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Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI

Former owner:
James, Harriet Eddy  Search this
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
Landscape gardener:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Rosarian:
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Contractor:
Peckham Brothers  Search this
Hempstead of Boston  Search this
Lantern slide maker:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of New Haven  Search this
Creator:
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Beacon Hill (Newport, Rhode Island)
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes correspondence, articles and information sheet compiled by GCA representative.
Biographical / Historical:
After Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James's deaths, the gardens, with their pergolas, pools, and walls, fell into disrepair, ravaged by time and invasive trees and shrubs. The estate was subdivided into 3.25-acre parcels in the 1970s, and sold by developers as single home sites—with the remnants of the Blue Garden on one of the sites. Through the generosity of Dorrance H. Hamilton, a Newport summer resident, philanthropist, and garden enthusiast, the Blue Garden was rescued from its demise and rebuilt in 2014. A team, led by Parker Construction, Reed Hilderbrand Landscape Architects, and Arleyn A. Levee, Olmsted Historian, restored the garden to its former glory, using as reference original Olmsted plans, drawings, photographs, and correspondence from the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, the Library of Congress, the Archives of American Gardens, and the Redwood Library, among other repositories. As the name suggests, the Blue Garden incorporates a palette of blues early in the season and transitions to lavender blues and purples, with touches of white, as the summer progresses. Over 250 evergreen trees and flowering shrubs enclose the garden, and contribute to its designation as an arboretum. The Blue Garden is known today as a classic example of American landscape art and a triumph of historic preservation. The garden is open for tours on Thursdays from mid-June through early October. Photographs of the restoration and information are available at thebluegarden.org.
General:
"There is an austere elegance about a green garden; pink or yellow or red are frivolous except as accents, but the garden that appeals to the romantic, universal soul is the blue garden. That is why the Blue Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James was the ultimate goal of so many Newport Pilgrims. A very stately garden it is with the iridescent quality which blue flowers that really are mauve and purple and grayish, rather than true, sharp blue, impart. Its irregular symmetry makes it difficult to describe without a ground plan. At the two far distant ends are colonnades with gray rocks and irregular green plantations beyond, and the lower end is a circle of matchless turf whose boundary is rock and shrubs. The upper part is a circle, too, formed by a rustic lattice of slender split branches over which grow Clematis Jackmanii, mauve Sweet-peas and other charming creepers, backed by Cedars and Pines. In the center are two pools fed by water that trickles from beneath the colonnade."
"A thousand foot rose garden was blasted out of granite rock. A long grass allee originated by the reflecting pool, was planted with 5,000 roses of many varieties. The allee ascended several levels of stone walls and steps and climaxed under a high granite cliff, where a splendid stone and ironwork balustrade and imposing pergola were located. Mr. James died in 1942, all the roses were dug and sold and nature moved in to sow her seeds."
Persons associated with the property include: Arthur Curtiss James (former owner, 1909-1940); Olmsted Brothers (landscape architects); John Greatorex (superintendent of grounds and landscape gardener); Harriet R. Foote (garden designer and rosarian); Peckham Brothers (contractors for rose garden); Hempstead of Boston (landscape contractors/superintendent); Edward Van Altena (lantern slide maker).
Related Materials:
Beacon Hill, RI related holdings consist of 3 folders (5 hand colored glass lantern slides; 35 35mm slides (photographs); 5 8X10 glass plate negatives)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 03558, Arthur Curtiss James.
See others in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966. Perry Wheeler Collection, ca. 1880-1984. Richard Marchand historical postcard collection
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Rhode Island -- Newport  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File RI035
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6c8ae0a2a-d3c7-4b67-9873-badab4bb3b2d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10568

