United States of America -- New York -- Orange County -- Balmville
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, historical images and additional documentation.
Echo Lawn is located on a 6 acre parcel of land which was originally part of a 40 acre estate. The property has at its center an Italianate walled garden established in 1911 set within a wider naturalistic setting of the original landscaping of 1850-1860. This is set within a wider naturalistic landscaping of the original garden of 1850-1860. The National Register of Historic Places registration form completed for Echo Lawn, suggests that Echo Lawn's first period of design was influenced by landscape architect Andrew Jackson Downing and the architects Calvert Vaux and Frederick Clark Withers in their design of neighboring properties (Downing and Vaux at Algonac about 1851; Withers at Mornigside 1859). The 1911 design of the walled garden was developed by the artists Reynolds and Gifford Beal, brothers of the property owner at that time, Thaddeus Beal.
The original structure of the Italianate garden remains, defined by outer walls of fieldstone with cut bluestone topping. The terrace of flagstone and herringbone brick features a Neoclassical cast concrete balustrade from which a divided stone staircase circles around a small fountain as it leads down into the sunken walled garden with a large fountain at its center.
Historical accounts of the garden describe the walled garden as a less formal Italian garden with softer border plantings in contrast to the present hedges which frame the quadrants created by the garden's brick paths. Climbing roses and honeysuckle grew on the west wall, climbing hydrangea on the north wall, lilacs at the terrace, and ferns were planted at the center fountain.
To the north of the walled garden is a large lawn with views through specimen shade trees including locust, walnut, and maple to a peripheral border of native trees. This area originally featured a grape arbor and an allée of cherry trees which led to vegetable gardens and a pond. To the east of the walled garden, presently lawn with a low stone retaining wall and steps leading to the north lawn, was a pergola and rose arbor, beyond which a stream was dammed to form a pond featuring a moon bridge and a small island. To the south of the walled garden, now a lawn bordered by native trees, were fruit orchards and distant views of the hills beyond the Hudson River.
Echo Lawn was used as a filming location in the silent film, The Scales of Justice, released in 1914 by the Famous Players Film Company.
Persons associated with the garden include: George A. Elliott (former owner, ca. 1860-1880); Frank Gerard (builder, ca. 1850-1860); Mrs. Minnie Knowlton (former owner, 1880-1905); Thaddeus Beal (former owner, beginning 1905); Gifford Beal and (Alonzo) Reynolds Beal (garden designers, ca. 1911); and John and Mary Beal (former owners, to 1957).
Echo Lawn related holdings consist of 1 folder (20 digital images)
Other materials documenting this property are located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: email@example.com.
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Relate to the Dakota Indians of Pine Ridge and Rosebud Agencies, and to the Battle of Wounded Knee (December 29, 1890), including views of the battlefield, January, 1891.
"The Nebraska State Historical Society, 1500 R. Street, Lincoln 8, Nebraska (James C. Olson, Supt.), has a collection of pictures relating to the Battle of Wounded Knee, fought in 1890. Included in the group of about 50 photographs are scenes before and following the battle, photographs of Indians, and related subjects. There are a few glass plate negatives by G. E. Trager, and the remainder of the collection consists of old photoprints or copies thereof." -- from Eye to Eye (Graphic Hitory Soc. Of America)-1954- 106. This entry from Eye to Eye, 1954 may refer to the same collection as Bureau of American Ethnology Catalog Number 4464. (Negative Numbers 3200-b-1--15) Some of these were published by Schmitt and Brown ("Fighting Indians of the West," 1948) from the Bureau of American Ethnology copy negatives and attributed to Trager as the photographer. However, the prints in the Bureau of American Ethnology apparently bear no signature or other mark attributing them to Trager. Possibly Schmitt and Brown knew him to be the photographer from other research they had done. It remains to check this collection with the Nebraska Historical Society to see if it is the same as theirs. The prints received from Mr Johnson have evidently been copied many times.
