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[Trade catalogs from Heywood-Wakefield Streamline Maple]

Variant company name:
Established 1826; Jane's office ; Modern American home  Search this
Company Name:
Heywood-Wakefield Streamline Maple  Search this
Related companies:
Heywood-Wakefield  Search this
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Gardner, Massachusetts, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Furniture and furnishings  Search this
Topic:
Furniture industry and trade  Search this
House furnishings  Search this
Interior decoration  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10234
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10234

[Trade catalogs from Gordon-Van Tine Co.]

Variant company name:
Modern American Home  Search this
Company Name:
Gordon-Van Tine Co.  Search this
Notes content:
for homebuilders, high quality millwork, lumber, roofing, paint and hardware
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Davenport, Iowa, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Furniture and furnishings  Search this
Paint; varnishes; adhesives; coatings; etc.  Search this
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Adhesives  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Furniture industry and trade  Search this
House furnishings  Search this
Interior decoration  Search this
Paint industry and trade  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10231
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10231

[Trade catalogs from Highbee's]

Company Name:
Highbee's  Search this
Notes content:
clothing ; accessories ; glassware ; ceramics ; decor ; furnishings
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Color images
Physical description:
2 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Clothing (including hats; shoes; accessories; etc)  Search this
Department store; dry goods and mail order catalogs  Search this
Foods and beverage products and processing equipment (including brewing; distilleries; beer; wine; etc.)  Search this
Furniture and furnishings  Search this
Topic:
Beverage industry  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Commercial catalogs  Search this
Department stores  Search this
Distilleries  Search this
Dress accessories  Search this
Dry-goods  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Furniture industry and trade  Search this
Hats  Search this
House furnishings  Search this
Interior decoration  Search this
Shoes  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_42655
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_42655

Grace Nicholson: Inventories and Clippings

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 262A, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1928 - 1968
Restrictions:
Image number 011 "Holiday Handcraft" has been removed from the slideshow due to culutral sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref14859
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[Celine Baekeland in bedroom]

Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper, 5.1" x 7.1")
Container:
Box 45, Envelope 9-10
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
A stereograph of Celine in front of a bedroom window at Snug Rock; Yonkers, New York.
Local Numbers:
AC0005-0000081.tif (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with gloves unless protected by sleeves. Unrestricted research use on site by appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
House furnishings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Leo H. Baekeland Papers / Series 11: Photographs, Film Negatives, Photoprints, Stereographs and Glass Plate Negatives / 11.3: Photoprints / Snug Rock, Celine in master bedroom
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref3071

The Crisis, Vol. 2, No. 4

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Illustrated by:
John Henry Adams Jr., American, 1880 - 1944  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 3/4 × 6 7/8 in. (24.8 × 17.5 cm)
H x W (Open): 9 3/4 × 13 5/8 in. (24.8 × 34.6 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Mali, West Africa, Africa
Ethiopia, East Africa, Africa
Europe
Okema, Okfuskee County, Oklahoma, United States, North and Central America
Date:
August 1911
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Africa  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Education  Search this
French colonialism  Search this
Literature  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.14.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d1a31b3f-4025-4ffb-8eda-5497427ffefa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.14.1
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Inside a Hopi house furnished with Indian rugs, pottery and baskets. 9483 Interpositive

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Hopi Indians -- Arizona
Arizona
Grand Canyon (Arizona)
Local Numbers:
RSN 23352
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.30 [205].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
90505
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Arizona  Search this
Art -- Arizona  Search this
Baskets -- Arizona  Search this
Masks -- Arizona  Search this
Pottery -- Arizona  Search this
Rugs -- Arizona  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 23261-23359
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref21119

Inside a Hopi house furnished with Indian rugs, pottery and baskets. 9484 Interpositive

Topic:
American Indians
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Hopi Indians -- Arizona
Arizona
Grand Canyon (Arizona)
Local Numbers:
RSN 23353
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.30 [205].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
90502
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Arizona  Search this
Art -- Arizona  Search this
Baskets -- Arizona  Search this
Masks -- Arizona  Search this
Pottery -- Arizona  Search this
Rugs -- Arizona  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 23261-23359
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref21120

Inside a Hopi house furnished with Indian rugs, pottery and baskets. 9488 Interpositive

