259 texts; numbers 189 and 253, as well as parts of 223 and 224 are by John Bruyier, 1888. Interlinear translations by Dorsey, aided by Bushotter and Bruyier.
Lakota text contents: 1. Sword Keeper and his brother. The latter meets Two Faces, a mythic giant. 8 pages and 3 pages (notes) and 1 page partial translation. 2. The Mythic Buffalo. 10 pages. 3. Two Faces. Explains the origin of arrows, pipes, axes, knife-sharpeners, beads, etc. 14 pages. 4. Three brothers who had a witch sister. 17 pages. (incomplete) 5. Children, a bad old woman cannibal, and Spider (the Mythic Trickster). 12 pages. 6. Spider, animals, and women. 15 pages and 6 pages. 7. A man and his ghost wife. 9 and 5 pages. 8. Two against one: a ghost story with a song. 10 pages. 9. A man, a female ghost, and a male ghost who wrestled with the man. 15 pages. 10. Ghost on the hill, who could not be hit by arrows. 8 pages. 11. Treatment of the sick, burial customs. 22 pages and 4 pages (notes) and 2 pages and 1 sketch. 12. The man who came to life again. 14 and 2 (translation) pages. Note by Bruyier at end. 13. The man and woman in the moon. 6 pages. 14. Man, two in the lodge, female ghost, and the friendly wolf. 8 pages. 15. The man who spared the wolf cubs. 11 pages. 16. The Thunder Being and the Unkcegila (a mastadon ?) 12 pages. 17. Waziya, the northern giant who brings snow. 4 pages. 18. Buffalo people who attacked the Indian people. 10 pages. 19. Spider and the land turtle. 29 pages. 20. The man and his two sons. 18 pages and 2 pages (notes). 21. The turtle who wished to fly. 10 pages. 22. The man who could become a grizzly bear. 6 pages. 23. How the Indians cured the sun. 3 pages. 24. Spider and the horned water monster. 7 pages. 25. The strange lake with large subaquatic animals. 6 pages. 26. The warrior surrounded by a serpent. 4 pages. 27. The one-eyed serpent with short legs and large body. 3 pages. 28. Why they pray to stones, the sun, etc. 9 pages.
29. The mountain in which was a large serpent.. 6 pages. 30. Adventures of a man and his wife.. 8 pages. 31. Spider and the Prairie Chicken. 6 pages. 32. Adventure of RAbbit Carrier. 6 pages. 33. The woman who turned to a fish from her waist down. 22 pages. 34. Spider and the Rabbit; how the latter made snow. 5 pages. 35. The male ghost and his living wife. 8 pages. 36. The man with the magic sword, and the one with the powerful breath. 6 pages. 37. Swift Runner (he who tied stones to his legs). 10 pages. 38. The man who was rescued by eaglets. 10 pages. 39. The Double-woman. 5 pages. 40. Spider and the mice. 14 pages. 41. Spider and the ducks--how they got red eyes. 13 pages and 1 sketch. 42. Spider and the Rabbit; how the latter lost his long tail. 11 pages. 43. The man who ressembled the man in the moon. 11 pages. 44. The young lover who was rescued by the girl. 12 pages. 45. The warriors who met Heyoka (Sunflower) who was singing and dancing. 2 pages. 46. The flying Santee (a ghoul). 8 pages. 47. How the Santees first saw buffalo. 8 pages. 48. How the Lakotas went against the Rees. 5 pages. 49. Adventures of the Short Man. 8 pages. 50. Smoke Maker's adventures: a war story. 7 pages. 51. Fight between the Lakota and the Blackfeet. 4 pages (incomplete) 52. Fight between two unarmed men and a grizzly bear. 8 pages. 53. Treatment of an Omaha spy caught by the Lakotas. 6 pages. 54. The wild man, a nude cannibal. 4 pages. 55. He who uses the earth as an ear. 7 pages. 56. Why horses are called, in Lakota, "mysterious dogs." 7 ages. 57. The man who could understand ravens. 5 pages. 58. Of the two small stones that were servants of the people. 6 pages. (Brief note at the end appears to be in Swanton's hand.) 59. The Wahanksica, a strange animal. 3 pages. 60. The animal in the Missouri River which breaks up the ice in the spring of the year. 4 pages.
