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MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by an anonymous Kiowa artist

Extent:
16 Drawings (graphite and colored pencil, 6.5 x 8 inches)
Container:
Box 98-54
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Graphic Materials
Drawings
Works of art
Ledger drawings
Place:
Florida -- Fort Marion
North America
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of sixteen (16) drawings in a commercial exercise book. The book had been sewn into a second cover prior to its acquisition by the Smithsonian. This second cover was removed and the book was rebound. The second cover has been retained.

The drawings depict hunting, courtship, dance, social gatherings, Indian scouts, mounted and dismounted warriors, and part of the Kiowa Sun Dance. The inside of the front cover is inscribed:

"Capt Pratt U.S.A." "Work by Indians" "By the Indians incarcerated in Fort Marion St. Augustine Florida in 1876" "Engaged in the Custer Massacre" "Care of Capt Pratt in charge assisted by the following ladies-- Mrs Linethurst, Mrs Gibbs - Mrs S'- Mother St Augustine, Mrs Kingsly Gibbs - aunt, Mrs Valentine - Phila, Miss Reed" "Carlisle was the outcome of Capt Pratt's efforts assisted by Mrs Kingsly Gibbs of St Augustine"

The back cover is inscribed:

"Works of the Indians while in prison in Fort Marion St Augustine Florida-- After the Custer Massacre in care of Capt Pratt-- The founder of Carlisle-- These Indians finally taken there for housing and taming--by the Government-- under the care of Capt Pratt USA"

In addition to the inscription, the back cover bears the image of a man wearing a breechcloth, which was scratched into its surface. The name "ZOTOM" appears in stencil block letters on the back cover and the inside of the front cover. Although Zotom was a noted Kiowa artist, it is not clear that he is responsible for the drawings. Candace Greene notes that they are unlike his later work and early documented examples of his drawing style have not been identified.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Historical Note:
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion.
Local Numbers:
MS 98-54 000
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Works of art
Ledger drawings
Citation:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by an anonymous Kiowa artist, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1998-54
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by an anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw39b1ada3f-864a-426e-9cd8-1bb560f310e0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1998-54
Online Media:

[Snug Harbor]

Owner:
Sloan, Alfred P., Jr  Search this
Creator:
Lewis & Valentine  Search this
Briggs & Stelling  Search this
Landscape architect:
Spelling, Carl  Search this
Collection Creator:
Lewis & Valentine Company  Search this
Collection Donor:
Lewis, Hewlett Withington  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Snug Harbor (Kings Point, New York)
United States of America -- New York -- Nassau County -- North Hempstead -- Kings Point
Date:
[1930?]
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Avenues  Search this
Allées  Search this
Columns  Search this
Garden lighting  Search this
Trees  Search this
Driveways  Search this
Fences  Search this
Shrubs  Search this
Signs and signboards  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Lewis & Valentine Company Records.
Identifier:
AAG.LVC, Item NY258001
See more items in:
Lewis & Valentine company records
Lewis & Valentine company records / Garden Images / United States of America / New York / NY258: Kings Point -- Snug Harbor
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6911a6ccf-d2e1-4bf1-9ec0-e1d76512df84
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-lvc-ref740

[Snug Harbor]

Creator:
Studly, Adolph  Search this
Sloan, Alfred P., Jr  Search this
Lewis & Valentine  Search this
Briggs & Stelling  Search this
Landscape architect:
Stelling, Carl  Search this
Collection Creator:
Lewis & Valentine Company  Search this
Collection Donor:
Lewis, Hewlett Withington  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Snug Harbor (Kings Point, New York)
United States of America -- New York -- Nassau County -- North Hempstead -- Kings Point
Date:
1956 Jun.
General:
This is a photograph of a Landscape Architect's Section Drawing.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Cemeteries  Search this
Walkways  Search this
Shrubs  Search this
Hedges  Search this
Walls, stone  Search this
Stairs  Search this
Planting plans  Search this
Benches  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Lewis & Valentine Company Records.
Identifier:
AAG.LVC, Item NY258002
See more items in:
Lewis & Valentine company records
Lewis & Valentine company records / Garden Images / United States of America / New York / NY258: Kings Point -- Snug Harbor
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e89abeb0-88af-4948-88a3-ef8e318f3d20
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-lvc-ref741

Correspondence and envelopes of Philip St. George

Collector:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Series Collector:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Series Donor:
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Cruse, Howard, 1944-2019  Search this
Extent:
176 Items
Type:
Archival materials
Letters
Date:
1945 to 1953
Scope and Contents:
These letters are clues to a secret life. This is a series of letters and addressed envelopes sent to Philip St. George (?-1997) of New York City who, from all indications, identified as being a closeted gay man. George's correspondents, who may have also have been gay or bisexual, tell of their experiences in the armed forces after World War II and their life after the war, 1945-1953.
Arrangement:
In Box 84, Folders 1 - 10.
Local Numbers:
AC1146-0000117-01 to AC1146-0000273 (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
LGBT  Search this
Homosexuality  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 13: St. George, Philip / 13.1: Correspondence and envelopes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep859ce5d95-b8bb-4f26-8d04-1541e00c1ac2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref2773
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  • View Correspondence and envelopes of Philip St. George digital asset number 1
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Harbor Area Council

Series Collector:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Series Donor:
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Cruse, Howard, 1944-2019  Search this
Container:
Box 37, Folder 46
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1954
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 7: Mattachine Society / 7.4: Councils, Chapters, and Committees
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ece30aef-132a-4c0b-a5bc-0e791275bfc7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref814

A. Scott Crossfield Papers

Creator:
Crossfield, A. Scott (Albert Scott), 1921-  Search this
Names:
Eastern Air Lines  Search this
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
20.23 Cubic feet (42 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Date:
1940 - 2004
Summary:
This collection consists of over nine cubic feet of material documenting Scott Crossfield's aviation career, with emphasis on his involvement with the North American X-15. The following types of material are included: correspondence; reel to reel tapes; papers, manuscripts; newspaper and magazine clippings; aviation manuals; photographs; film; and Crossfield's notes and reports.
Scope and Content note:
This collection encompasses the entirety of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr.'s career as an engineer, test pilot, airline executive, and speaker and advocate for aerospace education. Records in the collection date from Crossfield's time at college in the 1940s through his death in 2006. Crossfield's papers were donated to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives by the Crossfield family in 2006 and a second batch of material was received in 2008. The collection was received without any apparent organizational scheme, but some items were received in labeled folders and these folder titles were retained when the collection was processed. One group of material was loaned by the family for copying and these items were photocopied and placed within the appropriate folder in the case of documents, or were scanned and entered into the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives image database in the case of photographs.

After his retirement from North American Aviation, Inc., Crossfield gave his papers to a former secretary, Marion Brown, so that she could organize them for his use in future writing projects. In February 1973, a U.S. Navy Vought A-7E Corsair II crashed into the apartment building where Brown lived and all of Crossfield's papers in her possession were destroyed. Due to this incident, the collection has more material from Crossfield's time with Eastern Air Lines and onwards, although the prior years are still well represented through records that were either retained in Crossfield's possession or copies that were gathered after the fact. There is correspondence from Crossfield relating to the crash in Box 11 of the collection.

The archival materials in this collection are organized into four series. The first series is composed of personal materials and includes school records, correspondence, personal photographs, records relating to various organizations in which Crossfield was active, information relating to the publication of Crossfield's autobiography, Always Another Dawn, other writings by Crossfield, financial records, subject files assembled by Crossfield, philatelic materials (Crossfield was an active collector and was a founding member and officer of The Aviation Historical Foundation, a philatelic organization), and news clippings. The material in this series is largely organized chronologically. Personal photographs and subject files are organized by topic first and chronologically within each folder and organizations are arranged alphabetically by name first and also chronologically within the individual folders.

