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Eskimo Pie Corporation Records

Creator:
Eskimo Pie Corporation.  Search this
Nelson, Christian Kent, 1893-1992  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (50 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Sheet music
Posters
Photographs
Business records
Legal records
Clippings
Date:
1921-1996
Scope and Contents:
Printed advertisements, photographs (including negatives and slides), sales presentation materials and packaging; patent and legal information, clippings, posters, scripts for radio commercials, sheet music for jingles, etc. Also includes personal papers (correspondence) of Christian Nelson, inventor of the Eskimo Pie.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biographical / Historical:
Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher. The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know--I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day. On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products. In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar. After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related. Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4. Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946. Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company. Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included. Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included. Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream. Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1990 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation. Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1990 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). It also includes video footage of a 1990 production line. Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1. Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters. Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year. Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter. Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events. Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising. Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically. Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film AWho's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods. Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads. Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions. Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included. Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear. Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting. Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information. Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here. Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, television commercials, and little written information on television campaigns. Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections The Division of Cultural History has several objects which are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including: #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)

#78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)

#112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983

#300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)

#451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990

#588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989

#594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts housed in the Division of Culture and the Arts.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dave Clark, Eskimo Pie Corporation, July 12, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Polar bear in art  Search this
Ice cream industry -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Sheet music -- advertising
Posters
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Legal records
Clippings
Citation:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records, 1921-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0553
See more items in:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0553
Online Media:

Joseph B. Friedman Papers

Source:
Rosen, Judith B.  Search this
Reiss, Linda A.  Search this
Leeds, Pamela B.  Search this
Friedman, Robert A.  Search this
Creator:
Friedman, Joseph Bernard, Dr., 1900-1982  Search this
Friedman, Betty  Search this
Flexible Straw Corporation.  Search this
Flex-Straw Co.  Search this
Former owner:
Friedman, Robert A.  Search this
Leeds, Pamela B.  Search this
Reiss, Linda A.  Search this
Rosen, Judith B.  Search this
Names:
Klein, Bert  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (17 boxes, 2 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledgers (account books)
Correspondence
Blueprints
Photographs
Videotapes
Personal papers
Date:
1915-2000
Summary:
Papers relating to the development of the flexible drinking straw, Friedman's manufacturing company, and Friedman's other inventions, such as an ice cream scoop, fountain pens, and household appliances.
Scope and Contents:
Papers relating to the development of the flexible drinking straw, Friedman's manufacturing company, and Friedman's other inventions, such as an ice cream scoop, fountain pens, and household appliances. Includes company ledgers, preliminary sketches, blueprints, correspondence, a video cassette, and photographs.
The Joseph B. Friedman Papers encompass the years 1915-2000, with the bulk of the material ranging between 1925 and 1965. This collection is a near complete source for the understanding inventive process of an American entrepreneur. In the case of the flexible straw, the evolution of the invention can be traced from early concept drawings through its manufacture and production, to the development of advertising and marketing materials. Records of necessary design modifications in the flexible straw and legal issues concerning Friedman's invention through its various stages are present here. In addition to providing a detailed linear account of the flexible straw, these papers reflect the varied interests and additional accomplishments of Friedman's invention career. The collection is arranged in three series to reflect the subjects of the material, namely personal papers, invention materials, and corporate records. Materials within each series are arranged by topic and type, and then chronologically.

Series 1: Personal Records (c.1920s-1940) contains family photographs, personal correspondence, education and employment records. Friedman's education records are in Subseries A, while the records of his careers in optometry, insurance and real estate are contained in Subseries B. Subseries C contains personal financial records, including bank statements and income tax returns. Correspondence, photographs, family history items and death certificate are located in Subseries D.

Series 2: Invention & Patent Materials (1915-1967) consists of invention records that include original concept drawings, legal records and patents, marketing correspondence, and the business records of Friedman's sole proprietorship invention business, the Commercial Research Company. It is important for researchers to note that information on the assignment of straw patents and their machinery, all associated legal records to those specific issues, as well as patent defense case research, and straw advertising and marketing after 1938 may be found in Series 3. Series 2 is divided into several subseries. Subseries A - I are patented inventions arranged chronologically by patent issue date, and include research and development, legal records and correspondence, and advertising and marketing materials. Subseries J - M contain unpatented inventions and business records, as well as multiple concept drawings and invention lists that refer to both patented and unpatented inventions. Researchers interested in the conceptual development of the straw should review the information contained not only in Subseries E: Drinking Tube and Subseries H: Flexible Straw, but also in Subseries L: Invention Lists & Drawings for straw ideas that were drawn on lists or sketches with other concepts. Additionally, researchers interested in the manufacturing device for the straw should review Subseries I: Apparatus & Method for Forming Corrugations in Tubing, as well as Subseries K: Unpatented Inventions, for the Flexible Straw & Method of Forming Same information.

