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Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Dry Goods

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
37.8 Cubic feet (consisting of 76 boxes (including 12 off-site), 12 folders, 16 oversize folders, 7 flat boxes (6 full, 1 partial), plus digital images of some collection material. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
1768-1973
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Dry Goods forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, bills/receipts, printed advertisements, trade catalogs, handbills, pamphlets, advertising cards , photographs, cloth samples , leaflets, books, prospectus, order forms, chromolithographs, magazine advertisements, seals, postcards, business cards, children's books, greeting cards, almanacs, calendars, cardboard standups, fans, paper bag samples and import/export documents from businesses referred to loosely as department or variety stores. A number of these stores are still in business and tend to have a substantial amount of material . Such companies include I. Magnin, R. H. Macy, Woodward & Lothrop, F. H. Woolworth's, Sears, Roebuck & Company , Montgomery Wards, Wanamaker, etc. There are a few references to businesses who imported English, French, German, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Egyptian, Sudanese, Persian and Moorish articles.

Generally the stores included among these materials sold a variety of products consisting of clothing and clothing accessories, home furnishings, home construction kits, novelties, stationery , groceries and a number of other products sold in contemporary department and variety stores. There are also companies that specialized in a particular product or type of product. Researchers interested in these businesses should also consult the same subject category if it is included on the listing of vertical document boxes. It is also possible that if the company produced oversize catalogs these would be listed with the Warshaw Collection oversize materials. For example, there are a number of Montgomery Wards, Butler Brothers, Bellas Hess and Company and Sears, Roebuck and Company catalogs found among the oversize materials.

There are a number of images that appear on these materials. Most of these images tend to be illustrations of the exterior or interior departments of the stores . Product illustrations also appear throughout the catalogues, printed advertisements and price lists. Ethnic images particularly in French advertisements also appear regularly. Dry goods stores relied heavily on advertisements directed toward children especially during the Christmas/holiday season. Books for children illustrating characters from favorite stories or Christmas scenes are common among the larger stores namely Woodward & Lothrop.

Materials in boxes one through thirty-nine are organized by name of company. Publications that discuss the history of a particular company are included with the company related materials. Catalogues , calendars , almanacs and price lists are generally listed under the company name in the finding aid with dates . This is due to the fact that these materials are often requested by researchers in this manner. This does not imply that these are the only materials for that particular company in the folders .

Box thirty-nine is also partially arranged by type including patents, stocks , general images, associations and miscellaneous items. A few related publications such as a chain store bibliography and a book on the history of chain stores are also included.

Boxes forty and forty-one contain periodicals created by W. A. Spelman in New York. Published as a trade journal devoted to the interests of the retail merchants, it was primarily meant to aid the subscriber in meeting the increasing competition in the dry goods trade. It was also meant to guide merchants in the purchase of goods. Referred to as The Fancy Goods Graphic or Spelman's Fancy Goods Graphic, these publications date from 1881-1890 .

Import and export documents are found in boxes forty-one, through forty-three.

The processing of additional materials in 2017 integrated a significant volume of material, most notably the Jermain Business and Family papers and to a lesser extent, the Trimble Family Business records. Both offer insight to the operations of 19th Century family businesses. Also added was significant manuscript on the history of Montgomery Ward is also available.

Catalogues, especially thinner circular type editions have not been consolidated and may be found throughout the material in this collection. However there are several groupings listed in the Catalogue series, especially for regular issue bulky catalogues published by Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck and Company. See note regarding some items that have been microfilmed or transferred off-site.
Arrangement:
Dry Goods is arranged in two subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

General, including Accounting Books and Ledgers

Companies and Proprietors

Companies and Proprietors, Oversize Material

Trade Literature and Other

Export/Import Records

Jermain Business and Family Papers; plus associated Albany Records

Montgomery Ward History Manuscripts

Trimble Family Business Records

General, Marketing Material

Catalogues

General and Mail Order

Montgomery Ward

Sears, Roebuck and Company

Assorted [Off-Site, including Montgomery Ward and Sears, Roebuck and Company]
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Dry Goods is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the Sears, Roebuck & Co. catalogs are stored off-site and are restricted due to fragile condition. Researchers should consult microfilm in NMAH library for 1880-1983 editions, drawer 692. Some additional items may be restricted due to fragile condition. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dry-goods  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Dry Goods, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Dry
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Dry Goods
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81e1746bc-55a5-45b1-b0f3-04621bd43e6c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-dry
Online Media:

Handbill for a speaking engagement of Rev. Morris H. Tynes on Emmett Till

Created by:
Boston NAACP, American, founded 1911  Search this
Subject of:
Emmett Till, American, 1941 - 1955  Search this
Rev. Morris H. Tynes, American  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, American, founded 1821  Search this
Monumental Baptist Church, American, founded 1919  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/8 x 5 3/8 in. (21.3 x 13.7 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place made:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
October 9, 1955
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Baptist  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Methodist  Search this
The Black Church  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.1
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5133c7d5f-a1a9-4695-87cd-4fbd12aa3a46
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.1
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Prayer Meeting with Martin Luther King, Jr.