The second series contains items relating to Crossfield's professional life, organized chronologically by place of employment. This series includes materials relating to Crossfield's work at Boeing, the U.S. Navy, the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), North American Aviation, Inc., Eastern Air Lines, Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Crossfield's work as an Independent Technical Advisor, Crossfield's application for the position of Director of the National Air and Space Museum, Crossfield's time as a member of the United States Organizing Committee, and his work with organizations such as the Scott Crossfield Foundation and The Wright Experience. During the later part of his life, Crossfield toured the country extensively giving speeches, presenting awards, etc. and there is a large amount of material relating to these appearances in this part of the collection. These materials arrived already organized chronologically by individual trip and this organizational scheme was retained. Specifically, the professional life series includes flight reports, manuals, drawings, business correspondence, administrative records, presentations and papers, travel itineraries, notebooks, calendars, speeches delivered by Crossfield, and career related photographs (which are broken out as their own subseries). The professional life series also includes a section of miscellaneous professional items including job seeking correspondence, information on the patent for a power wheel braking or driving unit designed by Crossfield, and a folder of Crossfield's résumés.

The third series consists of audiotapes and is organized first by tape format and then chronologically within each category. Subjects of the audiotapes include speeches, a large number of North American X-15 cockpit recordings and radio communications, tape produced for a television program, and autobiographical notes. A number of the audiotapes include no description. With a total of 65 examples in this series, the most common audiotape format in the collection is, by far, 7 inch reel to reel tapes. Other formats in this series include 5 inch reel to reel tapes, 3.125 by 3.5 inch metal audiotape cartridges, and Dictaphone recording belts. Please note that these audio recordings are unavailable to the researcher at the time of processing due to the format and fragility of the tapes.

The fourth series of this collection is comprised of oversized materials and additional materials including galley proofs, news clippings, drawings, charts, professional records, and photographs. The organization of this series mirrors the folder titles found in the rest of the collection.

The researcher should note that the collection also contains several motion picture films relating to the life and career of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. These films are not included in the container list but a NASM Archives staff person can assist you regarding access.
Arrangement:
The A. Scott Crossfield Papers are organized into the following series and subseries:

Series I: Personal Materials

1.1 School Records

1.2 Correspondence

1.3 Personal Photographs

1.4 Organizations

1.5 Information Related to the Publication of Always Another Dawn

1.6 Other Writings by Crossfield

1.7 Financial Records

1.8 Subject Files

1.9 Philatelic Materials

1.10 News Clippings

1.11 Miscellaneous Personal Records

Series II: Professional Life

2.1 Boeing

2.2 U.S. Navy

2.3 Kirsten Wind Tunnel, University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory

2.4 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)

2.5 North American Aviation, Inc.

2.6 Eastern Air Lines

2.7 Hawker Siddeley Aviation

2.8 Independent Technical Advisor

2.9 Application for NASM Director Position

2.10 United States Organizing Committee

2.11 Scott Crossfield Foundation

2.12 The Wright Experience

2.13 Speaking Engagements and Professional Appearances

2.14 Career Related Photographs

2.14 Miscellaneous Professional Records

Series III: Audiotapes

Series IV: Oversized Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. was born on October 2, 1921, in California. As a young boy, Crossfield was often confined indoors due to health problems related to pneumonia and rheumatic fever. During this time, he dreamed of becoming a pilot and designed and constructed model airplanes. Crossfield took his first airplane ride in 1927, at six years old, in an Alexander Eaglerock A-1 piloted by family friend Charles "Carl" Lienesch. Lienesch also encouraged Crossfield to become an engineer as well as a pilot. Unbeknownst to Crossfield's parents, he began taking flying lessons at the age of 12 at Wilmington Airport under the tutelage of pilot Vaughn McNulty. The family later moved to Washington State and it was there, at the Chehalis Airport, that Crossfield made his first solo flight in a Curtiss Robin. It was not until the summer of 1941, however, that Crossfield officially soloed and earned his pilot's license under the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA), Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP).