Series 3: Flex-Straw Corporate Records (1938 - 1967) includes correspondence relating to the company and its formation, financial statements, tax returns, legal documents, patent assignments, royalty information, patent defense case research and records, and documents pertaining to the advertising and marketing of the flexible straw. Researchers should note that all conceptual and developmental details relating to the straw and its manufacture, as well as the original patents and their specifically associated legal correspondence can be found in Series 2. Series 3 is divided into several topically arranged subseries. Subseries A consists of the organizational materials for the company, including the minutes, by-laws and limited employee records. This subseries also contains two day books belonging to Joseph B. Friedman recording his appointments and personal notes from 1947 and 1950. Subseries B includes company related correspondence, organized by the correspondent. It begins with general correspondence, from 1939 - 1963, and continues with the letters of Bert Klein (1945 - 1950), David Light & Harry Zavin (1938 - 1962), and Betty Friedman (1940 - 1954). Much of the operational information on the company may be found in the letters Betty Friedman wrote and received from her brother. Subseries C holds the financial records of the company, including financial statements, ledgers, bank statements, check books, tax returns and royalty statements. Subseries D consists of legal records and correspondence, including such topics as changes in entity type, patent assignments, fair trade agreements and patent defense. Subseries E contains the advertising and marketing records of the company. This includes published material relating to the Flex-Straw specifically, as well as some advertising for flexible straws in general. Pencil concept drawings of Flex-Straw packaging and advertising art are drawn on the reverse of Pette calendar pages, and international advertising materials for the product are also present. Product testimonials, distributor bulletins, and corporate letterhead that traces the progression of company locations can also be found here.
Arrangement:
The collection is ivided into three series.

Series 1: Personal Records, circa 1920s-1940

Series 2: Invention and Patent Materials, 1915-1967

Series 3: Flex-Straw Corporate Records, 1938-1969
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph B. Friedman (1900 - 1982) was an independent American inventor with a broad range of interests and ideas. Born in Cleveland, Ohio on October 9, 1900, Joseph was a first generation American and the fifth of eight children for Jacob Friedman and Antoinette Grauer Friedman. By the age of fourteen, he had conceptualized his first invention, the "pencilite" lighted pencil, and was attempting to market his idea. Over the course of his inventing career, he would experiment with ideas ranging from writing implements to engine improvements, and household products to sound and optic experiments. He was issued nine U.S. patents and held patents in Great Britain, Australia and Canada. His first patent was issued for improvements to the fountain pen on April 18, 1922, (U.S. patent #1,412,930). This was also the first invention that he successfully sold, to Sheaffer Pen Company in the mid 1930s. In the 1920s, Friedman began his education in real estate and optometry. He would use both of these careers at different points in his life to supplement his income while improving his invention concepts. Although he was working as a realtor in San Francisco, California, the 1930s proved to be his most prolific patenting period, with six of his nine U.S. patents being issued then. One of these patents would prove to be his most successful invention - the flexible drinking straw.

While sitting in his younger brother Albert's fountain parlor, the Varsity Sweet Shop in San Francisco, Friedman observed his young daughter Judith at the counter, struggling to drink out of a straight straw. He took a paper straight straw, inserted a screw and using dental floss, he wrapped the paper into the screw threads, creating corrugations. After removing the screw, the altered paper straw would bend conveniently over the edge of the glass, allowing small children to better reach their beverages. U.S. patent #2,094,268 was issued for this new invention under the title Drinking Tube, on September 28, 1937. Friedman would later file and be issued two additional U.S. patents and three foreign patents in the 1950s relating to its formation and construction. Friedman attempted to sell his straw patent to several existing straw manufacturers beginning in 1937 without success, so after completing his straw machine, he began to produce the straw himself.

The Flexible Straw Corporation was incorporated on April 24, 1939 in California. However, World War II interrupted Friedman's efforts to construct his straw manufacturing machine. During the war, he managed the optometry practice of Arthur Euler, O.D., in Capwells' Department Store in Oakland, California, and continued to sell real estate and insurance to support his growing family. Joseph obtained financial backing for his flexible straw machine from two of his brothers-in-law, Harry Zavin and David Light, as well as from Bert Klein, a family associate. With their financial assistance, and the business advice of his sister Betty, Friedman completed the first flexible straw manufacturing machine in the late 1940s. Although his original concept had come from the observation of his daughter, the flexible straw was initially marketed to hospitals, with the first sale made in 1947.

Betty Friedman played a crucial role in the development of the Flexible Straw Corporation. While still living in Cleveland and working at the Tarbonis Company, she corresponded regularly with her brother and directed all of the sales and distribution of the straw. In 1950 Friedman moved his family and company to Santa Monica, California. Now doing business as the Flex-Straw Co., sales continued to increase and the marketing direction expanded to focus more strongly on the home and child markets. Betty moved west in 1954 to assume her formal leadership role in the corporation. Additional partners and investors were added over time, including Art Shapiro, who was initially solicited as a potential buyer of the patent. On June 20, 1969, the Flexible Straw Corporation sold its United States and foreign patents, United States and Canadian trademarks, and licensing agreements to the Maryland Cup Corporation. The Flexible Straw Corporation dissolved on August 19, 1969.

Dr. Joseph Bernard Friedman died on June 21, 1982. He was survived by his wife of over 50 years, Marjorie Lewis Friedman, his four children Judith, Linda, Pamela and Robert, and seven grandchildren
Separated Materials:
Straw samples and an original dispensing device (ice cream disher) are located in the Division of Culture and the Arts

A mandrel prototype from the original flexible straw manufacturing machine is held by the Division of Work and Industry.
Provenance:
Daughters Judith B. Rosen, Linda A. Reiss and Pamela B. Leeds, and son Robert A. Friedman donated this collection and its related artifacts to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History on May 1, 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors  Search this
Inventions -- 1920-2000 -- United States  Search this
Ice cream scoops  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Household appliances  Search this
Fountain pens  Search this
Drinking straws  Search this
Paper products  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Correspondence -- 20th century
Blueprints
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Videotapes
Personal papers -- 20th century
Citation:
Joseph B. Friedman Papers, 1915-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0769
See more items in:
Joseph B. Friedman Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0769
Online Media:

Carvel Ice Cream Records

Creator:
Carvel, Tom (Thomas Andreas Carvelas), 1906-  Search this
Carvel Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
9 Cubic feet (24 boxes, 1 oversized folder)
12 cassette tapes
63 Video recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cassette tapes
Video recordings
Blueprints
Interviews
Audiotapes
Patents
Date:
1934-1989
Scope and Contents:
The records provide rich research material on many stories, including: American invention, enterprise, and entrepreneurship; the origins and growth of franchising; popular food and culture; the development of roadside architecture; radio and television advertising; product marketing and promotion; regional studies; and gender issues such as beauty pageants and the role of women in the labor force.
Arrangement:
Divided into 14 series.