Topic:
American Indians
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 8")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Hopi Indians -- Arizona
Arizona
Grand Canyon (Arizona)
Local Numbers:
RSN 23354
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.30 [205].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
90476
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Arizona  Search this
Art -- Arizona  Search this
Baskets -- Arizona  Search this
Masks -- Arizona  Search this
Pottery -- Arizona  Search this
Rugs -- Arizona  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 23261-23359
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref21121

bed and bedding, doll's

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
paint (overall material)
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 10 1/8 in x 9 5/8 in x 16 3/4 in; 25.7175 cm x 24.4475 cm x 42.545 cm
Object Name:
Bed, Doll
bed and bedding, doll's
Other Terms:
Bed, Doll; Toys; Doll House Furnishings
Place made:
United States: Vermont
Place used:
United States: Vermont, Middlebury
Date made:
1860s
Subject:
Dolls  Search this
Toys  Search this
Credit Line:
Mrs. Burton Thompson and Mrs. C. Hill through Charles F. Langworthy
ID Number:
DL.63.0253
Catalog number:
63.0253
Accession number:
58822
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a1-07ea-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_308246

The Crisis Vol. 9 No. 5

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 3/4 x 6 3/4 x 1/8 in. (24.8 x 17.1 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 1915
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.16
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58bc64d58-cb0f-40ab-ba98-6f24d2815ef2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.16
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Miniature "Carver Chair"

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
paper (seat; label material)
ink (label material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 1/4 in x 2 1/8 in; 10.795 cm x 5.3975 cm
Object Name:
Chair
chair, miniature
Other Terms:
Chair; Doll House Furnishings; Toys
Place used:
United States
Date made:
late 19th century
Subject:
Souvenirs  Search this
Toys  Search this
Mayflower  Search this
Credit Line:
Mrs. E. Tuckerman Biays, Mrs. Draper L. Kauffman, Mrs. Robert G. Metters, Mrs. Willard Triest, and Mrs. Robert H. Williams
ID Number:
DL.61.0563
Catalog number:
61.0563
Accession number:
234919
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-a19e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_309057

tea service

Physical Description:
blue (pieces (9) color)
blue (tray color)
red (pieces (9) color)
red (tray color)
white (pieces (9) color)
white (tray color)
ceramic (pieces (9) material)
ceramic (tray material)
paper, pressed (overall material)
velvet (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/4 in x 4 7/8 in x 4 in; 3.175 cm x 12.3825 cm x 10.16 cm
Object Name:
Tea Service
Other Terms:
Tea Service; Doll House Furnishings; Toys
Date made:
ca 1850 - 1875
Subject:
Toys  Search this
Tea Drinking  Search this
Credit Line:
Mrs. E. Tuckerman Biays, Mrs. Draper L. Kauffman, Mrs. Robert G. Metters, Mrs. Willard Triest, and Mrs. Robert H. Williams
ID Number:
DL.61.0565
Catalog number:
61.0565
Accession number:
234919
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a1-1a25-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_317507

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- France -- Paris  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Online Media:

Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials

Creator:
Jeffers, Grace  Search this
Formica Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Faber, Herbert A.  Search this
Loewy, Raymond  Search this
O'Conor, Daniel J.  Search this
Stevens, Brooks  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 11 oversize folders )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scripts (documents)
Videotapes
Posters
Samples
Advertisements
Brochures
Blueprints
Photographs
Newsletters
Exhibition catalogs
Catalogs
Correspondence
Date:
1913-2003
Summary:
The Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials consists of textual files, photographs, slides, negatives, drawings, blueprints, posters, advertisements, product brochures, newsletters, and informational pamphlets documenting the history of the Formica Corporation and the use of Formica brand plastic laminate.
Scope and Contents:
The Formica Collection, 1913-2003, consists of textual files, photographs, photo slides, drawings, blueprints, posters, advertisements, product brochures, informational pamphlets, and research notes documenting the history of the Formica Corporation and the use of Formica brand plastic laminate.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Corporate Records, 1920-1992, 2003