Crossfield enrolled in the University of Washington in 1940 and worked at the Boeing plant in Seattle, beginning in the fall of 1941, while still pursuing his studies. Crossfield's first assignment at Boeing was as an assembly page clerk. He was later promoted to the position of production expediter and shop salvage engineer. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps and continued to work at Boeing while he waited for an opening in a cadet class. In February 1942, tired of waiting on the Air Corps and eager to get into combat, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Navy instead where he joined the cadet class of May 7, 1942. Crossfield first trained in Seattle, Washington, and later was sent to the Naval Air Training Center in Corpus Christi, Texas, where he earned his Naval Aviator's wings in 1942. During his time in the Navy, Crossfield never fulfilled his ambition to see combat because he was selected instead to remain at Corpus Christi as a flight and gunnery instructor. Crossfield eventually was sent to Hawaii to prepare and train for an invasion of Japan but the war ended before this became necessary. During his time in the U.S. Navy, Crossfield flew the Grumman F6F Hellcat, Vought F4U Corsair, and the North American SNJ Texan, among other aircraft. After he separated from active duty with the Service, Crossfield remained active in the Naval Reserves and was part of an aerobatic team at Sand Point Naval Air Station that flew Goodyear FG-1D Corsairs.

Crossfield returned to his studies at the University of Washington in 1946 and was employed doing tests at the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University's Aeronautical Laboratory. Crossfield earned his Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering in 1949 and his master's degree in aeronautical science in 1950. After obtaining his degrees, Crossfield joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) as a research pilot. During his time with NACA, Crossfield flew many aircraft including the Convair XF-92A, Bell X-1, Northrop X-4 Bantam, Douglas D-558-1 Skystreak, Bell X-5, Republic F-84F Thunderstreak, Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, North American F-86 Sabre, and the North American F-100A Super Sabre. Crossfield made history in the Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket on November 20, 1953, as the first pilot to exceed Mach 2 (twice the speed of sound).

In 1955, Crossfield left NACA and joined North American Aviation, Inc. to work on the X-15 program where he would not only serve as the X-15 Project Pilot but also as a Design Specialist, a role in which he was an integral part of the design of both the aircraft and the pressure suit developed by the David Clark Company for the X-15 program. The suit served as a prototype for the spacesuits later worn by astronauts. Crossfield helped to develop the X-15's cockpit, control, and engine systems; structural design; propulsion system; engineered its escape system; and contributed to its handling quality requirements. He also developed the ground control test methodology that would later become standard on the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. Crossfield piloted the North American X-15 on its first captive flight in March 1959, first glide flight in June 1959, and the first powered flight in September 1959, as well as numerous other test flights, before the X-15 was delivered to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in February 1960. Crossfield also served as Chief Engineering Test Pilot at North American from 1955-1961 before moving to the Space and Information Systems Division first as the Director of Systems Test (1961) then as the Division Director of Test and Quality Assurance (1961-1966) where he was responsible for quality control in all North American projects including the Hounddog Missile (AGM-28, GAM-77), Paragliders for the Gemini program, Apollo Command and Service Module, and the Saturn V launch vehicles, second stage. Crossfield's final position with North American was as the Technical Director, Research, Engineering and Test from 1966-1967.

Crossfield joined Eastern Air Lines in Miami, Florida, as Division Vice President, Flight, Research, and Development, Flight Operations in 1967, a position he held until 1971 when he moved to Washington, DC, to serve as Staff Vice President, Transportation Systems Development (1971-1973). From 1974 to 1975, Crossfield served as Senior Vice President at Hawker Siddeley Aviation's U.S. subsidiary branch, an office he helped to establish. After leaving Hawker Siddeley, Crossfield served for many years as an independent technical advisor to the U.S. Congress. Crossfield also served on the United States Organizing Committee to plan the Air and Space Bicentennial. In the later part of his life, Crossfield traveled extensively to give talks, attend events, and make various professional appearances and it was on a return flight home from one such trip in 2006 that Crossfield was killed when the plane he was piloting was caught in a thunderstorm.

