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.002, [Charles Francis Hall's Diary]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 14.0" x 8.5".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
circa 1860
undated
Scope and Contents:
Journal with preparations for Charles Francis Hall's first expedition.
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000019
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref11
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  • View .002, [Charles Francis Hall's Diary] digital asset number 1

.003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 17.0" x 11".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1858 - 1863
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbook of Newspaper clippings on polar exploration.
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000020
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref12
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  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 1
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 2
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 3
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 4
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 5
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 6
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 7
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 8
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 9
  • View .003, [Charles Francis Hall's Scrapbook] digital asset number 10

.004, [Charles Francis Hall's Journal]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 17.0" x 11".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1860 February-1860 March
[1860.]
Scope and Contents:
Journal for the months preceeding Hall's first expedition, with newspaper clippings.
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000021
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref13
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  • View .004, [Charles Francis Hall's Journal] digital asset number 3
  • View .004, [Charles Francis Hall's Journal] digital asset number 4

.012, [Charles Francis Hall's Expedition Diary 1]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 8.0" x 6.0".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1860 June-1860 July
1860 June 17 - 1860 July 15
Scope and Contents:
Diary written during Hall's first Arctic expedition.
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000002
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref18
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  • View .012, [Charles Francis Hall's Expedition Diary 1] digital asset number 1
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  • View .012, [Charles Francis Hall's Expedition Diary 1] digital asset number 3
Online Media:

.014, [Charles Francis Hall Expedition Diary Volume III, First Expedition]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 9.5" x 12.2".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1860 August-1860 November
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000004
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref20
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  • View .014, [Charles Francis Hall Expedition Diary Volume III, First Expedition] digital asset number 1

.021, [Charles Francis Hall Journal]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5.4" x 8.3".)
Container:
Box 2, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
1861 August-1861 October
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000008
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref27
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  • View .021, [Charles Francis Hall Journal] digital asset number 1

.007, [Volume 2 of Charles Francis Hall's Notes on Arctic Explorers]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 17.0" x 11".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
circa 1860
Scope and Contents:
Second volume of four notebooks on arctic explorers in preparation for Hall's 1st expedition.
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000024
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Charles Francis Hall Collection / .006-.009, Four notebooks with notes on other arctic explorers, in preparation for Hall's 1st expedition
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref636
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.009, [Volume 4 of Charles Francis Hall's Notes on Arctic Explorers]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 17.0" x 11".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
circa 1860
Scope and Contents:
Fourth volume of four notebooks on arctic explorers in preparation for Hall's 1st expedition.
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000026
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Charles Francis Hall Collection / .006-.009, Four notebooks with notes on other arctic explorers, in preparation for Hall's 1st expedition
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref638
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  • View .009, [Volume 4 of Charles Francis Hall's Notes on Arctic Explorers] digital asset number 3
  • View .009, [Volume 4 of Charles Francis Hall's Notes on Arctic Explorers] digital asset number 4

Arctic Explorers preparing for the long winter--historic Cape Sabine and Baffin Bay. (79 degrees N. lat.). Caption 4686 : interpositive

Topic:
THE ARCTIC REGIONS
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Baffin Bay (Canada)
Canada
Cape Sabine (Canada)
Local Numbers:
RSN 26499
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.49 [98].
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bays -- Canada  Search this
Boats -- Canada  Search this
Camps -- Canada  Search this
Dogs -- Glass -- 1890-1920  Search this
Explorers -- Canada  Search this
Ice -- Canada  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1890-1920 -- Interpositives -- Glass.
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26493-26599
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24258

Cape Sabine and Baffin Bay--The Peary Ship "Diana" putting into Winter Quarters (1899). [Active no. 4690 : interpositive,]

Topic:
THE ARCTIC REGIONS
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Diana (Ship)  Search this
Peary, R. E. (Robert Edwin), 1856-1920  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Baffin Bay (Canada)
Canada
Cape Sabine (Canada)
Ellesmere Land (Canada)
Date:
1899
Local Numbers:
RSN 26501
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.49 [98].
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bays -- Canada  Search this
Explorers -- Canada  Search this
Ice -- Canada  Search this
Ships -- Canada  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1890-1900 -- Interpositives -- Glass.
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26493-26599
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24260

