a mixture of spiritual and governmental power within the traditional Yoruba community. It was the foundation of order in traditional Yoruba society. The focus of worship and veneration amongst Ogboni members is Onilẹh, the Owner of the land or Earth. Sometimes one may hear the term Onileh, Owner of the house, instead. Both pronunciations can be used and carry significant meaning in either case. However, the consensus of scholarly research associates Ogboni with the Earth. In that case the term Onilẹh is more suitable.

Egúngún and Gelede festivals are of significant importance amongst the Yoruba. The Egúngún society is dedicated to the veneration and appeasement of honorable ancestors. This can take place in private or public. Families celebrate their deceased relatives' lives and accomplishments privately through sacrifice, prayer and celebration. In a public arena ancestors from the community are given recognition. The Yoruba have long believed that community solidarity and welfare begins with the family. In honoring one's personal ancestors as well as benevolent community ancestors, the family receives the blessings of those that reside in the spiritual realm—those who have become ara ọrun, or the people of heaven. Because the Yoruba believe in reincarnation, it is thought that the ancestors will one day return to the material world in a future lifetime. If proper rituals and prayers are performed, the spirits returning will have a better chance of being assets to society by hopefully making positive contributions to the elevation of the Yoruba people.

Gelede is always a public event. The time of year which the festival will take place is dependent on the locality in which the festival is being held. Gelede focuses mainly on the feminine and the role of women in society. Female deities such as Yemọja, Olókun, and Ilẹh are associated with Gelede. Another aspect of major importance to Gelede is the inclusion of Ìyánla, the Great Mother, which is a reference to Onilè. This reference is but one facet that connects Gelede to the Ogboni society. It is also during the Gelede festival that Awọn Ìyá Wa, Our Mothers or the Mothers, are petitioned and appeased so that they may not interfere with the positive efforts of the community.

Both the Egúngún and Gelede festivals help to ensure prosperity, abundance, and fertility of the people. It is through these festivals that indecent conduct is addressed in hopes of exorcising the root of such behavior. It is believed that bringing any disgraceful and inhumane acts to the forefront encourages individuals to act responsibly in all matters.

The final subject presented in the Drewal Collection is of the Mami Wata traditions in West Africa. Representations of Mami Wata often include foreign images, usually of Indian gods, to describe the attributes of Mami Wata as a deity. The term Mami Wata refers to a water spirit or a collective of water spirits. The names associated with the original African water spirit(s) have long been forgotten in some regions of West Africa where Mami Wata is worshipped. However, in other areas, the term Mami Wata is interchangeable with the indigenous name used to identify the water spirit(s). There are variations to the worship of Mami Wata throughout West Africa, yet similarities prevail. Togo is most popularly associated with the Mami Wata tradition. Most of the slides featuring Mami Wata devotees in the Drewal Collection were taken in Togo.
Related Materials:
Additional photographs by Henry John Drewal held at the EEPA are located within the collection: Henry John Drewal Collection, EEPA 2010-010.
Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. Copyright held by John and Margaret Drewal. To publish images from this collection, permission must be given by Henry and Margaret Drewal. Contact Archives staff for further information. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Citation:
Henry and Margaret Drewal Photographs, EEPA 1992-028, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1992-028
See more items in:
Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal Collection
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo75d71915f-d8ca-4633-a51c-c73dae691495
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-eepa-1992-028

New Songs of the African Coast

Performer:
Browne, Jacob A.  Search this
Hayes, Howard B.  Search this
Parker, Malinda  Search this
Greenwood Singers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ramsey, Frederic, 1915-1995  Search this
Extent:
1 Phonograph record (analog, 33 1/3 rpm, 12 in.)
Container:
Box LP, Item 222
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Ewe (African people)  Search this
Vai (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Place:
Ghana
Accra (Ghana)
Liberia
Monrovia (Liberia)
Nigeria
Track Information:
101 You Be Sorry for Me.