Winston-Salem -- Reynolda Gardens

Owner:
Wake Forest University  Search this
Landscape architect:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Buckenham & Miller  Search this
Horticulturalist:
Conrad, Robert  Search this
Architect:
Keen, Charles Barton  Search this
Former owner:
Reynolds, Katharine Smith, 1880-1924  Search this
Reynolds, R. J. (Richard Joshua), 1906-1964  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Reynolda Gardens (Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
United States of America -- North Carolina -- Forsyth -- Winston-Salem
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes photocopies of articles, images, transcript of a lecture and thesis by Sherold D. Hollingsworth, brochures, and other information.
General:
Reynolda was the county house estate of the founder of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Robert Joshua Reynolds, and his wife, Katharine Smith Reynolds, comprising nearly 1,100 acres that included a 38,000 square foot house built for them by architect Charles Barton Keen. Reynolda was primarily conceived by Katharine Reynolds to include a family home with gardens, a village within the estate that housed the twenty families that worked on the self-contained estate, a 350-acre dairy, grain and vegetable farm, a 19-acre golf course with grazing sheep, and woodlands with thousands of daffodils. Before the house and formal gardens were built, Lord and Burnham constructed commercial greenhouses and a large glass conservatory on the property in 1913. Mrs. Reynolds decided to site a four-acre formal garden next to the greenhouses, near the public road, for the benefit of passersby. The first garden designers on the estate were Miller and Buckenham, and then Thomas Sears was brought in to design the viewable greenhouse garden, as well as gardens at the house and boathouse. The boathouse was sited beside the 16-acre artificial Lake Katharine created by Miller and Buckenham's stone-faced dam. The lake has since partially filled with silt and become a wetlands habitat.
Thomas Sears' 1917 formal greenhouse garden was divided into two rectangles, an approximately two-acre formal rose and perennial garden, and next to it another two-acre garden for fruit, flowers and vegetables. Grass panels that divided and surrounded the formal gardens were known as the sunken garden. The original rose garden was divided into four parterres, two planted with roses, one for blue and yellow flowers and the last for pink and white flowers. There were grass panels between the parterres with a double row of Japanese cedar trees on the horizontal axis. Rows of Japanese weeping cherry trees and southern magnolias were planted as a perimeter; later the trees shaded the rose garden to the extent that it had to be replanted when the garden was restored in 1997. Each axis of the two formal gardens ended in an attractive terminus, a feature of many of Sears' designs. These included pergolas and Japanese-styled teahouses for Katharine Reynolds, who wanted to include trees and features from Japanese gardens. Like the rose garden, the design of the fruit and vegetable garden was geometric with a central feature. At the time of its restoration, a large section of this garden was replanted with All-America selection roses, other flowers and herbs.
In the 1930's daughter Mary Reynolds Babcock and her stockbroker husband Charles Babcock bought her siblings' shares in the house and rehired Thomas Sears to redesign the gardens. Renovations to the house included moving the original central entrance to the side of the house, and new gardens were needed in front. A tulip and chrysanthemum garden was designed, with pink, white, blue and purple tulips and forget-me-nots complementing the colors of the new flagstone terrace. Summer flowers included heliotrope, plumbago, salvia, nicotiana, snapdragons and annual phlox, although heliotrope did not flourish in hot weather. Red, yellow, bronze, copper and terra cotta chrysanthemums were planted in autumn. Sears suggested poinsettias, camellias, chrysanthemums, gardenias and begonia semperflorens for a winter garden, but they were not winter hardy and were used for holiday decorations inside the house. Sears also designed a study garden in 1916, which comprises a patio with a recessed pool, stone benches and extensive plantings of rhododendrons and other flowering shrubs, a canopy of flowering magnolias, dogwood and crape myrtles, and an understory of ground covers, lilies, hosta, ferns and daffodils.
Reynolda is now the Reynolda House Museum of American Art. The gardens were donated to Wake Forest University in the 1960's by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation.
Persons associated with this property include R.J. (Robert Joshua) Reynolds (c. 1850-1918) and Katharine Smith Reynolds Johnston (1880-1924) (former owners, 1909-1924); Mary Reynolds Babcock and Charles Babcock (former owners, 1935-1953); Wake Forest College, later University (owner beginning in 1958); Louis L. Miller and Horatio R. Buckenham (landscape designers, 1911-1913); Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1965) (landscape architect 1915-1917, 1930s); Robert Conrad (horticulturalist, c. 1910-1960); Charles Barton Keen (architect, 1912-1917).
Related Materials:
Reynolda Gardens related holdings consist of 3 folders (61 glass plate negatives, and 4 35mm slides)
Additional materials also located in the Library and Estate Archives of the Reynolda House at Wake Forest University.
See others in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- North Carolina -- Winston-Salem  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NC010
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / North Carolina
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e4bf4980-d8bf-46e1-8136-9c42ce9d10c1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12988

[Holly Beach Farm]: a view across the pergola to the gazebo at the end of the garden.

Photographer:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Pickering Studio  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white, 35 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Holly Beach Farm (Annapolis, Maryland)
United States of America -- Maryland -- Anne Arundel County -- Annapolis
Date:
1914.
General:
The slide was made in 1983 and was taken of an earlier image, probably a photographic print produced sometime between 1914 and 1925. Although Pickering Studio [Edgar H. Pickering of Annapolis] is indicated on the slide mount as the photographer, the image is identical to the original glass plate negative in the Archives of American Gardens' Thomas Warren Sears Collection (MD086011), taken in 1914. The Pickering Studio may have prepared a print from the Sears negative.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Maryland -- Annapolis  Search this
Vista  Search this
Allées  Search this
Walkways, grass  Search this
Garden borders  Search this
Shrubs  Search this
Pergolas  Search this
Gazebos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MD086002
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Maryland / MD086: Annapolis -- Holly Beach Farm
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb694b623df-c940-41da-91da-72dce8b7fb29
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref14283

Windy Gates

Owner:
Jenkins, Joseph  Search this
Photographer:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Landscape architect:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Creator:
Idlemont  Search this
Devon Hill  Search this
Nurseryman:
Lewis & Valentine  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black and white)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Maryland -- Baltimore
United States of America -- Maryland -- Baltimore
Date:
circa 1900-1929
General:
View of planting of herbaceous flower beds on triple terraces. Put in by Mrs. James Whaber of Edgewood (daughter). See AAG Image # MD057007 in Thomas Warren Sears Collection for the source of this image (glass plate negative) .
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Arbors  Search this
Parterres  Search this
Containers  Search this
Perennials  Search this
Garden borders  Search this
Benches  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MD057013
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Maryland / MD057: Baltimore -- Windy Gates
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6c51e3410-1c85-4a5d-8504-a7d4676c2b87
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref14520

Ardmore -- Sears Garden

Former owner:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Landscape architect:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Sears Garden (Ardmore, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Montgomery County -- Ardmore
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles.
General:
Thomas Warren Sears (b.1880-1966) was a landscape architect who said his own garden in Ardmore, Pennsylvania was his favorite, and the formal style of his garden became his trademark design for private residences. The garden center was a sunken rectangular lawn, surrounded by low stone walls, terraces and flagstone walkways that were planted with a mixture of shrubs, perennial flowers, and ground covers, and separated from the stone house by a screen of trees. A tall stone wall at the end of the garden had a fountain inset.
Thomas Sears' formal garden was planted with more than fifty varieties of French lilacs, peonies and irises.
Sears was among the first landscape architects with a formal education, receiving the BS degree from the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University in 1906. During his professional career as a landscape architect Sears worked primarily in Maryland, North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania. He designed private gardens in the style of his own: sunken rectangular lawns with perennial and shrub borders that surmounted low walls and steps. Among his prominent commissions were Reynolda, home of tobacco magnate R. J. Reynolds, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where the formal gardens Sears laid out in 1916 were later added to the campus of Wake Forest University; the amphitheater at Swarthmore College in 1942; Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland, placed on the Baltimore County Historic register in 1988; and the restoration of the Colonial Revival gardens at Pennsbury in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Sears was also known for his published photographs of gardens and natural settings in the US and other countries.
Persons associated with the garden include Thomas Warren Sears (former owner and landscape architect, ca.1930?-1960s) and Ella D. Finney (former owner, ca. 1930s?-1960s?).
Related Materials:
Sears Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (43 glass plate negatives and photographic prints)
See others in:
J. Horace McFarland Collection, 1900-1961

