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Ask a Conservator: Materials Matter

Creator:
Smithsonian Libraries  Search this
Type:
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-02-04T16:24:59.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Library science  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianLibraries
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianLibraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_IPKYUqhfPxo

Power|Play: China's Empress Dowager

Creator:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2011-12-23T17:49:58.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
See more by:
FreerSackler
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
YouTube Channel:
FreerSackler
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_fz3R95yKUpc

J. Horace McFarland Company collection

Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Names:
J. Horace McFarland Company  Search this
Mount Pleasant Press  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (2718 photographs: black and white; 450 glass lantern slides; 41 glass negatives; color records; plant patents; publications. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Place:
Breeze Hill (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania)
Pennsylvania -- Harrisburg
Date:
1899-1974
Summary:
The J. Horace McFarland Collection includes over 3,100 photographic images of private and public gardens throughout the United States, as well as some from foreign countries, dating from 1899 to 1963. Many of these images, generated for Mount Pleasant Press (later the J. Horace McFarland Company), were used to illustrate trade catalogs published by the firm as well as journal and newspaper articles. The collection also contains color records that were used as reference aids during the printing process, plant patents, and various publications of the McFarland Company.
Scope and Contents note:
The J. Horace McFarland Collection includes over 2,700 black and white mounted photographs, 448 glass lantern slides, and 41 glass plate negatives of gardens throughout the United States dating from 1899 to 1963. A small number of images show gardens in Austria, Canada, England, Mexico, Scotland and Wales. Many of the images, which were generated and used by the J. Horace McFarland Company to illustrate trade catalogs and journal and newspaper articles, indicate the publication(s) in which they appeared. A series of portraits of rosarians, many of them featured in Modern Roses 6, rounds out the image collection. The McFarland Collection also includes color records, plants patents, and miscellaneous publications. Color records are plant 'portraits' that were painted by McFarland Company staff artists in watercolor. They were referenced by the printing department in order to render illustrations of plants in colors as close to the originals as possible. The plant patents are patents for plants issued by the United States Patent Office. They include the plant name, source, filing and patent dates, patent number, and growth characteristics. Most are accompanied by a colored image of the plant identified in the patent. The miscellaneous publications are various pamphlets and booklets published by the J. Horace McFarland Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series:

1) Garden images (including mounted photographs, glass plate negatives, and glass lantern slides)

2) Portraits of Rosarians

3) Color Records

4) Plant Patents

5) Miscellaneous Publications
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. J. Horace McFarland (1859-1948) was an influential civic leader, author, publisher, horticulturist, and authority on roses. His printing company, Mount Pleasant Press (later the J. Horace McFarland Company), was based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It published many of the seed and nursery trade catalogs in the United States during the first half of the twentieth century and was one of the first to apply color processes to commercial print applications. J. Horace McFarland Company staffers photographed thousands of different gardens and plant specimens throughout the United States. These images were used to illustrate numerous nursery and seed catalogs, journals and books. Among its many services, the firm sold various themed lectures illustrated by sets of hand-colored glass lantern slides.

McFarland wrote over 200 articles in popular journals as well as a dozen books on roses and gardening. He served as the first president of the American Civic Association from 1904-1924 and led several local and national campaigns to protect communities and scenic areas from urban blight and overdevelopment including the city of Harrisburg and Niagara Falls. McFarland, who served as the president of the American Rose Society (1930-1932) and helped establish a standardized rose identification and registration method, used the gardens on his own 2.5 acre property in Harrisburg, "Breeze Hill," to test hundreds of varieties of roses and plant cultivars. "Breeze Hill" was used as the backdrop for many photographs taken by McFarland's firm.
Related Materials:
The Pennsylvania State Archives in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania includes the J. Horace McFarland Company Records (Manuscript Group 453) and the J. Horace McFarland Papers (Manuscript Group 85).

The Historical Society of Dauphin County in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania includes the J. Horace McFarland Collection (MG 229).
Separated Materials note:
The Smithsonian Institution's Botany and Horticulture Library includes seed and nursery trade catalogs, books, and published materials from the J. Horace McFarland Company.

The United States Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland has various photographic images, nursery catalogs, publications and miscellaneous records from the J. Horace McFarland Company in its J. Horace McFarland Collection.
Provenance:
Donated in 1992 by James W. Walsh, who purchased the J. Horace McFarland Company from its founder's heirs. (The business was later renamed the Roebuck Printing Company.)
Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Printers -- United States  Search this
Horticulturists  Search this
Printers -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Gardening -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Seeds -- Catalogs  Search this
Seed industry and trade -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Seed industry and trade -- Catalogs  Search this
Rose breeders -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb69dd45f0c-ce66-4097-bc0f-68f5be9a5b11
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-mcf
Online Media:

Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI

Former owner:
James, Harriet Eddy [Hetty], 1868-1941  Search this
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
Gardener:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Rosarian:
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Contractor:
Peckham Brothers  Search this
Hempstead of Boston  Search this
Lantern slide maker:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of New Haven  Search this
Creator:
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Beacon Hill (Newport, Rhode Island)
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes correspondence, articles and information sheet compiled by GCA representative.
Biographical / Historical:
After Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James's deaths, the gardens, with their pergolas, pools, and walls, fell into disrepair, ravaged by time and invasive trees and shrubs. The estate was subdivided into 3.25-acre parcels in the 1970s, and sold by developers as single home sites—with the remnants of the Blue Garden on one of the sites. Through the generosity of Dorrance H. Hamilton, a Newport summer resident, philanthropist, and garden enthusiast, the Blue Garden was rescued from its demise and rebuilt in 2014. A team, led by Parker Construction, Reed Hilderbrand Landscape Architects, and Arleyn A. Levee, Olmsted Historian, restored the garden to its former glory, using as reference original Olmsted plans, drawings, photographs, and correspondence from the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, the Library of Congress, the Archives of American Gardens, and the Redwood Library, among other repositories. As the name suggests, the Blue Garden incorporates a palette of blues early in the season and transitions to lavender blues and purples, with touches of white, as the summer progresses. Over 250 evergreen trees and flowering shrubs enclose the garden, and contribute to its designation as an arboretum. The Blue Garden is known today as a classic example of American landscape art and a triumph of historic preservation. The garden is open for tours on Thursdays from mid-June through early October. Photographs of the restoration and information are available at thebluegarden.org.
General:
"There is an austere elegance about a green garden; pink or yellow or red are frivolous except as accents, but the garden that appeals to the romantic, universal soul is the blue garden. That is why the Blue Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James was the ultimate goal of so many Newport Pilgrims. A very stately garden it is with the iridescent quality which blue flowers that really are mauve and purple and grayish, rather than true, sharp blue, impart. Its irregular symmetry makes it difficult to describe without a ground plan. At the two far distant ends are colonnades with gray rocks and irregular green plantations beyond, and the lower end is a circle of matchless turf whose boundary is rock and shrubs. The upper part is a circle, too, formed by a rustic lattice of slender split branches over which grow Clematis Jackmanii, mauve Sweet-peas and other charming creepers, backed by Cedars and Pines. In the center are two pools fed by water that trickles from beneath the colonnade."
"A thousand foot rose garden was blasted out of granite rock. A long grass allee originated by the reflecting pool, was planted with 5,000 roses of many varieties. The allee ascended several levels of stone walls and steps and climaxed under a high granite cliff, where a splendid stone and ironwork balustrade and imposing pergola were located. Mr. James died in 1942, all the roses were dug and sold and nature moved in to sow her seeds."
Persons associated with the property include: Arthur Curtiss James (former owner, 1909-1940); Olmsted Brothers (landscape architects); John Greatorex (superintendent of grounds and landscape gardener); Harriet R. Foote (garden designer and rosarian); Peckham Brothers (contractors for rose garden); Hempstead of Boston (landscape contractors/superintendent); Edward Van Altena (lantern slide maker).
Related Materials:
Beacon Hill, RI related holdings consist of 3 folders (5 hand colored glass lantern slides; 35 35mm slides (photographs); 5 8X10 glass plate negatives)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 03558, Arthur Curtiss James.
See others in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966. Perry Wheeler Collection, ca. 1880-1984. Richard Marchand historical postcard collection
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Rhode Island -- Newport  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File RI035
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6c8ae0a2a-d3c7-4b67-9873-badab4bb3b2d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10568

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection

Topic:
Landscape architecture
Creator:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Sears & Wendell  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
American Society of Landscape Architects  Search this
Donor:
Tibbetts, Eleanor Sears  Search this
Extent:
44.5 Cubic feet (4,317 glass negatives. 363 film negatives. 182 glass lantern slides. 12 photograph albums. 56 plans and drawings. 3 monographs. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Blueprints
Albums
Plans (drawings)
Lantern slides
Date:
1899-1964
Summary:
The Thomas Warren Sears Photograph Collection documents examples of the design work of Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1966), a landscape architect and amateur photographer from Brookline, Massachusetts. Sears, who was based for most of his career in Philadelphia, designed a variety of different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments located primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. In addition to some of Sears' design work, images in the collection document Sears' domestic and foreign travels, design inspirations, and family. The collection includes over 4,800 black and white negatives and glass lantern slides dated circa 1899 to 1930. While most images show private and public gardens, there are a significant number of unidentified views and views photographed in Europe during two trips he took there in 1906 and 1908. Few images are captioned or dated. In addition, there are over 50 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and 3 monographs by or about Sears.
Scope and Contents note:
The Thomas Warren Sears Photograph Collection documents examples of the design work of Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1966), a landscape architect and amateur photographer from Brookline, Massachusetts. Sears, who was based for most of his career in Philadelphia, designed a variety of different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments located primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. In addition to some of Sears' design work, images in the collection document Sears' domestic and foreign travels, design inspirations, and family. The collection includes over 4,800 black and white negatives and glass lantern slides dated circa 1899 to 1930. While most images show private and public gardens, there are a significant number of unidentified views and views photographed in Europe during two trips he took there in 1906 and 1908. Few images are captioned or dated. In addition, there are over 50 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and monographs by or about Sears. Several of the glass lantern slides are duplicates of glass plate negatives in the collection. They apparently were chosen by Sears to illustrate some of his best design work, perhaps for lecture or client purposes.

In addition, there are 56 plans and drawings, most notably for Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland and Reynolda in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. They range in date from 1917 to 1937 and from 1955 to 1964. Sears photographed some of his early plans; they are included in with the photographic images. Sears also photographed a handful of design plans by landscape architect Sibley Coslett Smith who practiced in Providence, Rhode Island; Sears and Smith shared the same business address there.

