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Cambridge -- Morse School Garden

Creator:
Metropolitan District Commission  Search this
City of Cambridge  Search this
Hirschi, Jane  Search this
Beggy, Patricia  Search this
Architect:
Koch, Carl  Search this
Renovation architect:
Design Partnership of Cambridge  Search this
Artist:
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1906-2001  Search this
Kepes, Juliet  Search this
Arai, Tomie  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Digital images
Place:
Morse School Garden (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Middlesex County -- Cambridge
Scope and Contents:
1 folder and 25 digital images. The folder includes worksheets, photocopies of reference prints and other images.
General:
The Morse School is a Cambridge Modern style single-story modular structure with large windows and doors that open to the outdoors from individual classrooms, built in 1955. One-quarter acre of the schoolyard has gardens that are a major learning facility for the elementary school's students, and a resource for the neighborhood. The entry garden has a gravel path bordered on one side with raspberry bushes, with annual tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and cucumbers on the other side, and an open bed for digging dirt. A painted arbor opens to the main garden which features an alphabet garden along a chain link fence. Each year students plants annual flowers and vegetables for each letter, such as asters for "A" and zinnias for "Z". A pollinator garden attracts butterflies, other pollinating insects and birds with milkweed, Shasta daisies, geraniums, catmint, phlox, and grapevines growing on two trellises against the wall of the building. About ten beds of various sizes and shapes in the center of the main garden grow seasonal vegetables, beginning with leafy green vegetables, moving on to root crops such as carrots, potatoes and beets, followed by corn and peas and beans on a string trellis. There are two herb beds, more beds with strawberries, onions, sunflowers, cabbage, zucchini, chard, watermelon, and a companion planting of marigolds. Annual flowers are grown in two small whiskey barrels.
Other facilities include compost bins for food scraps and garden thinnings and a vibrantly painted shed for storing tools and supplies. A grassy gathering area has two fruit trees including an apple tree planted in the 1950's, and a large sycamore tree with six tree stumps nearby, seating for teaching, discussion, reading, singing and playing music. The community holds a Garden Expo in August and a cider pressing in October in the grassy gathering area. Age-appropriate curricula uses the gardens to teach urban children where food comes from, the life-cycle of growing plants, introductory botany and genetics. Other subject areas including art, math, food preparation and healthy eating derive from the students' gardening experiences.
CitySprouts, a local non-profit organization, partners with Morse School and provides workers, tools and garden supplies. CitySprouts has a plant list it recommends for garden-based learning along with suggestions for environmental subjects. Morse School had an empty front yard that was dug up and planted with red, white and blue spring bulbs in the shape of an American flag following September 11, 2001. The learning garden was developed afterwards.
Persons associated with the garden include Metropolitan District Commission (playground, Victory Garden, 1953- ); City of Cambridge (Morse School, 1953- ); Carl Koch (1912-1998) (architect, 1955); Design Partnership of Cambridge (renovation architects, 1999); Jane Hirschi, Director of City Sprouts (non-profit assisting in creating and maintaining school garden, 2001- ); Patricia Beggy (Morse school principal, 2004- ); Juliet and György Kepes (enamel panels artists, 1957); Tomie Arai (silk-screened mural artist, 1999).
Related Materials:
Additional materials also located in CitySprouts, 678 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge  Search this
Genre/Form:
Digital images
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MA638
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb61d0410ed-1591-4343-a5f3-be06c9c5bc05
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref32668

Vegetables

Collection Photographer:
Druse, Kenneth  Search this
Extent:
344 Photographs
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
General:
Series includes images of Vegetables and Vegetable gardens growing in fields, containers, raised beds, and cold frames in agricultural, domestic, and urban settings, as well as still life arrangements, food preparation, harvesting, and examples of specimens.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Allium  Search this
Asparagus  Search this
Beets  Search this
Brassica  Search this
Cabbage  Search this
Peppers  Search this
Cucumis  Search this
Cucumbers  Search this
Cucurbita  Search this
Cynara  Search this
Daucus  Search this
Lactuca  Search this
Lettuce  Search this
Tomatoes  Search this
Basil  Search this
Rice  Search this
Beans  Search this
Common bean  Search this
Pisum  Search this
Peas  Search this
Potatoes  Search this
Rheum  Search this
Rhubarb  Search this
Solanum  Search this
Germander  Search this
Zea  Search this
Corn  Search this
Vegetables  Search this
Vegetable gardening  Search this
Meadows  Search this
Pumpkin  Search this
Pies  Search this
Cold-frames  Search this
Cooking  Search this
Beds (Gardens)  Search this
Raised bed gardening  Search this
Pergolas  Search this
Fountains  Search this
Plant supports  Search this
Farms  Search this
Garden walks  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Knot gardens  Search this
Kitchen gardens  Search this
Roof gardens  Search this
Edging  Search this
Agricultural land  Search this
Container gardening  Search this
Fields  Search this
Plant specimens  Search this
Agricultural crops -- Fields  Search this
Still life  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Ken Druse garden photography collection
Identifier:
AAG.DRU, File DRU114
See more items in:
Ken Druse garden photography collection
Ken Druse garden photography collection / Series 2: Garden Images by Subject
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6fff399da-a53b-45e0-9cd6-944f978c545d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-dru-ref109

MS 3941 Materials assembled by Hewitt for preparation of articles in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30 and for replies to inquires from the public

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Correspondent:
Bogaskie, F.  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Creator:
MacKinley, W. E. W., Captain  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology -- Bulletin 30  Search this
Society of American Indians  Search this
Brant, Joseph, 1742-1807  Search this
Old Smoke  Search this
Sayenqueraghta  Search this
Scott, Hugh Lenox, 1853-1934  Search this
Williams, Eleazer  Search this
Culture:
Eskimos  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Adirondack  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Black Mincqua  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Pekwanoket  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Wendat (Huron)  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Maya  Search this
Algonquin (Algonkin)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Onondaga  Search this
Tuscarora  Search this
Erie (archaeological)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Susquehannock (archaeological)  Search this
Wyandot  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Calendars
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contents: Adirondack tribe (St Lawrence River) Old Manuscript Number 3553. Adoption Old Manuscript Number 4007. Refers to Algonquian method of counting -only; see Haas note 2/18/72; Old Manuscript Number 3864. "Alligewi"; Animism Old Manuscript Number 3867 and 2842-c, box 6. Blood Indians, origin of name; Brant, Joseph Old Manuscript Number 3874. Chippewa, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3646. Chiefs, function and significance of Old Manuscript Number 2842-c, box 6. Delaware tribe, New Jersey area claimed by Old Manuscript Number 3866. Detroit River, tribes near; Ekaentoton Island-- see Ste. Marie Island Environment (Bulletin 30 draft by O. T. Mason) Old Manuscript Number 4007. Erie, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3646. Erie and Black Mincqua tribes Old Manuscript Number 3586. [Eskimo] Arctic tribes, leaving elderly and sick people to die Old Manuscript Number 3668. Family, Bulletin 30 draft and notes Old Manuscript Number 4011 and 2842-c, box 6. Grand River (Tinaatoua), name of; Hebrew calendar; Hewitt, list of Bulletin 30 articles by Old Manuscript Number 4066. Hoboken, origin of name; Iroquois, "On the Northern and Eastern Territorial Limits of the Iroquoian people, in the 16th Century," and Algonquian tribes, at Chaleur Bay. Iroquois at Gulf of St Lawrence and Bay of Gaspe Old Manuscript Number 3625.
Iroquois, location of Six Nations tribes reservations Old Manuscript Number 3763. Iroquois false face; Iroquois preparation of corn ("as food") Old Manuscript Number 4009. Iroquoian early dress Old Manuscript Number 3660. Iroquoian "Gachoi" tribe, identity of (Correspondence with F. Bogaskie.) Old Manuscript Number 3816. Iroquoian moon names and concept of time; Iroquoian social organization, and place name-name origins; "Man," Iroquoian term for Old Manuscript Number 3781. Iroquoian towns Old Manuscript Number 4006. Kentucky, meaning of the word; Kentucky, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3840. Lenni Lenape, meaning of the word; Logstown-- see Shenango Old Manuscript Number 3773. Lost Ten Tribes as American Indians Old Manuscript Number 3670. Mayan linguistic family and other Mayan linguistic notes including Quiche and Tepehuanan notes Old Manuscript Number 3473. Mexico: idols, sacrifices, etc. Old Manuscript Number 3807. Mexico: Indian languages. Letter from Captain W.E.W. MacKinley Old Manuscript Number 3778. Missouri, Indian village, location of Old Manuscript Number 3944. Mohawk land near Lake Champlain; Mohawk grammar; Montour family, notes for Bulletin 30 Old Manuscript Number 3812. Muskhogean social organization. Letter from J. J. Harrison. Old Manuscript Number 3891. New England tribes Old Manuscript Number 3513.
Niagara, origin of name; "Old Smoke"-- see Sayenqueraghta Old Manuscript Number 3949. Onondaga tribe, text of memorial inscription to, and correspondence Old Manuscript 4391 and 4271- box 1 (part.) Ontwaganha or Toaganha, origin and meaning of name Old Manuscript Number 3864. Owego, meaning of town's name; Pekwanoket tribe (Cape Cod); Pemaquid, Abnaki word and its origin Old Manuscript Number 89. Piasa bird- pictograph formerly near present Alton, Illinois. Article is similar to that by Cyrus Thomas, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30. Old Manuscript Number 3981. Potawatomi, notes on the name Old Manuscript Number 4034. Potawatomi Green Corn Dance; Roanoke, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3998. Sacagawea, spelling of; St Ignace, 3 settlements (Michigan); St Marie Island or Ekaentoton Island; Sauk, Bulletin 30 article and galley proof, notes Old Manuscript Number 3764. Sayenqueraghta or "Old Smoke" (correspondence with Alanson Skinner) Old Manuscript Number 3949. Scalping Old Manuscript Number 4025. Shenango and Logstown Old Manuscript Number 3773. Sioux, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3624. Society of American Indians, resolutions by thanking General Hugh L. Scott, Fr. Anselm Webber and others Old Manuscript Number 3868. Susquehanna, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3707. Tacoma, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3470.
Thunderbird, notes on Old Manuscript Number 3552. Tinaatoa-- see Grand River; Toronto, origin of name; Tuscarora villages Old Manuscript Number 3998. Wampum Old Manuscript Number 3998. War club with inscription; West Virginia panhandle tribes Old Manuscript Number 3945. Williams, Eleazer Old Manuscript Number 3998. Women, status of Old Manuscript Number 3566. Wyandots (Huron) List of tribes of which Wyandots of today are constituted. Old Manuscript Number 3774.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3941
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Inheritance -- Adoption  Search this
Religion -- animism  Search this
Names, tribal -- Blood  Search this
Names, tribal -- Chippewa  Search this
Government and politics -- chiefs  Search this
Land tenure and claims -- Delaware  Search this
Names, tribal -- Erie  Search this
Death and mortuary customs -- abandoning elderly and sick  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Names, place -- Grand River  Search this
Jews  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Land tenure and claims  Search this
Masks -- False Face  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Food preparation -- Corn  Search this
Time -- concepts  Search this
Social structure  Search this
Names, place  Search this
Towns, villages and other settlements  Search this
Names, place -- Kentucky  Search this
Names, tribal -- Leni Lenape  Search this
Muskogean Indians  Search this
Names, place -- Niagara  Search this
Names, place -- Owego  Search this
Abenaki Indians  Search this
Names, tribal -- Pemaquid  Search this
Pictographs -- Piasa bird  Search this
Potawatomi Indians  Search this
Dance -- Green Corn  Search this
Names, tribal -- Potawatomi  Search this
Names, place -- Roanoke  Search this
Towns, villages and other settlements -- St Ignace  Search this
Religion -- Mexico  Search this
Sacrifices -- Mexico  Search this
War -- Scalping  Search this
Indian interest groups -- Society of American Indians  Search this
Names, tribal -- Susquehanna  Search this
Names, tribal -- Tacoma  Search this
Folklore -- Thunderbird  Search this
Names, place -- Toronto  Search this
Tuscarora Indians  Search this
Trade, gifts and other exchanges -- Wampum  Search this
Weapons -- war club  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Names, place -- Hoboken  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Algonquin  Search this
Honniasant  Search this
Lenape  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Susquehannock  Search this
Mexico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Calendars
Citation:
Manuscript 3941, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3941
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34e5d46f4-47a1-44d7-8e6d-d282280cd7f8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3941

Community Activities and Food Preservation

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
This program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, focused on food preservation as an essential component of community activities. Throughout rural America, community events such as Homecomings were seen to act as centripetal forces pulling members back into the center of values, of behaviors, of world view all tied together in activities that reinforced the past and tailored the future - and food was often a major focus of such events.

Community events in America were seen by the Festival as reinforcing and restating the expected style of behavior in attempting to reintegrate distant members to the community's values. No event, no matter how tedious, was all work - nor was any festivity all frolic. The community and its institutions were tied to the common needs of its members for food, shelter, solace, and fellowship. Whether cooking for Homecoming or feeding the firemen, public participation in community events validated membership in a cultural system and provided a common sense of purpose, of contribution, of what needs to be done and how to do it.

Peering into the basement or root cellar of many rural homes, one would find summer's bounty stored for the winter. Potatoes covered with lime might fill a bin in one corner of the room. Colorful jars filled with fruit, vegetables, and meat might line the walls, while crocks full of fermenting pickle beans sat in another corner. Dried apples, beans, peaches, and corn would be stored in brown paper bags, with home-cured hams hanging from beams overhead. While food preservation techniques may have adapted to changing times, home canning, pickling, curing, and drying remained vital traditions in many communities nearing the end of the 20th century. They were economical in many ways, and the final product was easily adjusted to community preferences. Homemade biscuits, cookies, and pies, home-processed hams, dilly beans, sauerkraut, and leather britches simply tasted better to people who were accustomed to them.

1980 Festival presentations included wine making, meat smoking, butter churning, canning, cane syrup making, and "found food" preparation, as well as a daily candy pull and workshops discussing the knowledge and lore of community-based food preservation activities.
Participants:
Maria Agner, 1910-2002, wine making, Fitzgerald, Georgia

Etta Mae Anderson, 1907-2005, found foods, Ocilla, Georgia

Martha Barrs, 1924-, canning, Ocilla, Georgia

Mr. & Mrs. Fred Lee Bentley (1923-1997), meat smoking, Pelham, Georgia

Minnie Pearl Brown, 1914-1991, canning, Tifton, Georgia

W. Guy Bruce, musician, Trion, Georgia

Mr. & Mrs. Grady T. Bryan (1920-), cane syrup making, Lenox, Georgia

Annie Mae Calloway, 1903-1991, canning, Tifton, Georgia

Minnie Davis, 1907-1987, dairy products, Ocilla, Georgia

Forrest B. Joiner, 1908-2000, canning, Meigs, Georgia

Joe Miller, 1918-, musician, Campton, Georgia

Peggy Miller, 1920-2000, canning, Sylvester, Georgia

Neal Pattman, musician, Winterville, Georgia

Ivery Sneed, 1924-, canning, Ocilla, Georgia

Gordon Tanner, 1916-, musician, Dacula, Georgia

Phil Tanner, 1942-, musician, Dacula, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1980 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1980, Series 4
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1980 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk542b5451f-2cf4-4646-b431-6463486474ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1980-ref31

Regional America

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
"Regional America" cut across all the other sections of the Festival by looking at the assemblages of different peoples scattered across our land. In this area, therefore, visitors could see working people and children, ethnics and blacks and Native Americans brought together to celebrate not so much their individual identities but the space in which they all live together, their homeplace within the wide American land.

A region was acknowledged to be a hard thing to create on the Mall; it is an abstract made up of a thousand concrete details: the lay of the land, the slant of the sunlight, the way a person says "Good morning," the particular records on the jukeboxes in the diner, the depth of the topsoil, the smell of Sunday dinner. So in Regional America the Festival brought together the people who lived in a particular place and asked them to demonstrate the arts and the skills that make it possible to live in that place and that most powerfully characterize it. It is the sense of home that the Smithsonian sought to capture here.

June 16-20, the Northeast. The Northeast Region combines the peoples and the traditions of the Atlantic Northeast (Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware) and those of New England. There were demonstrations of lobster trap making, whittling, quilting, and snowshoe making, traditional food preparation, and presentations of Anglo, French, and German American traditional music.

June 23-27, the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes region is a large area consisting of diverse peoples and traditions. Scandinavian, Eastern European, Mediterranean, and Native American music, crafts, and food demonstrations included birch bark canoe building, bread baking, and pysanky decorating. From the farming and dairy areas, skills such as shingle making and wood carving were presented, along with dairy cattle demonstrations of milking, calf feeding, and caring for livestock. Demonstrations of maritime activities included fish net making, waterfowl decoy carving, dock building, and storytelling. Blues and other transplanted styles of Southern music were also performed.

July 1-5, the South. Presentations included Alabama folk painting, traditional boat building, stitchery by Ethel Mohamed (who did the tapestry on the cover of the 1976 program book), decoy carving and painting, a Freedom Quilting Bee, pottery, and splint basket making. Regional America's presentation of Southern foodways traditions included the preparation of pecan pralines, various gumbos, crawfish, and sorghum.

July 7-11, the Upland South. Crafts presented this week included quilting, blacksmithing, stone carving, barrel making, and whittling. Vinegar pie, hominy, biscuits and gravy were made for sampling, with barbequed chicken, corn on the cob, cobbler, and barbequed beans for sale.

July 14-18, the Heartland. Craft presentations included the making of apple head dolls, corn husk dolls, tree branch dolls and spurs, wood carving, and pysanky (egg decorating.) Foodways demonstrations includes the preparation of such regional specialties as kolaches (a Bohemian fruit-filled bun), sweet braided bread, New Year cookies, cheese, and sauerkraut.

July 14-18, the Great West. Featured crafts included quilting by seven different participants, wagon wheel making, horse hair rope making, wood carving, braided and woven rug making, and the demonstration of traditional fence building styles. Preparation of foods from the Great West was demonstrated including bratzells (cookies baked over an open fire), whole wheat bread, and the canning of sauerkraut, pickles, relish, and jelly.

July 28-August 1, the Pacific Northwest. Craft presentations included fly tying and casting, snow sled making, fiddle making, a logging demonstration, weaving, whittling, net making, boat building, and paper cutting. Foodways demonstrations featured a camp cook making pancakes and sourdough bread, traditional to the logging life of the Pacific Northwest.

August 4-8, the Southwest. Visitors could see cowboy boot making, adobe making, mural painting, calf roping, saddle making, rawhide work, and soap making demonstrated as part of the presentation of the culture of the Southwest. Traditional ranch cooking was demonstrated, with chili, beans, and sourdough biscuits among the featured specialties.

Barbara LaPan Rahm was Program Coordinator; William K. McNeil was Folklorist; and Diana Parker was Assistant Program Coordinator.
Fieldwork coordinators:
Suzi Jones, Allen Tullos, Margaret R. Yocom
Participants:
The Northeast

Clifford Allen, 1911-1980, Meshoppen, Pennsylvania

Stevie Axthelm, 1952-, Great Falls, Virginia

June Barner, 1939-, Millerstown, Pennsylvania

Shirley Barner, Millerstown, Pennsylvania

Theodore Roosevelt Barrows, 1903-1987, Perkinsville, Vermont

Lisa Marie Beaudoin, 1956-, Burlington, Vermont

Louis Alfred Beaudoin, 1920-1980, Burlington, Vermont, ex-Massachusetts

Wilfred Joseph Beaudoin, 1925-, Burlington, Vermont, ex-Massachusetts

Robert C. Bucher, 1911-, Schwenksville, Pennsylvania

John Buhler, 1931-, Pennsylvania

Edgar W. Byers, 1949-, Liverpool, Pennsylvania

Zuzka Cakan, New Jersey

Marshall Case, 1917-2005, Troy, Pennsylvania

Sara Cleveland, 1905-1987, Hudson Falls, New York

John Coffey, Baltimore, Maryland, ex-Virginia

Addie Darling, 1920-2009, Groton, Vermont, ex-New Hampshire

Margaret Davidson, 1923-, Millerstown, Pennsylvania

Richard Davidson, 1924-1986, Millerstown, Pennsylvania

Earl Day, 1934-, Gill, Massachusetts

Evelyn Deckard, 1925-, Liverpool, Pennsylvania

Glenn Deckard, 1924-, Liverpool, Pennsylvania

Archie Edwards, 1915-1998, Seat Pleasant, Maryland, ex-Virginia

George Edwards, 1920-1983, Walpole, New Hampshire, ex-Michigan

Lillian Edwards, 1909-1994, Walpole, New Hampshire

Hugh Friedline, 1897-1979, Stahlstown, Pennsylvania

Leroy Gaines, 1924-, Washington, D.C., ex-Virginia

Robert Gelnett, Pennsylvania

William Graybeal, 1949-, Conowingo, Maryland, ex-Pennsylvania

Nick Hudak, New Jersey

Mark Johnson, Washington, D.C.

Mary Ann Kadera, New Jersey

Alex Kellam, 1908-1986, Crisfield, Maryland

Colin Kelley, 1945-1988, Gardner, Maine

Ed Kocjancic, 1930-, Kane, Pennsylvania

John Kocjancic, 1930-, Kane, Pennsylvania

Joseph Kocjanic, 1925-2003, Kane, Pennsylvania

Rudy J. Kocjanic, 1954-, Kane, Pennsylvania

Rudy R. Kocjanic, 1927-1994, Kane, Pennsylvania

Homer Kriebel, 1892-1981, Hereford, Pennsylvania

Sadie Kriebel, 1906-1998, Hereford, Pennsylvania

Dewey Landon, 1898-1976, Crisfield, Maryland

Ernest Link, Great Falls, Virginia

Jerry Lundy, 1942-, Elkton, Maryland

Ted Lundy, 1937-1980, Wilmington, Delaware, ex-Virginia

Teddy Lundy, 1959-, Wilmington, Delaware

Barner Lyter, 1917-1989, Liverpool, Pennsylvania

Florence Lyter, 1924-2006, Liverpool, Pennsylvania

Beatrice McKenrick, 1904-1994, Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania

Ed Mosheim, Pennsylvania

Marilyn Mosheim, Pennsylvania

Leo Murphy, 1908-2004, Brewer, Maine

Sofia Muzychak, 1903-1996, Hazelton, Pennsylvania

Charles Nevells, 1934-, Stonington, Maine

Barry Nutbrown, 1956-, Putney, Vermont

Joan Nutbrown, 1928-2003, Putney, Vermont, ex-Quebec, Canada

Nancy Nutbrown, 1961-, Putney, Vermont, ex-Quebec, Canada

Russell Nutbrown, 1923-, Putney, Vermont, ex-Quebec, Canada

Larry Older, 1912-1982, Lake Hamilton, Florida, New York

Martha Older, 1911-2011, Lake Hamilton, Florida, ex-New York

Daniel Paisley, 1959-, Landenberg, Pennsylvania

Joan Palmer, 1933-, Groton, New York, ex-Vermont

Rodney Richard, Sr., Rangeley, Maine

Rodney Richard, Jr., 1955-, Orono, Maine

William Richard, 1900-1993, Phillips, Maine, ex-Canada

Grant Rogers, 1907-1979, Walton, New York

Betsy Rutherford, Baltimore, Maryland, ex-Virginia

Charles Sayles, 1948-, Washington, D.C., ex-Massachusetts

Esther Mae 'Mother' Scott, 1893-1979, Washington, D.C., ex-Mississippi

Delores Sernak, 1925-, Mayfield, Pennsylvania

Flavia Shaw, 1951-, Gardner, Maine

Ed Shute, 1940-, Belfast, Maine

Roscoe Solley, 1899-1986, Grampion, Pennsylvania

John Starvish, 1907-1989, Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, ex-Massachusetts

Anastacia Swartz, 1896-, Amherst, Massachusetts, ex-Poland

Mary Veronica Szala, 1923-, Amherst, Massachusetts

Robert Szala, 1959-, Amherst, Massachusetts

Sterl Van Arsdale, 1929-, Jamestown, New York, ex-Pennsylvania

Berle Worster, 1921-2011, Springfield, Maine

Edna Worster, 1931-2009, Springfield, Maine

Leona York, 1900-1986, Caratunk, Maine

Walter York, 1902-1999, Caratunk, Maine

The Great Lakes

Sue G. Anderson, 1918-, Walker, Minnesota

Clarence R. Bailey, 1908-1991, Trenary, Michigan

William M. Barnard, 1942-, Cable, Wisconsin, ex-New York

Mike Benjamin, 1915-1980, Onamia, Minnesota

Mary Ellen Bowens, 1904-1995, Chicago, Illinois

William E. Branch, 1951-, Chicago, Illinois

Danny W. Brown, 1961-, St. Louis, Missouri

Don Ray Brown, Sr., 1935-2002, St. Louis, Missouri

Don Brown, Jr., 1958-, St. Louis, Missouri

Boyd Butler, 1925-1989, Carbondale, Illinois

Leroy Canaday, 1928-, Moberly, Missouri

Donald Chesebro, 1934-2010, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin

Jim Cotone, Sr., 1904-1979, Cumberland, Wisconsin

Oliver F. Counter, Sr., 1905-1995, Avon, Minnesota

Oliver B. Counter, Jr., 1936-1998, St. Joseph, Minnesota

Peter Crawford, 1950-, Chicago, Illinois, Michigan

Dean Crowe, St. Charles, Missouri

Mabel Damron, 1924-1985, River Rouge, Michigan, ex-Kentucky

Clyde Davis, 1938-, Southgate, Michigan, ex-Illinois

Alonzo Day, Chicago, Illinois

Julia Day, Chicago, Illinois

Jerold Dunn, 1944-, Ashland, Wisconsin

Samuel Dymesich, Wisconsin

Richard Elliker, 1931-, Cable, Wisconsin, ex-Ohio

Rev. Hueston Emerson, Chicago, Illinois

Leona A. Erickson, 1918-1987, La Pointe, Wisconsin

Esta Fehrenbach, 1926-, Carmel, Indiana

Suse Fehrenbach, Carmel, Indiana

Frank Flowers, 1954-, Festus, Missouri

George Foreman, Detroit, Michigan

Donald Gay, 1945-, Chicago, Illinois

Evelyn Gay, Illinois

Geraldine Gay, 1931-, Chicago, Illinois

Mildred Gay, 1925-, Chicago, Illinois

Missionary Gay, 1907-, Chicago, Illinois, ex-Georgia

Ollie Gill, 1908-1990, Chicago, Illinois

Lodge Grant, 1903-, McLeansboro, Illinois

Katy Gregory, Chicago, Illinois

Eugene Holder, Chicago, Illinois

Robert Alfred Honigmann, 1900-1982, Hayward, Wisconsin, ex-Germany

Suoma Annikki Jarvi, 1927-, Parkville, Minnesota, Finland

Bobo Jenkins, 1916-1984, Detroit, Michigan, ex-Alabama

Lester Johnson, Michigan, ex-Louisiana

Rosalyn Johnson, Pennsylvania

Lucy Karkoc, 1935-2003, Virginia, Minnesota, ex-Ukraine USSR

Maude Kegg, 1904-1996, Vineland, Minnesota

Gene Keith, 1929-, Missouri

Sadie Keys, 1932-2002, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Henry Knotts, Detroit, Michigan

Reino Kolu, 1929-2013, Grand Rapids, Minnesota

Halvor Landsverk, 1909-1998, Whalan, Minnesota

Lena Mae Lee, Chicago, Illinois

Isabelle Marshall, 1900-1984, Walker, Minnesota

Mickey Martin, Chicago, Illinois

Doris Mayfield, Greenville, Illinois

Lyle Mayfield, 1929-, Greenville, Illinois

Charles McCloud, Pennsylvania

Mattie McCroskey, Pennsylvania

Margaret McGee, 1925-1998, Chicago, Illinois

Robert Milewski, Chicago, Illinois

Constance L. Müller, 1928-, Minneapolis, Minnesota, ex-North Dakota

Karin Müller, 1907-2003, Minneapolis, Minnesota, ex-Illinois

Nels Roy Nelson, 1920-2002, La Pointe, Wisconsin

Arthur Nicholas, 1932-1991, Navarre, Ohio, ex-West Virginia

Evelyn Nicholas, Malvern, Ohio, ex-West Virginia

General Custer Nicholas, 1895-1979, Carrollton, Ohio, ex-West Virginia

Lemma Nicholas, Navarre, Ohio, ex-West Virginia

Raymond Nicholas, 1930-, Malvern, Ohio, ex-West Virginia

Lily Nielsen, 1897-2000, Minneapolis, Minnesota, ex-Denmark

Robert Palmquist, 1926-1992, Duluth, Minnesota

Catherine (Kitty) Parham, 1924-2003, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

John Porter, Flemingsburg, Kentucky

Yank Rachell, 1910-1997, Indianapolis, Indiana, ex-Tennessee

Thomas Reykdal, 1939-, Cable, Wisconsin

Josephine Robinson, 1892-1980, Naytahwaush, Minnesota

William Robinson, 1934-2006, Naytahwaush, Minnesota

Norman J. Ryberg, 1917-2002, Spooner, Wisconsin

Ruth Ryberg, 1919-, Spooner, Wisconsin

Alanzo Seal, Chicago, Illinois

Clemon Shaw, Joliet, Illinois

Frances Sheadman, Pennsylvania

William Sheiby, Illinois

Gregory H. Taylor, Southgate, Michigan

Marvin Taylor, 1939-2013, Southgate, Michigan

Minnis Taylor, 1931-2007, Lincoln Park, Michigan

Helmer Toyras, 1926-, Kenton, Michigan

Jacob Gustuf Varnes, 1900-2000, Ridgeland, Wisconsin, ex-Norway

Ruth Viikinsalo, 1908-2000, Parkville, Minnesota, ex-Finland

James J. Walker, 1910-1997, Chicago, Illinois, ex-Tennessee

Willy Warren, Detroit, Michigan

Jim Wetzel, 1939-, Effie, Minnesota

Karen Wetzel, 1941-, Effie, Minnesota

George Williamson, 1927-, Wyandotte, Michigan, ex-Kentucky

Mary Williamson, 1932-1978, Wyandotte, Michigan, ex-Kentucky

The South

Nathan Abshire, 1913-1981, Louisiana

Clementine Ardoin, 1941-, Eunice, Louisiana

Dorothy Cole Auman, 1925-1991, Seagrove, North Carolina

Kathleen Auman, 1951-, Seagrove, North Carolina, ex-Colorado

Walter Auman, Sr., 1926-1991, Seagrove, North Carolina

Walter Auman, Jr., 1950-, Seagrove, North Carolina

Jonathan Weston Averill, 1949-, West Virginia, ex-California

Elva Ayers, 1909-1981, Sandstone, West Virginia

Larry Beasley, Greer, South Carolina, ex-Kentucky

Daisy T. Bell, 1922-, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi

David Edward Bell, 1905-1986, Luling, Texas

Betty Bendolf, 1939-, Boykin, Alabama

Jessie Bennett, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina

Mary J. Bennett, 1923-2003, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina

Anthony Bonin, 1940-1982, St. Martinville, Louisiana

Rev. Pearly Brown, 1915-1986, Georgia

Ray Brown, 1914-1998, Marietta, Georgia, ex-Tennessee

James Cales, Sandstone, West Virginia

John N. Callahan, 1895-1981, Birmingham, Alabama

Peter Christensen, West Virginia, ex-Tennessee

William T. Connor, 1927-1980, Durham, North Carolina, ex-Maryland

Roy Crawford, 1934-, Alabama

Clifton Creel, 1914-1999, Bessemer, Alabama

Aver Crider, 1900-1995, Bessemer, Alabama

Preston Crider, Bessemer, Alabama

Jeff Dalton, Greer, South Carolina, ex-Kentucky

Gary A. Davis, 1963-, Hixon, Tennessee

Jewell Deason, 1909-1991, Bessemer, Alabama

John Henry Demps, 1926-2011, Sparta, Tennessee

Cannon Doss, 1904-1982, Bessemer, Alabama

Robert Douglas, 1900-2001, Tennessee

Nick P. Dovellos, 1924-, Tarpon Springs, Florida, ex-Greece

Daniel Dugas, 1945-2000, St. Martinville, Louisiana

Ozie Leonard Emanuel, 1904-1982, Godwin, North Carolina

Edwin Fairconnetue, 1911-1979, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi

John B. Floyd, 1924-1985, Durham, North Carolina

Rudolph Floyd, 1933-, Durham, North Carolina

Eva Fontenot, 1924-1984, Eunice, Louisiana

Rudolph Fountain, 1918-1986, Bessemer, Alabama

Dow Gill, 1924-, Sandstone, West Virginia

Columbus Guffin, 1932-2006, Memphis, Tennessee

Nola Guidry, Louisiana

Sidney Guidry, Louisiana

Queenie Hall, 1938-, Alberta, Alabama

Gertrude Henson, 1922-2002, Gaffney, South Carolina, ex-North Carolina

Diane Hickson, Tallahassee, Florida

Agnes Hocutt, 1911-1996, Bessemer, Alabama

John Hocutt, 1903-1997, Bessemer, Alabama

Claudie Lee Holt, 1920-, Birmingham, Alabama

Arthur Jackson "Peg Leg Sam", 1911-1977, Jonesville, South Carolina

Nelvin Kilpatrick, 1919-, Arlington, Tennessee

Vinus Lejeune, 1919-1993, Louisiana

Lionel Leleux, 1912-1996, Kaplan, Louisiana

Lawrence Lewis, 1914-2000, Memphis, Tennessee, ex-Louisiana

Walter "Furry" Lewis, 1895-1981, Memphis, Tennessee, ex-Mississippi

William R. Millsaps, Greer, South Carolina

John Mitchell, 1895-1978, Arlington, Tennessee

Ethel Mohamed, 1907-1992, Mississippi

Don Montoucet, Lafayette, Louisiana

Mitchell Moser, Greer, South Carolina, ex-Virginia

James Frazier Moss, 1910-, Cookville, Tennessee

Richard Benjamin Moss, 1898-1991, Hayesville, North Carolina, ex-Georgia

Jackie Noto, Louisiana, Mississippi

Henry Herman Oliver, 1909-1993, Goldsboro, North Carolina

J.T. Perkins, 1927-, Arab, Alabama

Frank Pickett, 1890-1984, Madison, Alabama

Rev. Leon Pinson, 1919-1998, Mississippi

Frank Poinsette, 1934-, Durham, North Carolina, ex-South Carolina

Elton Quibideaux, Kaplan, Louisiana

Loretta Ann Rigdon, Bessemer, Alabama

Patricia A. Rigdon, Bessemer, Alabama

Patricia E. Rigdon, Bessemer, Alabama

William B. Rigdon, 1931-1995, Bessemer, Alabama

Jacob Schultz, 1899-1989, New Caney, Texas, ex-Alabama

J.C. Schultz, Freeport, Texas

Buford Smith Jr., 1961-, Louisiana

Clara Smith, 1908-2003, Bessemer, Alabama

Ernest Archer Smith, 1896-1993, North Fort Myers, Florida, ex-Georgia

Virgil Smith, Bessemer, Alabama

Houston Stackhouse, 1910-1980, Memphis, Tennessee, ex-Mississippi

Carl Story, 1916-1995, Greer, South Carolina, ex-North Carolina

Napoleon Strickland, 1919-2001, Como, Mississippi

Jimmy Sudduth, 1910-2007, Fayette, Alabama

Algie Vardaman Surratt, 1927-1983, Birmingham, Alabama, ex-Mississippi

Ellouise Taillac, 1914-2007, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi

John Isah Thatch, 1937-, Madison, Alabama

Martha Lavurne Thatch, 1950-, Madison, Alabama

Charlotte Tracey, 1904-2005, Gaffney, South Carolina, ex-North Carolina

Walter Tyler, Durham, North Carolina

Curtis C. Waterfield, 1926-, Knotts Island, North Carolina, ex-Virginia

Curtis W. Waterfield, 1953-, Knotts Island, North Carolina, ex-Virginia

Luther J. Weeks, 1932-1994, Dalton, Georgia

Carrie Wilkins, 1929-, Memphis, Tennessee, Arkansas

Joe Willie Wilkins, 1923-1981, Memphis, Tennessee, ex-Mississippi

Howard Williams, Cleveland, Mississippi

Joseph Lee Williams, 1903-, Crawford, Mississippi

Rev. North L. Williams, 1925-, Tallahassee, Florida, ex-Alabama

Ralph Williams, 1922-, Rossville, Georgia

Estelle Witherspoon, 1916-1998, Alberta, Alabama

Nettie Young, 1917-2010, Alberta, Alabama

The Upland South --

Jonathan Averill, 1949-, West Virginia, ex-California

Elva Ayers, 1909-1981, Sandstone, ex-West Virginia

Charles Leslie Bailey, 1916-2004, Adamstown, Pennsylvania, ex-Tennessee

Danny Bailey, 1918-2004, Knoxville, Tennessee

Donald H. Baker, 1944-, Norton, Virginia

Estil C. Ball, 1913-1978, Grassy Creek, North Carolina, ex-Virginia

Orna Ball, 1907-2000, Grassy Creek, North Carolina, ex-Virginia

Nema Belcher, 1917-2001, Elkview, West Virginia

Peggy Jean Black, 1935-, North Carolina

Pearl Bowling, 1897-1988, Blaine, Tennessee

Phyllis Boyens, 1947-2009, Charleston, West Virginia

Glen Branscum, 1928-2011, Onie, Arkansas, ex-Oklahoma

Flora Brock, 1913-1997, Newnata, Arkansas, ex-Mississippi

Elizabeth O. Brown, 1956-, Princeton, West Virginia, ex-Virginia

James Cales, Sandstone, West Virginia

Jerry Calvert, Morehead, Kentucky

Brenda Carper, 1943-, Princeton, West Virginia

Fred Carper, 1941-, Princeton, West Virginia

Martha Chandler, 1925-1989, Marshall, North Carolina

Peter Christensen, West Virginia, ex-Tennessee

Virginia D. Clayborne, 1929-1990, Linden, Tennessee

Buell Cobb, 1944-, Carrollton, Georgia, Alabama

Kyle Creed, 1912-1982, Galax, Virginia, ex-North Carolina

Percy Danforth, 1900-1992, Ann Arbor, Michigan, ex-Washington, D.C.

James E. Davis, 1926-, Mountain View, Arkansas

Samuel A. Davis, 1932-, Pleasant Grove, Arkansas

Hazel Dickens, Washington, D.C., ex-Virginia

James Earnest Dillon, 1889-1983, Beaver, West Virginia

Wilson B. Douglas, 1922-1999, Maysel, West Virginia

Olen Fendley, 1910-1993, Leslie, Arkansas

Retha Fendley, 1916-2004, Leslie, Arkansas

J.W. Finney, 1923-1996, Hazelwood, North Carolina

Christine Flinn, 1945-2005, North Carolina, ex-Indiana

Dow Gill, 1924-, Sandstone, West Virginia

Earl Walter Gilmore, 1924-2000, Clinchco, Virginia, ex-North Carolina

Blanche Griffith, 1906-1986, Sod, West Virginia

Sarah Ogan Gunning, 1910-1983, Hart, Michigan, ex-Kentucky

William Taylor Henry, 1929-, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ex-Kentucky

Sallie Higgins, 1915-2004, Newnata, Arkansas

Delbert Hughes, 1905-1982, Ohley, West Virginia, ex-Kentucky

Thomas Hal Hunter, 1919-1993, Mars Hill, North Carolina

Martha Lee Hyatt, 1929-, Canton, North Carolina

William Otmer Iman, 1904-1987, Charleston, West Virginia

Alberta P. Johnson, 1910-2011, East Bank, West Virginia, ex-Pennsylvania

Elva E. Johnson, 1896-, Meadow Creek, West Virginia, ex-Virginia

Janette Carter Kelley, 1923-2006, Hiltons, Virginia

Aileen H. King, 1932-, Canton, North Carolina

Floyd F. King, 1930-2004, Canton, North Carolina

Jeff Kiser, 1954-, Whitesburg, Kentucky

James E. Kitchens, 1912-1979, Cardova, Alabama

Hugh Winfred McGraw, 1931-, Temple, Georgia

Thomas Buford McGraw, 1911-1982, Mt. Zion, Georgia

Robert A. McCoy, 1945-, Williamsburg, West Virginia

Robert McMillon, 1951-, Lenoir, North Carolina

Annie Estelle Monk, West Virginia

Fate Morrison, 1905-, Arkansas

Marvin Morrison, 1961-, Austin, Arkansas, ex-Kansas

Richard Morrison, Arkansas, ex-Kansas

Debbie Norton, 1961-, Marshall, North Carolina

Dellie Norton, 1898-1993, Marshall, North Carolina

Phoeba Parsons, 1908-2001, Orma, West Virginia

A.L. (Arthur Leroy) Phipps, 1916-1995, Barbourville, Kentucky

Helene Phipps, Barbourville, Kentucky

Kathleen Phipps, Barbourville, Kentucky

Leemon Phipps, Barbourville, Kentucky

Barbara Ann Powell, 1937-, Timbo, Arkansas, ex-Missouri

Nunnie Lee Presson, 1897-1977, Linden, Tennessee

Evelyn Ramsey, 1925-2001, Marshall, North Carolina

John S. Ramsey, 1939-, Auburn, Alabama

Byard Ray, 1910-1988, Marshall, North Carolina

Shelia Rice, 1953-, Marshall, North Carolina, ex-Tennessee

Lesley Riddle, 1905-1979, Rochester, New York, ex-North Carolina

Robert Robinson, 1950-, Waynesville, North Carolina

Harvey George Sampson, 1909-1991, Nicut, West Virginia

Calvin Sears, 1958-1994, Ivydale, West Virginia

Bookmiller Shannon, 1908-1985, Timbo, Arkansas

Dewey Shepherd, 1906-1996, David, Kentucky

Mabel Augusta Smith, 1912-2001, Linden, Tennessee

Toney Estes Smith, 1927-, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Von Bulow Smith, 1908-1985, Linden, Tennessee

Michael Snyder, 1939-, Wymer, West Virginia

Alberta Stanley, Virginia

James Stanley, Virginia

Alexander Stewart, 1891-, Blackwater, Virginia, ex-Tennessee

Charles Summey, 1921-1991, Waynesville, North Carolina

Dovis Symns, 1949-, Princeton, West Virginia

Lou Booth Therrell, 1936-, Mars Hill, North Carolina, ex-Florida

John Homer Walker, 1898-1980, Narrows, Virginia, ex-West Virginia

Charlene Wallace, 1929-, Waco, Georgia

Berzilla Wallin, 1892-1986, Marshall, North Carolina

Cas Wallin, 1903-1992, Marshall, North Carolina

Dudley Wilson, 1954-, Whitesburg, Kentucky, ex-North Carolina

Jacquelyn Wilson, 1953-, Virginia

Melvin Wine, 1909-2003, Copen, West Virginia

George Wolfe, 1933-, Gallagher, West Virginia

George Washington Woodard, 1906-1984, Gadsden, Alabama

Martha Ann Woodard, 1913-2005, Gadsden, Alabama

Chester Davis Wootten, 1910-1988, Flatrock, Alabama

Freeman Edward Wootten, 1921-2001, Ider, Alabama

James Carnice Wootten, 1918-1986, Ider, Alabama

Nimrod Workman, 1895-1994, Chattaroy, West Virginia, ex-Kentucky

Erle C. Wright, Jr., 1944-, Wise, Virginia

Bobby Younger, 1941-, Mountain View, Arkansas

Samuel Younger, 1926-, Mountain View, Arkansas

The Heartland

Billy J. Abell, 1925-2013, McPherson, Kansas, ex-Texas

David R. Adair, 1933-2010, Tulsa, Oklahoma

Geraldine Baker, Belcourt, North Dakota

Henry Baker, Belcourt, North Dakota

Kepka Belton, Kansas

Bob Brown, Lebanon, Missouri

Lucille M. Brubacher, 1921-2006, Newton, Kansas, ex-Texas

Royce Campbell, 1923-1996, Langley, Oklahoma

Gene Chipman, 1909-1988, Perry, Missouri

John H. Clawson, 1913-1987, Okemah, Oklahoma, ex-Texas

Brenda Coker, 1949-, Tulsa, Oklahoma

Bill Collins, Missouri

Elzey Collins, 1892-1986, Dora, Missouri

Max Collins, 1916-2001, Shawnee, Oklahoma

Webb S. Collins, 1914-1999, Shawnee, Oklahoma

Timothy R. Daniels, 1948-, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

John D. Dednam, St. Louis, Missouri

Vivian Dednam, St. Louis, Missouri

Greek Ellick, Kansas, Oklahoma

David W. Gaines, 1952-, Dixon, Missouri

Arthur Goering, 1910-1999, Newton, Kansas

Paul P. Goering, 1903-1999, Moundridge, Kansas

Clarence E. Gourd, 1926-, Des Moines, Iowa

Weldon D. Gourd, 1931-2013, Iowa

Farrell Gourneau, St. John, North Dakota

Sandra Gourneau, St. John, North Dakota

Buster Grass, 1928-2003, Bethany, Oklahoma, ex-Kansas

Joyce E. Grimes, 1905-1996, Elgin, Iowa, ex-Minnesota

Riley Grimes, Iowa

Jack Hakethorn, Missouri

Jerry R. Hart, 1931-1992, Midwest City, Oklahoma

Charles W. Heath, 1902-, King City, Missouri

Albert Heselmeyer, Taylor, Texas

Patric S. Ireland, 1954-, Kansas City, Kansas

George P. Jackson, 1920-, Kansas City, Missouri, ex-Mississippi

Jacqueline D. Jackson, 1932-2003, St. Louis, Missouri

Cecil W. Johnson, 1911-1991, Shawnee, Oklahoma

Doris Johnson, Luray, Kansas

Ed Johnson, North Dakota

Bill L. Jones, 1926-, Dixon, Missouri

Carol D. Jones, 1940-, Dixon, Missouri

Mona Jones, 1937-, Dixon, Missouri

Meta Juhnke, 1916-1996, McPherson, Kansas

Richard Kohl, Perry, Missouri

Carl Krehbiel, 1896-1994, Moundridge, Kansas

Ernest M. Krehbiel, 1900-1988, Moundridge, Kansas

Jimmy La Rocque, Belcourt, North Dakota

Bertil I. Malm, 1910-1995, Rosholt, South Dakota

Myrtle Malm, 1908-1998, Rosholt, South Dakota

Ralph McCraw, 1917-1998, Tecumseh, Oklahoma

Ray McCraw, 1912-1990, Norman, Oklahoma

Harriet McClurg, 1917-1983, Newell, Iowa

Emmet McWoods, 1930-2005, St. Louis, Missouri

Floyd Midgett, 1936-, Langley, Oklahoma

Alex Morin, Belcourt, North Dakota

Bernt Odegard, 1903-1997, Erskine, Minnesota

Jimmy Parisien, Belcourt, North Dakota

Rosemary Parisien, Belcourt, North Dakota

Dennis Pash, 1954-, Kansas City, Kansas

Agnes Poitra, 1924-1999, Belcourt, North Dakota

Leon Poitra, 1922-2003, Belcourt, North Dakota

Zella Jackson Price, St. Louis, Missouri

John Purk, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Ida Sacquinta, 1901-, Decorah, Iowa

Kevin A. Sanders, 1954-, Kansas City, Kansas

Ester Schmidt, 1932-, Newton, Kansas

Ellen E. Schrag, 1925-1996, Moundridge, Kansas

Roy Searcy, 1919-2000, Kansas City, Missouri, ex-Mississippi

Willie J. Smith, 1929-2003, St. Louis, Missouri

Willie Mae Ford Smith, 1904-1994, St. Louis, Missouri

Vernon E. Spooner, 1924-1991, Casselton, North Dakota

George Strimska, 1931-2003, Bartlett, Texas

Patrick Strimska, Bartlett, Texas

Thomas Strimska, Bartlett, Texas

Bloyd Jerome Talge, 1906-1992, Erskine, Minnesota

Edith Thiesen, Collinsville, Oklahoma

Henry Townsend, 1909-2006, St. Louis, Missouri, ex-Mississippi

Vernell Townsend, 1930-1995, St. Louis, Missouri, ex-Arkansas

Vernes M. Trandem, 1919-1993, Erskine, Minnesota

Genevieve M. Trinka, 1923-2010, Lidgerwood, North Dakota

Anton Vacura, 1913-1987, Jennings, Kansas

Eva Marie Vacura, 1926-2006, Jennings, Kansas

Monroe Veach, 1896-, Trenton, Missouri

Darrel Vik, 1943-, South Dakota

Sandra Vik, South Dakota

Alfred Vrazel, Buckholts, Texas

Anton Vrazel, Buckholts, Texas

Delbert Wedel, Hesston, Kansas

Dennis Wengert, 1942-1980, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Lonnie O. Wilson, 1921-2002, Norman, Oklahoma

Rebecca A. Worthington, 1945-, Tulsa, Oklahoma

The Great West

Grant Wesley Ader, 1925-1978, Midvale, Idaho

Karen Lynn Ader, 1946-, Weiser, Idaho

Wanona E. Ader, 1924-, Midvale, Idaho, ex-Missouri

Wendell Ader, 1944-, Midvale, Idaho

Kenneth Atwood, Utah

Geraldine Baker, Belcourt, North Dakota

Henry Baker, Belcourt, North Dakota

Roger B. Baker, 1938-, Ontario, Oregon, ex-Idaho

James LeRoy Beebe, 1898-1984, Townsend, Montana

Helen Boyd, Ottumwa, South Dakota

Jean Louise Bunch, Durkee, Oregon

Scott N. Carter, 1953-, Miles City, Montana

Jose Ciscar, Ely, Nevada

Nels Clang, Broken Bow, Nebraska

John Craft, 1919-1996, Nampa, Idaho, ex-Texas

Daniel E. Dasovich, 1928-1977, Omaha, Nebraska

Daniel L. Dasovich, Omaha, Nebraska

Nellie Doke, 1908-2003, Ephraim, Utah

Ann Dorthy, Montana, ex-Michigan

Ed G. Dorthy, Montana, ex-Iowa

Charles Dougal, 1919-1998, Jordan Valley, Oregon, ex-Idaho

Frankie C. Dougal, 1918-, Jordan Valley, Oregon

Pete Drakulich, 1926-1998, Bellevue, Nebraska

Flora M. Duncan, 1923-, Orem, Utah

Gaile Duncan, 1960-, Orem, Utah

Alain Erdocaincy, 1959-, San Francisco, California

Clifford T. Flaten, 1909-2000, Boise, Idaho, ex-North Dakota

Mary Forsea, Richland, Oregon

Robert Forsea, 1918-2001, Richland, Oregon

Forrest Fretwell, 1940-, Jordan Valley, Oregon

David R. Frisbie, 1944-, Emmett, Idaho

George B. German, 1902-1991, Yankton, South Dakota, ex-Illinois

Farrell Gourneau, North Dakota

Sandra Gourneau, North Dakota

Leean Mower Gray, 1943-, Orem, Utah

Tessie Groth, 1904-1985, Miles City, Montana, ex-Canada

Michael Hanley, 1941-, Jordan Valley, Oregon

Barbara Hanson, 1937-, New Plymouth, Idaho, ex-California

Harold Albert Hanson, 1963-, New Plymouth, Idaho

Kenny Hanson, 1937-, New Plymouth, Idaho

Tena Hanson, New Plymouth, Idaho

John Hanzek, 1919-1997, Omaha, Nebraska

Catherine M. Hardman, 1925-, Orem, Utah

Charlene Hardman, 1945-, Orem, Utah

Fred Haun, 1897-1982, Weiser, Idaho, ex-Russia

Claudia J. Holmes, 1930-, Midvale, Idaho

Dennis K. Holmes, Midvale, Idaho

Phyllis Anne Holmes, 1932-, Cambridge, Idaho

Thomas E. Holmes, 1923-, Midvale, Idaho

William Kenneth Holmes, 1930-2000, Cambridge, Idaho

Denise Marie Inda, 1961-, Reno, Nevada

Janet Inda, Nevada

Mike Jergovic, 1918-2008, Omaha, Nebraska

Ed Johnson, North Dakota

Leona Johnson, Belcourt, North Dakota

Charles R. Kirby, Baker, Oregon

Gayle M. Kirby, Baker, Oregon

Lavaughn Kirby, 1912-1995, Baker, Oregon

Verdell Skinner Kirby, 1906-1989, Baker, Oregon

Jimmy La Rocque, Belcourt, North Dakota

Bryan McClure, Oregon, Washington

David McClure, 1950-, Spokane, Washington

Vernon L. McClure, 1921-2009, Midvale, Idaho

Vivian I. McClure, 1922-2006, Midvale, Idaho

Leota McKnight, 1917-1992, Nampa, Idaho

Mack Medakovich, 1912-1982, Council Bluffs, Iowa

Clara Meldrum, 1904-2000, Utah

Alex Morin, Belcourt, North Dakota

Bonnie Morrey, 1960-, Orem, Utah

Geneal M. Morrey, 1927-, Orem, Utah

Geraldine Mower, 1922-2009, Provo, Utah

Sivert O. Mysse, 1922-2004, Ingomar, Montana

Bonnie Lee Nielson, 1937-, Ephraim, Utah

Jimmy Parisien, North Dakota

Rosemary Parisien, North Dakota

Charles Pettis, 1900-1980, Broken Bow, Nebraska

D. Peter Plechas, Omaha, Nebraska

Agnes Poitra, 1924-1999, North Dakota

Leon Poitra, 1922-2003, North Dakota

Ken Putnam, 1955-, South Dakota

Bernard D. Rasmusson, 1930-2003, Polson, Montana

Luke Rollins, 1891-1977, Midvale, Idaho, ex-Oregon

John E. Sawyer, 1925-, Pinegrove, Montana, ex-Illinois

Benhard Setram, 1903-1999, Billings, Montana, ex-South Dakota

Vivian L. Shepard, 1919-2001, Payette, Idaho, ex-Montana

Vivian Skeans, 1948-, Boise, Idaho, ex-Oregon

Darrell Stykes, 1922-, Meridian, Idaho

Siguald Tueden, Montana, North Dakota

Elise O. Van Decar, Oregon

Lewis Carl Watson, 1911-1979, Ingomar, Montana, ex-Colorado

Roberta Whiting, 1958-, Nampa, Idaho

James W. Widner, 1924-, Darby, Montana, Wyoming

Jess L. Williams, 1892-, Lincoln, Nebraska

Dixie Wilmarth, Oxbow, Oregon, Idaho

Everett Wilmarth, 1929-1998, Oxbow, Oregon, ex-Idaho

Carl Wilson, 1911-1988, Miles City, Montana, ex-Colorado

The Pacific Northwest

Sandra Abolins, 1959-, Seattle, Washington

Ingrida Avotins, 1957-, Seattle, Washington

Steven Bartow, 1951-, Grants Pass, Oregon

George T. Beaman, 1907-1984, Yuba City, California

Janis Beisans, 1952-, Seattle, Washington

Steven Bennett, 1959-, Eugene, Oregon, ex-California

Robert Bojarcas, 1943-, Oregon

Steve Brewer, 1953-, Red Bluff, California

Theodore M. Bryant, 1926-, Eugene, Oregon

Brenda Caffrey, 1960-, San Francisco, California

James Caffrey, 1958-, San Francisco, California

Patricia Caffrey, 1956-, San Francisco, California

Thomas J. Caffrey, 1919-1996, San Francisco, California, ex-Arkansas

Cynthia Chang, California

Thomas Chin, California

Walter H. Christiansen, 1908-1991, Oakridge, Oregon, ex-California

Francis Clay, 1923-2008, San Francisco, California, ex-Illinois

Duane Coop, 1921-2009, Oregon

Jean Coop, 1932-, Creswell, Oregon

Julie Eng, California

Ronald Fong, California

Jane Forrester, Idleyld Park, Oregon

Michael Forrester, 1947-, Idleyld Park, Oregon

Robert Freimanis, 1911-2000, Seattle, Washington, ex-U.S.S.R.