Subseries 1.1: Annual reports, 1949, 1966, 1988

Subseries 1.2: Correspondence and company identity, 1920-1988

Subseries 1.3: Corporation histories and timelines, 1949-1991, undated

Subseries 1.4: Newspaper clippings and articles, 1934-2003

Subseries 1.5: Awards, 1940s-1987

Subseries 1.6: Patent information, 1925-1994

Subseries 1.7: Photographs, 1927-1966

Series 2: Personnel Records, 1943-1992

Series 3: Newsletters, Magazines, and Press Releases, 1942-1990

Subseries 3.1: Newsletters, 1942-1988

Subseries 3.2: Press releases, 1973-1990

Series 4: Product Information, 1948-1994

Series 5: Advertising and sales materials, 1913-2000

Subseries 5.1: Advertising materials, 1913-2000

Subseries 5.2: Sales materials, 1922-1993

Series 6: Subject Files, circa 1945, 1955-1991, 2002

Series 7: Exhibits, 1981-1994

Series 8: Grace Jeffers Research Materials, 1987-1997

Series 9: Audio Visual Materials, 1982-1995, undated

Series 10: Martin A. Jeffers Materials, 1963-1999

Subseries 10.1: Background Materials, 1965-1999

Subseries 10.2: Employee Benefits, 1963-1998

Subseries 10.3: Product Information, [1959?]-1997

Subseries 10.4: Advertising and Sales Records, 1987-1999
Biographical / Historical:
Since its founding in 1913, the history of the Formica Company has been marked by a spirit of innovation and entrepreneurship. The history begins with the discovery of Formica by two men who envisioned the plastic laminate as breakthrough insulation for motors. Later, Formica became a ubiquitous surfacing material used by artists and architects of post-modern design. The various applications of the plastic laminate during the twentieth century give it a prominent role in the history of plastics, American consumerism, and American popular culture.

The Formica Company was the brainchild of Herbert A. Faber and Daniel J. O'Conor, who met in 1907 while both were working at Westinghouse in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. O'Conor, head of the process section in the Research Engineering Department, had been experimenting with resins, cloth, paper, and a wide array of solvents in an effort to perfect a process for making rigid laminate sheets from Kraft paper and liquid Bakelite. O'Conor produced the first laminate sheet at Westinghouse by winding and coating paper on a mandrel, slitting the resulting tube, and flattening it on a press. The finished product was a laminated sheet with the chemical and electrical properties of Bakelite that were cut into various shapes and sizes. O'Conor applied for a patent on February 1, 1913, but it was not issued until November 12, 1918 (US Patent 1,284,432). Since the research was done on behalf of Westinghouse, the company was assigned the patent, and O'Conor was given one dollar, the customary amount that Westinghouse paid for the rights to employees' inventions.

Herbert Faber, Technical Sales Manager of insulating materials, was excited about O'Conor's discovery. Faber saw limitless possibilities for the new material. However, he quickly became frustrated by Westinghouse's policy limiting the sale of the laminate to its licensed distributors. After failing to persuade Westinghouse to form a division to manufacture and market the new material, Faber and O'Conor created their own company. On May 2, 1913, the first Formica plant opened in Cincinnati, Ohio. On October 15, 1913, the business incorporated as the Formica Insulation Company with Faber as president and treasurer and O'Conor as vice-president and secretary. The company began producing insulation parts used in place of or "for mica," the costly mineral that had been used in electrical insulation.

Like most new companies, Formica had modest beginnings. Faber and O'Conor faced the challenge of looking for investors who would let them maintain control over the company. Finally, they met J. G. Tomluin, a lawyer and banker from Walton, Kentucky, who invested $7,500 for a one-third share in the Formica Company. Renting a small space in downtown Cincinnati, Faber and O'Conor began work. The company's equipment list consisted of a 35-horsepower boiler, a small gas stove, and a variety of homemade hand screw presses. By September 1913, Tomluin had brought in two more partners, David Wallace and John L. Vest. With the added capital, O'Conor, Faber, and Formica's eighteen employees began producing automobile insulation parts for Bell Electric Motor, Allis Chalmers, and Northwest Electric.

Initially, the Formica Company only made insulation rings and tubes for motors. However, by July 4, 1914, the company obtained its first press and began to produce flat laminate sheets made from Redmenol resin. Business gradually grew, and by 1917 sales totaled $75,000. Fueled by World War I, Formica's business expanded to making radio parts, aircraft pulleys, and timing gears for the burgeoning motor industry. In the years that followed, Formica products were in high demand as laminate plastics replaced older materials in washers, vacuum cleaners, and refrigerators. By 1919, the Formica Company required larger facilities and purchased a factory in Cincinnati.

During this time, patent battles and legal suits emerged to challenge Formica's success. On June 11, 1919, Westinghouse sued Formica for patent infringement on its laminated gears; Formica won. Later that year, Westinghouse brought two new lawsuits against Formica. The first was for a patent infringement on the production of tubes, rods, and molded parts; the second was over an infringement based on a 1913 patent assigned to Westinghouse through O'Conor. Formica prevailed in both suits.