The Thomas Warren Sears Collection does not fully document the extent of Sears' design work. The use of glass plate negatives—which make up the bulk of the Thomas Warren Sears Collection—as a photography medium waned sometime during the first quarter of the twentieth century. As a result, the images in the Sears Collection capture examples of Sears' early to mid-career design work but they do not include jobs designed by Sears during the latter half of his design career.
Arrangement note:
The glass plate negatives were originally housed in numerous cardboard boxes manufactured for the sale of undeveloped glass plate negatives. Sears annotated the outside of the boxes with project or client names and/or locations, but the contents do not always match these labels. In addition, because very few of the glass plate negatives and lantern slides were labeled or captioned, it is not always evident where one job ended and another began if multiple projects were stored in the same carton. As a result, there are many instances in the Sears Collection where images have been inadvertently mislabeled because their identification is not apparent. Misidentified images are subject to correction as their proper identification is discovered. Each project has been assigned its own unique AAG job number based on its geographic origin. Those groups of images that have not been identified as to their location have been assigned a project number starting with 'SRS.' The collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Photographic images (including glass plate negatives, film negatives, glass lantern slides, and photograph albums) 2) Plans and Drawings 3) Monographs
Biographical/Historical note:
Thomas Warren Sears was born in 1880 in Brookline, Massachusetts. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Harvard University in 1903 and Bachelor of Science degree in landscape architecture from the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard in 1906. Sears was an amateur photographer who won awards for his photography while at Harvard. In 1915 his images were published in the monograph, Parish Churches of England. After graduation he worked for the firm of Olmsted Brothers Landscape Architects for two years and then briefly practiced in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1913, Sears established a landscape design office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he spent the remainder of his professional career. Sears at one point was in a professional partnership; some of his design plans list the firm name of Sears and Wendell. He was made a Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 1921.

Sears designed many different types of landscapes ranging from private residences, schools, and playgrounds to parks, cemeteries, and urban housing developments. His designs were primarily located in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York. Just a few of his private landscapes include Marengo in Easton, Maryland; Sunnybrook, the Isaac H. Clothier, Jr. estate in Radnor, Pennsylvania; and Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland. In 1915, Sears started work on Reynolda, a country estate in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He generated design plans for the property intermittently over the next two decades. Reynolda's formal gardens, greenhouses, and acres of fields and woodlands subsequently became part of Wake Forest University.

During World War I, Sears designed Army camps in Battle Creek, Michigan and Spartanburg, South Carolina. He also helped lay out Langley Field, at that time an experimental aviation field in Hampton Roads, Virginia. In the 1940s, Sears designed the amphitheater at Swarthmore College in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania for concerts, outdoor performances, and other special events. During that decade he also worked on Colonial Revival gardens at Pennsbury, William Penn's country estate in Bucks County, Pennsylvania located by the Delaware River. Sears retired in 1964 and died in 1966.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Philadelphia Architects and Buildings Project (PAB), administered by The Athenaeum of Philadelphia, includes references to design projects by Sears.

Harvard University's Loeb Library includes a number of images by Sears, some of them documenting gardens that he designed.

Harvard University's Fine Arts Library, Special Collections includes a collection of photographs and negatives of English parish churches by Sears, c. 1908. Some of the images were published in the monograph, Parish Churches of England.

The Reynolda House Museum of American Art in Winston-Salem, North Carolina includes plans by Sears of Reynolda in its Estate Archives.
Provenance:
Gift of Eleanor Sears Tibbetts, Sears' daughter, to the Horticulture Services Division (later Smithsonian Gardens) in 1992.
Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Photographers  Search this
Landscape architects  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Switzerland  Search this
Gardens -- Scotland  Search this
Gardens -- Italy  Search this
Gardens -- Germany  Search this
Gardens -- France  Search this
Gardens -- England  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Blueprints
Albums
Plans (drawings)
Lantern slides
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection.
Identifier:
AAG.SRS
See more items in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb68e184341-59d2-4612-8886-4cc747c92bfe
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-srs
Online Media:

Newport -- Beacon Hill (RI)

Creator:
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
James, Harriet Eddy [Hetty], 1868-1941  Search this
Garden Club of New Haven  Search this
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs  Search this
Gardener:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Rosarian:
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Contractor:
Peckham Brothers  Search this
Hempstead of Boston  Search this
Lantern slide maker:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Sears & Wendell  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
American Society of Landscape Architects  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Beacon Hill (Newport, Rhode Island)
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes correspondence, articles and information sheet compiled by GCA representative.
General:
"There is an austere elegance about a green garden; pink or yellow or red are frivolous except as accents, but the garden that appeals to the romantic, universal soul is the blue garden. That is why the Blue Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James was the ultimate goal of so many Newport Pilgrims. A very stately garden it is with the iridescent quality which blue flowers that really are mauve and purple and grayish, rather than true, sharp blue, impart. Its irregular symmetry makes it difficult to describe without a ground plan. At the two far distant ends are colonnades with gray rocks and irregular green plantations beyond, and the lower end is a circle of matchless turf whose boundary is rock and shrubs. The upper part is a circle, too, formed by a rustic lattice of slender split branches over which grow Clematis Jackmanii, mauve Sweet-peas and other charming creepers, backed by Cedars and Pines. In the center are two pools fed by water that trickles from beneath the colonnade."
"A thousand foot rose garden was blasted out of granite rock. A long grass allee originated by the reflecting pool, was planted with 5,000 roses of many varieties. The allee ascended several levels of stone walls and steps and climaxed under a high granite cliff, where a splendid stone and ironwork balustrade and imposing pergola were located. Mr. James died in 1942, all the roses were dug and sold and nature moved in to sow her seeds."
"The Beacon Hill house was left unoccupied and in 1967 finally succumbed to vandalism and fire." The gardens have been restored by subsequent owners.
Persons associated with the property include: Arthur Curtiss James (former owner, 1909-1940); Olmsted Brothers (landscape architects); John Greatorex (superintendent of grounds and landscape gardener); Harriet R. Foote (garden designer and rosarian); Peckham Brothers (contractors for rose garden); Hempstead of Boston (landscape contractors/superintendent); Edward Van Altena (lantern slide maker).
Related Materials:
Beacon Hill, RI related holdings consist of 3 folders (5 hand colored glass lantern slides; 35 35mm slides (photographs); 5 8X10 glass plate negatives)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 03558, Arthur Curtiss James.
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].

Perry Wheeler Collection, ca. 1880-1984.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Rhode Island -- Newport  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection.
Identifier:
AAG.SRS, File RI035
See more items in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection / Series 1: Photographic Images / United States / Rhode Island
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb60f476842-f41d-43d3-bbda-0c3291365863
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-srs-ref4242

Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI

Former owner:
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
James, Harriet Eddy [Hetty], 1868-1941  Search this
Gardener:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Rosarian:
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Contractor:
Peckham Brothers  Search this
Hempstead of Boston  Search this
Lantern slide maker:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Landscape architect:
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of New Haven  Search this
Creator:
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs  Search this
Collection Landscape architect:
Wheeler, Perry H., 1914-1989  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Stengle, James M., Dr.  Search this
Collection Creator:
University of Georgia  Search this
Garden Club of America  Search this
Emory University  Search this
American Society of Landscape Architects  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Beacon Hill (Newport, Rhode Island)
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes correspondence, articles and information sheet compiled by GCA representative.
General:
"There is an austere elegance about a green garden; pink or yellow or red are frivolous except as accents, but the garden that appeals to the romantic, universal soul is the blue garden. That is why the Blue Garden of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James was the ultimate goal of so many Newport Pilgrims. A very stately garden it is with the iridescent quality which blue flowers that really are mauve and purple and grayish, rather than true, sharp blue, impart. Its irregular symmetry makes it difficult to describe without a ground plan. At the two far distant ends are colonnades with gray rocks and irregular green plantations beyond, and the lower end is a circle of matchless turf whose boundary is rock and shrubs. The upper part is a circle, too, formed by a rustic lattice of slender split branches over which grow Clematis Jackmanii, mauve Sweet-peas and other charming creepers, backed by Cedars and Pines. In the center are two pools fed by water that trickles from beneath the colonnade."

"A thousand foot rose garden was blasted out of granite rock. A long grass allee originated by the reflecting pool, was planted with 5,000 roses of many varieties. The allee ascended several levels of stone walls and steps and climaxed under a high granite cliff, where a splendid stone and ironwork balustrade and imposing pergola were located. Mr. James died in 1942, all the roses were dug and sold and nature moved in to sow her seeds."

"The Beacon Hill house was left unoccupied and in 1967 finally succumbed to vandalism and fire." The gardens have been restored by subsequent owners.
Persons associated with the property include: Arthur Curtiss James (former owner, 1909-1940); Olmsted Brothers (landscape architects); John Greatorex (superintendent of grounds and landscape gardener); Harriet R. Foote (garden designer and rosarian); Peckham Brothers (contractors for rose garden); Hempstead of Boston (landscape contractors/superintendent); Edward Van Altena (lantern slide maker).
Related Materials:
Beacon Hill, RI related holdings consist of 3 folders (5 hand colored glass lantern slides; 35 35mm slides (photographs); 5 8X10 glass plate negatives)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 03558, Arthur Curtiss James.
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Rhode Island -- Newport  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Perry H. Wheeler collection.
Identifier:
AAG.WHE, File RI035
See more items in:
Perry H. Wheeler collection
Perry H. Wheeler collection / Personal Papers / Photographs / Travels / Rhode Island
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb618644090-5a54-44a5-b3f2-f4ec23fb5c13
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-whe-ref1042

Ellen Shipman Garden Photography Collection

Landscape architect:
Shipman, Ellen Biddle, 1869-1950  Search this
Extent:
.48 Cubic feet (3 boxes, film negatives, glass plate negatives, glass lantern slides, and autochromes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1903-1950
Content Description:
The Ellen Shipman Garden Photography Collection consists of (350) film and glass plate negatives, glass lantern slides, and autochromes that document over fifty gardens designed by landscape architect Ellen Shipman. The negatives copy photographs and plans from Shipman's office and are not the original 'masters.'
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged geographically by state, according to the location of the garden.
Biographical / Historical:
Ellen (Biddle) Shipman (1869-1950) was a pioneering landscape architect who designed hundreds of gardens throughout the United States from the late 1910s thoughout the 1940s. She was mentored by architect and landscape architect Charles A Platt and gained professional experience in his office. Shipman made a point of hiring women to work in her Manhattan office. Most of her commissions were for private clients, though she did design several public spaces including school campuses, library grounds, and memorials.
General:
About half of the negatives were originally housed in paper sleeves, most of which were labelled with the client name. The rest were in unlabelled boxes and account for most of the unidentified gardens in the collection. The lantern slides were housed in a slotted box with the title 'Harvard University' written on the inside of the cover. None of the photographic images were captioned or dated; the garden plans specify the client and location.
Related Materials:
Cornell University Library's Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections includes the Ellen McGowan Biddle Shipman papers, 1914-1946, Collection Number 1259.
Provenance:
Taylor Belcher, III and Anthony W. Belcher donated the collection to the Archives of American Gardens in 2021.
Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Ellen Shipman garden photography collection.
Identifier:
AAG.SHP
See more items in:
Ellen Shipman Garden Photography Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb60d1a7f1c-01f7-4ea5-b9b3-8ea2cf0bd775
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-shp
Online Media:

June and Farrar Burn photographs from Alaska

Creator:
Burn, Farrar, 1888-1974  Search this
Burn, June, 1893-1969  Search this
Extent:
12 Glass plate negatives
13 Copy negatives
Culture:
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik) [St. Lawrence Island]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Copy negatives
Photographs
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1920-1921
Summary:
This collection includes negatives from June and Farrar Burn's time in Gambell, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska between 1920 and 1921. The Burns were granted teaching appointments from the Bureau of Education in the Alaska School Service and assigned to Gambell where they lived for a year, working closely with the Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik) community there.
Content Description:
This collection consists of 12 glass plate negatives and 13 copy negatives that depict June and Farrar Burns' year long teaching appointments in Gambell, St. Lawrence Island with the Alasksa School Service between 1920 and 1921. This primarily includes photographs of the Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik) community with whom they were living and working. The majority of the photographs were shot outdoors of men, women and children outside of their homes, with their sled dogs, and hunting. There are also several images of June Burn teaching her young students as well as group portraits of the children in her class. The glass plate negatives appear to be copies made sometime between 1921 and 1923 of originals that were likely nitrate negatives shot by Farrar Burn.
Biographical / Historical:
June Burn was born Inez Chandler Harris on June 19, 1893, in Anniston, Alabama. June met Farrar Burn (born September 22, 1888), a World War I veteran, while living in a cabin near Washington, D.C., and the two were wed in 1919. The couple began homesteading on the San Juan Islands in the Puget Sound before being granted teaching appointments from the Bureau of Education in the Alaska School Service and assigned to Gambell, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska in June, 1920. For a year they lived and worked closely with the Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik) population there. When June became pregnant with their first son North they returned to the San Juans.

The Burns continued to travel extensively with June writing for various periodicals and eventually publishing her own autobiography "Living High: An Unconventional Autobiography" in 1941. Later in their lives Farrar traveled the country lecturing on and June taught for a short while at the University of Washington. In 1967, June and Farrar moved to a small farm near Fort Smith, Arkansas – Farrar's home town. June died there in 1969, followed by Farrar in 1975.
Related Materials:
The June and Farrar Burn Papers, 1921-1969, can be found at Western Washington University, Center for Pacific Northwest Studies.
Separated Materials:
The Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation purchased 71 Alaskan ethnographic items from Farrar Burn which are now in NMAI Ethnology collection with catalog numbers 11/6726 - 11/6795.
Provenance:
Purchased by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, along with 71 ehtnographic items, from Farrar Burn in 1923.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Alaska  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); June and Farrar Burn photographs from Alaska, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.131
See more items in:
June and Farrar Burn photographs from Alaska
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv40d417a7b-e26f-4073-a021-cbb3a2d19fea
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-131
Online Media:

Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection

Creator:
Missionary Catechists of Divine Providence.  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Civil Engineering Department  Search this
Underwood and Underwood  Search this
Compiler:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
44 Cubic feet (132 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Drawings
Lantern slides
Photographs
Sketches
Date:
1588-1945, undated
Summary:
A collection primarily of 19th and early 20th century lantern slides relating mostly to engineering, agriculture, railroads, mining, and extractive industries collected by the Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Scope and Contents:
A collection of 19th and early 20th century silver gelatin dry plate lantern slides acquired by the staff of the Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. These materials were collected for research purposes and relate to various subjects.

Condition of the material varies widely with some fragile or broken slides. Poor quality images also exist probably due to either the processing of the slides or unstable storage environments. All slides have been digitized and moved to off-site storage to minimize handling and at the same time increase accessibility.

The collection is arranged in nine series: series 1, engineering; series 2, extractive industries; series 3, chemical; series 4, manufacturing companies; series 5, machinery; series 6, railroads; series 7, agriculture; series 8, travel photography; and 9, miscellaneous materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged in nine series.

Series 1: Engineering, undated

Subseries 1.1: Architecture and Structures, undated

Subseries 1.2: Bridges, Cantilever, undated

Subseries 1.3: Bridges, Concrete Arch and Beam, undated

Subseries 1.4: Bridges, Masonry Aqueducts, undated

Subseries 1.5: Bridges, Metal Arc, undated

Subseries 1.6: Bridges, Metal Truss, undated

Subseries 1.7: Bridges, Movable, undated

Subseries 1.8: Bridges, Suspension, undated

Subseries 1.9: Canals, undated

Subseries 1.10: Hydraulic Engineering, undated

Subseries 1.11: Machine Tools, undated

Subseries 1.12: Materials Handling, undated

Subseries 1.13: Power, undated

Subseries 1.14: Railroad Mileage Maps, undated

Subseries 1.15: Steam Boilers, undated

Subseries 1.16: Steam Turbines, undated

Subseries 1.17: Tunneling Machine Tools, undated

Series 2: Extractive Industries, undated

Subseries 2.1: Coal, undated

Subseries 2.1.1: Coke, undated

Subseries 2.1.2: Diagrams and Maps, undated

Subseries 2.1.3: General, undated

Subseries 2.1.4: General, undated

Subseries 2.1.5: Infrastructure and Laborers, undated

Subseries 2.1.6: Internation, undated

Subseries 2.1.7: International Product and Labor Statistics, undated

Subseries 2.1.8: Jack Leg Drilling, undated

Subseries 2.1.9: Lansford Breaker Fire Coal Facilities, undated

Subseries 2.1.10: Loading Machinery, undated

Subseries 2.1.11: Longhole Drilling Method, undated

Subseries 2.1.12: Machinery, undated

Subseries 2.1.13: Mines, undated

Subseries 2.1.14: Mining Communities, undated

Subseries 2.1.15: Subsidence, undated

Subseries 2.1.16: Forepoling Warden Mine, undated

Subseries 2.1.17: Montour Number 10 Mine, undated

Subseries 2.1.18: Conveyors, undated

Subseries 2.1.19: Coal Land Valuation, undated

Subseries 2.2: Iron, undated

Subseries 2.2.1: General, undated

Subseries 2.2.2: Pig Iron, undated

Subseries 2.3: Gemstones, undated

Subseries 2.3.1: Gemstones, undated

Subseries 2.4: Mining, undated

Subseries 2.4.1: Diagrams, undated

Subseries 2.4.2: Hydraulic, undated

Subseries 2.4.3: General, undated

Subseries 2.4.4: Ores and Mines, undated

Subseries 2.4.5: Processing Equipment and Infrastructure, undated

Subseries 2.4.6: Shafts, Drilling, and Loading, undated

Subseries 2.4.7: United States Bureau of Mines, undated

Subseries 2.4.8: L. E. Young, Box C, undated

Subseries 2.4.9: L. E. Young, Box D, undated

Subseries 2.4.10: L. E. Young, Box E, undated

Subseries 2.4.11: L. E. Young, Box F, undated

Subseries 2.4.12: L. E. Young, Box G, undated

Subseries 2.4.13: L. E. Young, Box I, undated

Subseries 2.5: Oil, undated

Subseries 2.5.1: Oil, undated

Subseries 2.6: Rubber, undated

Subseries 2.6.1: Coke Rubber Rails, undated

Subseries 2.6.2: General, undated

Subseries 2.6.3: General, undated

Subseries 2.6.4: General, undated

Subseries 2.7: Steel, undated

Subseries 2.7.1: Newcastle Steel Work, undated

Subseries 2.7.2: General, undated

Subseries 2.8: Timber, undated

Subseries 2.8.1: General, undated

Subseries 2.8.2: Lifts, undated

Series 3: Chemical Processing, undated

Subseries 3.1: Chemical Processes, undated

Subseries 3.2: Laboratory and Studies, undated

Subseries 3.3: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 37A: 1-48, undated

Subseries 3.4: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 47: 1-68, undated

Subseries 3.5: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 52: 1-20, undated

Subseries 3.6: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, undated

Subseries 3.7: Radiation Studies, undated

Subseries 3.8: Visual Aids in Chemical Education, The Museum, undated

Series 4: Manufacturing Companies, undated

Subseries 4.1: American Bosch Company, Fuel Injection Equipment, undated

Subseries 4.2: American Locomotive Company, undated

Subseries 4.3: American Locomotive Company, undated

Subseries 4.4: Atlas-Imperial Diesel Engine Company, undated

Subseries 4.5: Baldwin Locomotive Works, undated

Subseries 4.6: Buda Engine Company, undated

Subseries 4.7: Buda Engine Company, Marine, undated

Subseries 4.8: Cooper-Bessenger Corporation, undated

Subseries 4.9: Cooper-Bessenger Corporation, undated

Subseries 4.10: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel General Set, undated

Subseries 4.11: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.12: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.13: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.14: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.15: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel General Set, undated

Subseries 4.16: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.17: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.18: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.19: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.20: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.21: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.22: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.23: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.24: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.25: General Motors Company Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 4.26: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.27: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.28: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.29: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.30: Ingersoll Rand Incorporated, undated

Subseries 4.31: International Harvester Fuel Singler Plunger, undated

Subseries 4.32: Long and Alstatler Company, undated

Subseries 4.33: Miscelleaneous Manufacturing Companies, undated

Subseries 4.34: Nordberg Marine Diesel, undated

Series 5: Machinery, undated

Subseries 5.1: Blast Furnances, undated

Subseries 5.2: Construction, undated

Subseries 5.3: Construction - Brick, undated

Subseries 5.4: Construction - Cement, undated

Subseries 5.5: Diagram Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 5.6: Diesel Engines, undated

Subseries 5.7: Diesel Engines, General, undated

Subseries 5.8: Diesel Engines, Superior Types KNB, undated

Subseries 5.9: Diesel Installation USS Maumee, undated

Subseries 5.10: Drills, Jumbos, undated

Subseries 5.11: Engine Model D, undated

Subseries 5.12: Factories and Warehouses, undated

Subseries 5.13: Factory Machines, undated

Subseries 5.14: Flywheel Governors, undated

Subseries 5.15: Furnances General, undated

Subseries 5.16: Gas, undated

Subseries 5.17: General Engines, undated

Subseries 5.18: Governors, undated

Subseries 5.19: History of Pumps, undated

Subseries 5.20: Hoisers, undated

Subseries 5.21: Industrial Furnances, undated

Subseries 5.22: Industrial Scenes, undated

Subseries 5.23: Machines Diagrams and Sketches, undated

Subseries 5.24: Machinery Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 5.25: Refrigeration, undated

Subseries 5.26: Safety, undated

Subseries 5.27: Steam Engines General Information, undated

Subseries 5.28: Vacuum, undated

Series 6: Railroads and Locomotions, undated

Subseries 6.1: Charts and Graphs, undated

Subseries 6.2: Company Photographs, undated

Subseries 6.3: Drawings, undated

Subseries 6.4: Toppling Over, undated

Subseries 6.5: Interior of Train Cars, undated

Subseries 6.6: Locomotion, undated

Subseries 6.7: Locomotion Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 6.8: Repair Report Forms, undated