Crossfield was active in various organizations including the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautic Association (NAA), and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP), a group in which he was a founding member. Crossfield also created the Scott Crossfield Foundation to support aerospace education. Crossfield was the recipient of numerous awards and honors including the Sperry (Lawrence B.) Memorial Award (1954) and Chanute (Octave) Award (AIAA, 1958), Kincheloe Award (SETP, 1960), Harmon Trophy (1960), Collier (Robert J.) Trophy (1961), NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1993), and the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Trophy for Lifetime Achievement (2000).

Crossfield published his autobiography, Always Another Dawn, in 1960 with Clay Blair, Jr. and is the author of numerous other publications, articles, and technical papers.
Provenance:
Alice Crossfield, Gift, 2006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
North American X-15  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Citation:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Accession number 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Acc. 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0041
See more items in:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28d41031c-4569-4e2e-b114-8a32f81be51e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0041
Online Media:

Emilio Herbruger Photographs

Extent:
44 Photographic prints (albumen)
Culture:
Kaqchikel Maya (Cakchiquel)  Search this
Tz'utuhil Maya (Tzutuhil/Zutigil)  Search this
Pipil  Search this
K'iche' Maya (Quiché)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Guatemala
Date:
Circa 1860-1880
Summary:
The Emilio Herbruger Photographs consist mostly of full length portraits of Mayan people in Guatemala. The photos depict adults and children, sometimes demonstrating a domestic task, or wearing garments indicating leadership status or for special occasions.
Scope and Contents:
The Emilio Herbruger Photographs consists of 44 carte de visite photographs taken in Guatemala of Mayan peoples, prinicpally from the Kaqchikel, Quiché, and Tz'utujil ethnic communities. Many of the prints are hand labeled with a description of the ethnicity and place of origin of the person(s) photographed. It is not known if Herbruger traveled to take the photographs, nor if he provided any part of the regalia or objects depicted in them.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The materials are arranged in alphabetical order, first by the name of the ethnic and linguistic community of the person(s) photographed, then by town of origin, when indicated. It is not known whether the location reference refers to the location the photo was taken, or the origin of the subject of the photo. Prints lacking specification are located at the end.
Biographical / Historical:
Emilio ("Emil") Herbruger, Sr. was born in Rheda-Wiedenbruck, Germany in 1808 and died in New Jersey in 1894. Principally a daguerreotypist, ambrotypist, and photographer, he was also a composer, musician, and pharmaceutical agent. After immigrating to New Jersey as a young man, he lived and worked in several Latin American countries beginning in the 1840s. These include Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Honduras, and Panama. He is considered the first commercial photographer in Guatemala, where he established a gallery in Guatemala City around 1846. His photographs often depict local people, nature, and city scenes. He worked on occasion with his sons, Florencio C. Herbruger and Emilio Herbruger, Jr., also known as Emilio Herbruger Rietbrok. Additionally, the noted Guatemalan photographer Alberto Valdeavellano studied with the Herbrugers in Antigua, Guatemala.

Sources Consulted

Cruz, Keneth. "Día Mundial de la fotografía: ¿Por qué se celebra el 19 de agosto?" Prensa Libre. 19 August 2019. https://www.prensalibre.com/vida/escenario/dia-mundial-de-la-fotografia-por-que-se-celebra-el-19-de-agosto/

Garzon Díaz, Valia. "Panamá a través de la lente de Emil Herbruger Wheling (1808-1894),"Mesoamérica 45 (Enero-Diciembre 2003), Pp. 85-99.

