Photographs made by Herman J. Viola, depicting the 1973 Institute of American Indian Art meeting, Wolf Robe Hunt and his Acoma pottery, the transfer of Blue Eagle collection from Mae Abbott home to National Anthropological archives, and the 1974 Star Hawk Pow Wow in Watonga, Oklahoma. Additionally, there are photographs of NAA staff and the 1974 Acee Blue Eagle reception at NAA, possibly made by Viola. The collection also contains some photographs of Wounded Knee taken by Rev. Salvatore Genete, and copies of official portraits of Governor Aquillar of San Ildefonso Pueblo made by Harry B. Neufeld. There are also National Archives photographs of Chinese Boxer Rebellion prints, and Young watercolors and Alden sketches of American landscapes.
Much of the collection consists of portraits of participants in the NAA's American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program made by Smithsonian photographers, including Victor Krantz. These individuals include: Harry Walters, Navajo; Anna Walters, Otoe-Pawnee; George Sutton, Southern Arapaho; Sarah Yazzie, Navajo; Rubie Sootkis, Norther Cheyenne; David Fanman, Cheyenne; Augustine Smith, Navajo; Lorraine Bigman, Navajo; Jim Jefferson, Southern Ute; Rose Marie Pierite Gallardo, Tunica-Biloxi; George Horse Capture, Gros Ventre; Violet Zospah, White Mountain Apache; Gloria Anderson, Mille Lacs; Wenonah Silva, Wampanoag; Claire Lamont, Oglala; George Wasson, Coos-Coquille; Virginia Martin, Yakama; Gary Roybal, San Ildefonso; Richard Ground, Sihasapa; Almeda Baker, Hidatsa; June Finley, Hidatsa; Lida Young Wolf, Hidatsa; Christine Webster, Menominee; Rose Marie Roybal, Puyallup; Vivienne Jake, Kaibab-Paiute; Kim Yerton, Hupa; Dean Jacobs, Ojibwa; Lois Nowlin, Shawnee; Bonita McCloud, Nisqually; Gloria Maude Blackbird Cheswalla, Osage; Emily Peake, Ojibwa; Gordon McLester, Oneida; Mary Seth, Nez Perce; Bill Tohee, Oto-Missouria; Frank LaPena, Wintu; Juanita McQuistion, Wyandot; Carson Waterman, Seneca; Elton Stumbling Bear, Kiowa Apache; Patrick Chief Stick, Chippewa-Cree; Lynne Walks-on-Top, Spokane; Ethelyn Garfield, Paiute; Nora Dauenhauer, Tlingit; Caroline B. Jones, Tulalip; Grace F. Thorpe, Sauk and Fox; Dixie Lee Davis, Yavapai; Lynn D. Pauahty, Kiowa; David Lee Harding, Ojibwa; Robert V. Bojorcas, Klamath; Patty Leah Harjo, Seneca-Cayuga; Steven DeCoteau, Clallam; Robert Van Gunten, Ojibwa; Danny K. Marshall, Steilacoom; Meredith P. Flinn, Makah; Rhonda Hulsey, Chickasaw; Betty J. Brown, Choctaw; Vernon Calavaza, Zuni; Jack Bowen Jr., Upper Skagit; and Harry William Jr., Pima.
Herman Joseph Viola is a historian of the American Indian who was director of the National Anthropological Archives from 1972-1989 and founding editor of Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives. In 1973, he launched the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, designed to entice American Indians into becoming professional archivists, librarians, curators, and historians through research and internships at the NAA.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-17
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds Viola's papers from 1980-1981.
Records relating to the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the Records of the National Anthropological Archives.
Photo lot 74-17, Herman J. Viola photograph collection of Star Hawk Pow Wow, American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, and acquisition trips for NAA, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The papers collected here relate to the life and work of Wayne Wolf Robe Hunt, a full-blood Acoma Indian (1905-1977). Born on the Acoma Reservation, Wolf Robe was the son of Chief Day Break (Edward Proctor Hunt), Chief of the Delight Makers -- a man instrumental in the improvement of relations between the Acomas and whites. His mother, Morning Star, whose own father was Governor of Acoma seven times, was a potter and weaver. Wolf Robe learned silver-smithing from his older brother on the reservation.
Wolf Robe achieved recovnition and fame for his jewelry and art work, winning the prestigious Philbrook Art Center's Grand Award in 1967. In addition, he was a businessman, with his own arts and crafts store in Tulsa, a lecturer, international traveller, author, and translator for the Bureau of American Ethnology. He assited L. A. White in his extensive studies of the Acoma Indians and made recordings for the National Anthropological Archives.