61. How thw wind brought sickness to Medicine Butte Creek. 6 pages. 62. Beliefs about day and night. 6 pages. 63. The man in the forest and his contest with ghosts. 8 pages. 64. The feast in honor of the Anti-Natural God. 18 pages. 65. Of the Heyoka man who dreamed of his death by lightening. 13 pages. 66. Fight between the Lakota and the Blackfeet. 6 pages. 67. Of the mysteriousman who knew about the distant war party, 5 pages. 68. Of the wise man who caught his eloping wife. 8 pages. 69. How the Rees or Blackfeet came against the Lakotas. 5 pages. 70. Origin of the buffalo. 5 pages. 71. The Sun Dance. A. 98 pages and 3 figures. B. 9 pages. C. 4 pages. D. 7 pages and 1 diagram. E. 6 pages. F. 4 pages. G. 14 pages. H. 3 pages and 2 diagrams. I. 3 pages. 72. The man who could lengthen his arm at will. 7 pages. 73. What a young man must do before he can marry. 11 pages. 74. How the Crows surrounded some Lakotas. 12 pages. 75. A raid on a Lakota camp. 4 pages. 76. Story of a warrior who was not wounded. 9 pages. 77. Fight between the Lakota and white soldiers. 20 pages. 78. Of the Santees, and their fondness for certain foods. 4 pages. 79. What the Lakota thought of the first white people whom they saw. 13 pages. 80. Belief respecting lakes. 6 pages. 81. Belief about this world. 7 pages. 82. The calumet dance. 39 pages and 2 diagrams. 83. How they honor the dead (the Ghost Feast). 15 and 2 and 18 pages. 84. Men who are arrow and bullet proof. 8 pages. 85. Of love potions, etc. 5 pages. 86. The acts of a wounded warrior. 7 pages. 87. Actors clothed in buffalo robes with the hair out detect wrongdoers. 11 pages. 88. Those who imitate the elk. 14 pages. 89. Why a man may not speak to his mother in law. 11 pages. 90. Rules for feasting, smoking, and visiting. 11 pages. 91. Of certain boyish customs. 8 pages. 92. A ghost story. 7 pages. 93. Origin of the white people. 10 pages. 94. Games and their seasons. 10 pages. 95. Education of a boy. 10 pages. 96. Of youth killed in battle, and of his faithful horse. 12 pages. 97. The people who lived in the north. 7 pages and 2 sketches. 98. The ghost woman and the robin. 9 pages. Note at end by Bruyier. 99. The Flying serpent whose touch was fatal. 5 pages. 100. Origin of twins. 5 pages. 101. George Bushotter's autobiography. 117 pages. 102. Belief concerning a loved one who has been called by a ghost. 7 pages. 103. Fight between two gamblers near Chamberlain, Dakota. 7 pages.
104. The singing elk. 7 pages. 105. Belief about Spider. 9 pages. 106. War of the Lakota against the Omaha. 7 pages. 107. Narrow escape of Bark Bird's Tail (a Lakota). 5 pages. 108. Busnotter's cousin's war adventure. 11 pages. 109. How certain men (doctors, priests, etc.) have become mysterious. 16 pages. 110. How the Lakota fought the Cheyennes and Black Men (Commanches ?). 22 pages. 111. Rules of etiquette for brothers, sisters, cousins. 21 pages. 112. Ghost story. 5 pages. 113. The habits of beavers. 8 pages. 114. Spider and the old woman who fed all the animals. 24 pages. 115. The handsome man who was rescued from a pit by a wolf. 32 pages. 116. Trick of a myth-teller. 9 pages. 117. Of thistles. 4 pages. 118. How Indians regard the past and their ancestors. 22 pages. 119. The grass dance. 12 pages. 120. The Big Belly Society. 6 pages. 121. The Mandan Society. 10 pages. 122. "Following one another," a Lakota game. 7 pages. 123. "They make it run by pushing," a Lakota game. 46 pages and 2 (colored) diagrams. 