Series 1: Tom Carvel Personal Information, 1917-1986

Series 2: Financial Information, 1969-1985 Series 3: Educational Information for Franchise Owners, 1954-1984 Series 4: Employee Magazines, 1956-1989 Series 5: Publicity Materials, 1950-1985 Series 6: Advertising Campaign Materials, 1957-1989 Series 7: Promotional Items, 1951-1986 Series 8: Store and Equipment Records, 1945-1973 Series 9: Vending Vehicles, 1958-1961 Series 10: Store Address Information, 1980s Series 11: Photographs, 1936-1985 Series 12: Dugan's Bakery and Hubie Burger Records, 1950s-1960s Series 13: Non-Carvel Franchise Information, 1950-1988 Series 14: Audiovisual Materials, 1972-1995
Biographical / Historical:
The Carvel Corporation is an American success story. Through hard work and timely luck, its founder and president, Tom Carvel, turned an ice cream trailer with a flat tire into an international chain of ice cream supermarkets with over 800 outlets in 17 states and six countries.

Thomas Andreas Carvelas was born July 14, 1906, in Athanassos, Greece. He was one of seven children of Andreas and Christina Karvelas. The family emigrated from Greece to Danbury, Connecticut, in 1910, and finally settled in New York City in 1920. His father was a chemist and wine specialist who helped support his family during prohibition by restoring fermented wine for Greek restaurant owners.

Tom's father sparked Tom's interest in how things worked. Tom tried his hand as a salesman of radios and automobiles, a test driver for Studebaker, and an auto mechanic. At the age of twenty-six, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, and his doctors advised him to move out of the city. Consequently, he borrowed $1,000 from relatives and built a frozen custard trailer. His first break came on Memorial Day, 1934, when he borrowed $20 from Agnes Stewart (his future wife), bought a trailer load of custard, and set out to sell it to vacationers in Westchester County, New York. Tom Carvel suffered a minor setback when his trailer had a flat tire in Hartsdale, New York. But luck was on his side: there was a pottery shop across the street and Pop Quinlan, the potter, allowed him to use his electricity so the custard would not melt.

Tom Carvel kept his trailer on the pottery shop's lot and in his first year grossed $3,500. The following year, realizing that a permanent location could be profitable, he leased the shop for $100. In 1937, he borrowed more money and converted the trailer into a frozen custard stand, complete with a second-hand freezer which enabled him to make his own custard. By 1939, he was grossing $6,000 a year and was well on his way toward becoming the "Ice Cream King of the East."

In the early 1940s Agnes, his wife, operated the Hartsdale store while Carvel traveled the carnival circuits selling his frozen custard from a mobile vending vehicle. Next, he managed the ice cream cone stands at the post exchange at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

Tom Carvel soon developed his own freezer model, known as a batch freezer, (the first of his sixteen U.S. Patent Registrations). In 1947, he sold 71 freezers at $2,900 each under the trade name "Custard King." When some owners defaulted on their payments Carvel discovered that many of the freezer owners were careless in their selection of locations, disregarded cleanliness, and worked sporadically, while others were selling additional, non-ice cream food items. Determined to make the venture succeed, he decided to oversee the operations of the freezer owners directly. He claimed to have developed the franchise concept in 1949 as a result of this strategy.

Franchise business opportunities allow investors to enter retailing without prior business experience and to own their own business. In the case of the Carvel Corporation, potential franchise owners bought equipment and supplies from the Corporation and used the Carvel name. In return, Carvel helped them select a location, taught them how to run an ice cream business, and organized resources for advertising and promotions. Franchise owners were taught the retail ice cream business at the Carvel College, an 18-day series of courses for potential store owners. There they learned about public relations, mechanics of the ice cream machines, local advertising, and making and freezing all kinds of ice cream cakes. They also received The Shopper's Road, an in-house magazine advising them on topics ranging from travel tips, to cooking, to marketing their products to the community.

From the beginning, the Carvel Dairy Freeze Chain stressed cleanliness, hard work, and a quality, all-natural product. Tom Carvel aimed to create a family-type environment for his franchise owners. He wanted people who would work hard and were eager to learn about the retail ice cream business in order to make their individual rags to riches stories come true. A unique and important element to the Carvel story was Tom Carvel's personal involvement --from an early date--in creating commercials for the stores. His was one of the first instances in which a Chief Executive Officer of a major corporation was featured in his company's commercials. In 1955, Carvel began making his own radio commercials. As the story goes, one day while driving in New York City he heard a commercial for a new Carvel store, but the announcer did not state its exact location. Convinced he could do a better job, he drove to the radio station and re-did the commercial himself. After this incident he started doing his own commercials on a full-time basis. Tom Carvel created a distinct style with his garbled delivery and "say it once" philosophy, with the idea that you have to grab people's attention and then let the product speak for itself. Carvel eventually set up an in-house production studio and advertising agency at the Carvel Inn, where most of his television and radio commercials were made.

The use of premiums was an essential marketing component for Carvel. In 1936, he introduced the "Buy One Get One Free" offer. He also used comic books, ice cream eating contests, and a beauty pageant for young girls, called the "Little Miss Half Pint Contest," to attract children. The Carvel Corporation also participated as a corporate sponsor for events like Walt Disney's "Great Ice Odyssey," "Carvel Night at the Rodeo," and numerous promotional tie-ins with the New York Yankees baseball team. Of all the sales promotions, it was the specialty products which brought the greatest notoriety to the Carvel name. From the "Flying Saucer" ice cream sandwich and the "Papapalooza" to the holiday and character ice cream cakes, customers could always count on a quality product. There were ice cream cakes for every holiday, including a "Flower Basket" for Mother's Day, "Fudgie the Whale" for Father's Day, "Tom the Turkey" for Thanksgiving, and a "Snow Man" for Christmas. Eventually, a customer could special order an ice cream cake for any occasion, using a toll-free phone number.

The Carvel Corporation enjoyed continued success and consistent expansion marked by Tom Carvel's innovative concepts in marketing. For example, in 1956, the Hartsdale location was converted into the first ice cream supermarket. Each store remained a full-service ice cream parlor, but now had the added convenience of self-serve freezers where customers could select ice cream specialty products such as Flying Saucers, Carvelogs, Brown Bonnets, and ice cream cakes.

In 1962, the Corporation experienced a crisis. Many franchise owners had begun buying cheaper ingredients and the chain was reduced to 175 stores. This potentially meant financial catastrophe for Tom Carvel and the company because it derived its profits from selling equipment and special mixes to store owners. Carvel insisted the franchise owners had obligations to the company and its customers to provide a uniform, quality product. Furthermore, the franchise owners had agreed to purchase raw ingredients from Carvel. When the Corporation tried to enforce this agreement, the Federal Trade Commission charged Carvel with allegations of coercion and restraint of trade. In 1964, after presenting his side before the full Federal Trade Commission and the Supreme Court, he won his case.

In 1967, Carvel purchased the Westchester Town House Motel, in Yonkers, New York, and changed the name to the Carvel Inn. It was both a full-service motel and the Executive Offices of the Carvel Corporation. It was here that store owners gathered for the annual educational seminars which reinforced the ideas taught by the Carvel College.

In the 1950s Tom Carvel had also developed the franchise concept for a hamburger chain called Hubie Burger. It served hamburgers, french fries, chicken, and waffles. It is ironic that Carvel began the Hubie Burger chain because at a dairy convention in 1956, Ray Kroc asked him if he was interested in setting up the McDonald's chain. It is said that at this time Carvel felt ice cream and hamburgers did not compliment each other and declined the offer. However, Carvel claimed to have given McDonald's permission to use the basic text of his franchise contract and his building design as models. Later, Carvel acquired Dugan's Bakery. However, neither Dugan's nor Hubie Burger was very successful.

Through his strong work ethic, creativity, and perseverance, Tom Carvel built up his ice cream chain and turned his dreams into reality. His achievements were recognized in 1957 when he was awarded the Horatio Alger Award. Carvel credited his success to his father and his wife, Agnes. His father sparked his interest in chemistry and engineering and his wife worked in the first Carvel store, which allowed him time to develop the Carvel Corporation Franchise System. In 1989, he sold the Carvel Corporation to an international investment company, Investcorp, for more than 80 million dollars. Tom Carvel died in 1990. The Carvel name lives on through the Carvel Ice Cream Bakery Company, operated by Investcorp.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Diary (AC0060)

Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection (see waffle cone machine) (AC0078)

Famous Amos Collection (AC0112)

Sam DeVincent Collection of Ilustrated American Sheet Music (see Ice Cream) (AC0300)

Good Humor Collection (AC0451)

Eskimo Pie Collection (AC0553)

Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records (AC0594)
Provenance:
These records were generously donated to the Archives Center by Mrs. Agnes Carvel, in May 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction of some materials restricted due to copyright or trademark.

Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ice cream industry  Search this
Franchises (Retail trade)  Search this
Carnivals  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Vending machines (food)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Audiotapes
Patents -- 20th century
Citation:
Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0488
See more items in:
Carvel Ice Cream Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0488
Online Media:

Employee Magazines

Collection Creator:
Carvel, Tom (Thomas Andreas Carvelas), 1906-  Search this
Carvel Corporation.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1956-1989
Scope and Contents:
Series 4: Employee Magazines, 1956-1989

Includes the Shopper's Road, Carvel News, and Carvel Way. These magazines address both store owners and customers. The magazines feature articles about store owners, general articles about the ice cream industry, and ways to improve the image of the Carvel Corporation within the community. They also feature sections intended for the customers, including "Teen Talk with Sven Teen," a section of jokes called "Have a Smile," and recipes.

Carvel News and Carvel Way focus on the Carvel franchise system and items used to increase revenue and name recognition, such as menu boards and sales promotions. In addition, the magazines talk about expansion into states like California, Florida, and Ohio. Another purpose was to boost the morale of the store owners and create a "family type atmosphere" within the corporation. They showcase new members of the "Carvel Family" who graduated from the Carvel College. A regular section was the "Dealer of the Month," which gave a brief biographical description which also describes how the dealers had increased their sales revenue.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction of some materials restricted due to copyright or trademark.

Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0488, Series 4
See more items in:
Carvel Ice Cream Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0488-ref32

Publicity Materials

Collection Creator:
Carvel, Tom (Thomas Andreas Carvelas), 1906-  Search this
Carvel Corporation.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950-1985
Scope and Contents:
Series 5: Publicity Materials

Includes clippings, magazine and newspaper articles covering the Carvel Corporation, Tom Carvel, the numerous community events sponsored by the Carvel Corporation, and the ice cream industry in general. The majority of the publications are local newspapers, with a large sampling from the Herald Statesman, a Yonkers newspaper. The publications date from 1953 to 1985. The series also includes general correspondence acknowledging the use of the Carvel name.

The press clippings and newspaper articles contests sponsored by the Carvel Corporation, organizations which met at the Carvel Inn, and charitable events sponsored by the Carvel Corporation. Included are photographs of Robert F. Kennedy at the Carvel Inn in 1968. The series also includes articles about the ice cream industry. They are from the New York Times, financial magazines like Barron's, and trade publications. The articles focus on the history and continued expansion of the industry.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction of some materials restricted due to copyright or trademark.

Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0488, Series 5
See more items in:
Carvel Ice Cream Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0488-ref37

Central Film Service Collection

Creator:
Central Film Service  Search this
Manufacturer:
Borden's Farm Products Co. of Illinois  Search this
Sears, Roebuck and Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Filmstrips
Date:
1924-1946
Scope and Contents:
The Central Film Service Collection consists of more than 100 filmstrips made between 1924 and 1946. Made primarily for business use, the bulk of the collection describes and promotes products, industries, associations, and governmental agencies. Adults were the intended audience. Related scripts and audio recordings do not exist.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series;

Series 1, Associations, 1926-1944

Series 2, Corporate and Products, 1929-1941

Series 3, Government, 1929-1943

Series 4, Health, 1933-1942 Series 5, Religious, 1942

Series 6, Sears, 1937-1941

Series 7, Training, 1924-1946
General:
Filmstrips were an important educational tool from the 1920s through the early 1980s. Relatively short strips of 35mm films – about 10 – 30 frames-- with one image per frame, filmstrips functioned as a combination of motion picture film and slides. They told a story, usually educational, but were projected one frame at a time. Narration was provided by an instructor or speaker, either ad lib or reading from a script. By the 1950s, the narration was often provided by accompanying sound recordings, first on disc and later audio cassette. Each frame was explained or discussed and then the strip was advanced to the next image. A tell tale "beep" on the audio track told the viewer when to advance each frame. In educational settings filmstrips were often accompanied by brochures or served as additional illustrative materials connected with text books.

The Central Film Service Filmstrip Collection is distinctive in that most of the filmstrips were produced for use outside the classroom. The bulk of the collection describes and promotes products, industries, associations, and governmental agencies. Adults were the intended audience. The filmstrips were used as sales tools as well as for training. Commentary would have been provided by a salesman, manager, or a group leader. The collection contains no scripts or related documents so it isn't known how the filmstrips were shown or narrated.

The Central Film Service was located on Michigan Avenue in Chicago.
Provenance:
Donated by Ms. Lois Catts of Puyallup, Washington in October, 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Special handling and equipment may be required. Reference archivists will provide assistance.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Safety  Search this
Names, place -- Mississippi Valley  Search this
X-rays  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Coal  Search this
Genre/Form:
Filmstrips
Citation:
Central Film Service Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1247
See more items in:
Central Film Service Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1247

Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection

Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969  Search this
Eisenhower, Mamie Doud, 1896-1979  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Pamphlets
Sound recordings
Sales catalogs
Training manuals
Cartoons (humorous images)
Wrapping materials
Decalcomania
Catalogs
Packaging materials
Date:
1927 - 1991
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of photographs related to the Good Humor Company and its products, game shows using Good Humor products, and celebrities (such as Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower) eating Good Humor products. There are also articles about Good Humor, product catalogs, training manuals, cartoons, brochures, decals, and samples of product packaging. Audiovisual materials include audio discs and videotapes.

Series 1, Sales and Business Materials, 1927-1991, includes articles about Good Humor, Incorporated, manuals for training and sales presentations, promotional literature and artwork, advertisements, advertising storyboards, product decals and ice cream sticks, cartoons, and the Little Golden Book The Good Humor Man.

Series 2, Packaging, 1968-1981, consists of labels, wrappers and boxes for Good Humor products and some of its competitors.

Series 3, Photographs, 1931-1971 consists of images of Good Humor factories; salesmen; vehicles; employees; equipment; Good Humor products featured on "Wonderama," "The Alan Burke Show," and "To Tell the Truth;" and Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower eating Good Humor ice cream. Many of the photographs were taken by Tim Murtagh of New York City, International News Photos, N. Lazarnick, commercial photographer of New York City, Alex Siodmak of New York City, Standard Flashlight Company of New York City, Kaufman and Fabry Company Photographers, and Alexandre's Photo Studio.

