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Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection

Artist:
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Names:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Extent:
196.8 Linear feet
186 Nitrate negatives
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Photographic photoprints
Photographs
Place:
New York, New York
Date:
1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972
Summary:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.
Scope and Contents:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.

Correspondence is with collectors, museums, galleries, artists, friends, family, charity organizations, admirers and those admired by Cornell, and World War II European pen pals. Discussions about the appreciation, donation, sale, purchase, and exhibition of Cornell's works are frequent, with the inclusion of shipping and loan documentation or notices of payment installments. Galleries and museums frequently request that Cornell agree to an exhibition, which he often declines, and fans request free works be mailed or affordable works be sold to them. With friends, artists, and those he admired, Cornell discussed topics that fascinate him, included bits of poetry or philosophical musings, sent clippings or a collaged letter, and occasionally discussed a project or work in process. After World War II, when so many were displaced by the war in Europe, Cornell answered ads for pen pals in the "Christian Science Monitor," often responding to requests for clothing or other goods, and sometimes exchanging many letters over several years. Family correspondence is with his mother, sisters, brother, and others, and often notes activities of the day, foods eaten, and general musings, as well as occasionally mentioning a project or artwork. Correspondents of note include Stan Brakhage, Betty Freeman, Charles Henri Ford, Allegra Kent, Yayoi Kusama, Roberto Matta, Marianne Moore, Octavio Paz, Sonia Sekula, Pavel Tchelitchew, Parker Tyler, Dorothea Tanning, and Betsy von Furstenberg, among others.

Cornell was often preoccupied with his thoughts, feelings, memories, a project or thematic "exploration," and jotted notes on seemingly any surface available. Notes and musings are on napkins, the backs of envelopes, newspaper clippings, and paper bags from record and magazine stores. Frequently, an observation would trigger a lengthy nostalgic moment, or a "feé," fairy-like child or girl, would capture his imagination and lead him to thoughts of 18th-century ballerinas and silent film stars. Cornell wrote longer diary notes, sometimes expanding on an earlier notation or emotion, and often wrote when he experienced trouble sleeping or woke early. Drafted letters to imaginary muses or admired individuals are interspersed among diaries, often revealing Cornell's yearnings to find emotional intimacy and human connection. Over time, Cornell revisited his notes and occasionally made further notations about renewed thoughts on a topic, dating the note with "revisited" or "reviewed." Notes are often written in a stream-of-consciousness style, for example, jumping from the mention of a record album or composer, to a ballerina of the same period, a note about a French poet, the memory of childhood, or an observation made earlier in the day, all in the space of a few lines. Notes about artistic processes or meanings behind works or images do occasionally emerge from the tangled, poetic notations. Notes also often provide insights into Cornell's internal emotional state and give clues about his intentions behind an artwork or a particular thematic fixation.

Financial materials document Cornell's professional and personal business activities, including the sale of artworks, annual expenses for supplies and household incidentals, payments and schedules for personal assistants, receipts for donations to charities and nonprofits, and tax documents. There is also information about who worked as assistants, or "helpers," in his later years and where Cornell purchased art supplies. Additionally, specific details are documented through receipts and invoices, such as what kind of paint he purchased. Estate records include preparations made for Cornell's artworks after his death, and clippings about other deceased artist's estates show that he thought often about such arrangements in his later years.

Exhibition files highlight several select solo exhibitions for Cornell, as well as preparations and planning for the "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" in honor of his brother in 1966. Also included are several early exhibition catalogs and announcements, including "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932) and "Exhibition of Objects (Bibloquet) by Joseph Cornell" (December 6-31, 1939) at the Julien Levy Gallery, and "Romantic Museum: Portraits of Women, Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946) at the Hugo Gallery.

Film projects and collected film materials consist of files related to Cornell's various experimental film projects: "Aviary," "Cappuccino," "Centuries of June," "Fable for Fountains," "Nymphlight," "Serafina's Garden," and unrealized film scenario "Monsieur Phot." Files include film-making notes, correspondence, and photographs. Cornell's interest in film also led him to collect film-related materials, such as film stills, film posters, and screening programs. Scattered correspondence documents the interest other institutions and individuals had in purchasing and viewing his collection. Though most of his collected film stills and movie posters were donated to the Anthology Film Archives, film stills from "Escape Me Never" (1935) and "The Passion of Joan of Arc" (1928) are still within the collection, as well as film-screening programs for Cornell's collection of films.

Writing and design projects document Cornell's work authoring articles and designing issues of specialty dance magazine "Dance Index," and his layouts for popular magazines like "Good Housekeeping," "House and Garden," and "Mademoiselle." Other writing projects include brochures dedicated to opera singers Maria Malibran and Giulia Grisi, "Maria" and "Bel Canto Pet." Materials used for these brochures, such as copper photo engraving plates, are also found. Design work includes a series of Christmas cards created with The Museum of Modern Art as well as traced patterns ("textile tracings") and design clippings from Cornell's time working as a "textile designer" for Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio.

Cornell acquired troves of source material from bookstalls, antique stores, sporting good and department stores, hardware stores, and magazine and record shops. He kept boxes and files of material on admired individuals, such as actresses, artists, dancers, and singers, as well as on art projects or thematic "explorations." Files are on general topics such as American history, scientific phenomena, animals, plants, and humankind, as well as on series of artworks, such as "Castles," "Homage to the Romantic Ballet," and "Medici Slot Machines." Focused "exploration" projects include "Celestial Theatre," "Colombier," "GC 44," and "Switzerland," among others. Materials include photographs, photostats, maps, book fragments, autographed letters, notes, collage clippings and cutouts, collected prints and engravings, box and collage fragments, and scattered artifacts.