Subseries 6.9: Shop Scenes, undated

Subseries 6.10: Track Debris, undated

Subseries 6.11: Train Car Component Details, undated

Subseries 6.12: Train Yards, undated

Subseries 6.13: Underside of Locomotives, undated

Subseries 6.14: Yard Scenes, undated

Series 7: Agriculture, undated

Subseries 7.1: Bananas, undated

Subseries 7.2: Butter, undated

Subseries 7.3: Coffee, undated

Subseries 7.4: Corn, undated

Subseries 7.5: Cotton, undated

Subseries 7.6: Machinery, undated

Subseries 7.7: Onions, undated

Subseries 7.8: Potatoes, undated

Subseries 7.9: Poultry, undated

Subseries 7.10: Sugar, undated

Subseries 7.11: Tea, undated

Subseries 7.12: Tobacco, undated

Subseries 7.13: Turpentine, undated

Series 8: Travel Photography, undated

Subseries 8.1: California, undated

Subseries 8.2: Canada, undated

Subseries 8.3: Colorado, undated

Subseries 8.4: General Landscapes, undated

Subseries 8.5: General Locations, undated

Subseries 8.6: Landscapes and Locations General, 186-2-36, undated

Subseries 8.7: Landscapes and Locations General, 187-18-48, undated

Subseries 8.8: New York, undated

Subseries 8.9: United States National Parks, undated

Subseries 8.10: Washington, DC, undated

Series 9: Miscellaneous Materials, undated

Subseries 9.1: Duplicates of Navy Slides, undated

Subseries 9.2: Miscelleaneous

Subseries 9.3: Reliefs, Cravings, and Architecture, undated

Subseries 9.4: Wood Products, undated
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

For related material on Canals, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Canals, NMAH.AC.0060

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0143

Roland A. McCrady Photograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0710

Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs, NMAH.AC.0945

Niagara Falls Power Company Records, NMAH.AC.0949

Modjeski and Masters Company Records, NMAH.AC.0976

George Morison Collection, NMAH.AC.0978

Uriah A. Boyden Papers, NMAH.AC.0982

James Forgie Papers, NMAH.AC.0986

William R. Hutton Papers, NMAH.AC.0987

Snake River Irrigation Project Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1031

Silas H. Woodard Papers, NMAH.AC.1038

Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad Records, NMAH.AC.1074

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

New York State Barge Canal Photographs, NMAH.AC.1536

Lackawaxen Canal Survey Profiles, NMAH.AC.1546

Nicaragua Canal Collection, NMAH.AC.1550

For related material on Cantilever Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0143

Nathan W. Morgan Papers, NMAH.AC.0965

George Morison Collection, NMAH.AC.0978

John A. Roebling Collection, NMAH.AC.0981

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577

For related material on Concrete Arch and Beam Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

For related material on Corliss Steam Engine Company, see the following collections:

Frick Company Collection, NMAH.AC.0293

Cooper-Bessemer Corporation Records, NMAH.AC.0961

Robert Wetherill Company Records, NMAH.AC.0992

Evolution of the Corliss Steam Engine Scrapbook, NMAH.AC1016

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAh.AC.1089

For related material on Hydraulic Engineering, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering, NMAH.AC0060

Charles Richardson Pratt Papers, NMAH.AC.0958

Rudolph Hering Collection, NMAH.AC.0989

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC.1089

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

For related material on Machine Tools, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tools, NMAH.AC.0060

Pratt & Whitney Company Scrapbook, NMAH.AC.0093

Max Holland Numerical Control Collection, NMAH.AC.0537

Southwark Foundry and Machine Company Records, NMAH.AC.1107

For related material on Materials Handling, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Materials Handling, NMAH.AC.0060

James J. Childs Numerical Control Collection, NMAH.AC.0420

World War Two Bomb Damage Photographs, NMAH.AC.1535

Norton Grinding Machine Company Photograph Collection, NMAH.AC.1551

Paul Steam-Heating System Company Records, NMAH.AC.1554

For related material on Metal Arch Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.A.C0060

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

For related material on Movable Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

Henry Grattan Tyrrell and Mary Maude Knox Tyrrell Papers, NMAH.AC.0948

Nathan W. Morgan Papers, NMAH.AC.0965

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577

For related material on Panama Canal, see the following collections:

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook, NMAH.AC.0708

A.R. Van Tassell Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1015

W. A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1021

W. P. Stine Panama Canal Papers, NMAH.AC.1039

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1040

Richard Fisher Collection of Panama Canal Materials, NMAH.AC.1045

Robert Dearborn Panama Canal Glass Negatives, NMAH.AC.1111

Charles Edwards Wood Panama Canal Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1114

Panama Canal Commission Photonegatives, 1903-circa 1939, NMAH.AC.1116

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Panama Canal Collection, NMAH.AC.1569

For related material on railroads, see the following collections:

Archives Center Lantern Slide Collection, NMAH.AC.0686

Railroad Bridge Construction Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1024

Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge Construction Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1031

Penn Station, New York, Photographs, NMAH.AC.1048

Northern Pacific Railway Photographs, NMAH.AC.1067

New York Central Railway Valuation Negatives, NMAH.AC.1072

Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad Photographs (PCC and St. Louis), NMAH.AC.1079

Niagara Railroad Negatives, NMAH.AC.1081

Charles B. Chaney Jr. Railroad Photographic Collection, NMAH.AC.1167

Clayton M. Hall Collection of Railroad Photographs, NMAH.AC.1168

Harry A. McBride Railroad Photographs, NMAH.AC.1171

Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection, NMAH.AC.1174

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs, NMAH.AC.1175

Haskell and Barker Car Company Photographic Negatives, NMAH.AC.1183

For related material on Steam Boilers, see the following collections:

Frick Company Collection, NMAH.AC.293

Erasmus D. Leavitt Collection, NMAH.AC.0966

Edwin Rust Papers, NMAH.AC.1070

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Records, NMAH.AC.1541

For related material on steam engines, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engines, NMAH.AC.0060

Frick Company Collection, NMAH.AC.0293

Borsig Steam Engine Records, NMAH.AC.0956

Cooper-Bessemer Corporation Records, NMAH.AC0961

Greville I. Bathe Papers, NMAH.AC.0970

McIntosh, Seymour, and Company Records, NMAH.AC0985

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC1089

For related material on Steam Turbines, see the following collections:

Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, NMAH.AC.0001

Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company Records, NMAH.AC.0977

Skinner Engine Company Records, NMAH.AC.1087

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC.1089

For related material on Suspension Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0143

Nathan W. Morgan Papers, NMAH.AC.0965

Modjeski and Masters Company Records, NMAH.AC.0976

Niagara Falls Bridge Commission Records, NMAH.AC.1060

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC.1089

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

Robinson & Steinman Collection, NMAH.AC.1562

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
Agriculture -- Corn  Search this
Agricultural crops -- Fields  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Agricultural products  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Bananas -- Costa Rica  Search this
Bananas -- Jamaica  Search this
Bearings (Machinery)  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Butter  Search this
Butter -- New York  Search this
Canals  Search this
Children -- 20th century  Search this
Coal mines and mining  Search this
Coffee  Search this
Coffee industry -- Brazil  Search this
Coffee -- Jamaica  Search this
Coffee -- Mexico  Search this
Cotton  Search this
Cotton farming  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Laborers  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Maple sugar  Search this
Materials handling  Search this
Mine shafts  Search this
Mining engineering  Search this
Oil  Search this
Oil industries  Search this
Onions  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Potatoes  Search this
Power  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Rubber -- Ceylon  Search this
Rubber -- Congo  Search this
Rubber plantations  Search this
Steam-boilers  Search this
Sugar  Search this
Tires  Search this
Tobacco  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Turpentine -- North Carolina  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Drawings -- 20th century
Lantern slides
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 19th century
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Sketches
Citation:
Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection, 1758-1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1013
See more items in:
Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep864c4320f-954c-462f-8434-2b79c0ed7159
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1013
Online Media:

Winston-Salem -- Reynolda Gardens

Owner:
Wake Forest University  Search this
Landscape architect:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Buckenham & Miller  Search this
Horticulturist:
Conrad, Robert  Search this
Architect:
Keen, Charles Barton  Search this
Former owner:
Reynolds, Katharine Smith, 1880-1924  Search this
Reynolds, R. J. (Richard Joshua), 1906-1964  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Reynolda Gardens (Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
United States of America -- North Carolina -- Forsyth -- Winston-Salem
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes photocopies of articles, images, transcript of a lecture and thesis by Sherold D. Hollingsworth, brochures, and other information.
General:
Reynolda was the county house estate of the founder of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Robert Joshua Reynolds, and his wife, Katharine Smith Reynolds, comprising nearly 1,100 acres that included a 38,000 square foot house built for them by architect Charles Barton Keen. Reynolda was primarily conceived by Katharine Reynolds to include a family home with gardens, a village within the estate that housed the twenty families that worked on the self-contained estate, a 350-acre dairy, grain and vegetable farm, a 19-acre golf course with grazing sheep, and woodlands with thousands of daffodils. Before the house and formal gardens were built, Lord and Burnham constructed commercial greenhouses and a large glass conservatory on the property in 1913. Mrs. Reynolds decided to site a four-acre formal garden next to the greenhouses, near the public road, for the benefit of passersby. The first garden designers on the estate were Miller and Buckenham, and then Thomas Sears was brought in to design the viewable greenhouse garden, as well as gardens at the house and boathouse. The boathouse was sited beside the 16-acre artificial Lake Katharine created by Miller and Buckenham's stone-faced dam. The lake has since partially filled with silt and become a wetlands habitat.
Thomas Sears' 1917 formal greenhouse garden was divided into two rectangles, an approximately two-acre formal rose and perennial garden, and next to it another two-acre garden for fruit, flowers and vegetables. Grass panels that divided and surrounded the formal gardens were known as the sunken garden. The original rose garden was divided into four parterres, two planted with roses, one for blue and yellow flowers and the last for pink and white flowers. There were grass panels between the parterres with a double row of Japanese cedar trees on the horizontal axis. Rows of Japanese weeping cherry trees and southern magnolias were planted as a perimeter; later the trees shaded the rose garden to the extent that it had to be replanted when the garden was restored in 1997. Each axis of the two formal gardens ended in an attractive terminus, a feature of many of Sears' designs. These included pergolas and Japanese-styled teahouses for Katharine Reynolds, who wanted to include trees and features from Japanese gardens. Like the rose garden, the design of the fruit and vegetable garden was geometric with a central feature. At the time of its restoration, a large section of this garden was replanted with All-America selection roses, other flowers and herbs.
In the 1930's daughter Mary Reynolds Babcock and her stockbroker husband Charles Babcock bought her siblings' shares in the house and rehired Thomas Sears to redesign the gardens. Renovations to the house included moving the original central entrance to the side of the house, and new gardens were needed in front. A tulip and chrysanthemum garden was designed, with pink, white, blue and purple tulips and forget-me-nots complementing the colors of the new flagstone terrace. Summer flowers included heliotrope, plumbago, salvia, nicotiana, snapdragons and annual phlox, although heliotrope did not flourish in hot weather. Red, yellow, bronze, copper and terra cotta chrysanthemums were planted in autumn. Sears suggested poinsettias, camellias, chrysanthemums, gardenias and begonia semperflorens for a winter garden, but they were not winter hardy and were used for holiday decorations inside the house. Sears also designed a study garden in 1916, which comprises a patio with a recessed pool, stone benches and extensive plantings of rhododendrons and other flowering shrubs, a canopy of flowering magnolias, dogwood and crape myrtles, and an understory of ground covers, lilies, hosta, ferns and daffodils.
Reynolda is now the Reynolda House Museum of American Art. The gardens were donated to Wake Forest University in the 1960's by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation.
Persons associated with this property include R.J. (Robert Joshua) Reynolds (c. 1850-1918) and Katharine Smith Reynolds Johnston (1880-1924) (former owners, 1909-1924); Mary Reynolds Babcock and Charles Babcock (former owners, 1935-1953); Wake Forest College, later University (owner beginning in 1958); Louis L. Miller and Horatio R. Buckenham (landscape designers, 1911-1913); Thomas Warren Sears (1880-1965) (landscape architect 1915-1917, 1930s); Robert Conrad (horticulturalist, c. 1910-1960); Charles Barton Keen (architect, 1912-1917).
Related Materials:
Reynolda Gardens related holdings consist of 3 folders (61 glass plate negatives, and 4 35mm slides)
Additional materials also located in the Library and Estate Archives of the Reynolda House at Wake Forest University.
See others in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- North Carolina -- Winston-Salem  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NC010
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / North Carolina
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e4bf4980-d8bf-46e1-8136-9c42ce9d10c1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12988

