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1 Photographic print
Scope and Contents:
One photographic print entitled, "Indian Madonna," photographed by Benjamin A. Gifford, circa 1905. The photo depicts a young Native American mother and infant from the Columbia River Plateau in The Dalles, Oregon.
Biographical / Historical:
Benjamin A. Gifford (1859-1936) was born in DuPage County, Illinois. He worked as a photographer in Portland and The Dalles, Oregon. His work includes depictions of Native Americans, primarily of the Columbia Plateau region; the Columbia River and the Historic Columbia River Highway; and Central and Eastern Oregon.
Gift of Yeshiva University from the Hedi Steinberg Library in 2012.
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Identification of specific item; Date (if known); General Photograph collections, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Unbound album pages (labeled A through Q) with photographs documenting the people and culture of the Pocatello-Fort Hall area, including Native Americanss (particularly Shoshone-Bannock tribes), agency employees, and missionaries. Included are images of encampments, Sun Dance ceremonies, the Fort Hall Agency, Indian schools and churches, the Run for Fort Hall Lands on June 17, 1902, the War Bonnett Roundup at Idaho Falls, Shoshone Falls and other natural features and landscapes, a large number of street and aerial views of Pocatello, A. L. Cook's drug store in Pocatello, and members of the Cook family. In addition, there are photographs of Nez Perce, Hopi, San Juan, and Navaho Indians, and one image of the Lapps Indians at Port Townsend, Washington. A large number of the photographs were made by Benedicte Wrensted.
The albums were compiled by Robert Leonard, Eugene O. Leonard's son, who also made copy prints of many of the photographs and negatives. They include flyers, newspapers, envelopes, and other scraps collected by Leonard.
Eugene O. Leonard (1884-1964) moved to Pocatello, Idaho, in 1893 to live with his aunt, the widow of A. L. Cook and owner of the Cook building and drugstore. Leonard attended Weiser College and Academy (now College of Idaho), Whitman College, and Northwestern University. He acquired degrees in phamacy and pharmaceutical chemistry from Northwestern University, and a degree in assaying studies from the Chicago College of Chemistry. After graduation from the College in 1908, Leonard returned to Pocatello to manage the Cook Drug Store until 1918. He worked as Pocatello City Chemist and set up the College of Pharmacy at Idaho State College, where he also taught and served as dean (1918-1954). In the 1930s, Leonard obtained a MS and PhD from Utah State University. Possibly encouraged by his collector aunt, Leonard established a collection of Native material culture objects and documentations, including artifacts and these photograhs, based on his interest in the Shoshoni and Bannock tribes at nearby Fort Hall.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 92-3
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Idaho Museum of Natural History at Idaho State University holds artifacts collected by Eugene O. Leonard.
The Bannock County Historical Museum in Pocatello holds the Leonard Family Papers, 1893-1917.
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing. Many have associated prints.
Contents: Catalog Number 4508: Tribe: 1) Hupa Description: Man in "gala dress." Similar to Goddard, U. P. A. I, 1, 1903, Pl. 4 and Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30, I, page 582. Photographer: [A. W. Ericson, according to cropped print, NH 28002-G] No Date See BAE Negative Number SI 28002-G. 2) Hupa Jumping Dance A. W. Ericson See BAE Negative Number 43,114. 3) Tribe: [Klikitat ?] Description: Woman outside tipi Photographer: Benjamin A. Gifford, The Dalles, Oregon Date: 1899 C See BAE Negative Number 56,800. 4) [Klikitat ?] Woman, seated on rocks, with baskets Benjamin A. Gifford, The Dalles, Oregon 1900 C Cf Negative Number 56,798 of same. 5) [Klikitat ?] 4 men, 2 women, 1 child, standing by frame building, blankets placed as backdrops Benjamin A. Gifford, The Dalles, Oregon 1900 C See BAE Negative Number 56,801. 6) [Klikitat ?] View of 2 tipis and boat, on shore of Columbia River. ("The Home Guard on the Columbia.") Benjamin A. Gifford, THe Dalles, Oregon 1899 C See BAE Negative Number 56,799. Tribe: 7) Maricopa Description: Studio portrait, young woman, half-length, seated on chair. Original Number 344. Numerous small beads at neck; calico skirt; naked to waist Photographer Unknown No Date. 8) Maricopa Studio portrait, young woman, half-length, seated. Face painted; naked to waist.
The collection consists of photographs relating to Native Americans, which were submitted to the copyright office of the Library of Congress in and around the early 20th century. Many of the photographs are studio portraits as well as photographs made as part of expeditions and railroad surveys. It includes images of people, dwellings and other structures, agriculture, arts and crafts, burials, ceremonies and dances, games, food preparation, transportation, and scenic views. Some of the photographs were posed to illustrate literary works, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hiawatha, while others depict paintings or other artwork.
Collection is organized alphabetically by copyright claimant.
The collection was formed from submissions made to the Library of Congress as part of the copyright registration process. In 1949, arrangements were made to allow the Bureau of American Ethnology to copy the collection and some negatives were made at that time, largely from the Heyn and Matzen photographs. The project was soon abandoned, however, as too large an undertaking for the facilities of the BAE. In 1957-1958, arrangements were begun by William C. Sturtevant of the BAE to transfer a set of the photographs from the Library of Congress to the BAE.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 59
In 1965, the Bureau merged with the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, and in 1968 the Office of Anthropology Archives transformed into the National Anthropological Archives.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo Lot 59, Library of Congress Copyright Office photograph collection of Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution