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John Canfield Ewers Papers

Correspondent:
Hanson, James A.  Search this
Conner, Stuart W.  Search this
Dempsey, Hugh A.  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Schaeffer, Claude E.  Search this
Taylor, Colin F.  Search this
Creator:
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Names:
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
United States. National Park Service  Search this
Catlin, George, 1796-1872  Search this
Denig, Edwin Thompson, 1812-1858  Search this
Taylor, James E. (Artist)  Search this
Extent:
97 Linear feet
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cree  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1945-1993
Scope and Contents:
The John Canfield Ewers Papers document his wide ranging anthropological interests from early White depictions of Native Americans to the material culture of the Plains tribes through correspondence, exhibit catalogs, field notes, illustrations, lectures, maps, photocopies of archival materials, photographs, and writings. The collection includes materials relating to his numerous research projects and publications such as his books on plains sculpture and Jean Louis Berlandier as well as his field research among the Assiniboin and Blackfoot tribes. Ewers' career as an ethnologist based in a museum is amply documented through correspondence, exhibit plans and scripts, notes, and reports showcasing his work for the National Park Service and his fifty plus years at the Smithsonian. The voluminous correspondence file highlights his close collaboration with individuals such as Stu Conner, Hugh Dempsey, Claude Schaeffer, and Colin Taylor. Ewers' graduate studies and his family are featured in Series XI. One special category of materials in this collection is Series XIV, the card files. Ewers pulled information from his field notes and other sources, classified them, and typed or wrote them up on 3x5 or 5x7 inch index cards. He then organized these files alphabetically by subject within large categories such as "Collecting Alpha by Collectors Name" or "Fur Trade and Trade Goods." The card files include correspondence and photographs and closely relate to materials throughout the rest of the collection. Though Ewers' papers are primarily textual in nature, there are graphic materials throughout his files. Series XIII features the graphic materials that Ewers kept separate from his files such as the contents of his slide cabinets. There is overlap within this series as Ewers kept multiple copies of his slides in various locations. This series also includes audiotapes of conferences and symposia at which Ewers spoke and three scrapbooks. Of note are original pencil and ink drawings from his book, The Horse in Blackfoot Culture, in Series XV. Transcripts of oral history interviews with John Canfield Ewers are also available at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Arrangement note:
This collection was organized into 15 series - Correspondence, Research & Subject Files, Research Projects, Trips and Presentations, Artists of the Old West, North American Indian Art, Plains Sculpture Book, Berlandier Project, Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service, Personal, Writings by Ewers, Audiovisual Materials, Card Files, and Art Work.
Biographical/Historical note:
John Canfield Ewers (1909-1997) earned a B.A. from Dartmouth College in 1931 and an M.A. in Anthropology from Yale University in 1934. Ewers began his career in museums as a Field Curator for the National Park Service. He helped design exhibits at Vicksburg National Battlefield and Ocmulgee National Monument among others. In 1941, the Bureau of Indian Affairs hired Ewers to design and establish the Museum of the Plains Indian in Browning, Montana. After a short stint in the Navy during World War II, Ewers joined the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution. He worked at the Smithsonian for over fifty years in numerous capacities including Director of the National Museum of History and Technology (now called the National Museum of American History). Ewers' research dealt with the Plains Indians and the Blackfoot tribe in particular. Ewers wrote several books on a wide variety of topics including White artists depictions of Native Americans, Plains Indian sculpture, and the horse in Blackfoot Indian culture.
Restrictions:
The John Canfield Ewers papers are open for research.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Occupation:
Artists  Search this
Topic:
Ethnohistory  Search this
Carving  Search this
American Indians -- Plains  Search this
Artists -- United States -- West -- Biography  Search this
American Indians -- Clothing  Search this
American Indians -- arts and crafts  Search this
Museums -- History -- Exhibitions  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Repatriation  Search this
Citation:
John Canfield Ewers papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1998-35
See more items in:
John Canfield Ewers Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a79ed527-de46-4681-a92d-bd23575f45f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1998-35

Tintypes of Robert Meldrum and Medicine Tree

Collector:
Allen, J. I., -1929  Search this
Names:
Medicine Tree  Search this
Meldrum, Robert, 1806-1865  Search this
Extent:
2 Tintypes (prints)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tintypes (prints)
Date:
1858-1865
Summary:
Tintypes depicting fur trader Robert Meldrum and his wife Medicine Tree [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke); also known as Margaret].
Scope and Contents:
P08166

This collection contains two circular gem tintypes pasted to a mat board. The tintypes depict Robert Meldrum and his wife Medicine Tree [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke); also known as Margaret]. The photographs were shot by an unidentified photographer in St. Louis, Missouri, circa 1858-1865.

According to the original inventory, the tintypes were part of a jewelry locket. At some unknown point in time, the tintypes were removed from the locket and pasted to a mat board.
Arrangement:
The tintypes are arranged on a mat board inside an archival phase box.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Meldrum (1802-1865) was a fur trader and interpreter for the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) tribe.

Born in 1802, Meldrum and his family emigrated from Scotland to Canada in 1812 and eventually moved to the United States. By the late 1820s, Meldrum was living in St. Louis, Missouri and working in the Rocky Mountain fur trade industry.

The American Fur Company hired Meldrum in 1833 to act as a liaison between the company and the Crow community in Montana. He was stationed at various American Fur Company trading posts and commercial forts along the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri Rivers including Fort Cass, Fort Alexander, Fort Sharpy, and Fort Sharpy II. At these posts, Northern Plains tribes brought various furs to be traded for guns, ammunition, clothing, beads, and other goods.

Meldrum also learned to speak the Apsáalooke language and served as an interpreter between the tribe and U.S. Government. The tribe conferred Meldrum the status of chief and gave him the name "Round Iron" because of the iron trinkets he gifted. Meldrum reportedly married several Apsáalooke women over the years, including Medicine Tree (Margaret), although very little was written about them.

On July 10, 1865, Meldrum died at the American Fur Company's Fort Union on the Upper Missouri River.
Related Materials:
The Montana Historical Society Photograph Archives also holds a photograph of Robert Meldrum.
Separated Materials:
The National Museum of the American Indian also holds other objects from Jirah Isham Allen's collection (object catalog numbers 147472 to 147486).
Provenance:
Formerly in the collection of Jirah Isham Allen (Colonel Ike Allen, 1839-1929, a Montana prospector, pioneer, and storekeeper) and probably collected by him between 1862 and about 1920; purchased by MAI from Jirah Allen in 1926.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Fur trade--Montana  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Tintypes of Robert Meldrum and Medicine Tree, P08166, NMAI.AC.386; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.386
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv49328c979-ed42-43f5-8cc3-6337ae2811ec
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-386
Online Media:

Lewis & Clark and the Indian country : the Native American perspective / edited by Frederick E. Hoxie and Jay T. Nelson

Title:
Lewis and Clark and the Indian country
Author:
Hoxie, Frederick E. 1947-  Search this
Nelson, Jay T  Search this
Subject:
Lewis, Meriwether 1774-1809 Relations with Indians  Search this
Clark, William 1770-1838 Relations with Indians  Search this
Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806)  Search this
Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) Influence  Search this
Physical description:
366 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
West (U.S.)
United States
Date:
2007
C2007
19th century
20th century
Topic:
Culture conflict--History  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Race relations  Search this
History  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Territorial expansion  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_902876

The new peoples : being and becoming métis in North America / edited by Jacqueline Peterson, Jennifer S.H. Brown

Author:
Peterson, Jacqueline 1943-  Search this
Brown, Jennifer S. H. 1940-  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 266 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2001
1985
Topic:
Métis  Search this
Mixed descent  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_732895

The mountainous west : explorations in historical geography / edited by William Wyckoff and Lary M. Dilsaver