Ardmore -- Sears Garden

Former owner:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Landscape architect:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Sears Garden (Ardmore, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Montgomery County -- Ardmore
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles.
General:
Thomas Warren Sears (b.1880-1966) was a landscape architect who said his own garden in Ardmore, Pennsylvania was his favorite, and the formal style of his garden became his trademark design for private residences. The garden center was a sunken rectangular lawn, surrounded by low stone walls, terraces and flagstone walkways that were planted with a mixture of shrubs, perennial flowers, and ground covers, and separated from the stone house by a screen of trees. A tall stone wall at the end of the garden had a fountain inset.
Thomas Sears' formal garden was planted with more than fifty varieties of French lilacs, peonies and irises.
Sears was among the first landscape architects with a formal education, receiving the BS degree from the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University in 1906. During his professional career as a landscape architect Sears worked primarily in Maryland, North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania. He designed private gardens in the style of his own: sunken rectangular lawns with perennial and shrub borders that surmounted low walls and steps. Among his prominent commissions were Reynolda, home of tobacco magnate R. J. Reynolds, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where the formal gardens Sears laid out in 1916 were later added to the campus of Wake Forest University; the amphitheater at Swarthmore College in 1942; Balmuckety in Pikesville, Maryland, placed on the Baltimore County Historic register in 1988; and the restoration of the Colonial Revival gardens at Pennsbury in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Sears was also known for his published photographs of gardens and natural settings in the US and other countries.
Persons associated with the garden include Thomas Warren Sears (former owner and landscape architect, ca.1930?-1960s) and Ella D. Finney (former owner, ca. 1930s?-1960s?).
Related Materials:
Sears Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (43 glass plate negatives and photographic prints)
See others in:
J. Horace McFarland Collection, 1900-1961

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Ardmore  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA088
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6df8ed8b0-3640-4dc9-bc81-1b92bc2e4c99
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16438

[Holly Beach Farm]: a view across the pergola to the gazebo at the end of the garden.

Photographer:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Pickering Studio  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white, 35 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Holly Beach Farm (Annapolis, Maryland)
United States of America -- Maryland -- Anne Arundel County -- Annapolis
Date:
1914.
General:
The slide was made in 1983 and was taken of an earlier image, probably a photographic print produced sometime between 1914 and 1925. Although Pickering Studio [Edgar H. Pickering of Annapolis] is indicated on the slide mount as the photographer, the image is identical to the original glass plate negative in the Archives of American Gardens' Thomas Warren Sears Collection (MD086011), taken in 1914. The Pickering Studio may have prepared a print from the Sears negative.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Maryland -- Annapolis  Search this
Vista  Search this
Allées  Search this
Walkways, grass  Search this
Garden borders  Search this
Shrubs  Search this
Pergolas  Search this
Gazebos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MD086002
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Maryland / MD086: Annapolis -- Holly Beach Farm
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb694b623df-c940-41da-91da-72dce8b7fb29
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref14283

Windy Gates

Owner:
Jenkins, Joseph  Search this
Photographer:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Landscape architect:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Creator:
Idlemont  Search this
Devon Hill  Search this
Nurseryman:
Lewis & Valentine  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black and white)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Maryland -- Baltimore
United States of America -- Maryland -- Baltimore
Date:
circa 1900-1929
General:
View of planting of herbaceous flower beds on triple terraces. Put in by Mrs. James Whaber of Edgewood (daughter). See AAG Image # MD057007 in Thomas Warren Sears Collection for the source of this image (glass plate negative) .
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Arbors  Search this
Parterres  Search this
Containers  Search this
Perennials  Search this
Garden borders  Search this
Benches  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MD057013
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Maryland / MD057: Baltimore -- Windy Gates
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6c51e3410-1c85-4a5d-8504-a7d4676c2b87
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref14520

Brookline -- Weld

Former owner:
Anderson, Larz, 1866-1937  Search this
Anderson, Isabel Weld Perkins  Search this
Weld, William F.  Search this
Architect:
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Wheelwright, Edmund M.  Search this
Fox & Gale  Search this
Little & Browne  Search this
Landscape architect:
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Fox & Gale  Search this
Little & Browne  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Weld (Brookline, Massachusetts)
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Norfolk County -- Brookline
Scope and Contents:
The folders include a work sheet and copies of articles.
General:
Larz and Isabel Anderson created fashionable and personally inspiring gardens on a property they named "Weld" in honor of her grandfather, William Fletcher Weld. The gardens served as inspiration for Isabel's writings of children's stories. They also evoked the history of Larz and Isabel's family heritage. During their ownership, the garden plan was nearly square, with a built-up enclosure of terrace and balustrades on the sides. A pergola stood at the end. The lowest level of the garden contained the mall and flower beds. A grove of trees shut off the formal garden from the house. Semicircular cement seats are located at each end of the 380 foot allee. Isabel left Weld to the town of Brookline for public recreation and public education. Brookline renamed Weld "Larz Anderson Park." Sited as not suited for a public facility, the house was razed and the gardens were destroyed or abandoned. The stables now house the Museum of Transportation, founded in 1949 with the Andersons' motor car collection. In 1990, an effort was attempted to stabilize the few remaining structures. Bulldozing of the grounds now makes restoration difficult.
Persons and firms associated with the garden include: William F. Weld (former owner of land); Larz and Isabel Weld Perkins Anderson (former owners, -1948); Town of Brookline (present owners, 1948-present); Edmund M. Wheelwright (architect of house, stable and garage, begun 1885); Charles A. Platt (architect of Italian garden, grove and bowling green,1901); Fox and Gale (architects of rose garden and tennis courts, 1902); Onchi San (gardener of Japanese garden, 1907); Little and Browne (architects of water garden and Chinese garden and additions to house, 1910-1916)
Related Materials:
Weld related holdings consist of 4 folders (65 slides, 29 photoprints, and 57 glass plate negatives)
See others in:
J. Horace McFarland Collection, 1900-1961

Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Brookline  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MA030
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb629c5e9bc-156e-4dbd-a93c-1d22b95f2da0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref17567

Scurlock Studio Records

Creator:
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
200 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Matrices, color separation
Photographs
Color separation negatives
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
1888-1996
Summary:
The collection includes approximately 250,000 photonegatives, photoprints, color transparencies from the photographic business founded by Addison Scurlock in Washington, DC. Collection also includes business records and ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
Photographs includes portraits of famous African-American luminaries such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and many other artists, intellectuals, educators, entertainers, etc., as well as documentation of Washington, DC, including both the African-American community and national political life, and important photographs of Howard University; also commercial photography, including color materials.

Color separation materials include sets of black-and-white color-separation negatives, sets of matrices for the Kodak Dye Transfer process (full-color Dye Transfer prints are storied in a different series).

Business records: The photography studio records and Custom Craft records are in separate series, reflecting the fact that they were operated as separate businesses.

The collection includes all forms of photographs produced by the studio, such as prints in black-and-white and color, black-and-white and color negatives, color transparencies, black-and-white dye-transfer matrices, slides, etc.; as well as business documents, studio session ledgers, appointment books, business and personal correspondence, tax documents, and books, catalogs, and other publications. This material documents not only the photographic output of the business, both commercial and artistic, as well as the personal and business side of the enterprise.

Some photographs in the collection were not created by the Scurlocks. Some black-and-white and color prints seem to derive from assignments in the Capitol School of Photography, and are therefore student work. Also Custom Craft, the professional color processing service provided by the studio, made prints for other photographers, and samples for printing reference, as well as studio decor, have been retained in the collection. Custom Craft worked for such diverse photographers as artist Robert Epstein and well-known Washington photographer Fred Maroon, for example.

The collection numbers several hundred thousand photographic negatives, prints, and transparencies made by the Scurlocks and other staff photographers of the studio in its various Washington locations. The negatives are estimated at approximately 160,000-200,000 in number, and the prints of all sizes and types at nearly 57,000. The vast majority of the photographs are portraits of individuals, family groups, and organizations, as the primary business of the studio was portrait photography. They date primarily from the 1940s to 1990s. There are also a number of images, made for commercial clients, of building interiors and exteriors, and food. A small group of photojournalistic documentation also exists. The subjects also include architectural and industrial views, scenes in and around Washington, including children and street laborers, political events, social events, and 35mm slides of President Kennedy's funeral, 1964. There are also more personal artistic images, including still lifes with plants and flowers, and a few nudes; Robert's wartime service is also documented by his photographs, including European landscape photographs.

In addition to images taken by the Scurlock studio photographers, there are some prints, especially color, of images by other photographers who were clients, such as Fred Maroon, a prominent Washington photojournalist, and Robert Epstein, a teacher at the Corcoran School of Art. A print of one of Maroon's pictures had been displayed in the studio reception room at the time the studio was closed.

A large group of manuscript items, business documents, ephemera, and office and studio supplies constitutes a separate series from the photographs. An important adjunct to the photographs, a set of ledgers recording and identifying portrait sittings, highlights this group.

Nearly all of the photographs and documents stored in the studio and auxiliary storage locations were accepted for acquisition in order to form a complete history of this family business's production and operations over the better part of a century, whereas a selection of photographic apparatus and studio equipment was acquired by the Photographic History Collection: these items have been inventoried and catalogued separately.

Studio Portraits

The majority of the surviving photographic negatives and proof prints were made in connection with the studio's portrait work for a wide variety of clients. These portraits include images of famous people, such as political figures, entertainers, and noteworthy persons in a variety of fields, including scientists, writers, intellectuals, and academics. The majority of the figures depicted among both the famous and the not so famous are black. The greatest number of studio portraits, most of which are identified and dated, depict a general clientele who visited the studio for portrait sittings. Although the individual images in this vast quantity have limited research value in the usual sense, the aggregate represents a chronology spanning almost ninety years, which may be useful for demographic and genealogical information and as visual evidence of changing styles in clothing, hair, and accessories. It constitutes a panorama of a significant percentage of Washingtonians of the period, especially the black community.

Portraits of famous personages include George Washington Carver, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Duke Ellington, Marian Anderson, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Sammy Davis, Jr., Sugar Ray Leonard, Muhammad Ali, Mayor Walter Washington, and Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton, Mayor Marion Barry, DC Council members, statesmen such as Ralph Bunche, and many other noteworthy figures. Of particular interest is a signed group portrait of the US. Supreme Court with Chief Justice Berger presiding. There are also large- format portraits of Justice Thurgood Marshall and J. Edgar Hoover.

