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Luis Zapata Oral History Interview

Created by:
Civil Rights History Project, American, founded 2009  Search this
Interview of:
Luis Zapata, 1944 - 2015  Search this
Interviewed by:
Dr. Emilye Crosby Ph. D., American  Search this
Subject of:
San José State University, American, founded 1857  Search this
United Farm Workers of America, American, founded 1962  Search this
Mississippi Freedom Labor Union, American, founded 1965  Search this
Council of Federated Organizations, founded 1962  Search this
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, American, 1960 - 1970s  Search this
Alphonso Michael "Mike" Espy, American, born 1953  Search this
Duration: 2 hr., 2 min., 1 sec.
Total: 199.86 GB
video recordings
oral histories
digital media - born digital
Place collected:
Silver Spring, Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Orange County, California, United States, North and Central America
San Jose, Santa Clara County, California, United States, North and Central America
Cleveland, Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States, North and Central America
June 27, 2013
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
American South  Search this
American West  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Humanitarianism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Social reform  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture in partnership with the American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
© Smithsonian National Museum of African American History & Culture and The American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
Permission required for use. Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Civil Rights History Project
Media Arts-Film and Video
Civil Rights Movement
Chicano Movement / El Movimiento
African American - Latinx Solidarity
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture

Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Project Collection

Koenig, Ruth  Search this
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 1942-  Search this
0.33 Cubic feet (1 box)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Holly Springs (Miss.) -- 1960-1970
Materials related to the Civil Rights struggle, voter registration drive in Holly Springs, summer 1964: includes diaries, correspondence, business records, periodical articles, newsletters, and ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
The Ruth Koenig collection includes personal and business correspondence, pictures, and various printed material. The collection is arranged in four series as follows:

Series 1: CORRESPONDENCE: letters to/from Ruth Koenig, "The Gang," and other people.

Series 2: BUSINESS RECORDS: organizational documents pertaining to "Friends of SNCC" and the Holly Springs Project and financial records. There is also a sub-series that holds documentation concerning SNCC, which includes press releases and Mississippi incident reports from 1964.

Series 3: EPHEMERA: two diaries written by Ruth Koenig, and transcripts of two Freedom Songs.

Series 4: PRINT MEDIA: issues of various independent and local newspapers including the Student Voice and the South Reporter; also clippings pertaining to the Mississippi Summer Project from national newspapers and magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1964, the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project was established by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), an alliance of four civil rights groups: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE); and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The purpose of the Freedom Summer was to develop a unified voter registration program in Mississippi to support the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) at the National Democratic Convention in Atlantic City. Furthermore, COFO hoped to attract the government and nation's attention through the help of hundreds of predominately northern, white students.

Lasting from late June to mid-August 1964, the Freedom Summer Project was closely followed by the northern media, and grabbed the attention of the New Left. Ultimately, the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project established a black political presence in the state of Mississippi, as well as organized various programs including the Freedom Schools and Community Centers.

Ruth Koenig was a 23-year-old schoolteacher from Schenectady, New York, when she volunteered for the Mississippi Freedom Summer in Holly Springs, Mississippi. She stated that it was the 1963 Birmingham bombing which compelled her to participate in the Freedom Summer. During her three months in Mississippi, Koenig taught at the Freedom Schools, signed new members for the MFDP, and helped to organize voter registration drives. In 1966, Koenig returned to Mississippi to observe the changes she helped to generate through her participation in the Mississippi Freedom Summer. Since that time, she has worked predominately in the education field, and has continued to rally for human rights, as well as environmental and peace issues.
Related Materials:
Ruth Koenig Papers [unprocessed manuscript collection], University of Southern Mississippi, McCain Library and Archives, accession number: AM01-114.
The Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Collection was donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1996 by Bernice Johnson Reagon.
Collection is open for research.
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Human Rights -- 1960-1970  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements -- 1960-1970 -- Mississippi  Search this
Political rights -- 1960-1970  Search this
Voter registration -- 1960-1970 -- Mississippi  Search this
African Americans -- Civil rights  Search this
State action (Civil rights) -- Mississippi  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Correspondence -- 1960-1970
Articles -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Newsletters -- 1960-1970
Diaries -- 20th century
The Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Project Collection, 1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Project Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Online Media:

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