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Totem poles at Cape Fox village, Alaska (deserted)

Creator:
Starks  Search this
Names:
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (4 1/2x6 1/4 in)
Culture:
Tlingit  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Alaska -- Cape Fox village
Date:
July 1899
Local Numbers:
OPPS NEG.43548
Local Note:
Black and white copy negative
Genre/Form:
Photographs
See more items in:
Bureau of American Ethnology negatives
Bureau of American Ethnology negatives / Additional Materials / Starks
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30379b7bf-7bed-476f-9f98-bd2226f93c3e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-176-ref9859

Totem poles at Cape Fox village, Alaska (deserted)

Creator:
Starks, Erwin C.  Search this
Names:
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (4 1/2x6 1/4 in)
Culture:
Tlingit  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Alaska -- Cape Fox village
Date:
July 1899
Local Numbers:
OPPS NEG.43548 A
Local Note:
Black and white copy negative
Genre/Form:
Photographs
See more items in:
Bureau of American Ethnology negatives
Bureau of American Ethnology negatives / Additional Materials / Starks, Erwin C.
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36bfffb60-310e-497f-b63f-b7431d960fe5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-176-ref9860

Harriman Alaska Expedition, 1899

Container:
Box 14 of 74
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 73, National Museum of Natural History, Division of Mollusks, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Series 1: GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1858-1982, AND UNDATED. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY. / Box 14
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0073-refidd1e5068

Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Names:
Ford-Bartlett East Greenland Expedition 1930  Search this
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Huntington Free Library  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research  Search this
Collector:
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Former owner:
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Extent:
400 Linear feet
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Date:
1890-1998
Summary:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Scope and Contents:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Arrangement:
The MAI, Heye Foundation records have been arranged into 21 series and 50 subseries: Series 1: Directors, 1908-1990 (1.1: George Gustav Heye, 1863-1962, 1.2: Edwin K. Burnett, 1943-1960, 1.3: Frederick Dockstader, 1950-1976, 1.4: Alexander F. Draper, 1972-1977, 1.5:Roland W. Force, 1963-1990, 1.6: George Eager, Assistant Director, 1977-1990) Series 2: Board of Trustees, 1916-1990 (2.1: Board of Trustee Minutes, 1916-1990, 2.2: Individual Board Correspondence, 1943-1990, 2.3: Subject Files, 1917-1990) Series 3: Administrative, 1916-1989 (3.1: Subject Files, 1904-1991, 3.2: Personnel, 1956-1991, 3.3: Legal, 1900-1989, 3.4: Task Force, 1976-1986, 3.5: George Abrams, 1980-1991) Series 4: Financial, 1916-1990 (4.1: Ledgers, 1900-1962, 4.2: Correspondence, 1905-1985, 4.3: Subject Files, 1916-1990) Series 5: Expeditions, 1896-1973Series 6: Collectors, 1872-1981Series 7: Registration, 1856-1993Series 8: Collections Management, 1937-1988Series 9: Curatorial, 1963-1990 (9.1: Curatorial Council, 1973-1990, 9.2: Gary Galante, 1979-1991, 9.3: Mary Jane Lenz, 1974-1994, 9.4: James G. E. Smith, 1963-1990, 9.5: U. Vincent Wilcox, 1968-1984, 9.6: Anna C. Roosevelt, 1973-1988) Series 10: Exhibits, 1923-1991 (10.1: MAI Exhibits, 1923-1990, 10.2: Non-MAI Exhibits, 1937-1991) Series 11: Public Programs, 1935-1990Series 12: Publications, 1904-1994 (12.1: Annual Reports, 1917-1989, 12.2: Publications by MAI, 1904-1990, 12.3: Publications by Other Sources, 1881-1990, 12.4: Administration, 1920-1988, 12.5: Archival Set of Official Publications, 1907-1976) Series 13: Public Affairs, 1938-1991Series 14: Development, 1927-1991 (14.1: Administration, 1979-1990, 14.2: Donors, 1978-1990, 14.3: Fundraising, 1973-1990, 14.4: Grants, 1970-1990, 14.5: Subject Files, 1976-1990) Series 15: Other Departments, 1914-1990 (15.1: Archives, 1914-1990, 15.2: Conservation, 1972-1989, 15.3: Education, 1921-1990, 15.4: Indian Information Center, 1977-1989, 15.5: Museum Shop, 1947-1989, 15.6: Photography, 1918-1990, 15.7: Physical Anthropology, 1919-1956) Series 16: Huntington Free Library, 1926-1991Series 17: Museum Relocation, 1969-1992 (17.1: Subject Files, 1979-1990, 17.2: American Museum of Natural History, 1980-1987, 17.3: Dallas, Texas, 1984-1987, 17.4: Smithsonian Institution, 1979-1990, 17.5: U.S. Custom House, 1977-1990, 17.6: Other Locations, 1974-1987) Series 18: MediaSeries 19: PhotographsSeries 20: Miscellaneous, 1837-1990Series 21: Oversize, 1873-1972 (21.1: Maps, 1873-1975, 21.2: Miscellaneous, 1884-1982)
History of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation:
The Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation was established by wealthy collector George Gustav Heye in 1908. Heye began collecting American Indian artifacts as early as 1897 and his collection rapidly increased over the next several years. Based in New York, Heye bought collections and documentary photographs, sponsored expeditions, and traveled and collected items himself. In addition, once MAI was established he sponsored numerous expeditions across the Western Hemisphere, including North American, Canada, South America and Central America.