Created by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Union Methodist Church, American, founded 1796  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 1/4 x 6 1/8 in. (23.5 x 15.6 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place depicted:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 23, 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Interfaith communities  Search this
Methodist  Search this
Music  Search this
The Black Church  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.12
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd518d8268b-d6d2-4f47-b900-00f956ef0f11
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.12
Online Media:

Handbill advertising Negro History Week at Freedom House, Boston

Created by:
NAACP Youth Council, American, founded 1936  Search this
Subject of:
Freedom House, American, founded 1949  Search this
Transition Records, American, 1955 - 1957  Search this
Metronome, American, 1885 - 1961  Search this
Cynthia Belgrave, American, died 1997  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/4 x 5 3/4 in. (22.2 x 14.6 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Roxbury, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1955
Topic:
African American  Search this
Africa  Search this
Art  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Dance  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Music  Search this
Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.13
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5f4ad7875-f2d4-480f-a73a-97463cfab949
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.13
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Youth Celebration of Brown v. Board of Education

Created by:
NAACP Youth Council, American, founded 1936  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 1/8 x 5 1/2 in. (20.6 x 14 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
May 27, 1954
Topic:
African American  Search this
Children  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Law  Search this
Segregation  Search this
U.S. History, 1953-1961  Search this
Youth  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.14
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd59122be7d-8f6b-4ef0-b7a2-0e6b775cbdd5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.14
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Brotherhood Rally featuring T.R.M. Howard

Created by:
Harvard Society for Minority Rights, American, 1950 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Theodore R. M. Howard, American, 1908 - 1976  Search this
Rev. George W. Lee, American, 1903 - 1955  Search this
Lamar "Ditney" Smith, American, 1892 - 1955  Search this
Emmett Till, American, 1941 - 1955  Search this
Harvard University, American, founded 1636  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 5 5/8 in. (21.9 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
February 16, 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
American South  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.15
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5dd6373b9-b9bb-4411-8147-430b90071f06
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.15
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Brotherhood Rally featuring T.R.M. Howard

Created by:
Harvard Society for Minority Rights, American, 1950 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Theodore R. M. Howard, American, 1908 - 1976  Search this
Rev. George W. Lee, American, 1903 - 1955  Search this
Lamar "Ditney" Smith, American, 1892 - 1955  Search this
Emmett Till, American, 1941 - 1955  Search this
Harvard University, American, founded 1636  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 5 5/8 in. (21.9 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
February 16, 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
American South  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.16
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52daac489-702e-443b-a4a1-8fe3506b722f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.16
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Prayer Meeting with Martin Luther King, Jr.

Created by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Union Methodist Church, American, founded 1796  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 1/4 x 6 1/8 in. (23.5 x 15.6 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place depicted:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 23, 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Interfaith communities  Search this
Methodist  Search this
Music  Search this
The Black Church  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.18
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a0a4d09d-8cdd-438a-becf-168ee4182ca5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.18
Online Media:

Handbill for an Alabama suffrage campaign

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, American, 1890 - 1969  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 13 7/8 x 4 7/8 in. (35.2 x 12.4 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
American South  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Politics  Search this
Suffrage  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.19
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e5e69946-701d-4585-9919-dfdbff873c47
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.19
Online Media:

Handbill for a speaking engagement of Rev. Morris H. Tynes on Emmett Till

Created by:
Boston NAACP, American, founded 1911  Search this
Subject of:
Emmett Till, American, 1941 - 1955  Search this
Rev. Morris H. Tynes, American  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, American, founded 1821  Search this
Monumental Baptist Church, American, founded 1919  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/8 x 5 3/8 in. (21.3 x 13.7 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place made:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
October 9, 1955
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Baptist  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Methodist  Search this
The Black Church  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.2
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd582a62e74-5a2c-403f-bc61-78f2a861beba
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.2
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Prayer Meeting with Martin Luther King, Jr.