Collected ephemera includes large amounts of blank postcards and greeting cards, stamps, collected bus and train tickets, food labels and packaging, decals, and other materials. Artifacts are three-dimensional collected objects and source objects, which include found objects from the streets, dried flowers, and pieces of nature gathered from walks around his neighborhood. Cornell may have gathered materials because they inspired a memory or nostalgic feeling, or because they fit with a bin of other similar objects to select from for an artwork in progress.

Photographs found within the collection are of Cornell at work and as a child with family. Also found are assorted personal and family photographs, photographs of Cornell's attic and garage storage, and photographs of his Utopia Parkway house. Photographs of artwork include few installation photographs, in addition to photographs of Cornell's boxes and collages. Collected photographic materials include vintage photographs, such as tintypes, a cyanotype, stereoscopic glass slides, albumen prints, cabinet cards, and cartes-de-visite. Cornell also collected cased photographs, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and one opalotype. Negatives and photostats were often produced from various prints and even other photographs and used in Cornell's boxes and collages. Images are of men and women, actors, authors, dancers, performers, well-known men and women, royalty, places, and artwork. Photographs of note include those by Hans Namuth of Willem and Lisa de Kooning and of Edward Hopper's bedroom; photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson; a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron; photographs by Brassai; and a photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz from "Camerawork."

Also found in the collection are works of art by others, including a sketch by Pavel Tchelitchew, as well as artwork by Cornell, such as unfinished collages, Rorschach drawings or ink blots, and childhood artwork. Printed material includes assorted bulletins, flyers, exhibition materials for other artists, journals, and sent printed membership and charity materials. Magazines, including "View," are also included, and often have annotations by Cornell or a note to "cut" or "review" with page numbers. A large amount of magazine and newspaper clippings are in the collection, sometimes collected with a group of like material by Cornell, and at other times simply gathered in heaps. Occasional annotations are also found on the clippings.

Cornell's personal library and book collection includes over 2500 titles, ranging from fiction, poetry, and cinema, to history, science, and travel. Notable among the titles are "Baedeker's" travel guides that Cornell often sourced for his "Hotel" box series, as well as an influential publication by Max Ernst, "La Femme 100 têtes," which includes a typed letter and exhibition flyer tucked within. Books often have annotations, some fairly extensive, by Cornell, and assorted collected items, notes, and correspondence tucked between pages. Pages were often cut by Cornell, either to make photostats and use in a box, or to file with other thematic "explorations." A wide range of authors and topics provide insight into Cornell's interests and to ideas behind artwork and diary notes. Cornell's collection of record albums includes over 145 records. These contain inserted notes and clippings and are often referenced in diary notes Cornell made, noting a recent album or song listened to while at work in his studio.

The papers of Cornell's mother, Helen Storms Cornell, and his brother, Robert Cornell, are also included in the collection. Both lived with Cornell his whole life, spending the most time with him at their home at 3708 Utopia Parkway. Financial materials document shared responsibilities for billing, utilities, household fixes and chores, and expenditures, and Helen kept detailed financial records in a series of ledgers. Robert notes when he borrowed money from Cornell, or when he means to pay Cornell back for the purchase of a typewriter. Activities documented in diaries also occasionally cross paths with Cornell, noting his visitors or an exchange of letters continued after introductions through Cornell. Personal activities, such as Robert's interest in his train collection and his drawing projects and cartoon series, are also documented.
Arrangement:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection is arranged into 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1972 (Boxes 1, 98, OV118; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1813, 1934-circa 1973 (Boxes 1-8, 86; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Notes, 1940-1976 (Boxes 8-10, 98-99, 135, OV108, OV119; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business and Estate Records, 1950-1978 (Boxes 10-14; 4.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1932-1973 (Box 14; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Film Projects and Collected Film Materials, circa 1924-1972 (Boxes 14-16, 100, 133; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Writing and Design Projects, circa 1910s, 1936-1962 (Boxes 16-18, 86, 100, 131-132, OV109-OV111, OV120-OV122; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Source Material, 1750-circa 1911, 1926-1972 (Boxes 19-49, 86-92, 96, 100-105, 126-130, 132-137, OV112-OV115, OV125; 42.2 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, 1768, circa 1839-1972 (Boxes 49-52; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1800s-1972 (Boxes 52-56, 80-86, 93, 106, 128, 133, OV116, OV123-OV124; 7.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1810-1972 (Boxes 56-57, 107, OV117; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1855-1972 (Boxes 57-76, 94-96, 107; 16 linear feet)

Series 13: Book Collection and Personal Library, 1722-1980 (99.8 linear feet)

Series 14: Record Album Collection, circa 1925-1974 (3.2 linear feet)

Series 15: Cornell Family Papers, 1910-1980 (Boxes 77-79, 97, 107; 3.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) was a self-taught assemblage and collage artist, and filmmaker, active in New York City. He was born in Nyack, New York on December 24, 1903, and died of heart failure at his home in Queens, New York on December 29, 1972. The oldest of four children, he was born Joseph I. Cornell to his mother, Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), and his father, Joseph I. Cornell (1875-1917). Cornell had two younger sisters, Elizabeth ("Betty") Cornell Benton (1905-2000) and Helen ("Sissy") Cornell Jagger (1906-2001), as well as one brother, Robert Cornell (1910-1965), who had cerebral palsy.

Cornell attended the Phillips Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, beginning shortly after his father's death in 1917. He attended for four years but did not receive a diploma, and soon began work as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in Manhattan. His work took him, by foot, through the city, visiting secondhand bookshops on Fourth Avenue, browsing music stores and magazine shops, and catching early shows at the Metropolitan Opera House. He would occasionally wait outside the stage doors for favorite singers and dancers to emerge, requesting signatures on photographs or bits of costumes.

Around 1926, Cornell joined the Christian Science Church, joined by his brother Robert shortly thereafter, and both continued to be lifelong members. Cornell kept a number of books in his personal library on Christian Science teachings and regularly subscribed to "The Christian Science Monitor."

