Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
51 documents - page 1 of 3

Oral history interview with Paula Colton Winokur

Interviewee:
Winokur, Paula, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Beaver College -- Faculty  Search this
Graphic Sketch Club (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Helen Drutt Gallery  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (U.S.)  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Temple University. -- Students  Search this
Tyler School of Art -- Students  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Blai, Boris, 1893-1985  Search this
Bobrowicz, Yvonne  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976  Search this
Cushing, Val M.  Search this
De Staebler, Stephen, 1933-2011  Search this
Ferguson, Ken, 1928-  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Higby, Wayne  Search this
Leon, Dennis, 1933-  Search this
Long, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Love, Arlene, 1953-  Search this
Marks, Graham, 1951-  Search this
McKinnell, James  Search this
Mestre, Enrique, 1936-  Search this
Minter, Myrna  Search this
Moran, Lois  Search this
Natzler, Gertrud  Search this
Natzler, Otto  Search this
Nesbitt, Lowell, 1933-1993  Search this
Notkin, Richard  Search this
Randall, Theodore, 1914-1985  Search this
Schulman, Norman, 1924-  Search this
Sedestrom, Carol  Search this
Serra, Richard, 1938-  Search this
Shores, Kenneth, 1928-  Search this
Simon, Sandy  Search this
Slivka, Rose  Search this
Staffel, Rudolf, 1911-2002  Search this
Takaezu, Toshiko  Search this
Vavrek, Ken  Search this
Winokur, Robert, 1933-  Search this
Ólafur Elíasson, 1967-  Search this
Extent:
9 Items (Sound recording: 9 sound files (6 hr., 24 min.))
171 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
Alaska
Hungary
Iceland
Mesa Verde (Calif.)
Rocky Mountains
Stonehenge (England)
Date:
2011 July 21-22
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Paula Colton Winokur conducted 2011 July 21-22, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Winokur's home and studio, in Horsham, Pennsylvania.
Paula speaks of taking drawing and painting classes at the Graphic Sketch Club (now the Fleischer Art Memorial) in Philadelphia at age 11; her first experience handling clay at 13 or 14 when taking a class at the Philadelphia Museum of Art; when her family agreed to send her to college, providing she became a teacher, and she attended the Tyler School of Art at Temple University as a painting major; the influence of her teacher Rudolf Staffel in her sophomore year when she took a ceramics class and fell in love with working in clay; meeting her husband Robert Winokur when they were students at Tyler, getting married in 1958, eventually having two sons; glaze testing to find a palette of glazes to use; moving to Massachusetts and starting Cape Street Pottery for their production pottery; her involvement with NCECA [National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts] and other professional organizations; when she began a 30-year teaching career at Beaver College in 1973 (more recently known as Arcadia University), building their ceramics department; changing from using stoneware to porcelain in 1970; making boxes and architectural forms; how she stopped making functional items when her first child was born and began creating the things she wanted to; the decision in 1982 to make landscapes and how geology, the Artic, and threats to the environment influence her work; the process she uses when creating texture; selling exclusively through the Helen Drutt Gallery beginning in 1973 until the gallery closed in 2011; the important influences in her work of artists such as Michael Heizer, Carl Andre, Richard Long, Richard Serra, Olafur Eliasson, and Steven De Staebler and others; the immense the geologic formations of Mesa Verde, the Rocky Mountains, Stonehenge, Alaska and Iceland are inspiring; various lecturing opportunities and exhibits through the years, as well as a working residency she took advantage of in Hungary in 1994; slowly moving away from glazes and instead using metallic sulfates for color; that her intention is to express the relationship between the internal part of herself and the external world for other people to experience and find something in common; the importance of a liberal arts education for art students; her gelatin and clay prints; the concern over collectors of clay art dying off and no new ones taking their places; that galleries are closing and Internet galleries are the norm; meeting photographer, Imogen Cunningham, and seeing her as a wonderful role model; and the feeling that the high cost of fuel and the invention of newer materials may end ceramic classes. Paula also recalls Lowell Nesbitt, Myrna Minter, Arlene Love, Dennis Leon, Boris Blai, Ted Randall, Val Cushing, Norm Schulman, Jim McKinnel, Gertrud Natzler, Otto Natzler, Ken Ferguson, Rose Slivka, Enrique Mestre, Sandy Simon, Wayne Higby, Richard Notkin, Graham Marks, Toshika Takaezu, Yvonne Bobrowicz, Ken Vavrek, Carol Sedestrom, Lois Moran, and Ken Shores and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Paula Colton Winokur (1935- ) is a ceramist in Horsham, Pennsylvania. Mija Riedel (1958- ) is a curator and writer from San Francisco, California.
General:
Originally recorded as 9 sound files. Duration is 6 hr., 24 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Ceramicists -- Pennsylvania -- Interviews  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Painting -- Study and teaching  Search this
Women artists -- Pennsylvania -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.winoku11
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-winoku11