124. Horse racing. 5 pages. 125. Hitting the moccasin, a game. 9 pages. 126. Shooting at the cactus, a gane. 5 pages. 127. Hitting the bow, a game. 5 pages. 128. Shooting at bunches of grass, a game. 5 pages. 129. Shooting at the lights of an animal, a game. 6 pages. 130. Taking captives from one another, a game. 9 pages. 131. Trampling on the beaver, a game. 6 pages. 132. "Howi ! Howi !" a ring game for boys or youths. 12 pages. 133. "They touch not one another," a game. 6 pages. 134. Game with a long grass which has a long, sharp beard. 6 pages. 135. The old woman accuses them," a game. 8 pages. 136. A game with slings. 5 pages. 137. "Goose and her children," a game. 10 pages. 138. Buffalo horn game. 7 and 1 page. 139. A stick which is hurled. 5 and 1 page and 2 figures. 140. "Making the wood dance by hitting it," a game. 8 pages. 41. "Making the wood jump by hitting it," a game. 8 pages. 142. "Making the bow glide by throwing," a game. 6 pages. 143. Coasting. 8 pages. 144. Game of ball. 12 pages. 145. "Shotting at an arrow set up," a game. 7 pages. 146. Grizzly bear game. 12 pages. 147. Deer game. 10 pages. 148. "Running towards one another," a game. 9 pages. 149. "They cause one another to carry packs on their backs," a game. 10 pages. 150. "They hit one another with mud," a game. 10 pages. 151. Hitting the ball, a game. 11 pages. 152. A game with a rawhide hoop. 43 pages and 2 figures. 153. Game of earthen horses. 8 pages. 154. "They slide by pushing," a game. 14 pages. 155. "They kick at one another," a game. 14 pages.
156. "The hoop is made to roll in the wind," a game. 9 pages. 157. [Popgun game.] Missing July, 1966. (not on microfilm made 1958) 1 page illustration found July, 1968. 158. Wrestling. 8 pages. 159. Courting the girls. 9 pages. 160. Game with bow and small wood-pointed arrows. 10 pages. 161. Swinging. 10 pages. 162. "Taking Places from one another," a game. 9 pages. 163. "Playing with small things," a game. 18 pages. 164. Pinching the backs of hands, a game. 11 pages. 165. "Scattering them," a game. 9 pages. 166. "Who shall get threr first," a game. 10 pages. 167. Hopping. 9 pages. 168. Throwing arrows by hand, at a target. 6 pages. 169. Ghost game. 21 pages. 170. Hide and seek. 13 pages. 171. Jumping down from a high object. 12 pages. 172. Plumstone game. 18 pages. 173. Odd or even ? A game with sticks. 12 pages. 174. Throwing chewed leaves into the eyes, a game. 7 pages. 175. Game with the ankle-bones of a deer. 12 pages. 176. Native wooden harminicon, played by boys. 14 pages and 5 figures. 177. Mysterious game. 17 pages. 178. Playing doctor. 10 pages. 179. Pretending to be dead, a game. 10 pages. 180. Hunting young birds in summer. 12 pages. 181. Hunting eggs in spring. 10 pages. 182. Going to make a grass lodge. 11 pages. 183. Scrambling for presents. 11 pages. 184. Sitting on wooden horses, a game. 8 pages. 185. Making a bone turn and hum by twisting a cord. 15 pages and 2 figures. 186. "String twisted in and out among the fingers." 8 pages. 187. Tumbling and somersault. 7 pages. 188. "Game with large things." 17 pages. 189. About two young men who were friends. 51 pages. By Bruyier. 190. A bird that foretells cold weather. 14 pages. 191. Cause of scrofulous sore on the neck. 10 pages. 192. Meaning of ringing sounds in the ears. 10 pages. 193. The Brave and Fox societies. 18 pages and 4 sketches. 194. Dog Society. 31 pages and 2 sketches and 1 page drawing.
195. "Killing by Hitting," or "Taking the Buffalo paunch," a society of women. 12 pages. 196. Scalpdance society. 16 pages and 1 sketch. 197. Night dance. 18 pages. 198. Mysterious society. 16 pages. 199. Grizzly Bear dance. 19 pages. 200. Belief about the Kildeer. 13 pages. 201. The acts of a leader. 17 pages. 202. Return of the night hawk in the spring. 7 pages. 203. Belief concerning the Ski-bi-bi-la, a small grey bird which says Gli Hunwo ?" ("Coming home ?). 16 pages. Also earlier version of the same, with mistakes. 10 pages. 204. About hanging the "tablo" ("shoulder blade") at the door of the lodge. 7 pages. 205. Trying to excell others. 12 pages. 206. Scolding or whipping a woman. 12 pages. 207. How Indian paints are made. 18 pagrs. 208. Acting like the buffalo bull. 9 pages and 1 page drawing. 209. Law about bowls. 9 pages. 210. Meaning of a rooster's crowing. 8 pages. 211. The taking apart of fetishes. 24 pages. 212. How one man drowned another. 21 pages. 213. Concerning warts. 8 pages. 214. Of a woman who qas killed by mosquitoes. 32 pages. 215. Concerning hermaphrodites. 22 pages. 216. Belief concerning the grebe or dabchick. 10 pages. 217. Rules for eating dogs. 8 pages. 218. Bushotter's recollections of a certain famine. 219. Why Lakota men should not wear women's moccasins. 16 pages. 220. Customs relating to bowls. 10 pages. 221. Meanings of various kinds of twitchings. 10 pages. 222. "Kicking out his elder brother's teeth." 10 pages. 223. How a boy wounded his grandfather in the scrotum. 13 pages. Bruyier's revision of the same. 13 pages. 224. Legend of the nude Spider woman. 12 pages. About the woman who was deceived by the grizzly bear, with an account of the prairie hen. 20 pages. By Bruyier. 225. "Punishment of the prairie." 19 pages.
226. Part of the punishment of a murderer. 12 pages. 227. About a foolish wife. 42 pages. 228. How a ghost stunned Bushotter's father. 21 pages. 229. Occasions for scolding wives. 12 pages. Half-page corrected sentence at end by Buyier. 230. Setting out food, etc. for ghosts. 16 pages. 231. Concerning widows and widowers. 30 pages. 232. About a newborn child. 9 pages. 233. Tatala, a humorist. 6 pages. 234. Vegetal lore. 16 pages. 235. About the year when the stars fell (1833). 18 pages. 236. Concerning shells used as necklaces. 8 pages and 2 sketches. 237. Game with a ball of mud. 8 pages. 238. "Throwing fire at one another." 11 pages. 239. Punishment of a liar. 8 pages. 240. Invocation of the Thunder. 13 pages. 241. About spiders. 15 pages. 242. The mysterious imitation of ghosts. 14 pages. 243. What they carry when they migrate. 20 pages. 244. What happened when the Lower Brules went to a mountain. 24 pages. 245. Concerning guardian spirits. 16 pages. 246. About the Thunderers (People dwelling in the clouds.) 25 pages. 247. About lizards, frogs, etc. rained from the sky. 11 pages. 248. Deer Women. 28 pages. 249. Bird societies. 31 pages. 250. Ways od dancing. 26 pages. 251. About gashing the limbs when mourning. 7 pages. 252. On Fellowhood. 16 pages. 253. Ceremonies at birth. 8 pages. Bruyier's revision. 5 pages. 254. Bushotter's stepfather's prophetic gifts. 15 pages. 255. The recovery of Bushotter's younger brother. 14 pages. 256. Why a son or daughter acts in a childish manner. 9 pages. 257. Giving birth to one child while still nursing another. 13 pages. 258. Courting. 48 pages and 3 page color folding drawing and 1 page drawing. 259. Heyoka woman. 8 pages.
Biographical / Historical:
George Bushotter (1864-1892), or Oteri, was a Teton Lakota born in Dakota Territory to a Yankton man and his wife Grey Whirlwind, a Minneconjou Lakota. Raised to be a warrior, Bushotter nevertheless left to study at the Hampton Institute in Virginia from 1878-1881. He entered the Theological Seminary of Virginia in 1885 to become a minister, but his inadequate knowledge of English made the study of Latin and Greek incredibly difficult for him. At the advice of the faculty, Bushotter left the seminary in 1887. While at Hampton, he met Rev. James Owen Dorsey and recognized the potential in working with him to complete ethnographic studies, and worked with the BAE for approximately ten months in 1887. His primary contributions were in the comparative linguistics of Teton Lakota, writing myths and other texts in Lakota, and assisting Dorsey in creating the synonomy of Lakota tribal names that formed a major part of what was to become the Handbook of North American Indians North of Mexico. For more information on George Bushotter, see American Indian Intellectuals, ed. Margot Liberty, 1978.
