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William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Kansas
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1866-1868
Summary:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations. This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Photographs depict American Indian tribes and Peace Commissioners involved in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty; photographs shot along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division in 1867; and photographs of American Indian delegations visiting Washington, D. C. from 1866-1868.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by photographer Alexander Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Among the photographs are depictions that were shot in and around Fort Laramie, Wyoming during the 1868 peace treaty negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal leaders from several American Indian Northern Plains tribes including Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho); survey photographs shot in Kansas in 1867 for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (later renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway); and portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. including Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes, 1866-1868. Some of the photographs in this collection, particularly those in Series 2, may have been shot by photographers working with Gardner such as Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in three series. Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Series 2: Kansas Pacific Railroad, Series 3: Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

The photographs are physically arranged in eight boxes according to the following: size, conservation work, and series. Within each box they are arranged by photo number. The photographs in boxes 1-4 had conservation work performed by a photo conservator in 2014.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations.

Gardner was born in Paisley, Scotland on October 17, 1821 to James Gardner and Jean Glenn. He worked in a number of positions including as a jeweler, journalist, and editor before entering the field of photography circa 1855.

In 1856, Gardner immigrated to the United States with his wife Margaret Sinclair Gardner, his son Lawrence Gardner, and his daughter Eliza Gardner and later that year he began working as a photographer in Mathew Brady's gallery in New York. While working for Brady, it is thought that Gardner invented the "imperial print," a large photograph printed on approximately 21 x 17 inch paper that was often enhanced with hand-coloring and ink. Wealthy politicians and businessmen were among the clients who sat for their photographic portraits in the Brady studio and paid as much as $50- $500 per imperial print (today the equivalent of about $1,000 to 10,000).

By 1858, Gardner was managing Brady's gallery at 352 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, Gardner was part of Brady's photography team that documented battle aftermaths and military campsites for the Union. Gardner left the Brady studio circa late 1862 and established his own studio in Washington, D.C. where he continued photographing the war along with his brother James Gardner, and other former Brady photographers including Timothy O'Sullivan.

During the war he documented the remnants of important battle scenes including the Battle of Antietam (1862) and the Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Gardner published 100 of his Civil War images in the publication Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War. The two volume work included photographs shot by additional photographers including O'Sullivan and John Reekie.

In addition to war photography, Gardner was also a portrait photographer and photographed many civilians, soldiers, and politicians in Washington, D.C. Between the years 1861-1865, Gardner photographed President Abraham Lincoln on seven different occasions, including both inaugurations, as well as studio portrait sittings. On July 7, 1865, Gardner was the only photographer allowed to photograph the execution of four conspirators in the President Lincoln assassination.

In 1866, Gardner along with Antonio Zeno Shindler and Julian Vannerson were contracted to photograph portraits of American Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Between the years 1866 to 1868, Gardner photographed many tribes in his studio including Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kaw (Kansa), Dakota, and Lakota. In 1868, Gardner was hired by the U.S. Government to serve as photographer for the peace talks that took place in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. During this trip, Gardner photographed the Lakota (Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. Among the government officials at Fort Laramie that Gardner photographed was General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891). Sherman served as a General for the Union Army during the Civil War and later in 1869 became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army under President Ulysses Grant's administration. A member of the Peace Commission established in 1867, Sherman traveled to negotiate treaties with American Indian Plains tribes. Upon returning to Washington, D.C., Gardner published a set of his Fort Laramie photographs in the publication, Scenes in Indian Country. Members of the Peace Commission were given photo portfolios and it is believed that the photos in this collection may have been from General Sherman's personal set. Gardner went on to become the official photographer for the Office of Indian Affairs in 1872.

In his later years, Gardner also was involved in philanthropic causes, such as helping to establish the Masonic Mutual Relief Association which aided widows and orphans of Master Masons. He also founded the Saint John's Mite Association which provided aid to the poor in Washington, D.C. Alexander Gardner died in Washington, D.C. in 1882.
Related Materials:
Alexander Gardner photographs are housed in many archival and museum repositories. Photographs from the Scenes in Indian Country series are also held in the Newberry Library in Chicago, the Missouri Historical Society, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the St. Louis Mercantile Library in Missouri.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were originally owned by General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) and may have been part of a portfolio of photographs that Alexander Gardner gifted to Sherman and other Fort Laramie Treaty peace commissioners. Photographs were then donated to the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) by Sherman's son P(hilemon) Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) in May 1932 and by Sherman's granddaughter Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) in March 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4e897a264-bea6-4416-b04d-25e2701c060d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-077
Online Media:

Alexander Gardner photographs of Fort Laramie during treaty negotiations

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sioux Nation. Treaties, etc. United States, 1868, November 7  Search this
Extent:
8 Stereographs (albumen)
Culture:
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereographs
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Date:
circa 1868
Scope and Contents note:
Images of people and United States peace commissions in and around Fort Laramie during treaty negotiations with Plains tribes in 1868. The collection includes images of Major Grimes, a surgeon Schnell, and A. S. H. White (Secretary of the 1868 treaty).
Biographical/Historical note:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a Scottish immigrant who first worked as an assistant to photographer Matthew Brady. He accompanied the 1868 Peace Commission to Fort Laramie for treaty negotiations between the United States government and the Oglala, Miniconjou, Brulé, Yanktonai, and Arapaho tribes.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2000-10
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Gardner photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 90-1, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Stereographs
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2000-10, Alexander Gardner photographs of Fort Laramie during treaty negotiations, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2000-10
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a07a0982-addc-4105-92be-2e02f13b1279
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2000-10

Fort Laramie Historical Association [Folder]

Additional name:
Fort Laramie National Monument  Search this
Contents:
Folder(s) may include exhibition announcements, newspaper and/or magazine clippings, press releases, brochures, reviews, invitations, illustrations, resumes, artist's statements, exhibition catalogs.
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Topic:
Art Organizations  Search this
Location:
Art & Artist files at the Smithsonian American Art Museum/ National Portrait Gallery Library
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILAF_100603

The Fort Laramie of Alfred Jacob Miller : a catalogue of all the known illustrations of the first Fort Laramie / by Robert Combs Warner

Author:
Warner, Robert C  Search this
Subject:
Miller, Alfred Jacob 1810-1874  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 213 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
In art
Place:
West (U.S.)
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Date:
1979
Topic:
Pictorial works  Search this
Call number:
N40.1.M63 W28 1979
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_437108

Fort Laramie, guardian of the Oregon Trail : a commemorative essay

Author:
Mattes, Merrill J  Search this
Physical description:
p. 3-21 : ill ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Oregon National Historic Trail
Date:
1945
1945]
Call number:
F767.L2 M38 1945
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_836177

Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming / by David L. Hieb

Author:
Hieb, David L  Search this
Physical description:
33 p. ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo. : Fort)
Fort Laramie National Historic Site (Wyo.)
Date:
1961
1954
Topic:
History  Search this
Call number:
F769.F6 H54 1961
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_708954

Army architecture in the West : Forts Laramie, Bridger, and D.A. Russell, 1849-1912 / Alison K. Hoagland ; foreword by Paul L. Hedren

Author:
Hoagland, Alison K. 1951-  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 288 p. : ill., maps ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Wyoming
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Fort Bridger (Wyo.)
Fort D.A. Russell National Historic Landmark (Wyo.)
Date:
2004
C2004
Topic:
Fortification  Search this
Military architecture  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_761916

Fort Laramie and the Great Sioux War / Paul L. Hedren

Author:
Hedren, Paul L  Search this
Physical description:
xxi, 313 p. : ill. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo. : Fort)
Date:
1998
1988
Topic:
Wars, 1876  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_683421

The cavalry barracks: Fort Laramie furnishing study, by Don Rickey, Jr., and James W. Sheire

Title:
Cavalry barracks furnishing study
Author:
Rickey, Don  Search this
Sheire, James W  Search this
United States Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation Division of History  Search this
Subject:
United States Army Barracks and quarters  Search this
United States Army Cavalry History  Search this
Physical description:
iii, 68, [50] l. illus., plans. 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Date:
1969
[1969]
19th century
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_518703

Fort Laramie National Monument, Wyoming

Author:
Hieb, David L  Search this
Physical description:
43 p. illus., maps 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Fort Laramie National Historic Site (Wyo.)
Date:
1954
Call number:
F769.F6 H5X
F769.F6H5X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_61789

Fort Laramie and the Forty-Niners

Author:
Mattes, Merrill J  Search this
Rocky Mountain Nature Association  Search this
Physical description:
36 pages illustrations 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Wyoming
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Date:
1949
Topic:
Historic sites  Search this
Overland journeys to the Pacific  Search this
Water quality management  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1071356

Fort Laramie : military bastion of the High Plains / by Douglas C. McChristian ; foreword by Paul L. Hedren

Author:
McChristian, Douglas C  Search this
Physical description:
456 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Wyoming
High Plains (U.S.)
West (U.S.)
Fort Laramie (Wyo. : Fort)
Date:
2008
2008, c2009
1866-1895
1848-1860
1860-1890
19th century
Topic:
Frontier and pioneer life  Search this
Wars  Search this
History  Search this
History, Military  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_929081

Fort Laramie and the changing frontier : Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming / by David Lavender ; produced by the Division of Publications, National Park Service

Author:
Lavender, David 1910-2003  Search this
United States National Park Service Division of Publications  Search this
Physical description:
159 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo. : Fort)
Date:
1983
Topic:
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_985107

Fort Laramie, Wyo. Ter., (painting)

Painter:
Hartmann, H.  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Administered by United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Washington District of Columbia
Located Fort Laramie National Historic Site HC 72, Box 389 Fort Laramie Wyoming 82212
Date:
1880-1890
Topic:
Architecture--Military--Fort  Search this
Landscape--Wyoming--Fort Laramie  Search this
Control number:
IAP 56940873
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_67281

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