Oral history interview with William Douglas Carlson

Interviewee:
Carlson, William, 1950-  Search this
Creator:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Alfred University -- Students  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.) -- Students  Search this
Cleveland Institute of Art -- Students  Search this
Lowe Art Museum  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.)  Search this
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign -- Faculty  Search this
University of Miami -- Faculty  Search this
Billeci, Andre  Search this
Carpenter, James, 1949-  Search this
Chihuly, Dale, 1941-  Search this
Dailey, Dan, 1947-  Search this
Daley, William, 1925-  Search this
Fereighi, Christine  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Heller, Doug, 1946-  Search this
Hilton, Eric  Search this
Marquis, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Marx, Bonnie  Search this
Matta-Clark, Gordon, 1943-1978  Search this
Serra, Richard, 1938-  Search this
Smith, Terry, 1960 June 15-  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Young, Brent  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (Sound recording: 7 sound files (4 hr., 6 min.), digital, wav)
89 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
2009 June 24-25
Scope and Contents:
An interview of William Douglas Carlson conducted 2009 June 24-25, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Carlson's home, in Miami, Florida.
Carlson discusses his move to the University of Miami in 2003 after 27 years at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign; his recent site-specific installation Procellous Wall at the Lowe Art Museum in Coral Gables, Florida; the change in his work since his move to Miami, finishing a series of pieces that began in 2000 dealing with language, and his sense of being in a transitional period with his work; growing up in a small town in Ohio, and his early use of adhesives, the field his father worked in, as the spur for his later work in laminating glass; classes at the Art Students League in New York City and Woodstock, New York; attending the Cleveland Institute of Art; spending the summer of 1971 in Stanwood, Washington, helping set up the Pilchuck Glass School, then returning to set up a glass program at the Cleveland Institute of Art with Christine Federighi; the lure of glass, and the danger that its beauty can overshadow artistic substance, which led in part to his decision to mix it with other materials; the influence of minimalism and of Russian constructivism, architecture and modern design; graduate studies at Alfred University, Alfred, New York; accepting a teaching job at the University of Illinois in 1976; work with lamination and expanding scale in his work; use of Vitrolite; large-scale installation work, beginning in the early 1980s, including Optional Refractions and Allele; reflection on the deliberate, design-focused nature of his work; his language series beginning in 2000; the series Pragnanz; philosophy of teaching; the value of intensive learning environments such as craft schools compared with the cross pollination of ideas available at a larger university; the imperative for craft to integrate new materials, technology, and ideas while retaining the importance of the hand; the role of galleries and collectors, and involvement in larger art and craft venues, including the May Show and SOFA; his stint as a judge in a barbecued rib cook-off; the effect of seminal exhibitions such as like "Objects: USA," [1969] and "Poetry of the Physical" (1986) in setting a standard of professionalism for and providing visibility to makers; impact of his international travel; a turn away from pure design and towards a more poetic ambiance in the language series; the use of projected light and his use of cast prismatic shadows in his installation The Nature of Things in Jacksonville, Florida; the issue of scale in his work; artists whose work he admires, including Frank Stella, Richard Serra, Michael Heizer, Tony Smith, Gordon Matta-Clark, William Daley; studio glass as an international movement; involvement with various craft organizations, and wrestling with the definition of a craft artist; preparations to move to Massachusetts and spend some contemplative time thinking about and working on new directions. He recalls Brent Young, Dale Chihuly, Jamie Carpenter, Christine Federighi, Richard Marquis, Eric Hilton, Andre Billeci, Dan Dailey, Doug Heller and Bonnie Marx.
Biographical / Historical:
William Douglas Carlson (1950- ) is a glass artist and educator in Miami, Florida. Carlson was educated at Alfred University.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hr., 6 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Constructivism (Art)  Search this
Glass art -- Technique  Search this
Glass art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Glass artists -- Florida -- Interviews  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.carlso09
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carlso09