After living in several rental houses in Bayside, New York, Cornell's mother purchased a house for the family in 1929 in Flushing, Queens. Cornell, along with his mother and brother, would live at 3708 Utopia Parkway, for the rest of their lives. His two sisters soon married and moved away, eventually settling in Westhampton, Long Island and in the poultry-farming business.

With no formal art training to speak of, Cornell's first work was a Max Ernst-inspired collage, "Untitled (Schooner)," created in 1931. He was especially inspired by Ernst's collage novel, "La Femme 100 têtes," published in 1929. French artist Odilon Redon was also among the few artists Cornell named as an influence on his art. His first sculptural works were small, cardboard pill boxes with bits of ephemera, costume adornments, and nature hidden inside. Cornell also created a series of glass bell jar works, placing small trinkets and Victorian-era-like compositions within. It was these early collages and bell jar works that were included in Cornell's debut exhibition, "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932), a group show at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell designed the announcement for the show and exhibited alongside Max Ernst, Man Ray, Pierre Roy, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Atget, George Platt Lynes, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dalí. Months later, Cornell was invited to have his first solo show, "Objects by Joseph Cornell: Minutiae, Glass Bells, Shadow Boxes, Coups d'Oeil, Jouets Surréalistes" (November 26-December 30, 1932), also at the Julien Levy Gallery.

In 1932, after eleven years of work, Cornell was laid off from the William Whitman Company due to the Great Depression. Soon after, he took on more responsibility in the church, working part-time as an attendant in the Christian Science Reading Room in Great Neck, New York. Beginning in 1933, he taught Sunday school classes for three years and in 1935, became the Sunday school librarian. However, his religious activities and artistic ventures continued to remain separate.

In the early 1930s, Cornell progressed from movie lover to filmmaker. When Julien Levy began his New York Film Society in 1933, holding screenings of various experimental films in the gallery, Cornell began buying and collecting films and film stills in earnest. He set up a 16-millimeter projector in his home to screen favorites, such as those by Georges Méliès, D.W. Griffith, and Louis Feuillade. His collection quickly grew to over 2,500 film stills and several hundred films, and included silent era films, such as nature documentaries, goofy newsreels, travelogues, early cartoons, and slapstick comedies, as well as several feature films. In 1933, Cornell wrote a screenplay, or "scenario," entitled "Monsieur Phot." Between 1935 and 1937, Cornell also occasionally created publicity photomontages for Universal and Columbia studios. Of the nearly thirty films Cornell created, periods of activity can generally be separated into two areas: collage films of the late 1930s, consisting of combined elements from films in his own collection, and films he directed in the 1950s, which were collaborations with other filmmakers set in New York City. "Rose Hobart," Cornell's most celebrated collage film, was created and shown in the Julien Levy Gallery in 1936 and includes clipped footage from "East of Borneo." Later films were directed and filmed with cinematographers Stan Brakhage, Rudy Burckhardt, and Larry Jordan.

In 1934, Cornell began a job at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio as a "textile designer," a job he held for six years. Continuing to work at his kitchen table in the evenings, Cornell completed his first assemblage box construction, "Untitled (Soap Bubble Set)," in 1936. It was first exhibited at The Museum of Modern Art's show, "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" (December 9, 1936-January 17, 1937). This work was also the first to be acquired by a museum, purchased for $60.00 by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut in 1938. Cornell's European debut was also in 1938, as one of three Americans represented in the "Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" (January 17-Febuary 24, 1938) at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris, alongside Man Ray and Anne Clark.

At the end of 1939, Cornell began corresponding with poet Charles Henri Ford, founder of avant-garde magazine "View," Pavel Tchelitchew, and Parker Tyler. After his "Soap Bubble Sets," this period saw the development of Cornell's homages to singers and actresses, including "Untitled (Fortune-Telling Parrot for Carmen Miranda)," the destroyed "Garbo (Greta Garbo in the Legendary Film 'The Crystal Mask,' c. 1845)," and "Dressing Room for Gilles." He also began using photostats of art reproduction prints, as with the print of Jean Antoine-Watteau's painting, "Pierrot" (circa 1719), used in his "Gilles" box.

In the 1940s, the Romantic ballet emerged as Cornell's new topic of interest. Through his friend Pavel Tchelitchew, Cornell was introduced to the School of American Ballet and New York City Ballet founders, Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine. Cornell collected dance memorabilia and had a great love of the Romantic ballet. His favorite dancers were primarily ballerinas of the nineteenth century, including Fanny Cerrito, Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Lucille Grahn, and Carlotta Grisi. Cornell's "Homage to the Romantic Ballet" works largely took the shape of jewel-box style wooden boxes with glass overlays and included bits of velvet, tulle, sequins, crystals, and chiffon, occasionally collected from dancers themselves. His most well-known work of this series is "Taglioni's Jewel Casket" (1940). Cornell also admired several living ballet dancers, including Tamara Toumanova, Zizi Jeanmaire, and Allegra Kent, who would all make their way into Cornell's box works and/or collages. Collecting for the "exploration," "Portrait of Ondine," Cornell's cased portfolio dedication to Fanny Cerrito and her role in the ballet "Ondine," began in the 1940s, though not completed until around 1960.

In late 1940, Cornell quit his job at Traphagen to concentrate on freelance commercial magazine design and editorial work during the day and his artwork at night. That same year, Charles Henri Ford started "View" magazine to promote Surrealists and Neo-Romantics in New York City and often asked Cornell to contribute. Published in the December 1941-January 1942 issue, one of his early contributions was a collage dedication to stage actress Hedy Lamarr: "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (1941). Along with writing the accompanying text, he created a photomontage of Lamarr with her face overlaying the painted portrait of a Renaissance boy by Italian painter Giorgione. Peggy Guggenheim, at the advice of Marcel Duchamp, purchased multiple Cornell works prior to opening her new gallery, Art of This Century. Cornell also befriended Roberto Matta Echaurren, another Surrealist living in exile, who introduced him to Robert Motherwell.