Group portraits include both formal sittings and the informal documentation of banquets, convocations, and similar events. This material includes groups at Howard University; Dunbar High School; the Post Office Clerks' Banquet; the Bishops' Meeting of the AME Church; a YMCA camp, cira 1947 1949; the 23rd annual conference of the NAACP, 1932, etc.

Howard University

Several thousand black and white negatives and prints, 1930s-1960s, depict the people, facilities, and events of Howard University, with which the Scurlocks had a long business relationship. There are various portraits, including Howard University Medical School, represented by 850 negatives and 100 prints. A group of law school and medical school images numbers some 800 negatives and 200 prints. In addition, there are class portraits, as well as images of famous guests speaking at Howard convocations, such as President Herbert Hoover.

Wedding Photography

An important aspect of any portrait studio's output is wedding photography, and the Scurlock studio was no exception. Bridal portraits, group pictures of wedding parties, and the complete documentation of weddings, in both black and white and color, constitute a significant part of the collection. African-American weddings predominate and provide important insights into this aspect of the society.

Exhibitions

The studio's work was shown in special public exhibitions over the years, and several of these are included in toto. The most important was an extensive retrospective display of 121 prints of Addison's work, both vintage and posthumous, prepared by Robert for the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1976. Others include: (1) a set of 32 black and white images made by Robert at the Ramitelli Air Base, Italy, while he was a major in the US Air Force during World War II; (2) a group of portraits from a Black History Month exhibit at Woodward and Lothrop; and (3) a set of sixteen vintage and modern prints which Robert displayed in an interview on the "Today" television show in the 1980s.

Commercial Work

This category includes architectural and industrial photography for commercial clients, food and still life photographs, etc. Much of this material is comparatively recent and was made in large format color, and includes transparencies and enlargements. It is possible that some of the prints represent Custom Craft work for other photographers rather than the camera work of Robert and George Scurlock. Thus far, prints by artist Robert Epstein have been identified as extra prints of his work from orders which he placed with the firm. At least one image by Fred Maroon has been identified.

A group of color prints constitutes copies of artworks, primarily in the National Portrait Gallery, for which the Scurlocks worked. Prints in 8" x 10", 11" x 14", 16" x 20" and 20" x 24" sizes are included, and undoubtedly negatives and transparencies corresponding to these subjects will be found.

Photojournalism

In addition to the formal studio portraits and pictures documenting formal events, the Scurlocks took candid photographs of the everyday life of their city, as well as extraordinary events of local and national significance, ranging from occasions such as John F. Kennedy's funeral and the 1968 riots to political rallies and demonstrations.

Capitol School of Photography

The collection includes a variety of materials, such as books and ephemera, which document the activities of the Capitol School of Photography, a sideline of the Scurlock business. Some of the photographs apparently represent student work. The most famous student of the school was Jacqueline Bouvier (later Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis), although no documentation of her association with the school has been located thus far. There are 45 photographs, circa 1950s, showing the photography lab, men retouching prints, students with cameras, etc.

Personal Photographs

A few photographs of the Scurlock family are included in the collection in various forms and formats, including enlarged portraits of Addison and Robert. A self portrait of Addison and Mamie Scurlock is included in the Corcoran Gallery of Art exhibition series. Other photographs which represent personal artistic expression, such as a few nude studies and floral and plant still lifes, are included.

Series 6 consists of photographic materials including color transparencies, slides, film, and proofs but occasionally includes notes, forms, and envelopes associated with the orders.
Series 1: Black and White Photographs:
Dates -- 1888-1993

Extent -- 105 boxes

Contents -- Series 1: Black and White Photographs: The materials are almost entirely black and white photographs, but in the subseries of clients, there may also be job envelopes, order materials, and other photographic material types that were included in the overall order. The series is arranged into two subseries, clients and subjects, and both are arranged alphabetically. The subseries clients documents the orders made by clients of the Scurlock Studio and individuals who were or could be identified but may or may not have actually placed an order at the Studio. The majority of the photographs in the clients subseries are formal portrait sittings but there are photographs of events, organizations, and businesses. The subseries subjects are photographs that were grouped into categories because no known client or individual in the image could be identified. The subjects cover a broad array of subjects but the majority of the subjects include unidentified people in formal portrait sittings and groups. In addition, not all photographs in this series were taken by the Scurlock Studio; there are photos by Abdon Daoud Ackad and other studios or photographers that were sent in to make copies. 1.1: Clients Black and white photographs1.2: Subjects Black and white photographs
Series 2: Color Photographs:
Dates -- 1930-1995

Extent -- 113 boxes

Contents -- Series 2: Color Photographs: The series color photographs consists of color photographs and hand-colored photographs, but there are also order envelopes and materials, and other photographic material types that were part of the order. The subseries are arranged as clients, subjects, weddings, and hand-colored photographs. Clients are arranged alphabetically by last name or the first word of an organization's name. Not all individuals, organizations, or businesses necessarily represent a client of the Scurlock Studio; if an individual or organization could be identified, the photograph was placed under the identified person or organization even if ther were not a known client of the Studio. The majority of the photographs are individual portrait sittings but also included are family portraits, businesses, organizations, and informal images. The subjects are arranged alphabetically, and document images of non-humans and humans that could not be connected to a known client. Weddings and hand-colored are arranged in alphabetical order with clients preceeding subjects. The were a large subject of the overall collection and the majority of weddings are color photographs but also included in the subseries are black and white and hand-colored photographs of weddings. The hand-colored photographs largely reflect the same subject matter of the subseries clients and subjects. In addition, not all photographs in this subseries were taken by the Scurlock Studio; there are photos by Abdon Daoud Ackad and other studios or photographers that were sent in to make copies. 2.1: Clients Color photographs2.2: Subjects Color photographs2.3: Weddings2.4: Hand-colored photographs
Series 3: Framed Prints:
Dates -- circa 1979

Extent -- 3 boxes

Contents -- Series 3: Framed Prints: The series framed prints includes three framed color photographs. The framed prints are arranged by the size, from smallest to largest, of the frame. The photographs are of two important political figures: Washington, D. C., Mayor Marion Barry and Senator Edward Brooke.
Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives:
Dates -- 1900-1994

Extent -- 320 boxes

Contents -- Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives: The material type of the series is black and white silver gelatin negatives. The negatives are arranged into twelve subseries. The materials document the clients and individuals whose photographs were taken by the Scurlock Studio and a wide variety of subject matters. The subjects represented are individual portrait sittings, organizations, events, businesses, commercial ventures of the Studio, and Washington, D. C. 4.1: Black and white negatives 4.2: Black and white negatives in freezers arranged by job number 4.3: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by client 4.4: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by subject 4.5: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by job number 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client 4.7: Negatives in cold storage arranged by client with index cards 4.8: Negatives in cold storage arranged by subject 4.9: Black and white negatives for publication 4.10: Glass Plate Negatives 4.11: Customcraft Negatives 4.12: Banquet Negatives
Series 5: Color Negatives:
Dates -- 1964-1994

Extent -- 72 boxes

Contents -- Series 5: Color Negatives: The series color negatives primarily of color negatives but it also includes order envelopes and materials. The series is arranged into two subseries: clients and subjects. The subseries clients is arranged by job number, and the materials document the orders placed by clients of the Scurlock Studio and identified persons and organizations. The negatives depict individual portrait sittings, groups, and informal poses. The subseries subjects is arranged in alphabetical order, and the materials document negatives that could not be connected to a client of the studio. The negatives represent subjects such as art, buildings, commercial ventures of the Scurlock Studio, and unidentified people. 5.1: Color negatives arranged by client5.2: Color negatives arranged by subject
Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats:
Dates -- 1922-1994

Extent -- 40 boxes

Contents -- Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats: The series color transparencies, slides, and other formats consists of black and white and color transparencies, color slides, film, proofs, and order materials. The materials are arranged into four subseries: transparencies, slides, film, and proofs. The subseries are arranged by clients, in alphabetical order by last name, and then subjects, in alphabetical order. The materials document the orders placed at the Scurlock Studio by clients and identified individuals and organizations, and materials that could not be identified and are categorized by subjects. The subjects represented in the materials are primarily individual, family, and group portraits, and events and places. Cut but unmounted slides were typically placed in the subseries transparencies but a small number of cut but unmounted slides are included in the slides. The subseries proofs only contains a form of proof used by the Scurlock Studio that has a fugitive image, and other types of proofs printed on low quality paper or are water-marked and have a lasting image were included in the series Black and White Photographs and Color Photographs if the proof was either black and white or color. 6.1: Transparencies6.2: Slides6.3: Film6.4: Proofs
Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices:
Dates -- 1955-1957

Extent -- 7 boxes

Contents -- Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices: The materials in the series are black-and-white color separation negatives and a booklet about how to process black-and-white color separation negatives. The materials are arranged into three subseries: clients, subjects, and the booklet. The materials document orders placed at the Scurlock Studio by clients and individuals and organizations that could be identified but not connected to a specific order. The materials also document negatives categorized by subjects because there was no known client or identifiable individual or organization. The subjects represented are individual portrait sittings and groups, and unidentified people. 7.1: Clients Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives 7.2: Subjects Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives Booklet
Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records:
Dates -- 1907-1996

Extent -- 66 boxes

Contents -- Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records: The series Scurlock Studio Business Records contains paperwork pertaining to the administration of the business, the financial documentation of the business, the reocrds of sales, the advertising signs and promotions of hte business, the files kept on employees, and other materials kept at the Scurlock Studio. The series is arranged into six subseries: administrative file, financial, sales, advertising and marketing, employee and personnel, and office files. Each subseries is arranged differently according to the types of materials predominantly found in the subseries or in chronological order. The subjects represented in the series are mostly related to the financial records of the Scurlock Studio kept and the invoices of sales records. A wide variety of other subjects relating to the the business records of the Scurlock Studio can also be found including: session registers, construction plans, advertisements for specific holidays, and product information sent to the Studio. Some materials found in this series may be marked Scurlock Studio and Custom Craft, the color division of the Scurlock Studio, and were placed with this series because the Scurlock Studio was the primary business. Other materials with an unclear origin of either the Scurlock Studio or Custom Craft were placed in this series. 8.1: Administrative Files8.2: Financial8.3: Sales8.4: Advertising and Marketing8.5: Employee and Personnel8.6: Office Files
Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records:
Dates -- 1951-1994

Extent -- 57 boxes

Contents -- Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records: The series Custom Craft Business Records consists of paper documents relating to the administrative, financial, sales records, employee and personnel, and other files about the affairs of the Custom Craft business's day-to-day operations. The materials are arranged into five subseries: administrative, financial, sales, employee and personnel, and office files. The materials within a subseries are ordered by types of documents that consisted of a large number of materials listed first and materials with few documents following the grouped materials in chronological order. The materials document the day-to-day business of Custom Craft. The subjects represented are documents relating to the administration of the business, journals kept to document finances, the order invoices, the files kept about employees, product information, and materials accumulated in the office. Some documents may list both the Scurlock Studio and Custom Craft and were kept with the business records of Custom Craft if the materials appeared to fit the activities, color photography, of that business. Other documents relating to the business affairs of Custom Craft may be in the series Scurlock Studio Business Records because these documents did not clearly indicate which business the documents belonged to; in these cases, the materials were put in the series Scurlock Studio Business Records because the business was the primary business of the Scurlocks. There business records seem to indicate that there was not always a clear differentiation between the two businesses. 9.1: Administrative9.2: Financial9.3: Sales9.4: Employee and Personnel9.5: Office files
Series 10: Capitol School of Photography:
Dates -- 1948-1954