102 My Son, I Send You to School.

103 Soldier's Lament / Tobacco tins.

104 Love is Slow But Sure.

105 Dagomba (I Found My Love) / Twi language.

106 Chicken is Nice / Howard B. Hayes, Malinda Parker. Piano.

107 Nana Kru / Howard B. Hayes, Malinda Parker. Piano.

108 Bush Cow Milk / Howard B. Hayes, Malinda Parker. Piano.

109 People! Go Mind Your Business / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

201 Ghanawa / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

202 Jebe, Na Uhn Fa Sah (Jebe, Come Pleasure Me Small) / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

203 Hold Me Tight / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

204 Kokoleo-Ko (Chicken Crowing For Day) / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

205 All Fo' You / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

206 Rhumba O! / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

207 Marry Me and Close de Door (For de Single Boys They are Passing By) / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.

208 You Promised to Marry Me / Greenwood Singers, Jacob A. Browne.
Local Numbers:
RA-RAMS-LP-0222

Riverside.4003
Publication, Distribution, Etc. (Imprint):
New York Riverside
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Tobacco tins  Search this
Piano  Search this
Collection Citation:
Frederic Ramsey audio recordings, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.RAMS, File RA-RAMS-LP-0222
See more items in:
Frederic Ramsey audio recordings
Frederic Ramsey audio recordings / 33 1/3 RPM Records
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk57932648e-a79f-4454-b169-4dbb2b61dffb
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-rams-ref1035

"Wa-Zo-Bia" an inculturated interreligious approach to Christian-Muslim relationship in Nigeria : in the light of Nostra Aetate Linus Chukwudi Nwankwo

Author:
Nwankwo, Linus Chukwudi  Search this
Subject:
Catholic Church Relations Islam  Search this
Catholic Church  Search this
Vatican Council (2nd : 1962-1965 : Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano) Declaratio de ecclesiae habitudine ad religiones non-Christianas  Search this
Physical description:
495 pages 22 cm
Type:
Books
Academic theses
Academic Dissertation
Thèses et écrits académiques
Place:
Nigeria
Date:
2021
Topic:
Islam--Relations--Catholic Church  Search this
Islam  Search this
Religion  Search this
Ibo (Peuple d'Afrique)--Religion  Search this
Igbo (African people)--Religion  Search this
Interfaith relations  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1154719

Nigeria: Ibo music

Producer:
Smock, David R.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Nigerians  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
Nigeria
Contents:
11 tracks
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-0867
General:
w/correspondence to/from David R. Smock 1963-64

CDR copy
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
World music -- Nigeria  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-0867
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / RR
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk58f6fe95a-e894-4db5-9669-d6a5e776db58
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref19366

Ibo Music from Nigeria

Recorder:
Smock, David R.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Nigerians  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
Nigeria
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-4994
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
World music -- Nigeria  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-4994
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / RR
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5370685d0-40ea-438e-ab7c-966027a6cee9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref26679

Contes igbo de la tortue (Nigeria) Françoise Ugochukwu

Author:
Ugochukwu, Françoise 1949-  Search this
Physical description:
123 pages 20 cm
Type:
Folklore
Anthologie
Place:
Nigeria
Ibo
Französisch
Date:
2006
Topic:
Tales  Search this
Turtles  Search this
Folklore  Search this
Contes  Search this
Ibo (Peuple d'Afrique)--Folklore  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Märchen  Search this
Ibo  Search this
Volkserzählung  Search this
African Tales--Nigeria  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1154913

Oduduwa : saving history from ethnic propaganda / by Chukwu Eke

Author:
Eke, Chukwu 1982-  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Subject:
Oduduwa (Yoruba deity)  Search this
Type:
Articles
Date:
2013
Topic:
Historiography  Search this
Call number:
DT515.45.I28 B46 2013
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1094903