Oral history interview with Virginia Dwan

Interviewee:
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Interviewer:
Stuckey, Charles F.  Search this
Names:
Dwan Gallery (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Dwan Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Arman, 1928-2005  Search this
De Maria, Walter, 1935-2013  Search this
Guston, Philip, 1913-1980  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Kienholz, Edward, 1927-  Search this
Klein, Yves, 1928-1962  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Ryman, Robert, 1930-2019  Search this
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Snelson, Kenneth, 1927-2016  Search this
Tinguely, Jean, 1925-  Search this
Extent:
192 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1984 March 21-June 7
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Virginia Dwan conducted 1984 March 21-June 7, by Charles F. Stuckey, for the Archives of American Art.
Dwan speaks of her background and education; her early interest in art; starting her gallery in 1959 in Los Angeles; the early days of her gallery; the development of her circle of artists; early shows; financing the gallery; "shopping" for art and artists; public and critical reaction to her gallery's shows; the decision to go to New York, and getting established there; making decisions about what to show; collectors; the closing of the Dwan Gallery; and her life since. She also relates anecdotes about the creation and execution of Robert Smithson's "Spiral Jetty" and reminisces about numerous artists with whom she was associated, including: Jean Tinguely, Robert Rauschenberg, Yves Klein, Ad Reinhardt, Ed Kienholz, Philip Guston, Arman, Robert Smithson, Franz Kline, Kenneth Snelson, Carl Andre, Sol Lewitt, Michael Heizer, Walter De Maria, and Robert Ryman.
Biographical / Historical:
Virginia Dwan (1931- ) is an art dealer from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 10 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 19 digital wav file. Duration is 11 hr., 20 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
For information on how to access this interview contact Reference Services.
Rights:
Authorization to quote or reproduce for the purposes of publication requires written permission from Anne Kovach. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.dwan84
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dwan84

Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers

Creator:
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Names:
Dwan Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Atkinson, Terry, 1939-  Search this
Dibbets, Jan, 1941-  Search this
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Flavin, Dan, 1933-  Search this
Graham, Dan, 1942-  Search this
Haacke, Hans, 1936-  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Holt, Nancy, 1938-  Search this
Insley, Will, 1929-2011  Search this
Jenney, Neil, 1945-  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1906-2001  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Long, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Valledor, Leo, 1936-1989  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Extent:
15.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Greeting cards
Photographs
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1905-1987
bulk 1952-1987
Summary:
The papers of sculptor, writer, and earthworks artist Robert Smithson and his wife, sculptor, filmmaker, and earthworks artist Nancy Holt measure 15.1 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from 1952 to 1987. The papers consist of Smithson's biographical material; business and personal correspondence, much of it with artists; interview transcripts; extensive writings and project files; financial records; printed material; a scrapbook of clippings; holiday cards with original prints and sketches; photographic material; and artifacts. Also found are project files related to Nancy Holt's motion picture film Pine Barrens and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels, including a video documentary about Sun Tunnels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of sculptor, writer, and earthworks artist Robert Smithson and his wife, sculptor, filmmaker, and earthworks artist Nancy Holt measure 15.1 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from 1952 to 1987. The papers consist of Smithson's biographical material; business and personal correspondence, much of it with artists; interview transcripts; extensive writings and project files; financial records; printed material; a scrapbook of clippings; holiday cards with original prints and sketches; photographic material; and artifacts. Also found are project files related to Nancy Holt's film Pine Barrens and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels, including a video documentary about Sun Tunnels.

Biographical material includes Robert Smithson's curriculum vitae, personal identification and medical documents, eight engagement/day planners Smithson and Holt maintained from 1966 to 1973, and Smithson's funeral register.

Correspondence is primarily with Smithson's family, friends, fellow artists, and business associates discussing personal relationships, proposed art projects, and exhibitions. Correspondents of note include Carl Andre, the Dwan Gallery (Virginia Dwan), Dan Graham, Will Insley, Ray Johnson, Gyorgy Kepes, Sol Lewitt, Lucy Lippard, and Dennis Wheeler. There is also substantial correspondence received by Holt upon Smithson's death in 1973, and between Holt and the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art regarding Smithson's retrospective exhibition in 1982.

There are nine interview transcripts with Smithson discussing his works and his general philosophy on art, and one transcript of the Andrew Dickson White Museum's Earth Art Symposium (1969) featuring the following artists: Mike Hiezer, Dennis Oppenheim, Robert Smithson, Neil Jenney, Gunther Uecker, Jan Dibbets, Richard Long, and Hans Haacke.

Writings are substantial and include 73 drafts of published and unpublished essays by Smithson on art, artists, and works in progress. The series also includes poems by Smithson, six notebooks containing notes and sketches by Smithson, and drafts of writings sent to Smithson and Holt by friends and colleagues, including Carl Andre, Terry Atkinson, Dan Flavin, Dan Graham, and Jack Thibeau.

Project files contain correspondence, project instructions, diagrams and sketches, research materials, photographic material, and maps related to over 50 of Smithson's artworks. These include concepts, proposed projects, sculptures, non-sites, and earthwork projects, including Spiral Jetty, Broken Circle, and Spiral Hill.

Personal business records include gallery related loan arrangements and receipts for miscellaneous art supplies. Financial records include tax forms and preparation documents, including cancelled checks, receipts, statements, and related correspondence.

Printed materials include books, clippings, and periodicals related to Smithson, either containing writings or sketches by him, or containing articles reviewing his work. There are also exhibition announcements and catalogs of Smithson's group and solo shows from 1959 to 1985.

The scrapbook contains clippings of Smithson's published articles from 1966 to 1973 with annotated shorthand notes.

Artwork consists of Christmas cards collaged by Smithson, and sketches by Smithson and Leo Valledor.

Photographic materials include prints and negatives of Smithson with friends, promotional Hollywood movie stills, and original prints and copyprints of other artists' artwork.

Artifacts consist of a paper bag silkscreened with a Campbell's soup can (Warhol), promotional buttons (N.E. Thing Co.), various organic materials, and two art kits.

Nancy Holt's papers consist of correspondence, a grant application, printed materials, and project files and audio visual material related to her motion picture film Pine Barrens (1975) and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels (1975).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 13 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1905-1974 (Box 1; 14 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1959-1987 (Boxes 1-2, OV 21; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Interview Transcripts, 1966-1973 (Box 2; 11 folders)

Series 4: Writings, 1959-1975 (Boxes 2-3; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Project Files, circa 1950s-1982 (Boxes 4-5, Boxes 17-18, OV 20, OV 22-26, OV 36, RD 28-30, RD 32-35; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, circa 1967-1970s (Box 5; 4 folders)

Series 7: Financial Records, 1962-1972 (Box 6; 1 linear foot)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1955-1985 (Boxes 7-11, Box 18, RD 31; 5.6 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbook, 1966-1973 (Box 11, Box 16; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11; 4 folders)

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11, Box 18; 5 folders)

Series 12: Artifacts, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11, Box 14, OV 19; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 13: Nancy Holt Papers, circa 1960s-1980s (Box 12-13, 15, OV 27, FC 37-38; 1.9 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Robert Smithson (1938-1973) was the pioneer of land and earthworks art. He was also a noted sculptor, painter, writer, and lecturer working primarily in New York City. Smithson's wife, Nancy Holt (1938-) was a noted sculptor and filmmaker and also worked as an earthworks artist.

Born in Passaic, New Jersey, Smithson expressed an early interest in art, enrolling in classes at the Brooklyn Museum School and the Art Student's League in New York while still attending high school. Smithson's early works were primarily paintings, drawings, and collages. In 1959, he exhibited his first solo show of paintings at the Artists' Gallery in New York and had his first solo international show in Rome with the Galleria George Lester in 1961.

During the early to mid-1960s, Smithson was perhaps better known as a writer and art critic, writing numerous essays and reviews for Arts Magazine and Artforum. He became affiliated with artists who were identified with the minimalist movement, such as Carl Andre, Donald Judd, Nancy Holt, Sol LeWitt, Robert Morris and others. In 1963, Smithson married sculptor and filmmaker Nancy Holt and a year later started to create his first sculptural works. In 1966, Smithson joined the Dwan Gallery, whose owner Virginia Dwan was an enthusiastic supporter of his work.

Smithson's interest in land art began in the late 1960s while exploring industrial and quarry sites and observing the movement of earth and rocks. This resulted in a series of sculptures called "non-sites" consisting of earth and rocks collected from a specific site and installed in gallery space, often combined with photographs, maps, mirrors, or found materials. In September 1968, Smithson published the essay "A Sedimentation of the Mind: Earth Projects" in Artforum that promoted the work of the first wave of land art artists. Soon thereafter, he began creating his own large scale land art and earthworks.

From 1967 to 1973, Smithson's productivity was constant as he wrote, lectured, and participated in several solo and group shows a year, both at home and abroad. He explored narrative art as essay in "The Monuments of Passaic" and fully committed to his idea of visiting sites and using them as the basis for creating non-sites, Non-Site, Pine Barrens, (1968); incorporated and documented the use of mirrors at sites in Mirror Displacement, Cayuga Salt Mine Project (1968-1969); and created his first site-specific works through liquid pours of mud, asphalt, and concrete, including Asphalt Rundown (1969). In 1969, he also completed his first earth pour at Kent State University with his project Partially Buried Woodshed. Later that year, he created the sculptural artwork for which he is best known, Spiral Jetty (1969) on the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This was the first of his pieces to require the acquisition of land rights and earthmoving equipment, and would be followed two years later by Broken Circle and Spiral Hill in 1971.

On July 20, 1973, while surveying sites in Texas for the proposed Amarillo Ramp, Smithson died in a plane crash at the age of 35. Despite his early death, Smithson's writings and artwork had a major impact on many contemporary artists.

Nancy Holt began her career as a photographer and video artist. Today, Holt is most widely known for her large-scale environmental works, Sun Tunnels and Dark Star Park. Holt has also made a number of films and videos since the late 1960s, including Mono Lake (1968), East Coast, West Coast (1969), and Swamp (1971) in collaboration with her late husband Robert Smithson. Points of View: Clocktower (1974) features conversations between Lucy Lippard and Richard Serra, Liza Bear and Klaus Kertess, Carl Andre and Ruth Kligman and Bruce Brice and Tina Girouard. In 1978, she produced a film about her seminal work Sun Tunnels.
Related Material:
The Archives also holds several collections related to Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt, including an oral history interview with Robert Smithson conducted by Paul Cummings in 1972; an interview with Robert Smithson conducted by Tony Robbin in 1968; Robert Smithson letters to George B. Lester, 1960-1963; and oral history interviews with Nancy Holt conducted by Scott Gutterman in 1992 and Joyce Pomeroy Schwartz in 1993.
Separated Material:
Non-archival library books, periodicals, and phonographs from Robert Smithson's personal library are currently stored offsite.
Provenance:
The papers of Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt were donated by Nancy Holt in several accretions between 1986 and 2011.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Greeting cards
Photographs
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers, 1905-1987, bulk 1952-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.smitrobe
See more items in:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smitrobe
Online Media:

Robert Scull papers

Creator:
Scull, Robert, 1917-1986  Search this
Names:
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
De Maria, Walter, 1935-2013  Search this
Di Suvero, Mark, 1933-  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Johns, Jasper, 1930-  Search this
Kuehn, Gary, 1939- -- Photographs  Search this
Oldenburg, Claes, 1929- -- Photographs  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Samaras, Lucas, 1936-  Search this
Tweddle, John  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-  Search this
Extent:
2.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketches
Date:
1955-circa 1984
bulk 1965-1970
Summary:
The Robert Scull papers measure 2.2 linear feet and date from 1950 to circa 1984, with the bulk of the material dating from 1965 to 1970. Throughout the 1960s, Robert Scull was a wealthy and prominent art collector of Abstract, Pop, and Minimalist art whose collection included works by Michael Heizer, Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, and Andy Warhol, among others. His papers include fourteen annotated appointment books, correspondence, financial and legal records, printed material, and photographs. There is a 0.2 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2020 that includes black and white photographs (and 1 color photograph), snapshots, negatives and negative strips of family, friends artwork and artists; correspondence; and loan forms for works of art.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert Scull papers measure 2.2 linear feet and date from 1950 to circa 1984, with the bulk of the material dating from 1965 to 1970. Throughout the 1960s, Robert Scull was a wealthy and prominent art collector of Abstract, Pop, and Minimalist art whose collection included works by Michael Heizer, Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, and Andy Warhol, among others. His papers include fourteen annotated appointment books, correspondence, financial and legal records, printed material, and photographs. There is a 0.2 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2020 that includes black and white photographs (and 1 color photograph), snapshots, negatives and negative strips of family, friends artwork and artists; correspondence; and loan forms for works of art.