Created by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Union Methodist Church, American, founded 1796  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 1/4 x 6 1/8 in. (23.5 x 15.6 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place depicted:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 23, 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Interfaith communities  Search this
Methodist  Search this
Music  Search this
The Black Church  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.21
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd50a38fdcb-ecb0-4c42-a5e3-892db76bc66a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.21
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Brotherhood Rally featuring T.R.M. Howard

Created by:
Harvard Society for Minority Rights, American, 1950 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Theodore R. M. Howard, American, 1908 - 1976  Search this
Rev. George W. Lee, American, 1903 - 1955  Search this
Lamar "Ditney" Smith, American, 1892 - 1955  Search this
Emmett Till, American, 1941 - 1955  Search this
Harvard University, American, founded 1636  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 5 5/8 in. (21.9 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
February 16, 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
American South  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Men  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.24
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd56498d232-552a-4ac2-803b-4c43a54a50fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.24
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Brotherhood Reception for T.R.M. Howard, M.D.

Distributed by:
NAACP Youth Council, American, founded 1936  Search this
United Christian Youth Movement of North America, American, founded 1934  Search this
B'nai B'rith International, American, founded 1843  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Theodore R. M. Howard, American, 1908 - 1976  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Regional Council of Negro Leadership, American, 1951 - 1962  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 1/2 x 5 1/2 in. (21.6 x 14 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Mississippi, United States, North and Central America
Date:
February 15, 1956
Topic:
African American  Search this
American South  Search this
Children  Search this
Christianity  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Interfaith communities  Search this
Judaism  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Museums  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.5
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5c705ba71-d956-4942-baa9-387058d96e62
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.5
Online Media:

Handbill advertising a Youth Celebration of Brown v. Board of Education

Created by:
NAACP Youth Council, American, founded 1936  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 15/16 × 5 1/2 in. (20.2 × 14 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
May 27, 1954
Topic:
African American  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Children  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Law  Search this
Segregation  Search this
U.S. History, 1953-1961  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.6
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5bff67862-af0e-4ddb-92db-40f321cbad2e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.6
Online Media:

Handbill advertising Negro History Week at Freedom House, Boston

Created by:
NAACP Youth Council, American, founded 1936  Search this
Subject of:
Freedom House, American, founded 1949  Search this
Transition Records, American, 1955 - 1957  Search this
Metronome, American, 1885 - 1961  Search this
Cynthia Belgrave, American, died 1997  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/4 x 5 3/4 in. (22.2 x 14.6 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Roxbury, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1955
Topic:
African American  Search this
Africa  Search this
Art  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Dance  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Music  Search this
Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.7
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58e4f23b5-d86b-4bc5-9186-eb70f4f9a782
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.7
Online Media:

Handbill advertising Negro History Week at Freedom House, Boston

Created by:
NAACP Youth Council, American, founded 1936  Search this
Subject of:
Freedom House, American, founded 1949  Search this
Transition Records, American, 1955 - 1957  Search this
Metronome, American, 1885 - 1961  Search this
Cynthia Belgrave, American, died 1997  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/4 x 5 3/4 in. (22.2 x 14.6 cm)
Type:
handbills
Place used:
Roxbury, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1955
Topic:
African American  Search this
Africa  Search this
Art  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Dance  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Music  Search this
Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.34.8
Restrictions & Rights:
No known copyright restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b86e22e8-6c67-474a-94d8-5ef347ef7b73
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.34.8
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cash Registers

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
0.49 Boxes (consisting of 1 box, 1 oversize folder, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1850-1954
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Cash Registers forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of printed advertisements, scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, catalogues, annual reports, handbills, booklets, bulletins, order forms, price lists, postcards and lithographs from manufacturers and dealers of cash registers . There is quite a bit of material from the National Cash Register Company. Some of the companies sold correct posture chairs and accounting machine desks for use with cash registers and similar machinery. The cash register is advertised as a cure-all to hand posted accounting systems eliminating duplication of work, errors in mental computations and illegible records. The companies also tended to sell a variety of other office and business machinery including check writing and signing machines, analysis machines, comptometers, bookkeeping machines, adder machines, cash drawers, posting machines, bank-bookkeeping machines and postage meter machines.

A few companies issued publications for all concerned in the cash register industry . Adder Machine Company produced bulletins titled "The Wales Way" which was named after their Wales machinery. The National Cash Register Company distributed a number of publications including "The National Cash Register", a journal which showed illustrations of company operations, employees and some usual features which included a kindergarten run by the company. "The Businessmen's N. C. R." assisted retail storekeepers make more money, create good window displays, increase profits and recognize the value of modern methods and machinery. "The N C R Weekly" was published for employees as well as customers, cash register manufacturers and the general public. All of these publications heavily advertise the company's products. The National Cash Register Company also published a book on principle nations of the world and their coinage.