Shrine of Alphonsius Njoku, a Mami Wata priest and healer, Igboland, Nigeria

Photographer:
Drewal, Henry John  Search this
Collection Creator:
Drewal, Henry John  Search this
Drewal, Margaret Thompson  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1978
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Henry Drewal while conducting field research in southeastern Nigeria, on a Fulbright-Hays Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship from 1977 through 1978.
Original title reads, "Alphonsus Njoku. Mami water/Native Doctor. Mamiwater Sculptured by: Onyeju Ikekwem of Oparachi Ihitte, Aboh LGA Mbaise. About 1963." [Drewal field research notes, book 77-8.1, Roll 129, frame 34, p.83 + 85, 1977-1978].
Publication title reads, "In the shrine of Alphonsius Njoku, the figure of Mami Wata stands on soft drink bottles in a small pool of water. In front of her are offerings in the form of plates, a bottle, a bottle opener, wooden and metal snakes, talcum powder containers, kola nuts, and a candelabrum cluster on a table. A chromolithograph of the Madonna and Child and another of an Indian woman holding a jar appear above Mami Wata. Njoku reports that the latter image appears because Mami wants to be associated with beautiful things." [Henry J. Drewal with contributions by Marilyn Houlberg, Bogumil Jewsiewicki, Amy L. Noell, John W. Nunley, and Jill Salmons, 2008: Mami Wata: Arts for Water Spirits in Africa and Its Diasporas. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of UCLA and University of Washington Press, 227 pp.].
Local Numbers:
EEPA 1992-028-10521
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on Dr. Henry J. Drewal publication: Mami Wata: Arts for Water Spirits in Africa and Its Diasporas. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of UCLA and University of Washington Press, 227 pp., 2008. Page 110.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. Copyright held by John and Margaret Drewal. To publish images from this collection, permission must be given by Henry and Margaret Drewal. Contact Archives staff for further information. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mami Wata (African deity)  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Signs and symbols  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Shrines  Search this
Works of art in situ  Search this
Animals in art  Search this
Animals in art -- Snakes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Henry and Margaret Drewal Photographs, EEPA 1992-028, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1992-028, Item EEPA D10521-dup
See more items in:
Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal Collection
Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal Collection / Nigeria / 1978
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo754c11f79-d83b-40fc-87ac-0a9efc2b17be
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1992-028-ref12831

Igbo Masquerade: [photograph], Nigeria

Extent:
1 Print (silver gelatin., b&w, 8.5 x 8.5 cm.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
[between 1923-1925]
Scope and Contents:
An Igbo masquerade with several accompanying musicians, between 1923-1925. Photographer unknown.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Igbo Photographic Album, EEPA 1997-0006, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Igbo Photographic Album
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo78f28b146-73c4-4d5b-89bb-f52d983dfaee
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1997-006-ref507

Igbo Wrestler's Parade: [photograph], Nigeria

Extent:
1 Print (silver gelatin., b&w, 6 x 10 cm.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
[between 1923-1925]
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Igbo Photographic Album, EEPA 1997-0006, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Igbo Photographic Album
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7b13b25c1-fa8b-4c4e-a9fd-c8ff8c8312c5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1997-006-ref508

Igbo masked dancers performing during the Onwa Asaa festival, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959
Scope and Contents:
Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].
"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.
Local Numbers:
E 2 IBO 1 EE 59
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
58482 98
Frame value is 11.
Slide No. E 2 IBO 1 EE 59
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 3763
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Nigeria
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo71f246f5b-8cdd-4d0a-a9ed-29645ea9113a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref20179

Igbo masked dancers performing during the Onwa Asaa festival, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959
Scope and Contents:
Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].
"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.
Local Numbers:
E 2 IBO 2 EE 59
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
58482 98
Frame value is 10.
Slide No. E 2 IBO 2 EE 59
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 3764
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Nigeria
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7ba1cb14c-ce0e-41c0-9cf7-e8527e1a6242
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref20180

Igbo masked dancers performing during the Onwa Asaa festival, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959
Scope and Contents:
Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].
"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.
Local Numbers:
E 2 IBO 3 EE 59
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
58482 98
Frame value is 9.
Slide No. E 2 IBO 3 EE 59
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 3765
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Nigeria
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/xo7722667d5-c4f5-4d3c-8dc2-db0d4994533a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref20181

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