Series 4, Audiovisual Materials is composed of two subseries. Subseries A, Audio Discs, undated contains two 78 R.P.M. discs titled Gaytime Wild Cherry and Gaytime Thunderball, and Subseries B, Videotape, undated, consists of two copies of public relations material about Good Humor.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1, Sales and Business Materials, 1927-1991

Series 2, Packaging, 1968-1981

Subseries 1, Labels, undated

Subseries 2, Wrappers, 1968-1981

Subseries 3, Boxes, undated

Series 3, Photographs, 1931-1971

Series 4, Audiovisual, undated

Subseries 1, Audio Discs, undated

Subseries 2, Videotape, undated
Related Materials:
Material at the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry

The Division of Work and Industry holds related artifacts (push cart, a cap, a money bag, a hat, a belt, an apron, a coin, buttons, emblems, a tape measure, and a truck). See Accession numbers 1993.0075; 1994.0143; 2000.0264; and 2002.3025.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Gold Bond-Good Humor Ice Cream, through Lawrence Link on June 18, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television broadcasting  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Game shows -- Television  Search this
Packaging -- 1930-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
Pamphlets -- 1930-1950
Sound recordings -- 1930-1950
Sales catalogs -- 1930-1950
Training manuals -- 1930-1950
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 1930-1960
Wrapping materials -- 1930-1950
Decalcomania -- 1930-1950
Catalogs -- 1930-1950
Packaging materials -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection, circa 1927-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0451
See more items in:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0451
Online Media:

Lance Borman / Baby Parade / Lake Mohawk [ink on verso)] [photoprint]

Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Borman, Lance  Search this
Collection Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Lake Mohawk (N.J.)
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Date:
July 1947
Scope and Contents:
Photograph of child, wearing Good Humor unifrom and cap, in toy truck with "Good Humors" [sic] ice cream sign. Photographer unidentified. Lake Mohawk, New Jersey?
Local Numbers:
AC0451-000003.tif (AC scan no.)

92-11717 (OIPP Neg.)
Exhibitions Note:
Copy print on exhibit in NMAH cafeteria, beginning 1996/04/08.
Related Materials:
In Box 1, folder 6.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Uniforms -- Children  Search this
Trucks  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Parades -- 1940-1950  Search this
Toys  Search this
Children -- 1940-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection, circa 1927-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection / Series 3: Photographs / Good Humor, Inc. vehicles
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0451-ref684

[Dwight D. Eisenhower eating Good Humor ice cream bar : black-and-white photoprint.]

Creator:
International News Photos (agency)  Search this
Advertiser:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969  Search this
Collection Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Stamped on verso, "International News Photos / 245 East 45th Street, New York 17, N.Y." Photographer unidentified. This print is a cropped, enlarged version of AC0451-0000037.tif (printed from the same negative).
Local Numbers:
92-11721 (Neg. No.), AC0451-0000039.tif
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
SI Neg. No. 92-11721. Probable copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Snack foods  Search this
Food -- 1940-1960  Search this
Ice cream, ices, etc.  Search this
Presidents -- United States  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection, circa 1927-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection / Series 3: Photographs / Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0451-ref685

[Mamie Eisenhower eating Good Humor ice cream bar : photoprint.]

Creator:
International News Photos  Search this
Advertiser:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Stamped on verso, "International News Photos / 245 East 45th Street, New York 17, N.Y." Photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
AC0451-0000038.tif
Related Materials:
In Box 1, folder 7.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
SI Neg. No. 92-11720. Possible copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Presidents' spouses -- United States  Search this
Snack foods  Search this
Food -- 1940-1960  Search this
Ice cream, ices, etc.  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection, circa 1927-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection / Series 3: Photographs / Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0451-ref686

[Good Humor vendor with pushcart : photoprint,]

Creator:
International News Photos  Search this
Advertiser:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1961
Scope and Contents:
Photographer unidentified. Vendor wears uniform and money-changer device on belt.
Local Numbers:
04045107.tif

92-11719 (OIPP Neg. No.)
Exhibitions Note:
Copy print on exhibit in NMAH cafeteria, beginning 1996/04/08.
Related Materials:
In Box 1, folder 7?
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
SI Neg. No. 92-11719. Possible copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Snack foods  Search this
Ice cream, ices, etc.  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Street vendors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection, circa 1927-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection / Series 3: Photographs / Salesmen
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0451-ref687

[Dwight Eisenhower eating an ice cream bar : black-and-white photoprint]

Creator:
International News Photos of New York (agency)  Search this
Names:
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969  Search this
Collection Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (10" x 8".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
Ca. 1950-1960
Scope and Contents:
Dwight Eisenhower, in a sport jacket and tie, eating an ice cream bar outdoors. See also an enlarged, cropped print from the same negative, AC0451-0000039.tif.
Local Numbers:
AC0451-0000037.tif (AC Scan)
General:
In Box 1, Folder 7.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ice cream bars  Search this
Snack foods  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ice cream, ices, etc.  Search this
Food -- 1940-1960  Search this
Presidents -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection, circa 1927-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection / Series 3: Photographs / Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0451-ref688

Doumar's famous pure food cones filled with Montauk ice cream: glass plate black-and-white negative]

Collector:
Naff, Alixa, 1919-2013  Search this
Names:
Doumar family  Search this
Collection Creator:
Naff, Alixa, 1919-2013  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (7.9" x 10.0".)
Culture:
Arab Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Norfolk (Va.)
Virginia -- 1900-1950
Date:
Circa 1920
Scope and Contents:
Doumar ice cream stand and six employees.
Arrangement:
Series 12, box 14, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0078-0000014 (AC Scan No.)

94-5564 (OPS neg no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ice cream, ices, etc.  Search this
Concessions (Amusements, etc.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1910-1920 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab American Collection
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab American Collection / Series 2: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0078-ref4330

[George Elicas Doumar using waffle cone making machine: black-and-white glass plate negative.]