Contents: Catalog Number 4464 Dakota (1) Description: Burial of the dead after the Battle of Wounded Knee Photographer: Northwestern Photo Co. Date: December 29, 1890 (copyright 1/1/91) Negative Number 3200-b-7. (2) Medicine Man, dead in the snow Northwestern Photo Co copyright 1/1/91 3200-b-8. (3) Big Foot, dead in the snow Northwestern Photo Co copyright 1/1/91 3200-b-2 and 55,018. (4) Wounded Knee Battlefield, looking north Northwestern Photo Co copyright 1891 3200-b-10. (5) Wounded Knee Battlefield, looking south-west Northwestern Photo Co ? 1891 47,685. (6) Wounded Knee Battlefield Northwestern Photo Co ? 1891. (7) General Carr's camp at Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co ? 1891. (8) Hostile Indian camp at the Mission near Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (9) "Scene at the battlefield." Northwest Photo Co 1891 3200-b-14. (10) Catholic Mission, 9 miles north of Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (11) Rosebud and Sioux Indians War Dance at Pine Ridge Agency, December 25, 1890 Northwestern Photo Co ? 12/25, 1890. (12) Kicking Bear, Brule Dakota Northwestern Photo Co. (13) Stinking Bear, a leader of the friendly Sioux Indians, Pine Ridge Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (14) Standing Elk (left) and Black Horse (right) Northwestern Photo Co 1891.
Catalog Number 4464 Dakota: (15) Description: Left to right: Two Strike, Crow Dog, High Hawk Photographer: Northwestern Photo Co Date: 1891 Negative Number: 42,827. (16) Left to right: J. M. McDonough, Good Lance, Big Talk, Frank Gerard (chief of scouts), Kicking Bear, Two Strike, Major Burke Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (17) Grand Council between friendly and hostile Indian chiefs at Pine Ridge Agency, January 17, 1891. Chief Kicking Bear talking Northwestern Photo Co January 17, 1891. (18) Indians at camp, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891 3200-b-12. (19) Beef Issue, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (20) Hospital, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891 (21) Captain Taylor and his Indian Scouts on drill, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co 1891. (22) Officers of the 7th Cavalry, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co Date Unknown. (23) Officers of the 9th Cavalry, Pine Ridge Agency Northwestern Photo Co. [1891 ?] (24) Pine Ridge Agency from the north. (not clear) 1891. (25) Wounded Knee battlefield 1891. (26) Wounged Knee battlefield 3200-b-9. (27) "Scaffold on which the first Indian was hanged. Deadwood, South Dakota." (28) Sitting Bull R. L. Kelly, Pierre, South Dakota 47,686-A. (29) Dakota man, 3/4 length L. W. Stilwell ? (30) Joe Bush L. W. Stilwell, Deadwood, South Dakota. (31) Two men, standing L. W. Stilwell? (32) War Bonnet L. W. Stilwell. (33) Bear Pipe L. W. Stilwell. (34) Ellis [?] Standing Bear L. W. Stilwell (35) Mother of Messiah "watching Ghost Dance at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, 1891"- A. G. Johnson George W. Scott, Fort Yates, North Dakota 1891. (36) Two men standing in front of covered wagon. (37) Four men standing in front of covered wagon. (38) Stinking Bear and Paint His Horse. (39) Row of men on horseback. (40) Omaha Dance, Rosebud Agency W. R. Cross, Hot Springs, South Dakota 1891 55,634. (41) Omaha Dance, Rosebud Agency W. R. Cross, Hot Springs, South Dakota. (42) Row of Indians in front of a reviewing stand. (43) Row of Indians sitting on ground; white man on horse behind them. (44) "Sioux Indians in town July 4, hitting a dime at distance 100 ft." (45) Three "Sioux Indians coming to town."
Catalog Number 4464 Dakota:(46) Description: Hospital, Pine Ridge Agency Photographer Unknown Date: 1891. (47) Funeral of an Indian policeman 1891. (48) Scaffold burials, Yankton Agency, Dakota Territory W. R. Cross. (49) Large group of men on horseback. (50) "U. S. Cavalry returning after Battle of Wounded Knee, S. D., 1891." (51) "U. S. Army Officers Pine Ridge, S. D. 1891." 3200-b-13. (52) Officers with Indian fighters, Pine Ridge Agency 1891. (53) Officers of 7th Cavalry, Pine Ridge. (54) "Soldiers of Wounded Knee, 1891." (55) "Gathering up the dead at the Battle of Wounded Knee, S. D." 1891 47,685-B.