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Ardmore  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA088
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6df8ed8b0-3640-4dc9-bc81-1b92bc2e4c99
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16438

Brookline -- Weld

Former owner:
Anderson, Larz, 1866-1937  Search this
Anderson, Isabel Weld Perkins  Search this
Weld, William F.  Search this
Architect:
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Wheelwright, Edmund M.  Search this
Fox & Gale  Search this
Little & Browne  Search this
Landscape architect:
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Fox & Gale  Search this
Little & Browne  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Weld (Brookline, Massachusetts)
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Norfolk County -- Brookline
Scope and Contents:
The folders include a work sheet and copies of articles.
General:
Larz and Isabel Anderson created fashionable and personally inspiring gardens on a property they named "Weld" in honor of her grandfather, William Fletcher Weld. The gardens served as inspiration for Isabel's writings of children's stories. They also evoked the history of Larz and Isabel's family heritage. During their ownership, the garden plan was nearly square, with a built-up enclosure of terrace and balustrades on the sides. A pergola stood at the end. The lowest level of the garden contained the mall and flower beds. A grove of trees shut off the formal garden from the house. Semicircular cement seats are located at each end of the 380 foot allee. Isabel left Weld to the town of Brookline for public recreation and public education. Brookline renamed Weld "Larz Anderson Park." Sited as not suited for a public facility, the house was razed and the gardens were destroyed or abandoned. The stables now house the Museum of Transportation, founded in 1949 with the Andersons' motor car collection. In 1990, an effort was attempted to stabilize the few remaining structures. Bulldozing of the grounds now makes restoration difficult.
Persons and firms associated with the garden include: William F. Weld (former owner of land); Larz and Isabel Weld Perkins Anderson (former owners, -1948); Town of Brookline (present owners, 1948-present); Edmund M. Wheelwright (architect of house, stable and garage, begun 1885); Charles A. Platt (architect of Italian garden, grove and bowling green,1901); Fox and Gale (architects of rose garden and tennis courts, 1902); Onchi San (gardener of Japanese garden, 1907); Little and Browne (architects of water garden and Chinese garden and additions to house, 1910-1916)
Related Materials:
Weld related holdings consist of 4 folders (65 slides, 29 photoprints, and 57 glass plate negatives)
See others in:
J. Horace McFarland Collection, 1900-1961

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Brookline  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MA030
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb629c5e9bc-156e-4dbd-a93c-1d22b95f2da0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref17567

Fairfield -- Sunnie-Holme

Former owner:
Jennings, Annie Burr  Search this
Landscape architect:
Kellaway, Herbert J.  Search this
Rosarian:
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Sunnie-Holme (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield County -- Fairfield
Scope and Contents:
The folders include worksheets, articles, and copy of 1936 map.
General:
Miss Annie Burr Jennings, daughter of a founder of Standard Oil Company, built Sunnie-Holme in 1909-1910. For thirty years, the house was the social center of the town during the summer months. It is unclear who designed the original parterre gardens; Miss Jennings later re-designed the gardens with herbaceous perennials, roses, and flowering shrubs. Her gardens were designed to be at their peak during the summer, when she resided in the house. Over thirty gardeners kept the extensive plantings maintained. Each of the three parallel paths leading from the main house south toward the sound were bordered with perennials in various color schemes or a vine-covered arbor. The designs were influenced by the writings of Gertrude Jekyll, whom whe met a Munstead wood in 1926, and from whom she commissioned the design for a garden at the Old Glebe House in Woodbury, Connecticut.
Located in the center of the garden was a formal rose garden, designed by Herbert Kellaway and rosarian, Mrs. Harriet Risley Foote, which had as its focal point an Italianate pool anchored by surrounding pergolas. Other garden "rooms" included "Irish," evergreen, white, and an herb garden. A wild garden with Indian totem poles and a rustic lodge, was situated at the end of the property. In her will, Miss Jennings forbade that the gardens become a town park. Although she encouraged her heirs to continue the gardens, the property was sold. Sunnie-Holme was dismantled on the eve of World War II.
Persons associated with the property and garden include: Annie Burr jennings (former owner, 1909-1939); Herbert Kellaway (rose garden designer); and Harriett Risley Foote (rosarian).
Related Materials:
Sunnie-Holme related holdings consist of 2 folders (27 images: 11 glass lantern slides; photoprints from postcards; photoprints from glass plate negatives)
Additional photographs are located in the Fairfield Historical Society Archives.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File CT004
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb63e8f7738-85cb-4131-95a3-0663da3c7b8d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21454