After deciding to fully dedicate his time to his art in early 1940, he set up a studio in his basement. Complete with floor-to-ceiling wooden shelving, he kept his large collection of boxed source material stacked with handwritten labels in cardboard boxes. Themed folders of materials such as "Stamps" or "Maps" were kept in stacks and works in progress and finished works were stored in the basement, garage, and attic. Entering a renewed period of productivity, Cornell embarked on many new and important box projects in 1942. One of the first boxes created in his new basement studio, and the first of the "Penny Arcade" or "Medici Slot Machine" series, was "Medici Slot Machine" (1942), which includes a photostat of "Portrait of Marquess Massimiliano Stampa" (1557) by Sofonisba Anguissola. Another work from this time is the first of his "Castle" or "Palace" series, "Setting for a Fairy Tale" (1942), which uses a photostat of a French building from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's book, "Les Plus excellents bastiments de France" (1576). "Untitled (Pharmacy)" (circa 1942) was the first of his "Pharmacy" series and included twenty-two apothecary jars. Cornell tended to work in series and created thirteen "Palace" boxes between 1942 and 1951, and ultimately created six "Pharmacy" works.

In 1943, Cornell began working at an electronics company, the Allied Control Company, Inc., to do his part to contribute to the defense effort during the war. He also sent correspondence and care packages to displaced Europeans, who listed their needs in "The Christian Science Monitor." Influenced by World War II, one of his strongest works to emerge in 1943 was "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery." Another notable work to come out of this period, "The Crystal Cage (Portrait of Berenice)," was an excerpt from one of his album "explorations" that was published in the January 1943 issue of "View."

Cornell left his job at Allied Control in 1944, but soon began working at the Garden Centre in Flushing, owned by a fellow Christian Scientist. Cornell was often nostalgic for this time in his life, devoting an entire "exploration" of material fondly remembered as "GC 44." He rode a bicycle to work and enjoyed collecting trips gathering dried grasses, driftwood, shells, and other relics of nature on the same bicycle as he rode through the streets of Queens. During this time, he continued to tend to his projects for "Dance Index," a magazine founded in 1942 by Lincoln Kirstein, but taken over by Donald Windham in 1944. Cornell designed several covers for the magazine and was given control of the entire summer 1944 issue, which he devoted to the Romantic ballet. He also devoted a special 1945 issue to Hans Christian Andersen, making great use of the New York Public Library Picture Collection.

Throughout the 1940s, Cornell continued to support himself with commercial design work for magazines like "Vogue," "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar," "Town & Country," and "Mademoiselle." In 1946, after thirteen years at the Julien Levy Gallery, he joined the Hugo Gallery. In December 1946, Cornell's solo exhibition, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell," celebrated his favorite movie stars, singers, and ballet dancers, and included his work created for the show, "Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall)." Cornell's "Greta Garbo" box, as well as "Souvenir for Singleton," an homage to Jennifer Jones and her role in the film "Love Letters," were also included in the show. In late 1948, his West Coast debut was in the exhibition, "Objects by Joseph Cornell," held at the Copley Gallery. The end of the 1940s saw the final issue of "View" magazine in 1947, the closure of the Julien Levy Gallery in April 1949, and Cornell's departure from the Hugo Gallery after his last show in November 1949.

In late 1949, Cornell joined the Charles Egan Gallery, known primarily for showing Abstract Expressionists. At this time, Cornell was working on a new series of boxes known as his "Aviary" works, most of which include a white-painted box with cutouts of birds mounted on wood. Though he had worked on bird-related boxes before, including an "Owl" series in the mid-1940s, his "Fortune Telling Parrot" (1939), and "Object 1941" (1941), these newer works were stripped of French elements and left "clean and abstract" by design. His first show at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 7, 1949-January 7, 1950), included twenty-six "Aviary" works, nearly all created in 1949. Donald Windham agreed to write the foreword for the exhibition catalog, a single folded sheet, and Cornell gave him one of the boxes in the show, "Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet," in appreciation. Through the Egan Gallery, Cornell became friends with a new group of artists, including Franz Kline, Jack Tworkov, and Willem de Kooning. Cornell also held two screenings of a selection of his collected films at Subjects of the Artist, an art school founded by Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, David Hare, and William Baziotes.

In 1950, Cornell's second show at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other New Work" (December 1, 1950-January 13, 1951), introduced his new "Observatory" series. These works are largely defined by stark, whitewashed spaces with astronomical charts and constellations replacing colorful birds. The Museum of Modern Art purchased its first Cornell work from this show in early 1951, "Central Park Carrousel, in Memoriam" (1950).

For three months in 1951, Cornell was beset by various ailments and had trouble finding the energy to create new work. He worried more for his aging mother and the health of his brother. After a monthlong vacation with his sisters in Westhampton, he returned with renewed interest in Emily Dickinson's poetry. His whitewashed boxes took on a new form in his newest "Dovecote" series, using grids and circular cutouts. The works then transformed into homages to Dickinson, notably "Toward the Blue Peninsula: For Emily Dickinson" (circa 1953), and then to his "Hotel" series. Cornell's "Hotel" boxes include photostats of vintage European ads for hotels collected from vintage travel guides, especially "Baedeker's," adhered to the back walls of the boxes. Another new series of work, his "Juan Gris" series, was dedicated to Cubist artist Juan Gris. Between 1953 and the mid-1960s, Cornell created at least fifteen "Juan Gris" boxes, which often include a cutout of a white cockatoo in a Cubist-collage habitat. Cornell's third and last show at Egan Gallery, "Night Voyage" (February 10-March 28, 1953), included some of these newest works. After leaving Egan Gallery, his work was introduced to Chicago collectors in a solo show at the Frumkin Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: 10 Years of His Art" (April 10-May 7, 1953), which included nearly thirty pieces. Cornell's first museum retrospective was this same show held at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis (July 12-August 30, 1953).