Collector:
Naff, Alixa, 1919-2013  Search this
Names:
Doumar family  Search this
Doumar, George Elicas  Search this
Collection Creator:
Naff, Alixa, 1919-2013  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (7.9" x 9.9".)
Culture:
Arab Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Norfolk (Va.)
Virginia -- 1900-1950
Date:
1920
Scope and Contents:
Doumar ice cream stand waffle making machine at Ocean View Park, Norfolk, Virginia. "This cone machine was the latest thing 1919 and made the hand machines obsolete." Photographer unidentified.
Arrangement:
Series 12, box 14, folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0078-0000017.tif (AC Scan No.)

94-5547 (OPS neg no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ice cream, ices, etc.  Search this
Concessions (Amusements, etc.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1910-1920 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab American Collection
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab American Collection / Series 2: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0078-ref4331

[Interior of Doumar ice cream stand at Ocean View Park, Norfolk, Virginia : b&w photoprint.]

Collector:
Naff, Alixa, 1919-2013  Search this
Names:
Doumar family  Search this
Collection Creator:
Naff, Alixa, 1919-2013  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5.2" x 7.3".)
Culture:
Arab Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Virginia -- 1900-1950
Norfolk (Va.)
Date:
1922
Scope and Contents:
George Elicas Doumar using the 12 iron semi automatic waffle cone making machine, Elmer Handy, Jeo Blake, and unknown man using the four iron hand waffle cone machines.
Arrangement:
Series 12, box 7.
Local Numbers:
AC0078-0000024 (AC Scan No.)

94-7637 (OPS neg no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ice cream, ices, etc.  Search this
Concessions (Amusements, etc.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1910-1920 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab American Collection
Faris and Yamna Naff Arab American Collection / Series 2: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0078-ref4332

[Trade catalogs from Palmer Thermometers, Inc]

Variant company name:
History from the company's website http://www.palmerwahl.com/_palmerCompanyProfile.php : "America's first thermometer company originated in Cincinnati, OH in 1836. Since that time, Palmer Instruments has steadily evolved through product development geared exclusively towards industrial supply and process measurement. From development of the "Foster Cup" thermometer in 1880, through the radical improvement of thermometer legibility by the patented "Red Reading Mercury" tube in 1929, to today's temperature and pressure measurement innovations, Palmer has always maintained the "first" tradition by bringing instrument value, service and quality to a broad range of industries. Operating from a new facility in Asheville, NC since 1987, Palmer has developed special-application products such as Dual-Sensing and "Slip-fit" thermometers, and pioneered new industry services such as free lifetime recalibration on pressure gauges. With the recent affiliation with Wahl Instruments, and resulting consolidation of manufacturing in Asheville, Palmer Instruments looks first to the future."  Search this
Company Name:
Palmer Thermometers, Inc  Search this
Related companies:
Palmer Instruments, Inc.; Palmer Wahl Instrumentation Group; also in St. Bernard, Ohio  Search this
Notes content:
Circa 1920 catalog (No. 46) for high grade Palmer Thermometers for all Industrial and Commercial purposes: refrigeration, brine, cold storage, shiphold, feed water and hygrometers. Circa 1935 bulletin (No. 500) for a self-contained motor operated aspirating psychrometer with "red-reading mercury" thermometers. Catalog (No. 7000-A) for Milk and Ice Cream Industrial Thermometers: vat, milk line, pasturizing. Circa 1935 catalog (No. 900-A) for breweries and distilleries industrial thermometers: for wood tanks, for glass-lined metal tanks, ebulliometer. Circa 1935 catalog (No. 300-A) for Chemical and Oil industrial thermometers: titer test, meat testing, asphalt testing and dry kiln. Circa 1935 catalog (No. 300-B) for Chemical and Oil industrial thermometers similar to above. Circa 1936 catalog (No. 6000-A) for Bakers and Confectioners is similar to above. Circa 1935 catalog (No. 900-A) for Breweries and Distilleries thermometers similar to above. Circa 1935 catalog (No. 6000) for Bakers and Confectioners industries: dough, yeast testing , oven , candy , kettle , bread . Circa 1936 catalog (No. 200-C) for industrial indicating thermometers: ie flue gas thermometers , molten metal thermometers , air duct thermometers , shiphold thermometers , hygrometer for testing humidity . Circa 1939 catalog No. 300-C for red reading mercury thermometers for the chemical, oil and various industries, includes a ham boiling or cooking thermometer. May 1939 catalog for Dairy and Ice Cream Industries thermometers, includes vat thermometers , foam and air space thermometers , pasturizing thermometers , milk inspectors thermometers , brine tank thermometers and small case thermometers for ice cream freezers. Circa 1940 flyer called "Silent Testimony" for red column mercury thermometers. Circa 1940 catalog (No. 1000) illustrating thermometers for canners and preservers: for retorts and process kettles, cookers, exhausters , sterilizers , preserving , scalding tanks, solder pots and can soldering . Circa 1940 thermometers general catalog (no. 200-F): molten metal thermometer, solder bath thermometers, lead bath thermometers, recording thermometers, dial thermometers. Circa 1942 catalog (no. 300-D) for chemical , oil and various industries. Group of circa 1949-1952 catalogs bound together, entitled, "Palmer: Industrial, Recording and Dial Thermometers." Terms: psycrometer, hygrometer, 'red-reading mercury" and thermometers for dairy processing .
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
17 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Refrigeration and ice-making equipment  Search this
Foods and beverage products and processing equipment (including brewing; distilleries; beer; wine; etc.)  Search this
Furnaces and boilers  Search this
Agricultural tools and machinery  Search this
Hardware and hand tools  Search this
Measuring; calculating and testing devices  Search this
Heating; ventilation and air conditioning  Search this
Farm equipment and supplies (including dairy and poultry equipment)  Search this
Topic:
Agricultural implements  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Air conditioning  Search this
Beverage industry  Search this
Boilers  Search this
Calculators  Search this
Dairying  Search this
Distilleries  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Furnaces  Search this
Hardware  Search this
Heating  Search this
Heating and ventilation industry  Search this
Ice -- Manufacture  Search this
Measuring instruments  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery  Search this
Tools  Search this
Ventilation  Search this
Weighing instruments  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_28147
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_28147

[Trade catalogs from Lily-Tulip Cup Corp.]