Fourteen appointment books include business dates, notes, and occasional sketches. Notes are on various subjects such as prices for paintings, appointments with art dealers, and visits with artists Mark di Suvero, Michael Heizer, Lucas Samaras, and others. There are sometimes items, i.e., business cards and receipts, interleaved between the pages of the books.

The bulk of the correspondence consists of letters to Robert Scull from various artists, such as Walter De Maria and Michael Heizer. There is limited correspondence with museums and galleries.

Financial and legal records mostly consist of invoices from art dealers to Robert Scull for his purchases of John Tweddle's artwork. Also included are art loan forms and charts tracking payments for various paintings and drawings. There are scattered legal papers on a settlement regarding payments for a group of paintings by Tweddle.

There is one exhibition catalog, Street Painters: Feelism (circa 1982), of printed material.

Photographs are of Robert Scull, friends, art dealers, artists, and art. Notable artists depicted include Alexander Calder, Gary Kuehn, Claes Oldenberg, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol, and many others. There are also images of sculptures, paintings, and other artwork by various artists.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 6 series.

Series 1: Appointment Books, 1955-1973 (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1965-circa 1984 (0.2 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 3: Financial and Legal Records, 1969-1980 (0.1 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 4: Printed Material, circa 1982 (1 folder; Box 3)

Series 5: Photographs, 1960-circa 1980 (0.2 linear feet; Boxes 3-4)

Series 6: Unprocessed Addition, 1950-1984 (0.2 linear feet); Box 5)
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Scull (1917-1986) was a prominent New York City and Connecticut collector of contemporary American art primarily during the 1960s.

Robert Scull was born in Manhattan's Lower East Side. He dropped out of high school during the Depression and did various jobs while also taking art courses. He later became a freelance illustrator and industrial designer. When his wife Ethel's father died, the couple inherited a successful taxi business which Scull expanded into the Super Operating Corporation with a fleet of 130 cabs.

Throughout the 1960s, Robert and Ethel Scull were avid art collectors who acquired contemporary American art works through dealers Richard Bellamy and Leo Castelli. Robert Scull's patronage also helped fund art dealer Richard Bellamy's Green Gallery in New York City for five years. Initially the Sculls focused on collecting American Abstract Expressionists and owned works by Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, and others. In 1965, the couple held their first auction and part of the profits helped establish the Robert and Ethel Scull Foundation, dedicated to financially assisting upcoming artists. The foundation commissioned environmental works from Michael Heizer and Walter de Maria and gave the artists stipends and even bought them food and supplies.

Around the mid-1960s, the Sculls also began collecting Pop Art and acquired the works of Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, and Andy Warhol. In 1973, the couple sold 50 works from their personal collection of Pop Art through a Sotheby's auction that yielded $2.2 million - record-breaking for sales of contemporary American art. The Sculls were criticized of social-climbing and profiteering by various people in the media and art world, including the artist Robert Rauschenberg.

In 1975, Robert Scull divorced Ethel and in 1978 he founded the Robert C. Scull Foundation which again assisted younger artists and arts organizations with a focus on contemporary art. Scull remarried and sold his taxi business sometime in the early 1980s, and moved to Warren, Connecticut. He died in 1986.