As New York City continued to change, Cornell grew more nostalgic for the city he had explored since the 1920s. The impending closure of the Third Avenue El train prompted him to dream up a film project to capture its last days, resulting in "Gnir Rednow," a reworking of Stan Brakhage's 1955, "Wonder Ring." During this time, Cornell joined the Stable Gallery, run by Eleanor Ward, interacting often with Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Joan Mitchell, remaining there until the end of the 1950s. His astronomy-themed exhibition, "Winter Night Skies" (December 12, 1955-January 13, 1956), included his "Night Skies" series of work with celestial chart fragments, Greek mythological figures, and paint-splattered "windows" representative of star-filled night skies. In 1956, he became aware of ballerina Allegra Kent, and began a series of work devoted to her, the first of which was "Via Parmigianino (Villa Allegra)" (1956), which included a photostat of a painting by Parmigianino, "The Madonna of the Long Neck" (circa 1540). In late 1957, after two years, Cornell had his last show at Stable Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: Selected Works" (December 2-31, 1957), consisting of a series of "Sand Fountain" boxes and "Space Object" or "Celestial Navigation" works. The "Sand Fountain" boxes included different colors of sand meant to flow within, often from the tops into cordial glasses. His "Celestial Navigations" included galaxy-like compositions set within the boxes, with rolling, painted cork balls, metal rings, and constellation charts, sometimes hovering over cordial glasses or clay pipes. This last Stable Gallery show earned him his first published profile, written by Howard Griffin for the December 1957 issue of "Art News." Also in 1957, he won the Kohnstamm Prize for Construction at the Art Institute of Chicago's 62rd Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture.

Towards the end of the 1950s, Cornell spent less time creating new bodies of work, and focused more on revisiting previous series and reviewing piles of collected source material. In 1959, Cornell returned to making collages, frequently sourcing popular magazines. In December 1959, Cornell was awarded $1,500 for his "Orion" collage, entered in the Art Institute of Chicago's "63rd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture." Also in December, he was offered a show at Bennington College in Vermont, which he titled, "Bonitas Solstitialis: Selected Works by Joseph Cornell and an exploration of the Colombier" (November 20-December 15, 1959). The show included one of his newest "explorations" of collected material related to "colombier," or pigeon houses.

By 1962, Cornell was working diligently on new collages, using Masonite boards and colorful magazine clippings. He also began creating collages using nude images interspersed with constellation clippings or hazy blue dyes. As in previous decades and art movements, Cornell became acquainted with new artists, spending less time in the city and more time hosting visitors at his Utopia Parkway home. Visitors included artists Walter De Maria, Robert Whitman, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and Robert Indiana. Tony Curtis also became a frequent visitor and friend, introduced by Richard Feigen in 1964. The early 1960s was also the first time Cornell put out an advertisement for assistants in the "Long Island Star-Journal," employing a number of young men and women who helped organize clippings and run errands. Cornell also met Joyce Hunter, a young runaway waitress at a city coffee shop, who would occupy his thoughts and diary notes for the next several years. When she was murdered at the end of 1964, Cornell paid for her funeral. He went on to make several "Penny Arcade" collages in memoriam to her, including, "Penny Arcade (re-autumnal)" (1964).

In 1964, Cornell began friendships with several women including artist Carolee Schneeman, who was his first assistant in the early 1960s. He also met artist Yayoi Kusama through art dealer Gertrude Stein. After becoming friends, she visited him often and they exchanged letters and notes. As he did with other artist friends, Cornell supported her by purchasing several of her early watercolor paintings, and they stayed connected until his death in 1972.

Cornell's life greatly changed in 1965 with the death of his brother, Robert. By this time, his mother lived with his sister in Long Island, and Cornell was alone in the Utopia Parkway house for the first time. He exchanged frequent letters and phone calls with his mother and devoted much time to thinking about Robert and Joyce, often aligning them in his diary notations. Cornell also created a series of collages dedicated to his brother's memory, incorporating photostats of Robert's hundreds of drawings into Cornell's work, as with the later collage, "The Heart on the Sleeve" (1972). Cornell's "Time Transfixed" series of collages were also dedications to Robert's memory, referencing Magritte and Robert's love of trains. He mounted an exhibition, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" (January 4-29, 1966), at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, where he showed Robert's artwork alongside his newly created collage dedications.

After Robert's death, Cornell relied more heavily on assistants, going through many part-time "helpers." In October 1966, Cornell's mother died, adding her to his constant thoughts and diaries. Though he was still grieving, he was given two major retrospectives in 1967. The first was at the Pasadena Art Museum, put on by James Demetrion and Walter Hopps, "An Exhibiton of Works by Joseph Cornell" (January 9-February 11, 1967). The second retrospective was at the Guggenheim Museum just three months later, "Joseph Cornell" (May 4-June 35, 1967), organized by Diane Waldman. After these shows, he was highlighted in the December 15, 1967 issue of "Life" in the article, "The Enigmatic Bachelor of Utopia Parkway."

In 1968, Cornell was given an "award of merit," which included a medal and $1,000, by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also given a medal and $1,000 by the Brandeis University Creative Arts Awards in the painting category, along with an exhibition. Days later, "The New York Times" announced Cornell the winner, along with Donald Judd, of India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art. The Brandeis exhibition, "Boxes and Collages by Joseph Cornell" (May 20-June 23, 1968), was organized by William Seitz and concentrated on Cornell's more recent 1960s collages. Cornell was also included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's hundredth anniversary show, "New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940 to 1970" (October 18, 1969-February 1, 1970), where twenty-two of Cornell's boxes were shown in their own gallery. At the end of 1970, Cornell was given a solo show at the Metropolitan, "Collages by Joseph Cornell" (December 10, 1970-January 24, 1971), which included forty-five of his newest collages.