Author:
Wyckoff, William  Search this
Dilsaver, Lary M  Search this
Physical description:
420 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
West (U.S.)
Date:
1995
Topic:
Mountains  Search this
Historical geography  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_487897

Montana's fur trade era / F. Lee Graves

Author:
Graves, F. Lee  Search this
Physical description:
63 p. : ill. (some col.), map ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Montana
Date:
1994
C1994
Topic:
Fur trade--History  Search this
Fur traders--History  Search this
History  Search this
Geography  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_471421

MS 4829 "The Possible Location of Saleesh House, a Fur Trading Post Built by David Thompson 1809-1810 in Western Montana"

Creator:
White, Thain, 1913-1999  Search this
Extent:
88 Pages
3 Maps
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Maps
Manuscripts
Date:
1960 December
Scope and Contents:
Historical background and description of excavation by Thain White at the alleged site of Saleesh House.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4829
Topic:
Saleesh House -- Montana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Manuscript 4829, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4829
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw32dfc8e2e-9d88-42a8-b463-40c9f75b33ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4829

When beaver pelts were legal tender in Montana : an adventure in frontier finance / by Albert J. Partoll

Author:
Partoll, Albert J (Albert John) 1904-  Search this
Physical description:
[4] p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Montana
Date:
1964
[1964]
Topic:
Fur money  Search this
Fur trade  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
F731 .P37 1964
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1011576

Recollecting : lives of Aboriginal women of the Canadian northwest and borderlands / edited by Sarah Carter and Patricia A. McCormack

Author:
Carter, Sarah 1954-  Search this
McCormack, Patricia Alice 1947-  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 422 p. : ill. (some col.), maps, ports., facsims. ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
Canada, Western
Canada, Northern
Date:
2011
C2011
Topic:
Indian women--History  Search this
Indian women  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_969198

Blackfoot fur trade on the upper Missouri / by John G. Lepley

Author:
Lepley, John G  Search this
Physical description:
x, 290 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Missouri River Region
Montana
Date:
2004
C2004
19th century
Topic:
Siksika Indians--History  Search this
Siksika Indians--Commerce  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Fur trade--History  Search this
Trading posts--History  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_970137

Idaho - History and Heritage

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 06 Nov 2007 05:00:00 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_b2213e7693b34bbabb8afbd8ba8b5202

Images of the recent past : readings in historical archaeology / edited by Charles E. Orser, Jr

Author:
Orser, Charles E  Search this
Physical description:
477 p. : ill. : 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1996
C1996
Topic:
Archaeology and history  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_506436

Travelog of 1962-1963 South American trip

Collection name:
Doris Mable Cochran papers, circa 1891-1968
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 12 Folder 3
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Diary
Place:
Brazil
Colombia
Panama
Isla Barro Colorado
Rio de Janeiro
Bogotá
Peru
Argentina
São Paulo
Date Range:
1962-1963
Start Date:
19621203
End Date:
19630222
Topic:
Herpetology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007151
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Doris Mable Cochran papers, circa 1891-1968
See more records associated with this person:
Cochran, Doris M. (Doris Mable), 1898-1968
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI3804
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Travelog of 1962-1963 South American trip digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Fort Union and its neighbors on the Upper Missouri : a chronological record of events / by Frank B. Harper

Author:
Harper, Frank B  Search this
Great Northern Railway Company (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Missouri River Valley
Montana
Fort Union (Mont.)
Date:
1925
1925?]
Topic:
Fur trade--History  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_611586

Journal de Larocque de la rivière Assiniboine jusqu'à la rivière "Aux Roches Jaunes," 1805; éd. avec des notes par L.J. Burpee. Pub. avec l'autorisation du ministre de l'agriculture sous la direction de l'archiviste

Author:
Larocque, François Antoine  Search this
Editor:
Burpee, Lawrence J (Lawrence Johnstone) 1873-1946  Search this
Subject:
North West Company  Search this
Physical description:
1 preliminary leaf, 87 pages 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Northwestern States
Canada
Date:
1911
Topic:
Fur trade  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
F597 .L369 1911
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1091722

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