Wolf Robe was particularly interested in the preservation of tribal customs, language and culture, and devoted his own time to this and the encouragement of others in similar efforts. Of his work at BAE he said, "My work there as an interpreter is the highlight of my efforts in trying to preseve all of the rich and wholesome lore of my people."*
Not only was the preservation of the 'old ways' important to Wolf Robe, but also the representation and dissemination of his culture to whites, in an effort to promote their understanding and appreciation. He travelled all over Europe and to Australia for the Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, representing the American Indian to an appreciative audience. Much of the incoming correspondence stems from his travels, as do many of the "publicity" photographs.
This collection contains the personal and business papers of a man successfully part of two worlds. Married to a white woman, and devoted to representing, at home and abroad, his tribe and all Indians to whites, Wolf Robe managed to keep close to his tribal world, and actively promoted the preservation and revitalization of his cultural heritage.
*From a biographical sketch, written by Wolf Robe in 1957
Father: Edward Proctor Hunt (Chief Day Break)
Mother: Morning Star
Brothers: Wilbert Edward Hunt (Blue Sky Eagle), Allen J. Hunt, Irvin Hunt, Alfred Hunt, Clyde Hunt (Sunny Skies)
Sisters: Evelyn Hunt Orcutt, Ida Hunt Eduriger, Josephine Hunt Johnson
Daughter: LoWayne Hunt Craig (Lo Way Ne Ma)
Grandchildren: William Bryce Cadion, Carmen LoWayne Craig
Chronology of Wolf Robe Hunt
1905 -- Born October 14, on the Acoma Reservation, New Mexico
1932 -- Married Glenal Davis
1933 -- Daughter Lo Way Ne Ma (LoWayne) born
1936 -- Opened arts and crafts studio in Tulsa, Oklahoma
1937 -- Director of Indian Dances, Boy Scout Circus Pageant St. Louis, Missouri
1953 -- Indian Arts and Crafts Director, Philbrook Art Center
1963 -- Published Dancing Horses of Acoma (illustrator, co-author)
1964 -- Trip to Germany for the Department of Agriculture
1965-1969 -- Traveled for the Department of Commerce as part of the "Made in America" tours
1967 -- Grand Award at Philbrook Art Center
1970 -- Trip to Hawaii
1973 -- Oklahoma's Outstanding Indian of the Year
1974 -- Waite Phillips Victory Trophy at Philbrook Art Center for support and encouragement of other Indian artists
1977 -- Died
The papers of Wayne Wolf Robe Hunt (1905-1977) were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in 1979 by his widow, Glenal Davis Hunt, in accordance with his wishes.
Literary property rights to unpublished portions of the collection have been given to the public.
The Wolf Robe Hunt Papers are open for research. Access to the Wolf Robe Hunt Papers requires an appointment.
Wolf Robe Hunt papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Henry Hunt (Acoma name, Ki-wa, "Growing Plant"), then 26 years old, did these drawings under the direction of his father, Edward Hunt, Acoma name, Gi-rri), who was then 67 years old and a member of the Koshari. (M. W. Stirling, transmittal note.) Henry Hunt is also known as Wayne Henry Hunt and Wolf Robe Hunt. (Jeanne O. Snodgrass, American Indian Painters, New York 1968, page 83.)
NAA MS 4290
OPPS NEG 45,014-A--H
OPPS NEG 45,014-J--O
February 22, 1993. re: reproductions of plates from BAE Bulletin 135. BAE No. Ms. entry 4290. ACOMA. Henry Hunt was the artist and NAA has a collection of his drawings including some he may have made that have not been reproduced previously, i.e. 37 ms. drawings, and BAE B. 135, 31 bxw reproductions plus the six color images reproduced in plate 1. I have not collated all of the drawings with the reproductions in the bulletin but I do know that all of the bxw reproductions are not entirely covered by OPPS negatives. The NAA copy of the BAE publication was annotated with the primary OPPS negative number and the several designations of the negatives following in letter order. Evidently two drawings were made on the same bxw negative in some cases. These negatives were not reproduced as positive copy prints and placed in the BAE reference file print collection under Acoma. Since the OPPS negative files are generally not accessible to me I cannot say for sure which negative reproduce which drawings. The BAE photographic catalog card does not currently refer the searcher back to Henry Hunt's collection of drawings. [BAE No. Ms. entry 4290. ACOMA.] The drawings were made on acidic paper and have become brown in color. The drawings were laminated between thin sheets of cellulose acetate in the 1950's probably at the National Archives. The laminate is still whole but is subject to tearing, cracking or splitting. The colors still appear to be bright and satisfactory transparencies should be obtainable. James Harwood, Reference Archivist. OPPS Neg No. 45,014