Now preferring to stay closer to his home in Flushing, Cornell was more interested in sharing his art with young adults and children, than an adult audience. He hosted a group of high school students, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art's education department, at his home in conjunction with his collage show (1970-1971). He also showed his work in the art department of Queens College of the City University of New York. Cornell still hosted visitors on occasion, having Yoko Ono and John Lennon at his home at least once. Leila Hadley, Betsy von Furstenberg, and Anne Jackson also made frequent visits. With his deteriorating health, Cornell worried about what would happen to his work after his death and hired lawyer Harry Torczyner to help him plan his estate and get his affairs in order.

In 1972, Cornell had a show at the Cooper Union, a college in New York, specifically for children. He displayed his boxes and collages at child-height and had cherry soda and brownies at the opening reception on February 10. He then held a show at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, also for children: "Children's Preview of the Exhibition of Joseph Cornell – Collages and Boxes (April 18-June 17, 1972). In the winter of 1972, at the request of the Phoenix House drug treatment and prevention program, Cornell contributed to a charity project compiling limited-edition lithographic prints for a portfolio, which included artists like David Hockney, James Rosenquist, and Ellsworth Kelly.

On December 29, 1972, a week after turning sixty-nine, Cornell died of heart failure at his home. He was cremated and interred near the graves of his mother, father, and brother, overlooking the Hudson River in Nyack, New York.

Works Cited:

1. Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination." New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press, 2007. Exhibition Catalog.

2. McShine, Kynaston. "Joseph Cornell." New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.

3. San Francisco Cinematheque and The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Joseph Cornell: Films." 2007. Exhibition Program. (Presented in conjunction with SFMOMA's exhibition of "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination").

4. Schaffner, Ingrid and Lisa Jacobs. "Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery." Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1998.

5. Solomon, Deborah. "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell." New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
Separated Materials:
The Smithsonian Archives of American Art houses the Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972.
Provenance:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection was donated to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by Joseph Cornell's sister and brother-in-law, Elizabeth Cornell Benton and John A. Benton, in 1978, which prompted the creation of the Joseph Cornell Study Center. Additional materials were donated in installments by the artist's estate, the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation, from 1985 to 1997. Elizabeth and John A. Benton originally donated 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books to the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, which were subsequently transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Joseph Cornell Study Center in 1994 and 1995.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection requires an advanced appointment. Contact collection staff at least two weeks prior to preferred date, at AmericanArtCornellStudy@si.edu.

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, Series 13: Personal Library and Book Collection, and Series 14: Record Album Collection, are still undergoing processing and preservation and may not be available for research use. Record albums are unavailable for playback. Contact collection staff for full lists of publications and record albums.
Rights:
Unpublished materials are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.
Occupation:
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1860-1870 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Cartes-de-visite
Photographs -- Daguerreotypes -- 1840-1860
Citation:
Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Identifier:
SAAM.JCSC.1
See more items in:
Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Research and Scholars Center
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ih7d97fc249-474d-41bf-953d-5305df1e4c06
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-saam-jcsc-1

The Garden Club of America collection

Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Names:
New York Flower Show  Search this
Extent:
37000 Slides (photographs) (35mm slides)
33 Linear feet ((garden files))
3,000 Lantern slides
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Lantern slides
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
circa 1920-present
Summary:
The Garden Club of America Collection at the Smithsonian's Archives of American Gardens contains over 100,000 images (lantern slides, 35mm slides, photographs, and digital images) and garden files that document thousands of historic and contemporary gardens (public and private) across the United States. Each garden file includes a range of documentation such as descriptive information, photocopied articles from journals, newspapers, or books, planting lists, correspondence, and/or landscape plans and drawings. These files have been compiled by members of The Garden Club of America (GCA). Some of the gardens in the GCA Collection have been photographed over the course of several decades; others are documented at a single point in time. In addition to images of American gardens, there are glass lantern slides of the New York Flower Show (1941-1951) and trips that GCA members took to other countries, including Mexico (1937), Italy, Spain, Japan (1935), France (1936), England (1929), and Scotland.

A number of the slides are copies of historic images from outside repositories including horticultural and historical societies or from horticultural books and publications. The GCA made a concerted effort in the mid-1980s to acquire these images in order to increase its documentation of American garden history. Because of copyright considerations, use of these particular images may be restricted.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Garden Club of America was established in 1913 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when the Garden Club of Philadelphia and eleven other garden clubs met to create a national garden club. Its purpose is to foster the knowledge and love of gardening and to restore and protect the quality of the environment through educational programs and gardening and conservation efforts. The GCA was incorporated in Delaware in 1923, with its headquarters established in New York City. Today, local clubs are organized under twelve regional zones. The GCA continues its tradition of hosting flower shows and publishing material related to gardening in the United States.

The GCA's glass lantern slides were used by The GCA for presentations and lectures about notable gardens throughout the United States dating back to colonial times. An effort was made in the late 1980s, in preparation of the 75th anniversary of the Garden Club of America's founding, to collect the disbursed slides. These slides were to eventually form the Slide Library of Notable American Parks and Gardens. The informational value of this collection is extensive since a number of images of the more than 4,500 gardens represented show garden designs that have changed over time or no longer exist. While the majority of images document a range of designed upper and upper-middle class gardens throughout the U.S., the scope of the collection is expanding as volunteers photograph and document contemporary gardens including community and vernacular gardens.