Hartford -- Elizabeth Park

Former owner:
Pond, Charles  Search this
Landscape architect:
Wirth, Theodore  Search this
Provenance:
Meehan, Kathryn  Search this
J. Horace McFarland Company  Search this
Owner:
City of Hartford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Elizabeth Park (Hartford, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Hartford County -- Hartford
Scope and Contents:
The folders include catalog sheets and articles.
General:
Charles Pond, a wealthy businessman, bequeathed his estate to the City of Hartford in the late 1800s to be used as a horticultural park and named it after his wife, Elizabeth. In 1897, the Elizabeth Park Rose Garden was one of the first municipal rose gardens established in America. The rose garden was designed by Theodore Wirth, a Swiss landscape architect hired by the Olmsted firm, who finished training at London's Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. In 1904, the rose garden was constructed and planted. In 1912, the American Rose Society recognized its splendor and significance and requested that a half acre semi-circle be added and used as this country's first test rose garden. The garden was originally famous for its variety of Hybrid Perpetuals (eight original beds continue to bloom). By the 1960s the park became so neglected and weed filled that the American Rose Society would no longer recognize it as an accredited testing grounds. In 1977, the Friends of Elizabeth Park was formed and they hired a rosarian. A restored garden replanted with new vintage plants was installed. The American Rose Society reinstated Elizabeth Park as a test garden. Today, the garden has 15,000 rose bushes of about 800 varieties--mainly Hybrid Teas, Grandifloras, Floribundas, shrubs, polyanthas, and minis. In 1990, the All-American Rose Selections awarded Elizabeth Park the most outstanding garden award. Other gardens in the park include an annual garden; a perennial garden; an herb garden; a rockery; a Dahlia garden; and a large number of rare and unusual trees and shrubs.
This collection is made up of glass lantern slides, photo prints (color and b&w), glass plate negatives, and postcards. The images include the construction of the garden and early visitors. They also depict the pond and bridge; rose gardens; perennial beds; an aerial view; and expanses of lawn.
Persons and entities associated with the property and garden include: Charles Pond (former owner); City of Hartford and Town of West Hartford (present owners); and Theodore Wirth (park designer and supervisor, 1897).
Related Materials:
Elizabeth Park related holdings consist of 3 folders (55 photoprints, glass lantern slides and glass negatives; 6 postcards)
See others in:
J. Horace McFarland Collection, 1900-1961.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Urban parks  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Hartford  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File CT060
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6b9d0c860-5826-4cb8-b4ca-f48d51daf585
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21524

[Sunnie-Holme]

Photographer:
Corbit Studio  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Connecticut -- Fairfield
Sunnie-Holme (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield County -- Fairfield
Date:
1920 Jun.
General:
See also Glebe House Museum, Woodbury, CT. The house was dismantled in 1940. Missing 35 mm. Photos from glass plate negatives, Corbit Studios, Bridgeport, CT.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Sculpture  Search this
Urns  Search this
Stairs, brick  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item CT004018
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut / CT004: Fairfield -- Sunnie-Holme
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb656d75fdd-5835-4ffa-b09d-68a0650e81e6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21797
Online Media:

[Sunnie-Holme]

Photographer:
Corbit Studio  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Connecticut -- Fairfield
Sunnie-Holme (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield County -- Fairfield
Date:
1920 Jun.
General:
See also Glebe House Museum, Woodbury, CT. The house was dismantled in 1940. Missing 35 mm. Photos from glass plate negatives, Corbit Studios, Bridgeport, CT.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Garden borders  Search this
Walkways, grass  Search this
Houses  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item CT004019
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut / CT004: Fairfield -- Sunnie-Holme
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb63a58446a-7657-470c-bdab-f0f6e521091b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21798

[Sunnie-Holme]

Photographer:
Corbit Studio  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Connecticut -- Fairfield
Sunnie-Holme (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield County -- Fairfield
Date:
1920 Jun.
General:
See also Glebe House Museum, Woodbury, CT. The house was dismantled in 1940. Missing 35 mm. Photos from glass plate negatives, Corbit Studios, Bridgeport, CT.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Garden borders  Search this
Walkways, grass  Search this
Houses  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item CT004020
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut / CT004: Fairfield -- Sunnie-Holme
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb62aaa6b0b-a3f4-4fa7-ac77-84ff97ca4389
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21799

[Sunnie-Holme]

Photographer:
Corbit Studio  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Connecticut -- Fairfield
Sunnie-Holme (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield County -- Fairfield
Date:
1920 Jun.
General:
See also Glebe House Museum, Woodbury, CT. The house was dismantled in 1940. Missing 35 mm. Photos from glass plate negatives, Corbit Studios, Bridgeport, CT. See CT004017 for color closeup.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Ponds  Search this
Fountains  Search this
Flowerpots  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Balustrades  Search this
Stairs  Search this
Benches  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item CT004021
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut / CT004: Fairfield -- Sunnie-Holme
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6c76029c3-e013-4d22-a5db-7096d030dc49
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21800
Online Media:

[Sunnie-Holme]

Creator:
Corbit Studio  Search this
Photographer:
Corbit Studio  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Connecticut -- Fairfield
Sunnie-Holme (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield County -- Fairfield
Date:
1920 Jun.
General:
See also Glebe House Museum, Woodbury, CT. The house was dismantled in 1940. Missing 35 mm. Photos from glass plate negatives, Corbit Studios, Bridgeport, CT.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Rock gardens  Search this
Stairs, stone  Search this
Terra-cotta  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item CT004022
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut / CT004: Fairfield -- Sunnie-Holme
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb69b12abee-355b-475c-ae33-c9822e657106
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21801
Online Media:

J. Horace McFarland Company collection

Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Names:
J. Horace McFarland Company  Search this
Mount Pleasant Press  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (2718 photographs: black and white; 450 glass lantern slides; 41 glass negatives; color records; plant patents; publications. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Place:
Breeze Hill (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania)
Pennsylvania -- Harrisburg
Date:
1899-1974
Summary:
The J. Horace McFarland Collection includes over 3,100 photographic images of private and public gardens throughout the United States, as well as some from foreign countries, dating from 1899 to 1963. Many of these images, generated for Mount Pleasant Press (later the J. Horace McFarland Company), were used to illustrate trade catalogs published by the firm as well as journal and newspaper articles. The collection also contains color records that were used as reference aids during the printing process, plant patents, and various publications of the McFarland Company.
Scope and Contents note:
The J. Horace McFarland Collection includes over 2,700 black and white mounted photographs, 448 glass lantern slides, and 41 glass plate negatives of gardens throughout the United States dating from 1899 to 1963. A small number of images show gardens in Austria, Canada, England, Mexico, Scotland and Wales. Many of the images, which were generated and used by the J. Horace McFarland Company to illustrate trade catalogs and journal and newspaper articles, indicate the publication(s) in which they appeared. A series of portraits of rosarians, many of them featured in Modern Roses 6, rounds out the image collection. The McFarland Collection also includes color records, plants patents, and miscellaneous publications. Color records are plant 'portraits' that were painted by McFarland Company staff artists in watercolor. They were referenced by the printing department in order to render illustrations of plants in colors as close to the originals as possible. The plant patents are patents for plants issued by the United States Patent Office. They include the plant name, source, filing and patent dates, patent number, and growth characteristics. Most are accompanied by a colored image of the plant identified in the patent. The miscellaneous publications are various pamphlets and booklets published by the J. Horace McFarland Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series:

1) Garden images (including mounted photographs, glass plate negatives, and glass lantern slides)

2) Portraits of Rosarians

3) Color Records

4) Plant Patents

5) Miscellaneous Publications
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. J. Horace McFarland (1859-1948) was an influential civic leader, author, publisher, horticulturist, and authority on roses. His printing company, Mount Pleasant Press (later the J. Horace McFarland Company), was based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It published many of the seed and nursery trade catalogs in the United States during the first half of the twentieth century and was one of the first to apply color processes to commercial print applications. J. Horace McFarland Company staffers photographed thousands of different gardens and plant specimens throughout the United States. These images were used to illustrate numerous nursery and seed catalogs, journals and books. Among its many services, the firm sold various themed lectures illustrated by sets of hand-colored glass lantern slides.

McFarland wrote over 200 articles in popular journals as well as a dozen books on roses and gardening. He served as the first president of the American Civic Association from 1904-1924 and led several local and national campaigns to protect communities and scenic areas from urban blight and overdevelopment including the city of Harrisburg and Niagara Falls. McFarland, who served as the president of the American Rose Society (1930-1932) and helped establish a standardized rose identification and registration method, used the gardens on his own 2.5 acre property in Harrisburg, "Breeze Hill," to test hundreds of varieties of roses and plant cultivars. "Breeze Hill" was used as the backdrop for many photographs taken by McFarland's firm.
Related Materials:
The Pennsylvania State Archives in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania includes the J. Horace McFarland Company Records (Manuscript Group 453) and the J. Horace McFarland Papers (Manuscript Group 85).

The Historical Society of Dauphin County in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania includes the J. Horace McFarland Collection (MG 229).
Separated Materials note:
The Smithsonian Institution's Botany and Horticulture Library includes seed and nursery trade catalogs, books, and published materials from the J. Horace McFarland Company.

The United States Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland has various photographic images, nursery catalogs, publications and miscellaneous records from the J. Horace McFarland Company in its J. Horace McFarland Collection.
Provenance:
Donated in 1992 by James W. Walsh, who purchased the J. Horace McFarland Company from its founder's heirs. (The business was later renamed the Roebuck Printing Company.)
Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Printers -- United States  Search this
Horticulturists  Search this
Printers -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Gardening -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Seeds -- Catalogs  Search this
Seed industry and trade -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Seed industry and trade -- Catalogs  Search this
Rose breeders -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb69dd45f0c-ce66-4097-bc0f-68f5be9a5b11
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-mcf
Online Media:

Westbury House: Phlox R. P. Struthers

Owner:
Phipps, John S., M/Ms  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass lantern slide (autochrome, 5 x 7 in.)
1 Glass plate negative (black-and-white, 5 x 7 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Glass lantern slide
Glass plate negatives
Place:
United States of America -- New York -- Nassau County -- Westbury
Westbury House (Westbury, New York)
Date:
06/13/1913
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Phlox  Search this
Walkways  Search this
Balustrades  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item NY433069
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / New York / NY433: Westbury -- Westbury House
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e15a6e2d-3c5c-42b8-b5b7-0de34880fde4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref11157
Online Media:

Hudson Garden

Owner:
Hudson, C. C.  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic) (glass, black-and-white, 6.5 x 8.5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Place:
North Carolina -- Greensboro
United States of America -- North Carolina -- Guilford County -- Greensboro
Date:
07/01/1931
General note:
Condition of the glass plate negative is poor with flaking emulsion.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Roses, climbing  Search this
Rose arbors  Search this
Rose gardens  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item NC027001
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / North Carolina / NC027: Greensboro -- Hudson Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb61ac24f75-c2e2-4073-8d88-24bd7b8add24
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref11236