From 1908 to 1917 Heye housed his artifacts on temporary loan at the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, Pennsylvania, in lofts on East 33rd Street in New York City, and at other depositories. In 1917, the collections moved from his apartment to their permanent museum location at Audubon Terrace, at 155th Street and Broadway in New York City. The museum, containing ethnographic and archaeological collections from North, Central and South America, opened to the public in 1922. Less than ten years later, Heye completed a storage facility in the Pelham Bay area of the Bronx, known as the Research Branch. Heye served as Chairman of the Board and Museum Director until his death in 1957. After growing concern about the financial and other management of the collections came to a head, the museum became part of the Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and in 1994 opened exhibit space in the U.S. Customs House at Bowling Green near New York City's Battery Park. The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland later opened in 1999 and the main Washington, DC museum opened in 2004.

Please visit the following links for more information about the history of the museum; History of the Collection, Collections Overview, and Significance of the Collection. Moreover, for information about how the museum currently cares for and exhibits the collection, please see the Conservation department and recent entries regarding Exhibitions and Conservation on the NMAI Blog. In addition, see portions of the NMAI Archive Center's collections highlighted in the SIRIS Blog.
Related Materials:
In 2004, the Huntington Fee Library, once part of the MAI/Heye Foundation, was transferred to the Cornell University Library Rare Book and Manuscript Collection. While this collection mainly contained books, it also contained a significant amount of archival materials. The Huntington Free Library's Native American Collection contains outstanding materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America, as well as contemporary politics and human rights issues are also important components of the collection. Further information about the collection and links to finding aids can be found here: rmc.library.cornell.edu/collections/HFL_old.html.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Tennessee  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New York (State)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Panama  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Jersey  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Mexico  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Missouri  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Nevada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Indians of Central America  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Texas  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Ethnological expeditions  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Museums -- Acquisitions  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Cuba  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Ecuador  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Arkansas  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Canada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Guatemala  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Haiti  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv412df8cf1-44c0-41fd-9101-eefb477e5aef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001
Online Media:

Charles D. Walcott correspondence, 1908-1913

Creator:
Walcott, Charles D. (Charles Doolittle), 1850-1927  Search this
Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935  Search this
Subject:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Place:
Alaska -- description and travel
Citation:
Charles D. Walcott correspondence, 1908-1913. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Theme:
Art organizations  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5762
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208601
AAA_collcode_walcchar
Theme:
Art organizations
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208601

Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs

Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Names:
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Former owner:
Cardozo, Christopher  Search this
Extent:
12.5 Linear feet
Culture:
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Apache  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Duwamish (Dwamish)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Kootenai (Kutenai)  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Coast Salish  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1899-1930
Summary:
The collection comprises Edward S. Curtis original and copy negatives, prints, and photogravures relating to the Harriman Alaska Expedition and Curtis's 20 volume publication, the North American Indian (NAI), as well as ephemera and one gold-tone of Fort Lapawi.
Scope and Contents:
The Christopher Cardozo collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs primarily relate to Curtis's opus, the North American Indian, and also the 1899 Harriman Alaska Expedition. Papers in the collection include promotional ephemera for the NAI as well as articles by Curtis and others. Photographic material includes original and copy negatives, prints, two Harriman Alaska Expedition souvenir albums, and one gold-tone of Fort Lapawi.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series: 1. Papers; and 2. Photographs and photogravures.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sherriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer famous for his photographs of the indigenous peoples of North America. His work was highly influential in shaping a sympathetic yet romantic view of cultures that he and many others believed to be "vanishing." Over the course of 30 years, Curtis visited more than 80 Native American communities and published his photographs and ethnographies in the twenty-volume North American Indian (NAI) (1907-1930).

Curtis was born in Whitewater, Wisconsin, to Ellen and Johnson Curtis in 1868. In about 1874, his family moved to a farm in Cordova, Minnesota. At a young age, Curtis built a camera, and it is possible that he may have worked in a Minneapolis photography studio for a time. In 1887, Curtis and his father moved West and settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, with the rest of the family joining them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, 20-year-old Curtis became the head of the family.

In 1891, Curtis moved to Seattle and bought into a photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he and Thomas Guptill formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers." The endeavor became a premier portrait studio for Seattle society and found success in photoengraving for many local publications. In 1892, Curtis married Clara Phillips (1874-1932) and in 1893 their son Harold was born (1893-1988), followed by Elizabeth (Beth) (1896-1973), Florence (1899-1987) and Katherine (Billy) (1909-?). Around 1895, Curtis made his first photographs of local Native people, including the daughter of Duwamish chief Seattle: Kickisomlo or "Princess Angeline." Curtis submitted a series of his Native American photographs to the National Photographic Convention, and received an award in the category of "genre studies" for Homeward (later published in volume 9 of the NAI). In 1896, the entire Curtis family moved to Seattle, which included Curtis's mother, his siblings Eva and Asahel, Clara's sisters Susie and Nellie Phillips, and their cousin William Phillips. Most of the household worked in Curtis's studio along with other employees. Curtis became sole proprietor of the studio in 1897, which remained a popular portrait studio but also sold his scenic landscapes and views of the Seattle Area. Curtis also sent his brother Asahel to Alaska and the Yukon to photograph the Klondike Gold Rush, and sold those views as well. Asahel went on to become a well-known photographer in his own right, primarily working in the American Northwest.

Curtis was an avid outdoorsman and joined the Mazamas Club after his first of many climbs of Mount Rainier. On a climb in 1898, Curtis evidently met a group of scientists, including C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell, and Gifford Pinchot, who had lost their way on the mountain, and led them to safety. This encounter led to an invitation from Merriam for Curtis to accompany a group of over 30 well-known scientists, naturalists, and artists as the official photographer on a maritime expedition to the Alaskan coast. Funded by railroad magnate Edward Harriman, the Harriman Alaska Expedition left Seattle in May of 1899, and returned at the end of July. Curtis made around 5000 photographs during the trip, including photographs of the indigenous peoples they met as well as views of mountains, glaciers, and other natural features. Many of the photographs appeared in the expedition's 14 published volumes of their findings.

In 1900, Curtis accompanied Grinnell to Montana for a Blackfoot Sundance. Here, Curtis made numerous photographs and became interested in the idea of a larger project to document the Native peoples of North America. Almost immediately upon returning from the Sundance, Curtis set off for the Southwest to photograph Puebloan communities. By 1904, Curtis had already held at least one exhibit of his "Indian pictures" and his project to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, the NAI) had taken shape and already received some press coverage. With his fieldwork now increasing his absences from home, Curtis hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank Rinehart, to help manage the Seattle studio.