Legal battles did not deter the company. Having to defend itself against a giant corporation gave Formica a reputation as a scrappy contender. Finally, Faber and O'Conor made a quantum leap in 1927, when the company was granted a U.S. patent for a phenolic laminate utilizing lithographed wood grains of light color, forming an opaque barrier sheet which blocks out the dark interior of the laminate. In 1931, the company received two more patents for the preparation of the first all paper based laminate and for the addition of a layer of aluminum foil between the core and the surface, making the laminate cigarette-proof. These patents would allow Formica to move from a company dealing primarily with industrial material to the highly visible arena of consumer goods.

In 1937, Faber had a severe heart attack which limited his activity within the company. O'Conor continued as president, encouraging new product lines, including Realwood, as a laminate with genuine wood veneer mounted on a paper lamination with a heat-reactive binder. With the introduction of Realwood and its derivatives, manufacturers started using Formica laminate for tabletops, desks, and dinette sets. By the early forties, sales of Formica laminate were over 15 million dollars. The final recipe for decorative laminate was perfected in 1938, when melamine resins were introduced. Melamine was clear, extremely hard, and resistant to stains, heat, light, less expensive than phenolic resins. It also made possible laminates of colored papers and patterns.

Due to World War II, Formica postponed the manufacturing of decorative laminate sheets. Instead, the company made a variety of war-time products ranging from airplane propellers to bomb buster tubes.

The post-World War II building boom fueled the decorative laminate market and ushered in what would come to be known as the golden age for Formica. The company, anticipating the demand for laminate, acquired a giant press capable of producing sheets measuring thirty by ninety-six inches for kitchen countertops. Between 1947 and 1950, more than 2 million new homes were designed with Formica brand laminate for kitchens and bathrooms.

Formica's advertising campaigns, initially aimed at industry, were transformed to speak to the new decorative needs of consumer society, in particular the American housewife. Formica hired design consultants, Brooks Stevens, and, later, Raymond Loewy who launched extensive advertising campaigns. Advertising themes of durability, cleanliness, efficiency, and beauty abound in promotional material of this time. Advertisers promised that the plastic laminate, known as "the wipe clean wonder," was resistant to dirt, juices, jams, alcohol stains, and cigarette burns. Atomic patterns and space-age colors, including Moonglo, Skylark, and Sequina, were introduced in homes, schools, offices, hospitals, diners, and restaurants across America.

The post-war period was also marked by expansion, specifically with the establishment of Formica's first international markets. In 1947, Formica signed a licensing agreement with the British firm the De La Rue Company of London for the exclusive manufacture and marketing of decorative laminates outside North America, and in South America and the Pacific Basin. In 1948, Formica changed its name from the Formica Insulation Company to the Formica Company. In 1951, Formica responded to growing consumer demand by opening a million square foot plant in Evendale, Ohio, devoted to the exclusive production of decorative sheet material. In 1956, the Formica Company became the Formica Corporation, a subsidiary of American Cyanamid Company. A year later, the international subsidiaries that Formica formed with De La Rue Company of London were replaced by a joint company called Formica International Limited.

The plastic laminate was not merely confined to tabletops and dinette sets. Formica laminate was used for skis, globes, and murals. Moreover, well-known artists and architects used the decorative laminate for modernist furniture and Art Deco interiors. In 1960, Formica's Research and Development Design Center was established, adjacent to the Evendale plant, to develop uses for existing laminate products. In 1966, the company opened the Sierra Plant near Sacramento, California. Such corporate expansion enabled Formica to market its laminates beyond the traditional role as a countertop surface material.

In 1974, Formica established its Design Advisory Board (DAB), a group of leading designers and architects. DAB introduced new colors and patterns of laminate that gained popularity among artists and interior designers in the 1980s. In 1981, DAB introduced the Color Grid, a systematic organization of Formica laminate arranged by neutrals and chromatics. The Color Grid was described as the first and only logically arranged collection of color in the laminate industry. DAB also developed the Design Concepts Collection of premium solid and patterned laminates to serve the needs of contemporary interior designers.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the corporation continued to produce laminates for interior designers, artists, and architects. In 1982, Formica introduced COLORCORE, the first solid-color laminate. Due to its relatively seamless appearance, COLORCORE was adopted by artists for use in furniture, jewelry, and interior design. The introduction of COLORCORE also marked the emergence of a wide variety of design exhibitions and competitions sponsored by the Formica Corporation. In 1985, Formica Corporation became independent and privately held. Formica continues to be one of the leading laminate producers in the world with factories in the United States, England, France, Spain, Canada, and Taiwan.

For additional information on the history of the Formica Corporation, see:

DiNoto, Andrea. Art Plastic: Designed for Living. New York: Abbeville Press, 1985.