Hartford -- Elizabeth Park

Former owner:
Pond, Charles  Search this
Provenance:
Meehan, Kathryn  Search this
Landscape architect:
Wirth, Theodore  Search this
Owner:
City of Hartford  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Elizabeth Park (Hartford, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Hartford County -- Hartford
Date:
1904-1941
Scope and Contents note:
The folders include catalog sheets and articles.
General note:
Charles Pond, a wealthy businessman, bequeathed his estate to the City of Hartford in the late 1800s to be used as a horticultural park and named it after his wife, Elizabeth. In 1897, the Elizabeth Park Rose Garden was one of the first municipal rose gardens established in America. The rose garden was designed by Theodore Wirth, a Swiss landscape architect hired by the Olmsted firm, who finished training at London's Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. In 1904, the rose garden was constructed and planted. In 1912, the American Rose Society recognized its splendor and significance and requested that a half acre semi-circle be added and used as this country's first test rose garden. The garden was originally famous for its variety of Hybrid Perpetuals (eight original beds continue to bloom). By the 1960s the park became so neglected and weed filled that the American Rose Society would no longer recognize it as an accredited testing grounds. In 1977, the Friends of Elizabeth Park was formed and they hired a rosarian. A restored garden replanted with new vintage plants was installed. The American Rose Society reinstated Elizabeth Park as a test garden. Today, the garden has 15,000 rose bushes of about 800 varieties--mainly Hybrid Teas, Grandifloras, Floribundas, shrubs, polyanthas, and minis. In 1990, the All-American Rose Selections awarded Elizabeth Park the most outstanding garden award. Other gardens in the park include an annual garden; a perennial garden; an herb garden; a rockery; a Dahlia garden; and a large number of rare and unusual trees and shrubs.
This collection is made up of glass lantern slides, photo prints (color and b&w), glass plate negatives, and postcards. The images include the construction of the garden and early visitors. They also depict the pond and bridge; rose gardens; perennial beds; an aerial view; and expanses of lawn.
Persons and entities associated with the property and garden include: Charles Pond (former owner); City of Hartford and Town of West Hartford (present owners); and Theodore Wirth (park designer and supervisor, 1897).
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Urban parks  Search this
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Hartford  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, File CT060
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb61cba81bd-9b36-4bf1-8fe6-9873b4265953
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref7510

Glass plate negative box

Collection Owner:
Weems, Katharine Lane, 1899-1989  Search this
Lane, Gardiner M., 1859-1914  Search this
Lane, Emma Gildersleeve  Search this
Collection Former owner:
Dana, Rich H.  Search this
Collection Landscape architect:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr., 1870-1957  Search this
Whiting, Edward Clark  Search this
Collection Architect:
Gildersleeve, Raleigh C. (Colston), 1869-1944  Search this
Collection Gardener:
Watson, B. M. (gardener)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (wooden box with slats used to house glass stereographic images)
Container:
Box 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1910-1940
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Chimneys collection.
See more items in:
The Chimneys collection
The Chimneys collection / Artifacts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb627cb8690-a774-4e7d-8bac-9d5de783c85d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-chm-ref938

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection

Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Publisher:
American Stereoscopic Co.  Search this
H. C. White Co.  Search this
Killela, J.J.  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
Photographer:
Ponting, Herbert George, 1870-1935  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
White, Clarence W.  Search this
Extent:
160 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereographs
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Lantern slides
Date:
1895-1921
Summary:
A collection of approximately 28,000 glass plate negatives showing views of a variety of subjects.
Scope and Contents:
The major part of the collection, series 1-4, contains nearly 28,000 glass plates, including original stereoscopic negatives, interpositives, and both negative and positive non-stereoscopic plates used to produce lantern slides and paper prints. The photographs were taken all over the world. The majority are from the Underwood & Underwood active files, but plates from other publishers are also included. Series 5 is a small collection of paper stereographs. Series 6 contains 4 Underwood & Underwood descriptive sales catalogs and 1 H. C. White & Co. catalog (numbers on the Underwood plates correspond to the numbers on catalog captions). Series 7 is apparatus--four stereoscopes.

The approximately 28,000 glass plates in this collection have not been completely inspected at this point due to handling problems associated with asbestos contamination of the collection. A preliminary survey, however, indicated that the selections of images cover the full range of subject matter encompassed by the "Underwood Travel System." The subject matter is most easily comprehended by consulting one of the Underwood sales catalogs which accompany the collection. The catalog captions are arranged geographically, for the most part, and generally represent an organized "tour" which could be purchased as a boxed set, complete with maps and guide book, although individual images could be purchased separately. The catalogs indicate that the Underwood files were continually updated, for extensive modifications in some of the sets can be seen from edition to edition, and actual inspection of published stereographs shows that alternate views with identical Underwood catalog numbers were substituted from time to time, and that new subjects (with new catalog numbers) were sometimes introduced into the sets and old subjects were retired. There are glass plate negatives as well as positives in this collection. The positive images were probably interpositives used for the production of duplicate negatives. Some of the original stereo negatives were cut apart and the images transposed; they were then bound with an additional glass support (in many cases the tape has deteriorated). Half stereo positives also appear in the collection: these probably were intended for use in lantern slide production. Frequently a drawer of plates contains several incarnations of a single image, including the original negative, a copy negative, an interpositive, and a positive lantern slide. In other cases a drawer may contain only a single mode, e.g., original negatives, while corresponding positives and/or lantern slides appear in separate drawers.

A small quantity of the Underwood & Underwood plates are not from the Travel System, but represent humorous and genre subjects which were cataloged and marketed separately. The work of several other publishers, usually without Underwood catalog numbers, is also represented, including H. C. White, American Stereoscopic Company, and J. J. Killela.

The arrangement of the collection seems to reflect a combination of permanent reference storage as well as active use files. The apparent anomalies or inconsistencies probably indicate the pulling of plates from permanent files into temporary work files, and the collection may consist of a combination of permanent storage and temporary working files. As the drawers do not appear to have been renumbered according to any easily discernible pattern, they have become intermixed and rearranged in storage. The contents of each drawer usually have been found in good order, however, and the plates were nearly always arranged numerically,usually with the low numbers at the rear of the drawer and the highest number at the front. As the plates have been rehoused, the reverse numerical order has been corrected. When all the plates have been rehoused and inventoried, consideration will be given to general collection rearrangement and renumbering of the containers, either strictly in numerical order or topically and/or geographically with a numerical sequence within each group.