The gardens illustrate the design work of dozens of landscape architects including Marian Coffin, Beatrix Farrand, Lawrence Halprin, Hare & Hare, Umberto Innocenti, Gertrude Jekyll, Jens Jensen, Warren Manning, the Olmsted Brothers, Charles Platt, Ellen Biddle Shipman, and Fletcher Steele. Because of their proximity to the gardens, works of notable architects and sculptors may also be featured in the images.
Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- France  Search this
Gardens -- Italy  Search this
Gardens -- Japan  Search this
Gardens -- Mexico  Search this
Flower shows  Search this
Gardening -- United States -- societies, etc  Search this
Gardens -- England  Search this
Landscape architecture  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Spain  Search this
Gardens -- Scotland  Search this
Genre/Form:
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Lantern slides
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb617385372-1028-4cb7-b07d-04fea2e51c47
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-gca
Online Media:

Laure Prouvost- Artist Talk - Hirshhorn Museum

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-05-05T18:43:50.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_HIKZHz1bm8Q

Yves Klein's Anthropometries

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-05-10T14:36:10.000Z
YouTube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_gGLv2GIR9sQ

Artist Talk: JR

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2023-06-27T21:18:22.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_vZnjfWNe1a0

Women Photographers in Garden History

Creator:
Smithsonian Gardens  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-09-24T16:54:24.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Gardens  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianGardens
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianGardens
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_2b7Hp25e7gI

Lavandula × intermedia

Life Form:
Herbaceous perennial
Bloom Characteristics:
Spikes of purple flowers are 1-1.7" (2.5-4.3 cm) long.
Foliage Characteristics:
Narrow, gray-green leaves are up to 2.5" (6.4 cm) long.
Fragrance:
Lavender
Range:
SE France to NE Spain
Topic:
Display Gardens  Search this
Living Collections  Search this
Common Name:
Lavandin
Lavender
Group:
[vascular plants]
Class:
Equisetopsida
Subclass:
Magnoliidae
Superorder:
Asteranae
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Lavandula
Species:
× intermedia
Accession Number:
2021-0624A
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian Gardens Display Collection
On Display:
Arts and Industries Building
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ax76954aab7-fc5a-418b-a5d2-f962867aa419
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:ofeo-sg_2021-0624A

Lavandula × intermedia

Life Form:
Herbaceous perennial
Bloom Characteristics:
Spikes of purple flowers are 1-1.7" (2.5-4.3 cm) long.
Foliage Characteristics:
Narrow, gray-green leaves are up to 2.5" (6.4 cm) long.
Fragrance:
Lavender
Range:
SE France to NE Spain
Topic:
Display Gardens  Search this
Living Collections  Search this
Common Name:
Lavandin
Lavender
Group:
[vascular plants]
Class:
Equisetopsida
Subclass:
Magnoliidae
Superorder:
Asteranae
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Lavandula
Species:
× intermedia
Accession Number:
2021-0626A
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian Gardens Display Collection
On Display:
Arts and Industries Building
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ax7ed6d03ce-8c4f-4b28-bdb3-ffc5fda84ede
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:ofeo-sg_2021-0626A

Lavandula × intermedia

Life Form:
Herbaceous perennial
Bloom Characteristics:
Spikes of purple flowers are 1-1.7" (2.5-4.3 cm) long.
Foliage Characteristics:
Narrow, gray-green leaves are up to 2.5" (6.4 cm) long.
Fragrance:
Lavender
Range:
SE France to NE Spain
Topic:
Display Gardens  Search this
Living Collections  Search this
Common Name:
Lavandin
Lavender
Group:
[vascular plants]
Class:
Equisetopsida
Subclass:
Magnoliidae
Superorder:
Asteranae
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Lavandula
Species:
× intermedia
Accession Number:
2021-0639A
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian Gardens Display Collection
On Display:
Arts and Industries Building
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ax75f1e665d-ed84-4f29-a636-aa9460e1726c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:ofeo-sg_2021-0639A

Lavandula × intermedia

Life Form:
Herbaceous perennial
Bloom Characteristics:
Spikes of purple flowers are 1-1.7" (2.5-4.3 cm) long.
Foliage Characteristics:
Narrow, gray-green leaves are up to 2.5" (6.4 cm) long.
Fragrance:
Lavender
Range:
SE France to NE Spain
Topic:
Display Gardens  Search this
Living Collections  Search this
Common Name:
Lavandin
Lavender
Group:
[vascular plants]
Class:
Equisetopsida
Subclass:
Magnoliidae
Superorder:
Asteranae
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Lavandula
Species:
× intermedia
Accession Number:
2021-0641A
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian Gardens Display Collection
On Display:
Arts and Industries Building
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ax795d6288f-082f-496a-ac58-d9d418785df0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:ofeo-sg_2021-0641A

Lavandula × intermedia

Life Form:
Herbaceous perennial
Bloom Characteristics:
Spikes of purple flowers are 1-1.7" (2.5-4.3 cm) long.
Foliage Characteristics:
Narrow, gray-green leaves are up to 2.5" (6.4 cm) long.
Fragrance:
Lavender
Range:
SE France to NE Spain
Topic:
Display Gardens  Search this
Living Collections  Search this
Common Name:
Lavandin
Lavender
Group:
[vascular plants]
Class:
Equisetopsida
Subclass:
Magnoliidae
Superorder:
Asteranae
Order:
Lamiales
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Lavandula
Species:
× intermedia
Accession Number:
2021-0645A
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian Gardens Display Collection
On Display:
Arts and Industries Building
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ax71ed57f3a-2d73-465e-9b32-becf45f51f0e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:ofeo-sg_2021-0645A

In Dialogue: Smithsonian Objects and Social Justice with the Smithsonian Gardens

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-09-08T14:44:02.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_FMvwZWA0AsQ