The bulk of the material is late nineteenth and early twentieth century. There is one folder of general images and one folder of miscellaneous items.
Arrangement:
Materials are organized alphabetically by name of company.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Cash Registers is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bookkeeping  Search this
Cash registers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Cash
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cash Registers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85c0934c7-6c6b-40e7-81d3-7328e23b4f5d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-cash
Online Media:

North Carolina All-Stars vs. Mitchelville Bears

Referenced:
Leonard, Walter F.  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
pink (overall color)
black (overall color)
Measurements:
overall: 6 in x 9 in; 15.24 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
Handbill
handbill, negro league baseball
handbill, baseball
handbill
Subject:
Baseball  Search this
negro leagues  Search this
Professional  Search this
Sports  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Walter F. Leonard
ID Number:
1981.0123.10
Catalog number:
1981.0123.10
Accession number:
1981.0123
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Sport and Leisure
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-0257-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1064798

Newspaper clippings

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1942
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 2: Professional
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg29e88526f-9151-49c1-b55b-04e5f0f91295
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref117
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Newspaper clippings digital asset number 1

The Simmons Company Records

Creator:
Simmons Company  Search this
Extent:
9 Film reels
88 Cubic feet (172 boxes, 16 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Advertisements
Business records
Videotapes
Date:
1892-2000
Scope and Contents:
Series 1 includes: news articles about the company and the Simmons family; photographs of the machinery, factories, factory workers, products and showrooms; annual reports; various corporate periodicals; audit reports; patents; and materials relating to sleep research conducted by Simmons. Series 2 includes product catalogues, scrapbooks of advertisements, advertising artwork and mechanicals, sales kits, point of purchase items, marketing plans and surveys, sales training videos and filmstrips, and commercials. Of special note are the materials on Simmons involvement in the New York World's Fair in 1964-65 and the XIII Winter Olympic Games in 1980. Most newsprint in this collection has been photocopied onto acid-free bond paper and the originals destroyed. Unless otherwise noted, the materials appear in date order within each subseries or sub-subseries. Physically, the materials are arranged by type and size.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into two series.

Series 1: Corporate Materials, 1892-2000

Series 2: Marketing, 1896-1990s
Biographical / Historical:
This subject category- engineering consists of documents related to the field of engineering, both as a scientific discipline and as a business. Most of the material in the collection was produced by engineers, engineering firms, or firms using engineers in the course of other activities. The span dates for the collection are 1848-1963; the bulk dates are circa 1870-circa 1930. Most of the firms and individuals represented in the collection were located in eastern states like New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, though there are some items from other states and foreign countries.

Engineers & Engineering Firms material is comprised of materials from firms engaged in various activities in the engineering field, including machine and structural design; drafting; surveying; tool and machine repair and maintenance; consulting and inspection; and the manufacture of machine parts and factory equipment. The series consists of business cards; brochures, catalogs, and pamphlets; invoices and business correspondence; and handbills and other types of advertising matter. Bulk dates for this series are 1870-1930. Most firms in this series were based in the cities of the industrial North, especially Philadelphia, Boston, New York, and Chicago. A few items are from companies headquartered in other states and foreign countries. The material is arranged alphabetically by firm name. An article in the Simmons in-house publication The Owl states Zalmon G. Simmons "was not the inventor or first manufacturer of bed springs. His contribution was in lowering the price so that everyone could afford them. He took a hand-made item that sold for around $5 wholesale, and developed machinery which would enable its sale for as little as 80 cents."[1]

Simmons was born in Montgomery County, New York, in 1828. He moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin, at the age of fifteen with $3.00 in "tangible cash assets."[2] Upon finishing school, Simmons became a teacher and worked as a clerk in a general store; eighteen months later he bought the business.[3] Simmons was an enterprising individual and eventually became the President of the Rock Island Railway Company, the Northwest Telegraphy Company (which was bought by Western Union), and the First National Bank of Kenosha. In addition, Simmons served as mayor of Kenosha.

On April 16, 1871, Simmons purchased a cheese box factory, which also made wooden telegraph insulators for his telegraph company. As payment for a debt at his store, Simmons accepted a patent for a handmade, woven-wire bedspring.[4] Thus the Simmons legacy of mattress making was born. The company incorporated in 1884 as the Northwestern Wire Mattress Company.[5] The name was changed to the Simmons Manufacturing Company in 1889. "By 1891 the company was the largest of its kind in the world."[6]

When Zalmon Simmons died in 1910, his son, Zalmon Simmons, Jr., assumed power and continued expanding the company. "By 1919 the company had plants from coast to coast plus sixty-four warehouses and the beginnings of an export business."[7] Zalmon Simmons, Jr. became Chairman in 1932 and his son, Grant G. Simmons, became President of the company.