The collection is in good condition for the most part, although conservation attention will be required. There is a certain amount of emulsion peeling or frilling at the edges of some plates, but this is a condition to which emulsions on glass frequently are prone. A few plates, bound in a sandwich arrangement between cover glass and acetate facing the emulsion, have suffered severe damage, peeling, and image losses through the apparent ferrotyping and sticking of emulsion to the plastic, probably under conditions of high humidity at some stage. There is surprisingly little glass breakage within the collection.

Most of the stereoscopic negatives and many of the positives are defaced with a double "XI' scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right side, as described above in the historical note. Of particular interest and presumed rarity are cards found interfiled with plates in many of the drawers. These cards, filed by Underwood (i.e., catalog) numbers, bear printing'or production dates and notes, along with the unique, chronological accession numbers which the company assigned to each plate, regardless of the "active" number which it might eventually receive. A check mark on a card usually refers to a plate actually in the collection and with which the card is found physically associated; additional accession numbers without check marks listed on the cards possibly refer to variant views which were discarded or may in fact be in the Keystone Mast Collection (pending further research). For ease of handling and in the interest of conservation, the cards have been separated from the plates within each drawer and are arranged as a group at the rear, but can still be located easily. Frequently when a plate and/or its original envelope does not bear both the "active" and accession numbers, the missing number can be located on one of these cards.

Photographers represented include Herbert G. Ponting and Clarence W. White. A photographer and/or publisher named J. J. Killela is also represented.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in seven series. Series 1, 2, and 3 are each divided into negative and positive subseries. Plates are arranged numerically in groups based on geographical and subject content. Controlled at the series level in the finding aid and at the item level in a computer database.

Series 1, H. C. White glass plates

Series 2, American Stereoscpopic Co. glass plates

Series 3, Underwood & Underwood glass plates

Series 4, Broken glass plates

Series 5, Original company catalogs

Series 6, Paper stereographs

Series 7, stereoscopes (viewers)
Biographical / Historical:
Underwood & Underwood was established at Ottawa, Kansas, by the young brothers Elmer and Bert Underwood in 1882. They initially operated as distributors for eastern photographers' stereographs to new markets in the West. Their activities included door to door canvassing with views by Charles Bierstadt, J. F. Jarvis, and Littleton View Co.(1) Underwood & Underwood, Publishers, opened a branch office in Baltimore in 1887.(2)

Soon Underwood & Underwood and other large stereograph publishers began recruiting college students to work as salesmen during summer months (1890). Underwood and Underwood claimed that their organization alone sent out as many as 3,000 college students in one Summer [sic]. With the other ... big companies each employing more than 1,000, it is easy to understand how the countryside of the Nation literally swarmed with stereograph salesmen throughout the summer months! ... The competition between the salesmen themselves was likewise aggressive, with no holds barred. Many successful business and professional men of today relate with considerable pride that they got their start on their careers in this practical and very effective school of salesmanship.(3)

The company moved its main office from Ottawa, Kansas to New York City (1891),(4) and gradually began to publish its own stereographs. Bert Underwood finally took photography lessons from M. Abel in Mentone, France during the same year.(5) B. L. Singley, erstwhile salesman for the Underwood & Underwood and James M. Davis & Co. firms, in 1892 formed the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania, which was to become Underwood & Underwood's chief competitor and imitator.(6)

Underwood & Underwood entered the education market (1895) by producing packaged sets of 100 or more stereographs with descriptive texts.(7) From 1897 the firm employed full time staff photographers as well as free lancers. By 1901 the Underwoods were publishing 25,000 stereographs per day (i.e.,total number of cards). Increasing production levels led them to gain control of the Jarvis, Bierstadt, and William H. Rau photoprinting facilities in 1897 1898.(8)

The Keystone view Company created its own Educational Department in 1898. This division sustained the Keystone View Company past the period of the stereograph's popularity. In this year Underwood & Underwood reprinted Oliver Wendell Holmes's series on the stereograph and stereoscope which originally appeared in The Atlantic Monthly between 1859 and 1863. This eighty page booklet included testimonials from eminent scholars on the value of the stereograph in education. The company had been test marketing what itlater called "The Underwood Travel System." This consisted of a boxed set of stereo views of a country or region, a guide book describing the significance of the places shown, and a map showing their location and the viewpoints from which the stereographs were taken. Captions on the backs of the stereographs were sometimes printed in six languages.(9) As stereographs began to be used in schools as visual aids, the firm promoted its Travel System with endorsements from prominent educators, citing the usage of the system by various schools and universities.(10)

The H. C. White Company, which had manufactured stereoscopes for several decades, entered the stereo publication field in 1899.(11) Much of its production seemed to imitate Underwood & Underwood cards, including typography and the color of mount stock. Underwood & Underwood expanded into news photography by 1910 and gradually decreased its stereographic work. Few new stereo negatives were added to the file after 1912 except for a flurry of activity during the early war years, 1914 1916. The total number of Underwood & Underwood "titles" in stereo were from 30,000 to 40,000 (there might be a substantially larger number of actual negatives, since the files frequently were updated with newer views for old catalog numbers).(12)

Underwood & Underwood sold a portion of its negative file to the educational division of Keystone View Company in 1912,(13) and between 1921 1923 conveyed to this competitor their remaining stereo stock (presumably both cards and negatives) and rights.(14) In addition to its involvement as a news photographic agency, the company eventually opened portrait studios which flourished during the World war II years. A former Smithsonian employee, Vince Connolly, worked for Underwood & Underwood, which competed with Harris & Ewing in general portrait work during that period: he did portraiture and other photography, but says he was unaware of his employer's earlier stereo publishing activities.