NAA MS.4800: (188.8.131.52) 
Old number 2632 (Parts 1-3)
autograph document signed
The James O. Dorsey Papers are open for research. Access to the James O. Dorsey Papers requires an appointment
Manuscript 4800 James O. Dorsey papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Creation of this finding aid was funded through support from the Arcadia Fund.
Digitization and preparation of additional materials for online access has been funded also by the National Science Foundation under BCS Grant No. 1561167 and the Recovering Voices initiative at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.
Contents consist of 4 small notebooks and numerous loose sheets and slips. September 1954: Partly sorted and arranged in folders under the following headings: Botany. Cherokee. Fights. Paintings. Southern Algonquian ethnology (D.C, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina). Southeast ethnology (Catawba and Creek). Southwest. Shields. Tipis. Remainder to be arranged. Principally Kiowa, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche. Many small slips, probably unclassifiable.
29 drawings and 34 pages of typed explanatory text, formerly bound together, now disbound, plus an identifying title page handwritten by Albert Gatschet and one drawing on ruled paper. The explanatory text was transcribed from Gatschet's notebook, No. 2016-b, with corrections by Gatschet. T.p. inscribed: "Crayon Pictures of Cheyenne Ceremonial Customs and Implements. Drawn by Wuxpais or Daniel Littlechief, son of the present headchief of the Cheyenne Indians of South Dakota, at the Pine Ridge Agency. Explained by notes obtained from the same Indian by Albert S. Gatschet." The last drawing in the volume is signed "T.D. Little Chief," but cannot be identified as a drawing by Daniel Little Chief. Subjects include ceremonial items, name glyphs, painted tipis, and illustrations of Cheyenne customs. A nearly identical set of drawings by Daniel Little Chief is located at the Newberry Library in Chicago. Information provided by Candace Greene.
Biographical / Historical:
Daniel Little Chief, a.k.a. Wuxpais (?-1906), was a Northern Cheyenne warrior whose band of Cheyenne were sent south to the Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation in Indian Territory after their surrender, traveling there between 1878-1879. In 1881 this band moved north to the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. In 1891 Daniel Littlechief inherited the role of head chief from his father and remained in South Dakota until his death in 1906. For more information see "American Indian Painters: A Biographical Dictionary" by Jeanne Snodgrass 1968, New York: Museum of the American Indian.
Albert S. Gatschet (1832-1907) was educated in his native Switzerland and in Germany (University of Bern [Ph.D., 1892]); University of Berlin. Early in his career, he pursued antiquarian research in European museums and wrote scientific articles. Among his interests was the etymology of Swiss place names. After coming to the United States in 1869, he worked on the American Indian vocabularies collected by Oscar Loew, of the United States Geological Survey West of the 100th Meridian (Wheeler Survey). Eventually John Wesley Powell employed him as an ethnologist with the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Regions. When it was founded in 1879, he joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology and continued there until he retired in 1905. For the Powell Survey, Gatschet researched the ethnography of the Klamath in Oregon and the Modoc in Oklahoma. He also collected Native American material objects and investigated special problems for Powell's classification of the American Indian languages north of Mexico, working on languages of the Southeast, including groups forcibly settled in the southern Plains. He not only visited well known tribes but also searched out small groups, including the Biloxi and Tunica. He also worked with the Natchez, Tonkawa, Chitimacha, and Atakapa in the United States and Comecrudo and several other small groups in northern Mexico. Through library research, he studied the Timucua, Karankara, and the Beothuk. During the later part of his career, Gatschet was assigned comparative work on all the Algonquian languages. Although the project was never completed, he collected much about many of the languages, especially Peoria, Miami, and Shawnee. In addition, he worked with members of diverse tribes of the eastern United States. For more information, see NAA finding aid located at http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/guide/_g1.htm#jrg575
NAA MS 2016-a
Varying Form of Title:
Crayon pictures of Cheyenne ceremonial customs and implements / drawn by Wuxpais or Daniel Littlechief ... ; explained by notes from the same Indian by Albert S. Gatschet
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Agency.