Fenichell, Stephen. Plastic: The Making of a Synthetic Century. New York: Harper/Collins, 1996.

Jeffers Grace. 1998. Machine Made Natural: The Decorative Products of the Formica Corporation, 1947-1962. Master's thesis. Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts.

Lewin, Susan Grant, ed. Formica & Design: From Counter Top to High Art. New York: Rizzoli, 1991.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Leo Baekeland Papers, 1881-1968 (AC0005)

DuPont Nylon Collection, 1939-1977 (AC0007)

J. Harry DuBois Collection on the History of Plastics, circa 1900-1975 (AC0008)

Earl Tupper Papers, circa 1914-1982 (AC0470)

The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See accession # 1997.0319 and #1997.3133.
Provenance:
This collection was assembled by Grace Jeffers, historian of material culture, primarily from materials given to her by Susan Lewin, Head of Formica's New York design and publicity office when the office closed in 1995. The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Grace Jeffers in September 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Plastics industry and trade  Search this
Plastics -- 1920-2000  Search this
Plastics as art material -- 1920-2000  Search this
Plastics in interior design -- 1920-2000  Search this
advertising -- plastic industry -- 1920-2000  Search this
Plastic jewelry -- 1920-2000  Search this
Laminated plastics -- 1920-2000  Search this
Exhibitions -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
House furnishings -- 1920-2000 -- United States  Search this
Housewives as consumers -- 1920-2000  Search this
Electronic insulators and insulation -- Plastics -- 1920-2000  Search this
Inventions -- 1920-2000 -- United States  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Women in popular culture -- 1920-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scripts (documents)
Videotapes
Posters -- 20th century
Samples -- 1920-2000
Advertisements
Brochures
Blueprints -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Exhibition catalogs
Catalogs
Catalogs -- 1920-2000
Correspondence -- 20th century
Citation:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0565
See more items in:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0565
Online Media:

chairs, pair of

Physical Description:
cloth (overall material)
metal (overall material)
paint (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 in x 2 in x 2 1/4 in; 10.16 cm x 5.08 cm x 5.715 cm
Object Name:
Chairs, Pair of
Other Terms:
Chairs, Pair of; Doll House Furnishings; Toys
Place made:
United States
Subject:
Toys  Search this
Credit Line:
Mrs. Freeman Jones
ID Number:
DL.60.0286
Catalog number:
60.0286
Accession number:
227245
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a1-0788-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_309050

clock

Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
paint (overall material)
Object Name:
Clock
Other Terms:
Clock; Toys; Doll House Furnishings
ID Number:
DL.63273
Catalog number:
63273
Accession number:
243707
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a1-103a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_311986

Home just before Christmas, [photoprint]

Collector:
Sandford, Mary Elizabeth, 1852-1936  Search this
Names:
Sandford Greeting Card Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
MacDowell, Helen Sandford, 1889-  Search this
Pease, L.F.  Search this
Prince, Georgiana K., 1861-1915  Search this
Sandford Greeting Card Company  Search this
Gilman, Georgiana Sandford, 1887-1982  Search this
Sandford, Frank S., 1853-1924  Search this
Sandford, Mary Elizabeth, 1852-1936  Search this
Sandford, Ruth, 1879-1972  Search this
Collection Donor:
Gilman, R. Thompson  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3.6" x 4.5".)
Container:
Box 33
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
A man and two women seated in a parlor. One woman is playing the piano.
Local Numbers:
AC1252-0000010.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
House furnishings  Search this
Collection Citation:
Sandford Greeting Card Company and Family Papers, circa 1839-2000; undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Sandford Greeting Card Company and Family Papers
Sandford Greeting Card Company and Family Papers / Series 2: Sandford Family Papers / 2.7: Family Papers / Photographs of generations of Sandfords
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1252-ref1135

The Woodard wrought iron furniture catalog

Author:
Lee L. Woodard Sons, Inc  Search this
Subject:
Lee L. Woodard Sons  Search this
Physical description:
31 pages chiefly illustrations 33 cm
Type:
Catalogs
Sample books
Trade catalogs
Place:
United States
Date:
19uu
Topic:
Furniture  Search this
House furnishings  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Wrought-iron furniture  Search this
Call number:
TS408 .L44 1940z
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1044756

Winter clearance sale

Author:
Swan & Edgar, Ltd  Search this
Physical description:
32 [2] pages illustrations 25 cm
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Place:
England
Date:
1906
Topic:
House furnishings  Search this
Women's clothing  Search this
Call number:
GT738 .S93 1906
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1045067

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