During the Arctic's long summer day--Esquimaux homes, Peteravik, Ellesmere Land (79 degree N. lat.). 4692 interpositive

Topic:
THE ARCTIC REGIONS
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Canada
Ellesmere Land (Canada)
Peteravik
Local Numbers:
RSN 26502
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.49 [98].
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Eskimos -- Canada  Search this
Boats -- Canada  Search this
Dwellings -- Canada  Search this
Homes -- Canada  Search this
Ice -- Canada  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26493-26599
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24261

The whalers "Diana" and "Nova Zembla," cruising in the Arctics--Dexterity Harbor and Baffin Land. 4698 Interpositive

Topic:
THE ARCTIC REGIONS
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Diana (Ship)  Search this
Nova Zembla (Ship)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Arctic (Canada)
Baffin Land
Dexterity Harbor (Canada)
Local Numbers:
RSN 26506
General:
Similar to RSN 14094 and 20303.
Currently stored in box 3.2.49 [98].
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Harbors -- Canada  Search this
Ice -- Canada  Search this
Islands -- Canada  Search this
Ships -- Canada  Search this
Whalers -- Canada  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26493-26599
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24265

William Babcock Hazen Papers

Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diplomas
Military commissions
Legal documents
Correspondence
Cartes-de-visite
Place:
Greenland -- Exploration
Date:
1855-1909
Summary:
Papers document General William Babcock Hazen's military career, primarily through correspondence, photographs, and publications.
Scope and Contents:
The General William Babcock Hazen Collection, 1856-1905, consists of approximately four cubic feet of material. Collection materials include biographical, correspondence (military and family), documents on the Greely Arctic Expedition, photographs, stereographs, and material on General Hazen's book, A Narrative of Military Service.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1885-1867

Series 2, Correspondence and Military Forms 1856-1886 and undated

Series 3, Correspondence to General William Babcock Hazen, 1861-1887

Series 4, Correspondence of Hazen Family, 1858-1909

Series 5, Photographs, 1864-1881

Series 6, Publications, 1865-1886
Biographical / Historical:
General William Babcock Hazen was born September 27, 1830 in West Hartford, Vermont. Four years later, the family moved to a farm outside Hiram, Portage County, Ohio where he attended school with James A. Garfield. Hazen's goal was service in the Army, and he wrote his congressman for admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point. Hazen graduated in 1855, twenty-eighth out of a class of thirty-four.

After graduation, General Hazen was assigned as Brevet Second Lieutenant, Company D, Fourth Infantry, Redding, California. After arriving in California, he was ordered to Fort Lane in the Oregon Territory. Lieutenant Hazen was authorized to establish a command at Grand Ronde and build a blockhouse that became the post Fort Yamhill, located west of Portland, Oregon. On April 20, 1857, he was transferred to Fort Jones, California, and then ordered to join the Eighth Infantry, Fort Davis, Texas. Hazen was transferred to Fort Inge, Texas, to protect a road from San Antonio to Eagle Pass. During a chase, Hazen was wounded by a bullet that was not removed. The lingering effect of the bullet wound would cause him frequent pain.

During the period of service in Texas, Hazen reportedly gained leadership experience, practical military knowledge, and considerable confidence in his own abilities. Following twelve months of convalescence, Hazen was nominated assistant instructor of military tactics at West Point on January 28, 1861. He was promoted to First Lieutenant on April 1861 and captain on May 14, 1861. Colonel James A. Garfield influenced the appointment of Hazen as colonel in command of the newly organized forty-first Ohio Volunteer Regiment. Hazen quickly transformed the regiment's inexperienced personnel into a firmly disciplined body. The intensive training paid large dividends later in the war, and he always held the regiment in high regard.

As brigade and division commander, General Hazen led troops in many important battles and campaigns: Shiloh (Place of Peace), Stones River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, Resaca, Picketts Mill, Jonesboro, Fort McAllister, and Bentonville. On December 13, 1864, Hazen was appointed a major general of volunteers in recognition of long and faithful service and the capture of Fort McAllister. It was after the performance of his troops at Fort McAllister that a friendly relationship developed with General William T. Sherman. With the capitulation of the Confederate armies in spring of 1865, Hazen's division and the Army of the Tennessee left North Carolina where they saw their last fighting. The destination was Washington, D.C., site of a two-day grand review of the victorious Union Armies. On May 19, 1865 Hazen was elevated to commander of the Fifteenth Corps. After a thirty day furlough, he held command of the District of Middle Tennessee until the following summer. In July 1866, Hazen returned west.