In 1904, Curtis was a winner in the Ladies Home Journal "Prettiest Children In America" portrait contest. His photograph of Marie Fischer was selected as one of 112 that would be published and Fischer was one of 12 children selected from the photographs who would have their portrait painted by Walter Russell. Russell and Curtis made an acquaintance while Russell was in Seattle to paint Fischer's portrait, and not long afterwards, Russell contacted Curtis to make photographic studies of Theodore Roosevelt's children for portraits he would paint. Curtis subsequently photographed the entire Roosevelt family, and developed a social connection with the President. Several important outcomes came of this new friendship, including Roosevelt eventually writing the foreword to the NAI, as well as making introductions to influential people.

Key among these introductions was one to wealthy financier John Pierpont Morgan, in 1906. After a brief meeting with Curtis during which he viewed several of Curtis's photographs of Native Americans, Morgan agreed to finance the fieldwork for the NAI project for five years, at $15,000.00 per year. It was up to Curtis to cover publishing and promotion costs, with the publication being sold as a subscription. In return, Morgan would receive 25 sets of the 20-volume publication. The ambitious publication plan outlined 20 volumes of ethnological text, each to be illustrated with 75 photogravure prints made from acid-etched copper plates. Each volume would be accompanied by a companion portfolio of 35 large photogravures. With high-quality papers and fine binding, a set would cost $3000.00. 500 sets were planned. Under Morgan, the North American Indian, Inc. formed as body to administer the monies. Also around this time, Frederick Webb Hodge, Director of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology, agreed to edit the publications.

Curtis then began more systematic fieldwork, accompanied by a team of research assistants and Native interpreters. In 1906, Curtis hired William E. Myers, a former journalist, as a field assistant and stenographer. Over the years, Myers became the lead researcher on the project, making enormous contributions in collecting data and possibly doing the bulk of the writing for the first 18 volumes. Upon meeting a new community, Curtis and his team would work on gathering data dealing with all aspects of the community's life, including language, social and political organization, religion, food ways, measures and values, and many other topics. (See box 2 folder 1 in this collection for Curtis's list of topics.) Curtis and his assistants, especially Myers, brought books and papers to the field relating to the tribes they were currently concerned with, and often wrote from the field to anthropologists at the Bureau of American Ethnology and other institutions for information or publications. In addition to fieldnotes and photographs, the team also employed sound recording equipment, making thousands of recordings on wax cylinders. Curtis also often brought a motion picture camera, although few of his films have survived.

The first volume of the NAI was published towards the end of 1907. Already, Curtis was encountering difficulty in finding subscribers to the publication despite great praise in the press and among those who could afford the volumes. Curtis spent progressively more of his time outside the field season promoting the project through lectures and in 1911, presenting his "Picture Musicale"—a lecture illustrated with lantern slides and accompanied by an original musical score—in major cities. After the initial five funded years, only eight of the twenty volumes had been completed. However, Morgan agreed to continue support for the fieldwork and publication continued.

Starting in 1910, Curtis and his team worked among the Kwakwaka'wakw First Nation on Vancouver Island, and in 1913 began to develop a documentary film project featuring the community in Alert Bay. In 1914, Curtis produced the feature-length film, In the Land of the Headhunters. The film showcased an all-indigenous cast and included an original musical score. Screened in New York and Seattle, it received high praise. However after this initial success, it did not receive the attention Curtis had hoped for, and resulted in financial loss.

Meanwhile, Curtis's prolonged absences from home had taken a toll on his marriage and in 1919 Clara and Edward divorced. The Seattle studio was awarded to Clara, and Curtis moved to Los Angeles, opening a photography studio with his daughter Beth and her husband Manford "Mag" Magnuson. Daughters Florence and Katherine came to Los Angeles sometime later. Curtis continued with fieldwork and promotion of the project, and in 1922 volume 12 of the NAI was published. Also in 1922, Curtis was accompanied during the field season in California by his daughter Florence Curtis Graybill, the first time a family member had gone to the field with him since the Curtis children were very small.

Curtis continued to push the project and publications along, yet never without financial struggle and he picked up work in Hollywood as both a still and motion picture photographer. John Pierpont Morgan, Jr., continued to provide funding for the fieldwork in memory of his father, but with the various financial upsets of the 1910s and 1920s, Curtis had a difficult time getting subscribers on board. In 1926, Myers, feeling the strain, regretfully resigned after the completion of volume 18. Anthropologist Frank Speck recommended Stewart Eastwood, a recent graduate from the University of Pennsylvania, to replace Myers as ethnologist for the final two volumes.

In 1927, Curtis and his team, along with his daughter Beth Curtis Magnuson, headed north from Seattle to Alaska and Canada on a final field season. Harsh weather and a hip injury made the trip difficult for Curtis, but he was very satisfied with the season's work. The party returned to Seattle, and upon arrival Curtis was arrested for unpaid alimony. He returned exhausted to Los Angeles, and in 1930 the final two volumes of NAI were published without fanfare. Curtis spent the next two years recovering from physical and mental exhaustion. Beth and Mag continued to run the Curtis studio in LA, but for the most part, Curtis had set down his camera for good. With the NAI behind him and his health recovered, Curtis pursued various interests and employment, eventually, settling down on a farm outside Los Angeles. he later moved in with Beth and Mag. Curtis died at home in 1952.

Sources Cited Davis, Barbara. Edward S. Curtis: the life and times of a shadowcatcher. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1984. Gidley, Mick. The North American Indian, Incorporated. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Christopher Cardozo (1948-2021) was a major collector and dealer in Edward S. Curtis photography.
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds additional Curtis papers and photographs in NAA.2010-28, the Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs, MS 2000-18, the Edward Curtis investigation of the battle of Little Bighorn and Photo Lot 59, the Library of Congress copyright prints collection.

The Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University holds Curtis's wax cylinder audio recordings from 1907-1913.

The Braun Research Library at the Autry Museum of the American West holds the Frederick Webb Hodge papers (1888-1931), which contain substantial correspondence from Curtis. The Braun also holds a small amount of Curtis papers and photographs, including some of Curtis's cyanotypes.

The Getty Research Institute holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1900-1978), which include the original manuscript scores for the Curtis Picture Musicale and film In the Land of the Headhunters.

The Palace of the Governors at the New Mexico History Museum holds original Curtis negatives pertaining to the southwest.

The Pierpont Morgan Library holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1906-1947), which contain the records of the North American Indian, Inc., as well as Curtis's correspondence to librarian, and later library director, Belle Da Costa Greene. The library also holds a large collection of Curtis's lantern slides, used in his Picture Musicale.

The Seattle Public Library holds correspondence of Curtis to Librarian Harriet Leitch (1948-1951), pertaining to his career.

The Seaver Center for Western History Research at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History holds collection GC 1143, which contains Curtis's field notes as well as manuscript drafts for the North American Indian.

The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian holds NMAI.AC.080, the Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs, as well as NMAI.AC.053, the Mary Harriman Rumsey collection of Harriman Alaska Expedition photographs.

The University of Washington Libraries Special Collections holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1893-1983). Additionally, the Burke Museum holds papers and photographs of Edmund Schwinke, which relate to Curtis's work with the Kwakwaka'wakw community.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Julie Cardozo in 2022.
Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Identifier:
NAA.2022-12
See more items in:
Christopher Cardozo Collection of Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36944a23c-3be7-4086-bab0-4696f3aab866
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2022-12

Antithamnion boreale

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Wrangell, Wrangell-Petersburg Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
5 Jun 1888
Taxonomy:
Plantae Rhodophyta Ceramiales Ceramiaceae
Published Name:
Antithamnion boreale
Barcode:
00251880
USNM Number:
72174
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30d61f56e-074b-4157-a8cf-ca27ca965023
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2237526

Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Nees

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
(New) Metlakahtla, Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
4 Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Chlorophyta Ulvales Ulvaceae
Published Name:
Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Nees
Barcode:
00232935
USNM Number:
69235
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38f3871ff-6865-4830-af57-c21107550ef3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2239750

Ulva lactuca var. rigida

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Prince William Sound, Valdez-Cordova Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
28 Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Chlorophyta Ulvales Ulvaceae
Published Name:
Ulva lactuca var. rigida
Barcode:
00239031
USNM Number:
54939
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3437977ab-cd63-46f3-8ece-47ea2013f563
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2239791