Providence -- Rochambeau House

Former owner:
Sharpe, Mary Elizabeth, 1884-1985  Search this
Sharpe, Henry Dexter  Search this
Landscape designer:
Sharpe, Mary Elizabeth, 1884-1985  Search this
Architect:
Rice, Arthur  Search this
Parker, Thomas & Rice  Search this
Landscape architect:
Coffin, Marian Cruger, 1876-1957  Search this
Cautley, Marjorie Sewell, 1891-  Search this
Restoration architect:
Dinneen, Ralph E.  Search this
R. E. Dinneen Architects & Planners, Inc.  Search this
Gardener:
Brannon, Kevin  Search this
Grounds superintendent:
Vetere, Pat  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of New Haven  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Rochambeau House (Providence, Rhode Island)
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Providence County -- Providence
Scope and Contents:
The folders include worksheets, copies of garden designs with planting plans, black and white photographs of the garden, black and white and color photocopies of images of the garden and Mary Elizabeth Sharpe, photocopies of articles about the house and garden, an unpublished 1990 paper by Lisa Hartjen entitled "The Gardens of 84 Prospect Street," notes on the garden by Mary Elizabeth Sharpe, a photocopy of Marjorie Sewell Cautley's 1937 consultant report, and correspondence and other information relating to the garden and Mary Elizabeth Sharpe.
General:
Situated on an irregular two-thirds acre lot, this garden's development began in 1929 under the supervision of its owner, Mary Elizabeth Sharpe, and continued over a period of 55 years. It is now in full maturity. Following Mrs. Sharpe's death in 1985, the property passed to Brown University, where it is now the home of the French Studies and Hispanic Studies departments. It was renamed Rochambeau House for Jean de Vimeu, Comte de Rochambeau, Maréchal de France and commandant of French forces encamped at Providence during the American Revolution. Although some features have changed and trees have been replaced, the design concept still remains one of a French-style garden composed of plants chosen for year-round green interest. Features include a formal, boxwood-edged lawn, paved teraces, stone-paved courts, stone steps and ornaments, paths of diamond pavers, espaliers on house walls, and spring flowering trees surrounding a handsome house. The long, narrow sequence of the west garden descending from formal to naturalized areas and woodland is a highlight.
Persons and firms associated with the property include: Mary Elizabeth Sharpe (former owner and landscape designer, 1929-1985); Henry Dexter Sharpe (former owner, 1929-?); Arthur Rice (architect, 1929); Marian Cruger Coffin (landscape architect, 1934); Marjorie Sewell Cautley (landscape architect, 1937); Ralph E. Dinneen (restoration architect, 1985-1987); Kevin Brannon (gardener, 1980 to date); Pat Vetere (Brown University grounds superintendent, current); Parker, Thomas & Rice (architects, 1929); and R. E. Dinneen Architects & Planners, Inc. (restoration architects, 1985-1987).
Related Materials:
Rochambeau House related holdings consist of 3 folders (33 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Rhode Island -- Providence  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File RI073
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb61167c205-51fd-4f38-9d0d-dafeaed1376a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10578

Miramar

Former owner:
Rice, Alexander Hamilton  Search this
Widener, George Dunton, 1861-1912  Search this
Architect:
Trumbauer, Horace  Search this
Landscape architect:
Gréber, Jacques  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Rhode Island -- Newport
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Date:
1930
General:
Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Summer  Search this
Fences  Search this
Ironwork  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item RI021005
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island / RI021: Newport -- Miramar
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb644392cf0-816d-47c2-b769-a22588305ec8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10644

Miramar

Former owner:
Rice, Alexander Hamilton  Search this
Widener, George Dunton, 1861-1912  Search this
Architect:
Trumbauer, Horace  Search this
Landscape architect:
Gréber, Jacques  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Rhode Island -- Newport
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Date:
1930
General:
Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Summer  Search this
Awnings  Search this
Stairs  Search this
Parterres  Search this
Relief  Search this
Balustrades  Search this
Houses  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item RI021006
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island / RI021: Newport -- Miramar
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6bf47aee7-af34-439d-9a14-9aa0c61d0eec
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10645
Online Media:

Beacon Hill (RI)

Creator:
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Rhode Island -- Newport
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Date:
1930
General:
Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Lot 12641-1. Cottage gardens.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Summer  Search this
Walls, stone  Search this
Driveways  Search this
Cottages  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item RI035006
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island / RI035: Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb641536d5c-987f-4a8f-9eb0-8ea1dd1ba758
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10722
Online Media:

Beacon Hill (RI)

Creator:
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Rhode Island -- Newport
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Date:
1930.
General:
Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, RI 1075 # 339, Lot 12641-1, c.1920.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Summer  Search this
Columns  Search this
Driveways  Search this
Gravel  Search this
Signs and signboards  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item RI035007
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island / RI035: Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb61b3f3947-13a7-4e20-bacc-f94e03d620ed
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10723
Online Media:

Beacon Hill (RI)

Creator:
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Rhode Island -- Newport
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Date:
1930
General:
Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Lot 12641-1, c. 1917. Blue gardens.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Summer  Search this
Urns  Search this
Fences  Search this
Ponds  Search this
Arches  Search this
Containers  Search this
Flower beds  Search this
Finials  Search this
Pilasters  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Benches  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item RI035008
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island / RI035: Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e6ae9583-b932-4be6-82e9-539e86fe031f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10724
Online Media:

Beacon Hill (RI)

Creator:
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Rhode Island -- Newport
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Date:
1930
General:
Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Superintendents house, Lot 12641-1.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Summer  Search this
Tables  Search this
Chairs  Search this
Garden houses  Search this
Stepping stones  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Walls, stone  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item RI035011
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island / RI035: Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb66f60ac7a-198c-473d-ac49-851b0a57fd53
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10727

Beacon Hill (RI)

Creator:
James, Arthur Curtiss  Search this
Powell, Alan, M/Ms  Search this
Hamilton, Samuel, Mrs.  Search this
James, Harriet Eddy [Hetty], 1868-1941  Search this
Landscape architect:
Greatorex, John  Search this
Foote, Harriett Risley, 1863-  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Rhode Island -- Newport
United States of America -- Rhode Island -- Newport County -- Newport
Date:
1930
General:
Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Lot 12641. Carpenter shop with men.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Garden houses  Search this
Walls, stone  Search this
Weather vanes  Search this
Relief  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Men  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item RI035013
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Rhode Island / RI035: Newport -- Beacon Hill, RI
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6382354bb-5cf1-4ba2-bbc1-3c78890819a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref10729
Online Media:

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