Underwood & Underwood donated approximately 6000 negatives to the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts (1964). These photographs are primarily 4" x 5", captioned glass plate and film negatives. The subjects are news events and theatrical, sports, and political subjects of the early 20th century. In a letter to the Smithsonian of March 25, 1966 (in accession number 270586), Mrs. John M. Stratton described another collection of Underwood & Underwood photographs, stating that her husband had been a partner in Underwood & Underwood Illustrations and owned Underwood & Underwood News Photos. In November of the same year Mr. and Mrs. Stratton donated this collection of glass plates by Underwood & Underwood and other publishers to the Division of Photographic History (then the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts) . This material consists of both negative and positive stereographic plates, as well as non stereoscopic plates, chiefly copies made from the stereographs, with some catalogs, stereoscopes, and other material. The donor estimated 12,900 plates, but in 1983 the Smithsonian Institution inventory yielded a total of approximately 28,000 plates.

The Keystone View Company's stereoscopic production continued much later than Underwood & Underwood's. It was not until 1939 when declining interest in stereography led the firm to discontinue stereograph production and enter the field of visual optometrics. The stereoscopic negative collection, including material obtained from Underwood & Underwood and other firms, was placed in storage in concrete vaults. The Mast family of Davenport, Iowa, eventually purchased the collection in 1963, and in 1977 donated the collection to the University of California for its California Museum of Photography in Riverside. The University took physical possession of this vast collection in 1979.(15)

Many of the Underwood & Underwood plates donated by the Strattons (which were transferred to the Archives Center in 1983), in effect have been cancelled by having diagonal lines (double "X" marks) scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right image of each stereo pair (never both sides). These cancellation marks do not appear on the Underwood & Underwood plates in the Keystone Mast Collection in Riverside. This leads to several theories: (a) that these cancellations were in fact the reason that the Smithsonian plates were not purchased by Keystone in either 1912 or 1921, since Keystone clearly intended to use the Underwood material for stereograph production and the defaced plates would be of no value to them for this purpose; or (b), as stereo collector John Waldsmith suggests, that the cancellations were part of an agreement between Underwood & Underwood and Keystone: Keystone may have asked Underwood & Underwood to cancel one side of each stereoscopic plate not being sold to Keystone so that Underwood & Underwood would no longer be able to compete with Keystone in the stereo market. The defaced plates, as well as other material which Keystone did not purchase, apparently remained in Underwood custody and eventually were acquired by Mr. and Mrs. Stratton. The cancellation marks in the Smithsonian's collection are the subject of further conjecture. Edward Earle at Riverside feels that, since Underwood & Underwood sought to abandonded stereograph production much earlier than Keystone's departure from the field in order to enter the non stereoscopic lantern slide market, the cancellation may have served to indicate which side of each sterescopic pair should be converted to lantern slide production use; the existence of the 4" x 5" copy negatives and positives from stereographs in this collection seem to corroborate this. The Underwood & Underwood conversion from stereograph to lantern slide materials seems to coincide with the ascendance of lantern slide projection as visual aids in schools. The company apparently modified the type of photographic product which they published at least partially in recognition of this new educational trend.

NOTES

1. edward W. Earle, ed., Points of View: The Stereograph in America A Cultural @ Visual 'g . E!Ltory, Rochester, F.Y., Th Studies Workshop ress, 1979, p. 60; William Culp Darrah, The World of Stereographs, Gettysburg, Pa., 1979, p. 46.

2. Tbid., p. 62.

3. George E. Hamilton, Oliver Wendell Holmes, His Pioneer SLtuereoscope and Later Industry, New York, New )men Society, 1949, p. 17, quoted in Points of 1=e w:, 6 4 . P.

4. Points of View., p. 66.

5. Darrah, p. 47.

6. points of View, p. 66.

7. Ibid., p. 68.

8. Darrah, p. 47.

9. Points of View, p. 70.

10. Howard S. Becker, "Steteographs: Local, National, and International Art Worlds," in Points of View, p. 95. 11. points of View, p. 72.

12. Darrah, p. 48.

13. Darrah, p. 48, quoted in Points of View, P. 82.

14. Darrah, p. 48.

15. Chris J. Kenney, introduction to "Perspective and the Past: The Keystone Mast Collection," CMP Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1982.
Related Materials:
California Museum of Photography, University of California--Riverside, Riverside, California 92521.

Underwood & Underwood stereographs in this collection and the Smithsonian Underwood & Underwood Collection originally were components of the same company file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by June Stratton (Mrs. John M.) on December 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Traveling sales personnel  Search this
Travel photography -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereographs -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Interpositives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Stereoscopic photographs -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Lantern slides
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0143
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86e358e26-e305-49a6-bf9b-f2d38d995ae0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0143
Online Media:

Portrait (Front) of Chief Stinking Bear in Costume with Horn And Feather Headdress, Holding Pipe and Club

Creator:
Shuck Photo  Search this
Collector:
Wittemann-Albertype Co  Search this
Collection Collector:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (001 in x 002 in)
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.02829101

OPPS NEG.3674A
Local Note:
Photo 1899 or Before
Black and white photoprint
Place:
Oklahoma ? -- Fort Reno ?
Collection Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing. Modern copy prints and copy negatives for nearly all images are available.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Sioux  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Photo lot 25, Albertype Company photograph collection relating to Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Albertype Company photograph collection relating to Native Americans
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw358f24a38-49b3-4c97-99e2-896435d304ce
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-25-ref687

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