Palmquist, Peter, and Thomas Kailbourn. "Herbruger, Emil, Sr.," Pioneer photographers of the far west: A biographical dictionary, 1840-1865, 295-296. Stanford UP, 2000.

Chronology

1808 April 24 -- Born in Rheda-Wiedenbruck, Germany

1834 -- Emigrated to U.S. Participated in exhibition in Louisville, Kentucky

1840 -- Travelled through Cuba, Mexico, and Central America

1846 -- Established a gallery in Guatemala City, Guatemala

1849-1951 -- Lived in Colombia

1852-1857 -- Traveled in Peru and Brazil

1861 -- Opened Emilio Herbruger e Hijos in Panama City, Panama

1866 -- Opened gallery in Guatemala City, Guatemala

1868 -- Displayed at exhibition sponsored by Sociedad Económica Published polka composition "La Unión"

1868-1870 -- Worked and traveled through Honduras

1871 -- Established Fotografía Imperial gallery in Guatemala City, Guatemala

1870s -- Operated gallery with son Emilio Herbruger, Jr. in Panama City, Panama

1894 -- Died in Egg Harbor, New Jersey
Related Materials:
Information about the articles of clothing worn by the subjects of these photos is avaiable in the NAA vertical file.

Photographs by Emilio Herbruger are also held by the Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamérica in the Fototeca Guatemala, and the Archivo Fotográfico of the Bilbioteca Pública Piloto in Colombia. Sheet music by Emil Herbruger is held by the Library of Congress.
Provenance:
There is currently no information available regarding the provenance of this collection.
Restrictions:
The Emilio Herbruger Photographs are open for research.

Access to Emilio Herbruger Photographs requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.175
See more items in:
Emilio Herbruger Photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw338eeb1ca-9db0-4d31-853c-a26ea6b468f6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-175
Online Media:

Sea Anchor, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq"

Materials:
Canvas and hemp rope
Dimensions:
3-D (Flat): 102.2 × 48.3 × 3.8cm (40 1/4 × 19 × 1 1/2 in.)
3-D: 96.5 x 45.7cm, 0.9kg (38 x 18 in., 2lb.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Mission Support
Date:
1931-1933
Credit Line:
Transferred from the USAF Museum
Inventory Number:
A20030068012
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Mary Baker Engen Restoration Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9dfcd7b0c-2db0-48b0-9544-c985687a09e9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20030068012
Online Media:

Why This 17th-Century Warship Was a Disastrous Failure

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-07-02T15:30:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_1a0PIhMpfLU

Rare Vintage Footage Captures Innocence of Pre-War Hawaii

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-06-26T15:30:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_1xPeILtIcGQ

This Japanese Fighter Plane Led the Attack on Pearl Harbor

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-07-21T15:30:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_4P5eI97rDCc

How Hawaiians Grappled With Martial Law

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-12-21T16:30:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_4uo330jWPWE

What Do You Know About the Golden Gate Bridge?

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2011-06-21T14:17:26.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_6HygbD44_j4

A 1941 FBI Raid Reveals a Network of Japanese Spies in LA

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-03-01T16:30:01.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_8VpsA-bxl-A

This Mysterious Event Led to the Spanish-American War

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-01-12T16:30:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_DhIFX8xgiM4

The Only Live News Report from the Attack on Pearl Harbor

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-12-02T21:18:55.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_JBDbrf6Nktk

Einstein’s Life in America Shown in Stunning Home Movies

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-11-20T16:30:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_LOTlx_UK08I

How Did a Former British Navy Officer End Up as a Japanese Spy?

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-03-05T16:30:01.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_NiZ87DNvR34

What It Was Like to Be on the Lusitania's Final Voyage

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-10-30T04:00:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_PTy4TmEZI3U

Can This Small Medieval Harbor Host This Large Ship?

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-09-22T15:30:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
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Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_XBx3YnHd5ec

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