Extent -- 4 boxes

Contents -- Series 10: Capitol School of Photography: The series Capitol School of Photography consists of paper documents, photographs, and transparencies. The materials are arranged in chronological order and document the administration of the Capitol School of Photography and the students. The subjects represented are administrative documents, student files, photographs by students, photographs of students and the space used for the School, and transparencies of the same subjects.
Series 11: Washington Stock:
Dates -- 1981-1994

Extent -- 2 boxes

Contents -- Series 11: Washington Stock: The series Washington Stock consists of order materials, orders, and published materials. The materials are arranged chronologically and document the orders placed for Washington Stock and how the materials were used and published. The subjects represented are orders, standard forms used by Washington Stock, and published materials.
Series 12: Background Materials and Publications:
Dates -- 1902-1995

Extent -- 18 boxes

Contents -- Series 12: Background Materials and Publications: The series Background Materials and Publications is composed of paper documents, published materials, and materials from exhibitions. The materials are arranged into four subseries: historical and background information, Scurlock images, reference materials, and exhibition materials. The materials document the Scurlocks, published Scurlock images, published materials lacking Scurlock images, exhibitions of Scurlock images, and other exhibitions of related material. The subjects represented are largely materials related to the Scurlocks' photography and personal interests. Images were placed in the subseries Scurlock images if the photograph was credited to the Scurlocks or was a photograph known to have been taken by the Scurlocks; it is possible that uncredited and less well known images taken by the Scurlocks are present in the subseries reference materials. 12.1: Historical and Background Information12.2: Scurlock Images12.3: Reference Materials12.4: Exhibition Materials
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 12 series.

This collection was processed with numerous changes in arrangement and numbering of boxes. Original box numbers have been retained in this finding aid for cross-reference purposes and to assist anyone with a record of photographs according to the original box numbers.
Biographical / Historical:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994).

The turn of the twentieth century saw a mass exodus of African Americans from the South to northern cities in search of better employment opportunities and fairer racial treatment. Although many considered Washington to be the northern-most southern city, it still offered opportunities for African Americans leaving seasonal agricultural work and racial oppression in the South. In Washington, African Americans found stable employment with the U.S. government. In addition, Howard University offered African Americans teaching opportunities, college education, and professional training as doctors, dentists, nurses, lawyers, and ministers. By 1900 a substantial African-American middle class existed in Washington. Despite the fact that Washington was a historically and legally segregated city (and would remain so into the 1960s), this middle class population continued to grow and prosper.

After graduation from high school, Addison Scurlock moved from Fayetteville, North Carolina, to Washington, D.C., with his family in 1900. With a keen interest in photography, he sought out an apprenticeship at the white-owned Moses Rice Studio on Pennsylvania Avenue. The Rice brothers (Amos and Moses) had been in Washington working as photographers since the 1860s and had one of the more prominent and better studios in the city. There Addison learned portrait and general photography. In 1904, he left Rice and began his photographic career at his parents' home. By 1911, when he opened the Scurlock Studio, he had already captured the likeness of Booker T. Washington (1910; see Appendix B), most likely his most well-known portrait. Scurlock quickly identified his market: a self-sufficient African-American community which included students, graduates, and educators affiliated with Howard University; poets; writers; intellectuals; musicians and entertainers; politicians; socialites; fraternal and religious organizations and their leaders. The Scurlock Studio, located at 900 U Street, N.W., became a fixture in the midst of the thriving African-American business community. As with his white counterparts on Pennsylvania Avenue and F Street, N.W., Addison Scurlock inspired passers-by with window displays of his photographs of national leaders and local personalities.

During the 1930s, Addison Scurlock's two sons Robert and George apprenticed in the studio. In addition to portrait and general photography, the sons learned the techniques of retouching negatives and photographic prints, hand-coloring, hand-tinting, and mat decoration. George concentrated on the commercial side of the business while Robert concentrated on the portrait side. The Scurlocks' work changed with the times. From the early 1900s until Addison's death in 1964, the Scurlock Studio was the official photographer of Howard University. In the 1930s the studio began a press service and prepared newsreels on African American current events for the Lichtman Theater chain, which offered some of the few non-segregated venues in the city. Their press service supplied the African-American press with newsworthy photographs of current events, personalities, and social, political, and religious life. Clients included the Norfolk Journal and Guide, Amsterdam News, Pittsburgh Courier, Cleveland Call and Post and the Washington Tribune and Afro-American. George and Robert ran the Capitol School of Photography from 1948 to 1952. Included among their students were African-American veterans under the G.I. Bill, Ellsworth Davis, who later worked as a Washington Post photographer and Bernie Boston of the Los Angeles Times. Perhaps their best-known student was the young Jacqueline Bouvier.

In 1952 Robert opened Washington's first custom color lab. Capitalizing on his knowledge of color processing, Robert was asked to take color portraits of both noted and ordinary individuals. In addition, the studio offered color views of important Washington landmarks and monuments. By the 1960s, Robert added magazine photography to his list of talents, publishing images in Life, Look, and Ebony. Robert continued photographing Washingtonians at his studio until his death in 1994.

According to George Scurlock, the Scurlock studio never had substantial competition in the African American community. Some Washington residents remember it differently, however. Dr. Theodore Hudson, a retired Howard University professor, recalled two other black photographers: Sam Courtney and a man named Sorrell. He said Courtney photographed events in the African American community...?

The collection represents the most comprehensive record of any long-lived, let alone African-American, photography studio, in a public institution. Other twentieth century studio collections exist, such as Robinson Studio, Grand Rapids; Hughes Company, Baltimore, Md. Among African American studio collections in public institutions are James Van Der Zee (New York City, 1912-80s), P.H. Polk (Tuskegee), and the Hooks Brothers (Memphis, Tenn., 1910-1975). The Scurlock Collection covers a greater time period and provides greater depth of coverage of African-American events and personages.

A number of articles have been written about the Scurlock family. Jane Freundel Levey, editor of Washington History magazine, believes that the family went beyond the artful use of light, shadow, and composition. She wrote, "Perhaps the most distinctive hallmark of the Scurlock photograph is the dignity, the uplifting quality of the demeanor of every person captured by photographs who clearly saw each subject as above the ordinary."

Constance McLaughlin Green, one of the leading historians of Washington, D.C., talks about African-American Washington as "the Secret City," a separate world with institutions of its own that remained virtually unknown to the white majority. Addison Scurlock and his sons captured that world on film and in doing so, documented that world in the course of running his business and perfecting his art. Steven C. Newsome, director of the Maryland Commission on Afro-American History and Culture stated that The Scurlocks' photograph "Gave us connections. They tell stories. They let us remember."

The collection includes photographs of the nationally famous Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Mary McLeod Bethune, Mary Church Terrell, Marian Anderson; the locally or regionally important: P.B.S. Pinchback, Judge Miflin Gibbs, Col. Jim Lewis, Ernest Just, Anna J. Cooper; and actors, artists, vaudevillians, and musicians such as Fredi Washington, Madame Lilian Evanti, Oakley & Oakley, and Duke Ellington.

Sources

George Scurlock. Interview conducted by David Haberstich and intern Lora Koehler at Mr. Scurlock's apartment, Aug. 2003.

Theodore Hudson, conversation with David Haberstich in the Archives Center, 2 February 2004.

Jane Freundel Levey, "The Scurlock Studio," Washington History, 1989, p. 44.

Robert S. Scurlock, "An Appreciation of Addison N. Scurlock's Photographic Achievements," The Historic Photographs of Addison N. Scurlock. Washington, D.C.: The Charles Sumner School Museum and Archives, 1986 (exhibition catalog).
Materials at Other Organizations:
The Historical Society of Washington, DC holds Scurlock-related materials.

The Charles Sumner School Museumn and Archives holds Scurlock-related materials.
Materials in the National Museum of American History:
Cameras and other photographic apparatus, studio furniture, and miscellaneous ephemera from the Scurlock studio are in the History of Photography Collection (now Division of Work and Industry). An adding machine from the studio is in the Museum's mathematics collection. See accessions 1997.0293 and 2010.0157.
Provenance:
The Museum purchased the Scurlock Studio Records from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, through Judge Marjorie Lawson in 1997. During the period of negotiation between the museum and Robert Scurlock's heirs, his widow Vivian and brother George, the collection was on loan to the Museum and was housed primarily in a closed exhibition area on the second floor. Staff of the Archives Center took physical possession of the collection long before the transfer to the Museum was final. The studio records and photographs were housed principally in the 18th Street studio and in two rental storage facilities. The primary move of the collection to the Museum occurred in September 1995. An additional pickup occurred on February 12, 1996 (on tags). There was probably one additional pickup from the studio by David Haberstich and Caleb Fey on an unrecorded date.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Matrices, color separation
Photographs -- 20th century
Color separation negatives
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep852403536-424e-4026-9305-7c0938436f63
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618
Online Media:

Red Cross and Japan

Physical Description:
glass plate (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 in x 4 in; 12.7 cm x 10.16 cm
Object Name:
glass plate negative
Place made:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Associated Place:
Japan
Subject:
Women  Search this
Red Cross  Search this
ID Number:
PG.67.88.00895
Accession number:
270586
Catalog number:
67.88.00895
Publisher number:
749B-1690
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-a9a6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_756374