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Artist's sketchbook, now disbound, containing scenes of daily life, dances, hunting and a picture of birds. Individual leaves numbered 1 through 23. Cover of the drawing book inscribed in pencil "Drawn by Making Medicine, Cheyenne Prisoner, St. Augustine, Fla. Aug. 1875." Inscriptions on individual leaves by same hand, probably Lt. Richard Pratt.
Biographical / Historical:
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort under supervision of Lt. Richard Pratt. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
NAA MS 39A
OPPS NEG 55,025 - 55,046
The original identification of the artist as Making Medicine based on the inscription is in error, based on comparison to other known examples of the artist's work, including Ms. 39B. Re-identified as anonymous Cheyenne artist by Candace Greene, 2002.
Ledger book, now disbound, containing drawings of warfare, courtship, hunting and ceremony. The pages are numbered 1-113, with the following numbers missing: 5-6, 27-28, 31-32, 69-70, 93-96. Endpaper inscribed "Cheyenne Agency, Darlington Ind[ian] Terr[itory]". Additional laminated sheet contains original collector's tag, associated note, and early museum label. The drawings are by several artists, the most prominent being Yellow Nose. When possible, individual drawings have been assigned to Yellow Nose on stylistic grounds by comparison to his other known work.
Biographical / Historical:
Yellow Nose aka Little Face, Hehuwesse, He-her-we. (1848-1910) was a Ute captured as a young boy by Dives Backward and raised within Northern Cheyenne society by his adopted father Spotted Wolf. He is recorded to have participated in the Battle of Rosebud (June 17th, 1876) and the Battle of Little Bighorn (June 25-26th, 1876) where he reportedly 1) lost a famous shield made by Whistling Elk (later acquired by the NMAI) 2) captured the guidon of the 7th Cavalry and 3) strangled Custer to death with his bare hands. After the Battle of Little Big Horn, Yellow Nose traveled with a group of Northern Cheyenne led by Little Wolf and Dull Knife eventually making camp along the Powder River. The group was attacked by General Ranald McKenzie in the Battle of Crazy Woman Fork (November 20th, 1876). During this battle Yellow Nose distracted the US soldiers, allowing the women and children to escape, and sustained a shot to the chest. Eventually, the group, including Yellow Nose, was captured and removed to the southern Cheyenne reservation in present-day Oklahoma, where Yellow Nose remained for the remainder of his life. Information on Yellow Nose from: Powell, Peter John, Sweet Medicine: The Continuing Role of the Sacred Arrows, the Sun Dance, and the Sacred Buffalo Hat in Northern Cheyenne History. Norman; University of Oklahoma Press (1969).
For a biography of H. R. Voth, see Kaufman, Edmund G. (1973) "Heinrich R. Voth" in General Conference Mennonite Pioneers. North Newton, Kansas: Bethel College. (1973) pp. 326-333
NAA MS 166032
This book was originally noted as having been created solely by Yellow Nose. Stylistic differences between the images suggest that more than one artist is represented within the manuscript.
United States Indian Territory Cheyenne Agency Darlington.
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Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Thomas Henry Tibbles papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Lieutenant Edward W. Casey, center and Robert N. Getty left.
Biographical / Historical:
Barthelmess at Fort Keogh during 1888-97 period.
Concerning the estimated date: According to R.M. Utley (Last Days of the Sioux Nation, pages 257-8), Lt. Casey was killed on January 7, 1891 by Plenty Horses (just after the Wounded Knee massacre).
Photo with caption: "The scouts in column, Casey, center, Getty left. Army reports of the period said these and other Indians showed 'remarkable aptitude for military service, were amenable to discipline, generally of good habits, proud of their occupation'."
Random records of a lifetime, 1846-1931 [actually 1932] volume VIII, Cuba with Powell; Jamaica with Langley; Mexico with Gilbert and Dutton; California with McGee; physical anthropology, Hrdlicka, current work 1900