Rhodomela lycopodioides

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Prince William Sound, Valdez-Cordova Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
28 Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Rhodophyta Ceramiales Rhodomelaceae
Published Name:
Rhodomela lycopodioides
Barcode:
00583074
USNM Number:
79423
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/39f3ec145-16f9-475a-8518-edd07ab18b64
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2239792

Dilsea californica (J. Agardh) Kuntze

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Prince William Sound, Valdez-Cordova Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
28 Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Rhodophyta Cryptonemiales Dumontiaceae
Published Name:
Dilsea californica (J. Agardh) Kuntze
Barcode:
00522105
USNM Number:
74379
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/369164fc2-b563-47e1-abc9-33aca8c98abf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2239793

Dumontia incrassata

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Virgin Bay, Prince William Sound, Valdez-Cordova Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
26 Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Rhodophyta Cryptonemiales Dumontiaceae
Published Name:
Dumontia incrassata
Barcode:
00522244
USNM Number:
74424
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/33b2a72b2-7fb6-4dbc-abeb-bf92dd3dbec6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2242880

Blidingia marginata

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Prince William Sound, Valdez-Cordova Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
27 Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Chlorophyta Ulvales Ulvaceae
Published Name:
Blidingia marginata
Barcode:
00208850
USNM Number:
68561
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3024a00d1-c92c-44dc-992e-b7f9f8b3c3b0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2246987

Enteromorpha crinita

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Prince William Sound, Valdez-Cordova Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Chlorophyta Ulvales Ulvaceae
Published Name:
Enteromorpha crinita
Barcode:
00232598
USNM Number:
53303
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cc611304-d98a-4619-b0d3-8e12b6309f49
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2252619

Rhodymenia pertusa

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Yakutat Bay, Skagway-Yakutat-Angoon Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Rhodophyta Rhodymeniales Rhodymeniaceae
Published Name:
Rhodymenia pertusa
Barcode:
00527249
USNM Number:
79310
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3913fdb9d-e3cf-4572-ba5f-5fb2e0e670f0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2254859

Ptilota asplenioides

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Yakutat Bay, Skagway-Yakutat-Angoon Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Rhodophyta Ceramiales Ceramiaceae
Published Name:
Ptilota asplenioides
Barcode:
00582306
USNM Number:
78974
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/36389a30f-d0e8-46ed-8af3-25c1e134549d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2254862

Punctaria plantaginea

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Yakutat Bay, Skagway-Yakutat-Angoon Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Chromista Ochrophyta Dictyosiphonales Punctariaceae
Published Name:
Punctaria plantaginea
Barcode:
00202187
USNM Number:
1939
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31ffb507c-8332-4bd6-9e0d-0cd2bfd1e8b7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2254864

Chaetomorpha melagonium

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Yakutat Bay, Skagway-Yakutat-Angoon Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Chlorophyta Cladophorales Cladophoraceae
Published Name:
Chaetomorpha melagonium
Barcode:
00214119
USNM Number:
68884
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/375a05f37-4e62-460b-be60-f30a1e209110
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2254865

Pterosiphonia bipinnata (Postels & Rupr.) Falkenb.

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Yakutat Bay, Skagway-Yakutat-Angoon Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Rhodophyta Ceramiales Rhodomelaceae
Published Name:
Pterosiphonia bipinnata (Postels & Rupr.) Falkenb.
Barcode:
00582039
USNM Number:
78835
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/35e8bd745-f40d-4c3a-a748-66ceb2bb4713
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2254866

Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh

Biogeographical Region:
Aleutian  Search this
Collector:
De Alton Saunders  Search this
Place:
Yakutat Bay, Skagway-Yakutat-Angoon Division, Alaska, United States, North America
Collection Date:
22 Jun 1899
Taxonomy:
Plantae Chlorophyta Ulvales Ulvaceae
Published Name:
Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh
Barcode:
00233141
USNM Number:
69262
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3fd45d726-8da6-4f5c-8a6d-6245bc90b721
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2261597

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