Cixi, Empress Dowager of China, Photographs

Photographer:
Xunling, 1874-1943  Search this
Names:
Cixi, Empress dowager of China, 1835-1908  Search this
Der Ling, Princess, 1885-1944  Search this
Guangxu, Emperor of China, 1871-1908  Search this
Li, Lianying, 1848-1911  Search this
Wanrong, 1906-1946  Search this
Xunling, 1874-1943  Search this
Extent:
44 Items
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Place:
China -- History -- Qing dynasty, 1644-1912
China
Beijing (China)
Yihe Yuan (Beijing, China)
Forbidden City (Peking, China)
China -- Beijing -- Beijing
Date:
circa 1903-1905
Scope and Contents:
Cixi (慈禧太后), Empress Dowager of China, 1835-1908, Photographs. Forty-four glass plate negatives depicting the Empress Dowager of China, Cixi of the Qing dynasty, taken between 1903 to 1905 by the photographer Xunling (勋龄; ca.1880-1943). Scenes include the empress dowager on the imperial barge, in the Summer Palace (颐和园) with attendants, and individual portraits of Cixi in varieties of court attire. Other important figures of the royal court depicted are Empress Longyu (隆裕皇后; 1868 - 1913), Jinfei ((瑾妃; 1874 - 1924), Princess Der Ling (德龄公主; 1885 - 1944), Rongling (容龄;1882-1973), Lady Yugeng (裕太太), first chief eunuch Li Lianying (李連英; 1848 -1911), and second chief eunuch Cui Yugui (崔玉贵). The negatives were at one time in the possession of Xunling's sister, Princess Der Ling, who used many of them to illustrate her books on Cixi and the imperial Qing court. The collection includes thirty-five original glass plate negatives by Xunling and nine glass plate negatives copied from various sources, likely made for illustrations in Princess Der Ling's books and articles. Included in the acquisitions file is a 4 page typed essay by Lydia Dan (d. 2005), Xunling's niece, which identifies Xunling as the original photographer and describes the history of the photographs and anecdotes relating to Xunling and his family.
Arrangement:
The photographs are divided into four groups: 1. Twenty-four large negatives, 24.1 x 17.8 cm (SC-GR-243 to SC-GR-265; unnumbered). Original photographs by Xunling taken in the Forbidden City or the Summer Palace. 2. Eleven smaller negatives, 12.7 x 10.2 cm. (SC-GR-270-272; 276-277; 279-284). Mostly informal portraits of Cixi and the court taken with a more portable camera. 3. Nine smaller negatives, 12.7 x 10.2 cm. (SC-GR-266-269; 273-275; 278; 285). These are copies of prints from other sources, possibly taken for Xunling's sister, the Princess Der Ling to illustrate her English language books and magazine articles. SC-GR-275 is a copy from a worn, damaged print of a famous Xunling photograph. SC-GR-285 is copied from a poor print of SC-GR-265. SC-GR-278 is a detail copied from SC-GR-261. 4. SC-GR-285a is a print of a group of Han Chinese women.
Provenance:
Purchase, 1966.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Topic:
Photography -- China  Search this
Empresses  Search this
Palaces  Search this
Eunuchs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Citation:
Cixi, Empress Dowager of China, Photographs. FSA.A.13. National Museum of Asian Art Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A.13
See more items in:
Cixi, Empress Dowager of China, Photographs
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc31c72b86a-f8a8-4c41-a4f9-c8584d6c9de7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-13
Online Media:

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records

Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
33 Cubic feet (76 boxes, 46 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Annual reports
Correspondence
Drawings
Glass plate negatives
Negatives (photographic)
Photographs
Tracings
Date:
1827-1987
Summary:
The collection consists of correspondence, invoices, drawings, photographs, and negatives and other printed literature documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence, engineering drawings, notes, photographs, transparencies, negatives, glass plate negatives, printed materials, and newspaper clippings documenting the Baltimore and Ohio railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio in the 1960s.
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1827-1987

Series 2, Bridge Histories, 1867-1966

Series 3, President's Office, 1826-1880

Series 4, Correspondence, 1826-1859

Series 5, Business Records, 1894-1914, and undated

Series 6, Agreement, 1870

Series 7, Drawings, 1858-1957, and undated

Subseries 7.1, Indices and Lists, 1924-1943, undated

Subseries 7.2, Bailey's Station, 1887; 1899; 1901

Subseries 7.3, Baltimore Belt Railroad, 1895, undated

Subseries 7.4, Bay View and Canton Bridges, 1884-1885

Subseries 7.5, Big Seneca Creek Viaduct, 1905

Subseries 7.6, Bollman Bridges, undated

Subseries 7.7, Boyds, Maryland Station, 1886; 1927

Subseries 7.8, Bridewell Station, undated

Subseries 7.9, Bridges (general), 1893-1917

Subseries 7.10, Brunswick, Maryland, 1890-1907

Subseries 7.11, Building Materials List, undated

Subseries 7.12, Building Signs, 1911-1912

Subseries 7.13, Camden Station, 1881-1942 (not inclusive)

Subseries 7.14, Camden Station (related), 1881-1915

Subseries 7.15, Centenary Bridge Models, 1927

Subseries 7.16, Central Office Building, undated

Subseries 7.17, Chestnut Street Station, 1925-1952

Subseries 7.18, Coaling facilities, water tanks, turntables, and miscellaneous structures, 1888-1912

Subseries 7.19, Cumberland Station, 1910-1955

Subseries 7.20, Curtis Bay Branch, 1900-1911

Subseries 7.21, Frederick Station, 1908-1915

Subseries 7.22, Hyattsville Station, 1913

Subseries 7.23, Keedysville Station, undated

Subseries 7.24, Laurel Station, undated

Subseries 7.25, Ledger, undated

Subseries 7.26, Lieperville Station, 1889

Subseries 7.27, Locust Point, 1881-1957

Subseries 7.28, Maps, 1862; 1918

Subseries 7.29, Martinsburg, West Virginia, 1913-1927

Subseries 7.30, Miscellaneous Buildings, 1875-1956

Subseries 7.31, Miscellaneous Large Photographs, undated

Subseries 7.32, Miscellaneous Structures, 1890-1916

Subseries 7.33: Mt. Clare (general)

Subseries 7.34, Mt. Clare New Blue Line Stable, 1899; 1905

Subseries 7.35, Mt. Clare New Car Shops, undated

Subseries 7.36, Mt. Royal Station, undated

Subseries 7.37, Newton Falls and Fairpoint, Ohio, 1909

Subseries 7.38, Patapsco River Bridge, 1883

Subseries 7.39, Plans for house no. 1846 (N. Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland), undated

Subseries 7.40, Point of Rocks Station, 1951

Subseries 7.41, Scales, 1903

Subseries 7.42, Signal towers, 1900-1908

Subseries 7.43, Stations (general), 1866-1907

Subseries 7.44, Sykesville Station, undated

Subseries 7.45, Untitled, undated

Subseries 7.46, Warnings, 1894-1911

Subseries 7.47, Woodstock Station, undated

Subseries 7.48, Miscellaneous (rolled), 1858-1930 (not inclusive)

Series 8, Photographs and Copy Prints, 1872-1980s (not inclusive)

Subseries 8.1, Photographs, 1872-1980s

Subseries 8.2, Copy prints, 1901-1931, undated

Subseries 8.3, Indices and Lists, 1909-1920

Series 9, Negatives, 1850-1983 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.1, Glass plate negatives (unidentified), undated

Subseries 9.2, Glass plate negatives (numbered), 1850-1957 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.3, Negatives by number, undated

Subseries 9.4, Negatives by location, 1870; 1978-1983

Subseries 9.5, Negatives by subject, 1922-1930s, undated

Series 10, Stations and Buildings, 1884-1982
Biographical / Historical:
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was the nation's first extensive steam powered railroad. It was founded by Baltimore merchants in 1827 as a means of promoting trade and making Baltimore competitive with other east coast ports. The original intent of the founders was to provide direct and fast access to the Ohio River, and the markets that the river reached. The railroad, however, went beyond the Ohio River and its lines went as far west as St. Louis and Chicago. The B&O was also known for its use of an electric locomotive in the mid 1890s. It also had a completely air conditioned train, and it was a forerunner in the use of diesel-electric locomotives. Company activities paralleled those of other American railroads and over the course of its life included expansion, near bankruptcy, innovations, regulations, and finally buy out. In February 1963, the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) completed its purchase of the B&O. Today, B&O is part of the CSX Transportation (CSX) network.

John Work Garrett president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1858-1884, was born in Baltimore, Maryland July 31, 1820. He was the second son of Elizabeth Stouffer and Robert Garrett. He married Rachel Ann Harrison, the daughter of Thomas Harrison, a Baltimore merchant. They had one daughter, Mary and two sons Robert and Thomas Harrison Garrett.

After attending Lafayette College (Pennsylvania) for two years John W. Garrett left in 1836 to become associated with his father's commission business in Baltimore. The commission house which dealt in wholesale groceries, produce, forwarding and a commission business expanded to establish direct connections with Latin America, seek outlets in Europe and develop its own banking operations. In time its financial operations overshadowed the commission and shipping business.

When John W. Garrett began to invest heavily in Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, the road was in competition with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the stock was not popular. Its value rose steadily over the years. Mr. Garrett was elected a director of the railroad in 1855. His report as chairman of a subcommittee on the need for additional funds to complete the line to the Ohio River led to his election to the presidency of the road on November 17, 1858, a position he held for 26 years. New policies with emphasis on economy, personal supervision and gradual expansion were inaugurated and consistently maintained, in spite of a general financial crisis, Mr. Garrett's first year in office showed a net gain in earnings.

Sympathetic to his southern friends during the Civil War, Mr. Garrett nevertheless supported the Union. He recognized the inevitability of Confederate defeat by superior northern resources. Confederate leaders blamed him for their inability to seize Washington and he received warm appreciation for his services to the Union cause from President Lincoln. The railroad stretched along the theater of war and twice crossed Confederate territory. It was, therefore, a main objective for southern attack. Branches were frequently damaged by Confederate raids, but the main line to Washington became important for the transport of troops and supplies. The Baltimore and Ohio carried out the first military rail transport in history and the transfer of 20,000 men from the Potomac to Chattanooga in 1863 was a major triumph for its president.

With the advent of peace Mr. Garrett turned to rebuilding and strengthening the railroad. He replaced equipment and track damaged by the war, then extended the system by securing direct routes to Pittsburgh and Chicago and arranging an independent line into New York. Wharves were built at Locust Point for ocean liners and a system of elevators erected. The B&O. built its own sleeping and dining cars, established hotels in the mountains and created its own express company. By 1880, after battles over rates with other trunk lines, a costly rivalry with the Pennsylvania Railroad over the eastern route and charges of discrimination against local shippers Mr. Garrett was at the height of his success. He cooperated in establishing the B. and 0. Employees Relief Association for accident and life insurance, a hospital system, saving and building funds, and arrangements for improving sanitation in the work place. He was on friendly terms with Johns Hopkins, a trustee of John Hopkins Hospital, and with George Peabody, founder of the Peabody institute of which he was also a trustee. Garrett County, Maryland was named in his honor.

John W. Garrett died on September 26, 1884 within a year of his wife's death in a carriage accident. During his connection with the railroad the stock increased from $57 to $200; at the outbreak of the Civil War the railroad was operating 514 miles of rail, gross earnings were $4,000,097 and net per mile was $4246.1 By 1864 gross earnings were $10,138,876 and net per mile, $7113.2 By the end of his presidency mileage had increased to 1711 miles and net earnings were $4535 per mile.3

References

1 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

2 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

3 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Maryland Historical Society

Baltimore and Ohio Museum
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges  Search this
Construction  Search this
Engineering -- 19th century  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Repairing -- Railroads  Search this
Railway engineering -- 1860-1890  Search this
Genre/Form:
Annual reports
Correspondence -- 19th century
Drawings -- 1860-1890
Glass plate negatives
Negatives (photographic)
Photographs
Tracings
Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1086
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e652d903-bb57-46a8-a205-c7cbfe89f444
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1086
Online Media:

Negative, Western Electric Company, telephone

Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Extent:
2 Glass negatives
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass negatives
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes one lantern slide and one glass plate negative.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Archives Center Glass Plate Collection, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Archives Center Glass Plate Collection
Archives Center Glass Plate Collection / Series 2: Silver Gelatin Plates (4 x 5)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a20d9528-28ad-4fab-8ef9-bb1a45107d53
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0246-ref23

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