In 2010, the exhibition Robert and Ethel Scull: Portrait of a Collection was held at Acquavella Galleries in Manhattan.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also has an oral history interview with Robert Scull conducted by Paul Cummings in 1972.
Provenance:
The 14 appointment books in the collection were donated in 1999 by Amy Newman, a writer, who received them from her friend, artist Chuck Close. Close received them from his brother-in-law, who found them in the trash, turned them over to Close, who, in turn, gave them to Newman. Additional papers were donated in 1993 and 2020 by Robert Scull's widow, Stephanie.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers  Search this
Collectors -- Connecticut  Search this
Collectors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- Connecticut  Search this
Pop art  Search this
Art, Abstract  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Citation:
Robert Scull papers, 1955-circa 1984, bulk dates 1965-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.sculrobe
See more items in:
Robert Scull papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sculrobe
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Robert Scull

Interviewee:
Scull, Robert C.  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Andrejevic, Milet, 1925-  Search this
Bellamy, Richard  Search this
De Maria, Walter, 1935-2013  Search this
Di Suvero, Mark, 1933-  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Johns, Jasper, 1930-  Search this
Karp, Ivan C., 1926-2012  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Leslie, Alfred, 1927-  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Rosenquist, James, 1933-  Search this
Rutherford, Judith  Search this
Segal, George, 1924-2000  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987  Search this
Extent:
69 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1972 June 15-28
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Robert Scull conducted by 1972 June 15-28, Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Scull speaks of his early life and education in New York City; attending night classes at the Art Students League; the importance of museum visits; becoming assistant art director for Saks 34th Street; financially successful ventures; the start of his collection in 1954; his criteria for acquisition; his relationships with artists; the pop art scene; portraits of Scull by various artists; the effects of publicity surrounding his collection; his interest in the future of art; the disposition of his collection; critics; relationships with dealers and museums.
He recalls Barnett Newman, Richard Bellamy, Franz Kline, Jasper Johns, James Rosenquist, George Segal, Andy Warhol, Alfred Leslie, Ivan Karp, Mark Di Suvero, Michael Heizer, Walter De Maria, Milet Andrejevic, and Judith Rutherford.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Scull (1917-1986) was a collector from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 5 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hr., 28 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.scull72
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-scull72

Michael Heizer: artist file, [photographs]

Artist:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
1 folder
Type:
Photograph
Artist files
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Image number:
VFM VF001379
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_139841

William H. Kessler papers on Michael Heizer sculpture project for Michigan State Capitol Complex

Creator:
Kessler, William H., 1924-2002  Search this
Names:
Michigan. Special Commission on Art in State Buildings  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1969-1981
Summary:
The papers of architect William H. Kessler measure 0.4 linear feet and date from circa 1969 to 1981. Included are correspondence, business records, a project file, printed material, and photographic material relating to Kessler's service on the [Michigan] Special Commission of Art in State Buildings, and the Commission's pilot project, a sculpture by Michael Heizer for the West Plaza of the State Capitol Complex in Lansing.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of architect William H. Kessler measure 0.4 linear feet and date from circa 1969 to 1981. Included are correspondence, business records, a project file, printed material, and photographic material relating to Kessler's service on the [Michigan] Special Commission of Art in State Buildings, and the Commission's pilot project, a sculpture by Michael Heizer for the West Plaza of the State Capitol Complex in Lansing.

Correspondence is with Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York City, Kresge Foundation, Governor William G. Milliken, Mott Foundation, National Endowment for the Arts, and others, regarding the Heizer sculpture. Business records include commission meeting agendas and minutes, financial reports, and lists of benefactors to the Heizer sculpture project. The Heizer Sculpture File contains biographical data on Heizer, descriptions of his sculpture design, a copy of the plaza plan, the sculpture dedication program, and other printed material. Printed material consists of newspaper clippings. Photographic material includes photographs, slides, and negatives of Heizer and his sculpture, "This Equals That."
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of this collection the papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
William H. Kessler (1924-2002) was an architect active in Detroit, Michigan. He graduated from the Chicago Institute of Design in 1948, and the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1950. Kessler later started his own eponymous architecture firm and became a member of the Michigan Special Commission on Art in State Buildings.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by William H. Kessler in 1982.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Architects -- Michigan -- Detroit  Search this
Topic:
Sculptors  Search this
Citation:
William H. Kessler papers on Michael Heizer sculpture project for Michigan State Capitol Complex, circa 1969-1981. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kesswill
See more items in:
William H. Kessler papers on Michael Heizer sculpture project for Michigan State Capitol Complex
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kesswill

Michael Heizer, New York, N.Y. letter to Robert C. Scull

Creator:
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Scull, Robert C., 1917-1986  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1968 June 21
Topic:
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)11595
See more items in:
Robert Scull papers, 1955-circa 1984, bulk 1965-1970
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_11595
Online Media:

Michael Heizer postcard to Robert C. Scull

Creator:
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Scull, Robert C., 1917-1986  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1971 October 29
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)11596
See more items in:
Robert Scull papers, 1955-circa 1984, bulk 1965-1970
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_11596
Online Media:

Interview with Michael Heizer

Creator:
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Gruen, John Jonas, 1926-2016  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1977 May 6
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19402
See more items in:
John Jonas Gruen and Jane Wilson papers, 1909-2016
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19402

Michael Heizer / editors, Emily Wei Rales, Nora Severson Cafritz, Ali Nemerov

Artist:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Writer of introduction:
Rales, Emily Wei  Search this
Editor:
Cafritz, Nora Severson  Search this
Nemerov, Ali  Search this
Issuing body:
Glenstone (Museum)  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Heizer, Michael 1944- Collapse, 1967/2016  Search this
Heizer, Michael 1944- Compression line, 1968/2016  Search this
Physical description:
47 pages : illustrations (some color), plans ; 33 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Exhibition catalogs
Place:
Maryland
Potomac
Date:
2018
Topic:
Outdoor sculpture  Search this
Call number:
N6537.H384 A4 2018
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1102043

Michael Heizer : dragged mass geometric / Whitney Museum of American Art

Title:
Dragged mass geometric
Author:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
[12] p. : ill. (1 col.) ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1985
Call number:
N6537.H384 A4 1985b
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_763138

Michael Heizer, Tom Slaughter, Ray Charles White, Scott Kilgour, John Giorno, Robert Harms, Daniel Villeneuve, Beatriz Milhazes

Title:
Durham Press
Author:
Durham Press  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Slaughter, Tom 1955-  Search this
White, Ray Charles 1961-  Search this
Kilgour, Scott 1960-  Search this
Giorno, John  Search this
Harms, Robert 1962-  Search this
Villeneuve, Daniel 1960-  Search this
Milhazes, Beatriz 1960-  Search this
Durham Press  Search this
Physical description:
[33] p. : ill. (some col.) ; 22 x 28 cm
Type:
Catalogs
Date:
1996
C1996
20th century
Topic:
Prints  Search this
Call number:
NE490 .M53 1996
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_796985

Michael Heizer, 45,̊ 90,̊ 180 :̊ a sculpture for Rice University

Author:
Rice University School of Architecture  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
23 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Texas
Houston
Date:
1985
C1985
20th century
Topic:
Sculpture, American  Search this
Call number:
N6537.H384 A4 1985
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_639358

Michael Heizer : new sculpture : September 5-24, 1988, Akira Ikeda Gallery/Tokyo

Author:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Akira Ikeda Gallery (Tokyo, Japan)  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
[32] p. : ill. ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1988
[1988]
Call number:
N6537.H384 A4 1988
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_643322

Michael Heizer : Museum Folkwang Essen, Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller Otterlo, 1979 / [edited by Zdenek Felix]

Author:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Felix, Zdenek  Search this
Museum Folkwang Essen  Search this
Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
116 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1979
C1979
Call number:
N40.1.H4578 E7
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_654910

Michael Heizer : Effigy tumuli : the reemergence of ancient mound building : essay / by Douglas C. McGill ; photographs and explanatory captions by Michael Heizer

Author:
McGill, Douglas C  Search this
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944- Effigy tumuli  Search this
Physical description:
131 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Buffalo Rock State Park (Ill.)
Date:
1990
Topic:
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Conceptual art  Search this
Call number:
N6537.H384 A64 1990
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_655133

Michael Heizer / Germano Celant ; [translation from Italian by Stephen Sartarelli]

Author:
Celant, Germano  Search this
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Fondazione Prada (Milan, Italy)  Search this
Subject:
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
xxxix, 551 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1997
C1997
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_698134

Colonizing the past : archaic references and the archaeological paradigm in contemporary American earth art / Rebecca Ann Butterfield

Title:
Contemporary American earth art
Author:
Butterfield, Rebecca Ann  Search this
Subject:
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Turrell, James  Search this
Heizer, Michael 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
2 v. (xi, 356 leaves) : ill
Type:
Manuscripts
Place:
United States
Date:
1998
20th century
Topic:
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Call number:
N6494.E27 B88 1998a
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_555969

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By