Variant company name:
Multiple locations: Los Angeles, CA ; Kansas City, MO  Search this
Company Name:
Lily-Tulip Cup Corp.  Search this
Related companies:
Ice Cream Div.  Search this
Notes content:
Paper drinking cups and food packaging ; "Paper Cups-Essential in War" ; paper portion control cups for food rationing ; cup dispensers ; souffle cups ; "Pack a Lunch a Man Can Work On!" wartime nutrition of workers ; "kitchen soldiers" "war workers' wives" ; "Respiratory Infections: Their Control in Industry" by Helen Morgan Hall , encouraging use of paper cups and utensils ; "Ice Cream Field" ice cream industry publication ; health and paper cups .
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
22 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
New York, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Medical and surgical instruments and supplies  Search this
Foods and beverage products and processing equipment (including brewing; distilleries; beer; wine; etc.)  Search this
Printing; publishing; paper and bookselling (including type specimens)  Search this
Military equipment and supplies (including uniforms)  Search this
Topic:
Armed Forces -- Equipment  Search this
Beverage industry  Search this
Book industries and trade  Search this
Distilleries  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Military supplies  Search this
Military uniforms  Search this
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Publishers and publishing  Search this
Surgical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_26823
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_26823

[Trade catalogs from James H. Randall & Son, Ltd.]

Variant company name:
Founded 1851 ; also called "J.H. Randall & Son ;  Search this
Company Name:
James H. Randall & Son, Ltd.  Search this
Related companies:
Randall Org. ; Randalrak Ltd. ;  Search this
Notes content:
photos of women of the 1950's ; firm was founded by Robert Randall ; James Randall is the third Randall ; equipment for motor, aircraft, catering, electrical, mining trades ; containers for ice cream industry ; Randalrak Co. was launched for storage equipment, trolleys, and benches ; storage vats, gramophone horns, heating appliances, metal tubing, canteen equipment, library shelving, hydraulic equipment, street lighting equipment ; office cabinets ; tinning and metalwork ; some interesting early 1900's photos of factory scenes and workers ;
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
15 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
London, United Kingdom
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Furnaces and boilers  Search this
Military equipment and supplies (including uniforms)  Search this
Carriages; wagons and accessories  Search this
Hardware and hand tools  Search this
Refrigeration and ice-making equipment  Search this
Electrical apparatus and equipment  Search this
Iron and steel products (castings; sheet steel; steel wire; wire rope; pig iron and structural steel products )  Search this
Foods and beverage products and processing equipment (including brewing; distilleries; beer; wine; etc.)  Search this
Ceramics; pottery; glass; crystal; china; bricks; and stones  Search this
Sound recording and playback equipment (including phonographs; microphones; and phonograph records)  Search this
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Office equipment and supplies  Search this
Textiles and textile machinery  Search this
Automobiles and automotive equipment (including trucks and buses)  Search this
Furniture and furnishings  Search this
Pumping machinery and air compressors  Search this
Heating; ventilation and air conditioning  Search this
Appliances (household)  Search this
Machine tools and metalworking equipment  Search this
Engines and motors: steam; oil; gas; etc.  Search this
Refinery equipment  Search this
Woodworking machinery and wood crafts  Search this
Brass; bronze and specialty metals  Search this
Library equipment and supplies  Search this
Metalwork products (architectural and ornamental)  Search this
Camping equipment  Search this
Hotel; bar and restaurant supplies  Search this
Industrial equipment or mechanical machinery (including supplies and components)  Search this
Cutlery  Search this
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Foundries; supplies and equipment  Search this
Aviation (aircraft; balloons; etc.)  Search this
Mills and milling supplies  Search this
Lighting (electric; gas; candle; oil; etc.)  Search this
Materials handling equipment (includes barrels; bottling and filling; casters; chains; etc.)  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
"Hotels -- Furniture, equipment, etc."  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air conditioning  Search this
Air-compressors  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Architectural metal-work  Search this
Armed Forces -- Equipment  Search this
Art metal-work  Search this
Audio equipment industry  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Barrels  Search this
Bars (Drinking establishments)  Search this
Beverage industry  Search this
Boilers  Search this
Bottling  Search this
Brass  Search this
Bronze  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Camping equipment industry  Search this
Candles  Search this
Carriage and wagon making  Search this
Carriages and carts  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_8999
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_8999

We all scream : the fall of the Gifford's Ice Cream empire / Andrew Gifford

Author:
Gifford, Andrew 1974-  Search this
Subject:
Gifford, Andrew 1974-  Search this
Gifford's Ice Cream & Candy Co  Search this
Physical description:
285 pages : illustrations ; 22 cm
Type:
Biography
Autobiographies
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
2017
Topic:
Businesspeople  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ice cream parlors  Search this
Business failures  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1092285

I Scream, You Scream: A Vanilla Ice Cream Shortage Is Looming

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Mon, 04 Apr 2016 15:10:46 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_ea07990138791beb95b56a753a7830d1

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