Since it appeared on the market, the Simmons name has become synonymous with its bestselling product, the Beautyrest mattress. Simmons introduced the Beautyrest in 1925 for the price of $39.50, about three to four times what the consumer was paying for a wire mattress at the time. Immediately the company began advertising using an innovative testimonial campaign featuring "celebrities" like Henry Ford, George Bernard Shaw, and Thomas Edison. By 1929 Beautyrest mattress sales had reached $9 million.[8] Grant G. Simmons wrote, "The consumer demand for Beautyrest stimulated by our national advertising literally forced hundreds of retailers who then had no interest in doing business with Simmons to carry our products."[9]

Card tables and folding chairs were added to the Simmons line in 1926. In 1940, the Hide-A-Bed sofa (which grew out of the studio couch of the 1930s) was born. Fold-out springs and mattresses were engineered to create the pull-out bed.[10] The Hide-A-Bed became one of the company's most famous products manufactured through the 1980s.[11] During WWII the company shifted its production to wartime needs, manufacturing 2,700 different items.[12] Almost immediately after the end of the War, Simmons resumed production; and in 1947 it introduced the Babybeauty mattress. Other Simmons mattress models have included, most notably, the Deepsleep and Maxipedic.

Throughout the years the Simmons Company has had many innovators and inventors make improvements to its mattresses and manufacturing machinery. John Marshall's pocketed-coil spring and John Gail's improvements and modifications to the manufacturing equipment are many of the most significant contributions. Together, Marshall's coil and Gail's pocketing machine made the Beautyrest mattress a reality.

The Sleep Research Foundation, established in1946 with a grant from the Simmons Company, "instituted a vast research program into the scientific aspects of sleep...dedicated to an objective study of sleep from a physiological and medical point of view."[13] The Sleep Research Center and its findings were a common feature in Simmons advertising.

Simmons has continued to use advertising as a way to make its brand known to consumers. Celebrity endorsements and "glamour girls in expensive lingerie" have been a mainstay in Beautyrest advertising.[14] Newspaper advertisements featuring so-called sale prices also have fueled demand for the products.

Company headquarters moved to New York City in 1923 and then to Atlanta, Georgia in 1975, where the company still resides. In 1979, Gulf & Western acquired the company, shifting control to outside the family for the first time. Wickes Corporation purchased Simmons from Gulf & Western in 1985. In 1991, Merrill Lynch Capital Partners, Inc. acquired a majority interest in the company. Today, Simmons has 17% of the bedding market share, second only to Sealy with 22%.[15]

[1]. "Zalmon G. Simmons." The Owl, December 1952, p. 10-11. Box 1, Folder 4.

[2]. "Kenosha Bank Celebrates 90 Years; Zalmon Simmons Is Remembered." Kenosha Evening News, 17 May 1941, n.p. Box 1, Folder 3.

[3]. Ibid. n.p.

[4]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 4. Box 1, Folder 3.

[5]. "Brief History of Simmons Company." ca. 1941. Box 1, Folder 2.

[6]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 5. Box 1, Folder 3.

[7]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[8]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 7-8. Box 1, Folder 5.

[9]. Ibid. p. 11.

[10]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[11]. In 1990, the Simmons Company sold the division that made Hide-A-Beds and recliners and licensed the use of the name to a manufacturer.

[12]. "Chronology of Simmons Company." ca. 1955. Box 1, Folder 4. Rise." The Christian Science Monitor, 28 June 1957. Box 1, Folder 4. & "Simmons History." ca. 1955. p. 3. Box 1, Folder 4.

[14]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 9. Box 1, Folder 5.

[15]. Encyclopedia of Consumer Brands,1994 ed. S.v. "Simmons Beautyrest" and "Sealy."
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, ca. 1724-1977 (Beds and Bedding) (AC0060) Ivory Soap Advertising Collection (AC0791)

Breck Girl Collection, 1936-1995 (AC0651) Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, 1939-1940 (AC0560)

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection (AC0519) Louis S. Nixdorff 1928 Olypic Games Collection, 1926-1978 (AC0443) Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Photographs, 1936 (AC0743)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Simmons Company through Mr. Charlie Eitel, Chairman and CEO, and Mr. Donald Hoffman, Senior Vice President of Marketing, to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, in June 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bedding industry  Search this
Sleep  Search this
Mattresses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Business records -- 20th century
Videotapes
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0731
See more items in:
The Simmons Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep857f3bf87-e407-401e-ba50-3410cb6e8a37
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0731
Online Media:

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