In August 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant granted Hazen indefinite leave to observe the Franco-Prussian War. He viewed several battles and personally interviewed Otto von Bismarck and General Helmut von Moltke. Observations and research convinced Hazen that the United States Army was mismanaged and lacked tactical and logistical organization.

Before returning to the Sixth Infantry command, Hazen married Mildred McLean, the twenty-one year-old daughter of prominent Cincinnati Enquirer owner Washington McLean. A son John was born in 1876, but died at the age of twenty-two in 1898.

In June 1877, Hazen was appointed military attaché to the United States Legation in Vienna, Austria, and assigned as military observer of the Russo-Turkish War that had started in April 1877.

In 1878 Colonel Stanley accused Colonel Hazen of perjury and cowardice in the Civil War and requested a court-martial. Colonel Hazen retaliated by formally requesting that Stanley be arraigned by a court-martial on charges of publishing and circulating libelous material against him. On March 19, 1879, General Sherman reluctantly recommended that both generals be arraigned by the same court-martial. The New York Tribune reported "inasmuch as by the decisions of the court-martial Hazen has secured a substantial vindication." Hazen returned to Fort Buford.

While on detached service in Washington, D.C., Hazen actively campaigned for James A. Garfield for president. On August 24, 1880, General Albert James Myer, Chief of the Army Signal Corps, died, opening up a staff position subject to presidential appointment. President Rutherford B. Hayes, after consulting with President-elect Garfield, announced the promotion of Hazen to the rank of brigadier general and appointment as chief signal officer. One of Hazen's lasting legacies in this new role was advancing the development of meteorological science in the Army Signal Corps.

In May 1880, Lady Franklin Bay in northern Canada was chosen as the site for a signal service polar station, one of several conducted by eleven nations for the first International Polar Year (1882-1883). The initial two-year expedition set out in 1881 under the command of Regular Army First Lieutenant Adolphus W. Greely, a Civil War veteran from Massachusetts. The twenty-five man party did not get relief from the long winter in 1882, and a second rescue attempt was disrupted by ice. In September 1883, Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln, decided it was too late to send another relief party and they were left to spend a third winter in the Arctic. The demoralized party was forced to march south in search of supplies and landed at Cape Sabine, spending the next eight months in desperate circumstances. In June 1884, rescuers finally reached them and found only Greely and seven others alive. The remaining expedition members froze or starved to death.

Hazen never forgave Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln for his inaction with the Greely Arctic Expedition, and in 1884 Lincoln censured Hazen for his criticism. Hazen replied to Lincoln by letter, which was returned with a warning to keep the matter private. Hazen went to the press and stated in a published account that he wrote such a letter. He immediately found himself ordered before another court-martial, resulting in a reprimand by President Chester A. Arthur for "unwarranted and captious criticism." Greely supported Hazen's position. In 1885, Hazen produced A Narrative of Military Service, a report devoted to the defense of his Civil War record and personal reputation.

Health problems-diabetes and recurring pain from his bullet wound-forced Hazen to obtain a 12-month leave of absence from his military service. On January 13, 1887, he attended a White House reception where he caught a cold. He died on January 16, 1887, at the age of fifty-six.
Provenance:
In 1985, the Smithsonian received from the Estate of Fredrick McLean Bugher, grandnephew of General Hazen's wife Mildred McLean Hazen, manuscripts and letters concerning General Hazen. Part of the collection was rescued by a private individual from a Lorton, Virginia land fill and sold to the Smithsonian in 1987 in two sections. The first section contained material about the career of General William Babcock Hazen as chief signal officer of the United States Army. The second section contained manuscript materials related to Hazen's duties on the frontier and Indian tribes covering the period of 1855 to 1860, and from 1866 to 1880. Also included are family letters and land holdings in the Midwest.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration -- 1880-1890  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diplomas
Military commissions
Legal documents
Correspondence -- 1850-1900
Cartes-de-visite
Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0427
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0427
Online Media:

Medal, American Defense Service Medal, Bernt Balchan

Materials:
Copper Alloy
Silk
Dimensions:
3-D (Individual Decoration): 7.6 × 3.8 × 0.5cm (3 × 1 1/2 × 3/16 in.)
3-D (Grouping): 8.3 × 14 × 1.3cm (3 1/4 × 5 1/2 × 1/2 in.)
Storage: 19.5 × 15.2 × 6.4cm (7 11/16 × 6 × 2 1/2 in.)
Type:
AWARDS-Medals & Ribbons
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Donated by Mrs. Audrey Balchen
Inventory Number:
A19950120000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98d11da5c-f32c-4161-bd80-1fbcb4dbbb02
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19950120000
Online Media:

Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, Bernt Balchen

Materials:
Copper Alloy
Silk
Dimensions:
3-D (Individual Decoration): 7.6 × 3.2 × 0.5cm (3 × 1 1/4 × 3/16 in.)
3-D (Grouping): 8.9 × 14 × 1.3cm (3 1/2 × 5 1/2 × 1/2 in.)
Storage: 19.5 × 15.2 × 6.4cm (7 11/16 × 6 × 2 1/2 in.)
Type:
AWARDS-Medals & Ribbons
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Donated by Mrs. Audrey Balchen
Inventory Number:
A19950122000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9680d73bf-f0ed-445f-ab3d-ae50666eaf6d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19950122000
Online Media:

Medal, King Christian X Medal of Freedom

Materials:
Silver
Silk
Copper Alloy
Dimensions:
3-D (Individual Decoration): 8.3 × 2.5 × 0.5cm (3 1/4 × 1 × 3/16 in.)
3-D (Grouping): 8.3 × 14 × 1.3cm (3 1/4 × 5 1/2 × 1/2 in.)
Storage: 19.5 × 15.2 × 6.4cm (7 11/16 × 6 × 2 1/2 in.)
Type:
AWARDS-Medals & Ribbons
Country of Origin:
Denmark
Credit Line:
Donated by Mrs. Audrey Balchen
Inventory Number:
A19950124000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv924158408-b2ce-472d-91a1-13b4fe2a8b68
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19950124000
Online Media:

Medal, Defence Medal 1940-1945

Materials:
Copper Alloy
Silk
Dimensions:
3-D (Individual Decoration): 8.1 × 3.5 × 0.5cm (3 3/16 × 1 3/8 × 3/16 in.)
3-D (Grouping): 8.3 × 14 × 1.3cm (3 1/4 × 5 1/2 × 1/2 in.)
Type:
AWARDS-Medals & Ribbons
Country of Origin:
Denmark
Credit Line:
Donated by Mrs. Audrey Balchen
Inventory Number:
A19950125000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9bf2a7d99-d285-4db2-b213-f724b7e80c07
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19950125000
Online Media:

Medal, American Legion Honor Victory Medal

Materials:
Silver Alloy
Synthetic Fabric
Copper Alloy
Enamel
Dimensions:
3-D: 7.9 × 3.8 × 1cm (3 1/8 × 1 1/2 × 3/8 in.)
Storage: 10.8 × 8.3 × 2.5cm (4 1/4 × 3 1/4 × 1 in.)
Type:
AWARDS-Medals & Ribbons
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Donated by Mrs. Audrey Balchen
Inventory Number:
A19950126000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9a35aea6f-bb05-4c04-ad24-fb47ed9d3b3e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19950126000
Online Media:

Medal, Liev Ericksson Association Memorial Medal

Materials:
Natural Fabric
Gold Alloy
Ink
Dimensions:
3-D: 3.5 × 0.3 × 9.2cm (1 3/8 × 1/8 × 3 5/8 in.)
Storage: 10.8 × 2.5 × 8.3cm (4 1/4 in. × 1 in. × 3 1/4 in.)
Type:
AWARDS-Medals & Ribbons
Country of Origin:
Norway
Credit Line:
Donated by Mrs. Audrey Balchen
Inventory Number:
A19950128000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9b1677400-e61f-4c0b-8646-78ee8c489338
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19950128000
Online Media:

Dog Sled Canadian Arctic

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-01-18T04:21:26.000Z
YouTube Category:
Travel & Events  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
See more by:
HSFAFilmClips
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
YouTube Channel:
HSFAFilmClips
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_kueCl26tCjE

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