Bettie F. Gibson, 1943-, Veneta, Oregon, ex-Virginia

Ronald O. Gibson, 1940-1983, Veneta, Oregon

Stanley A. Gonshorowski, 1919-1997, Eugene, Oregon, ex-North Dakota

Charles E. Griffin, 1926-1999, Olympia, Washington

Pauline E. Griffin, 1933-, Olympia, Washington

Eric A. Halberg, 1941-, Warren, Oregon

Pat Halberg, 1942-, Warren, Oregon

Anna L. Hoerster, Oregon

John H. Hoerster, 1901-1977, Rogue River, Oregon

James B. Hoots, 1918-1996, Ashland, Oregon, ex-Illinois

James K. Hulsey, Oregon, ex-Washington

Mayhorn Itha, 1912-1985, Brentwood, California, ex-Texas

Marshall P. Jackson, 1911-1983, Gresham, Oregon, ex-North Dakota

Marita Jansevics, Seattle, Washington, ex-Colorado

Benita Jaundaldris, 1962-, Seattle, Washington

Cora A. Johnson, 1913-1986, Livermore, California, ex-Texas

Harry O. Johnson, 1921-2010, Bothell, Washington, ex-North Dakota

Jim Johnson, 1943-1998, San Jose, California

Louise Johnson, San Jose, California

Patricia Lew, California

Phillip Li, California

Calvin E. Long, San Diego, California

Gary D. Lorentzen, 1949-, Astoria, Oregon

Sherry L. Lorentzen, 1948-, Astoria, Oregon

Glen Lum, California

Georgia L. Maki, 1909-2004, Astoria, Oregon

Liko Martin, Kauai, Hawaii

Milton F. Mayfield, 1937-, Oregon

Peter Medeiros, Honolulu, Hawaii

John H. Miller, 1921-1995, Roseburg, Oregon

Mary G. Miller, 1930-, Roseburg, Oregon

Bryant C. Minor, 1917-2000, Modesto, California, ex-Oklahoma

Maxine Minor, Modesto, California, ex-Arkansas

Russell E. Modrell, 1916-1995, Terrebonne, Oregon, ex-Idaho

Willie Moore, 1929-, Emeryville, California, ex-Louisiana

Alice K. Namakelua, 1892-1987, Hawaii

Jerry Nicholson, Seattle, Washington

Lisa Nicholson, 1916-, Seattle, Washington

Julian O'Bryant, 1928-, Veneta, Oregon, ex-Oklahoma

Irene A. Olson, 1944-, Seattle, Washington, ex-Latvia

Wallace S. Olson, 1940-, Seattle, Washington, ex-Virginia

Walter J. Osborne, 1918-1986, Prineville, Oregon, ex-California

Joseph F. Pancerzewski, 1905-1991, Enumclaw, Washington, ex-Minnesota

Margaret Pang, Honolulu, Hawaii

Raymond Pang, Honolulu, Hawaii

Bill Parrish, Redwood, California, ex-New Mexico

Inez Parrish, 1911-1991, Redwood, California, ex-Texas

Ray E. Poppe, 1931-, Skamokawa, Washington, ex-Wisconsin

Keith Poppert, 1937-, Wasilla, Alaska, ex-Colorado

Virgil Poppert, 1910-1997, Wasilla, Alaska, ex-Colorado

William W. Puustinen, 1903-1995, Oregon, ex-Finland

Robert Quam, 1943-, Cloverdale, California, ex-North Dakota

Reinis Ritelis, 1942-, Seattle, Washington, ex-Latvia

Louis C. Robinson, 1915-1976, Berkeley, California, ex-Texas

Martins Rubenis, 1957-, Seattle, Washington

Hugh Samples, 1903-1987, Central Point, Oregon, West Virginia

Dorothy Seay, 1916-1993, King City, California, ex-Texas

Herman Seay, 1913-2002, King City, California, ex-Texas

Homer Shamblin, 1907-1994, Pleasanton, California, ex-Texas

Iris Shamblin, 1910-2001, Pleasanton, California, ex-Texas

James Sisler, Kodiak, Alaska

Clarence E. Smith, 1940-, Oakland, California, ex-Texas

James Soong, California

Keith Steele, 1929-1995, Leaburg, Oregon

Elaine Sylvia, California

Ron Sylvia, California, Massachusetts

Robert H. Waibel, 1934-, Sweet Home, Oregon

Raymond E. Willis, 1901-1995, Springfield, Oregon, ex-Missouri

Adam J. Wleklinski, 1908-1986, Renton, Washington, ex-Germany

Irena Wleklinski, Renton, Washington

William R. Yohey, 1919-1991, McMinneville, Oregon, ex-Nebraska

Janina Zutis, 1939-, Seattle, Washington

The Pacific Southwest

Sam Agins, Arizona, Colorado

Luis Armendáriz, Presidio, Texas

Eural Bake, 1909-2001, Prescott, Arizona, ex-Utah

Nila Mary Bake, 1919-1997, Prescott, Arizona, ex-Idaho

Everett Brisendine, 1906-1996, Chino Valley, Arizona, ex-Oklahoma

Francisco Castro, California

Sam Chatmon, 1899-1983, El Cajon, California, ex-Mississippi

Francis Clay, 1923-2008, San Francisco, California, ex-Illinois

Duane Coop, 1921-2009, Oregon

Harry Leandro Cordova, 1947-, Truchas, New Mexico

Porfirio Cordova, 1926-2009, New Mexico

Rosanna Cordova, 1926-1996, New Mexico

Danny Cruz, charro, Los Nietos, California

Tom Cruz, California

Van Cunningham, 1896-1984, fiddler, Bodfish, California

Fredrick Dolby, Jr., Texas

Willie J. Dolby, Texas

Gary Dunshee, Alpine, Texas

Eugene Enis, 1953-, Tucson, Arizona

Gerald Enis, 1961-, Tucson, Arizona

Marvin Enis, 1956-, Tucson, Arizona

Francis J. Enriquez, Sells, Arizona

Alfredo Figueroa, singer, guitarist, Blythe, California

Ervin Garcia, 1934-, Tucson, Arizona

Alicia Gonzales, paper crafts, Los Angeles, California

Margarita Gutierrez, California

Van Holyoak, 1928-1980, Arizona

John M. Hughes, 1909-1998, Clifton, Arizona

Stella F. Hughes, 1916-, Clifton, Arizona, ex-Oklahoma

Mayhorn Itha, 1912-1985, Brentwood, California, ex-Texas

Rex Ivey, 1950-, Alpine, Texas

Robert Ernest Lee Jeffery, 1915-1976, blues pianist, San Diego, California

Martha A. Jennings, 1938-2007, Thatcher, Arizona, ex-Arkansas

Sharon Lee Jennings, 1962-, Thatcher, Arizona, ex-Kansas

Tommy R. Jennings, 1940-2003, Thatcher, Arizona

Jesus Manuel Jimenez, Presidio, Texas

Cora A. Johnson, 1913-1986, Livermore, California, ex-Texas

Jim Johnson, 1943-1998, San Jose, California

Louise Johnson, San Jose, California

Jon A. Knudtson, 1945-, Yuma, Arizona, ex-Minnesota

Clarence Langen, 1911-1990, Thatcher, Arizona, ex-New Brunswick

Mrs. Clarence Langen, Thatcher, Arizona

Calvin E. Long, San Diego, California

David Luckow, 1945-2003, Tucson, Arizona, ex-California

Benjamin Maestas, Taos, New Mexico

Felipe Mares, 1908-1978, New Mexico

Lucy Mares, 1917-2001, New Mexico

Jose Martinez, California

Dave McEnery, 1914-2002, Nashville, Tennessee, ex-Texas

Bryant Minor, California, ex-Oklahoma

Maxine Minor, California, ex-Arkansas

Willie Moore, 1929-, Emeryville, California, ex-Louisiana

Bill Neely, 1916-1990, Austin, Texas

Carmen Orozco, 1921-, Redford, Texas

Bill Parrish, California, New Mexico

Inez Parrish, California, ex-Texas

Danial Raya, California

Louis C. Robinson, California, ex-Texas

Victor Romero, California

Juanita Saludado, singer, Earlimart, California

Don Jésus Sanchez, 1910-1983, violinist, Los Angeles, California

Dorothy Seay, California, Texas

Herman Seay, California, Texas

Homer Shamblin, 1907-1994, Pleasanton, California, ex-Texas

Iris Shamblin, 1910-2001, Pleasanton, California, ex-Texas

Clarence E. Smith, 1940-, Oakland, California, ex-Texas

Lorence L. Smith, Colorado

Elaine Sylvia, California

Ron Sylvia, California, ex-Massachusetts

Elizabeth Rose Tea, 1920-, Clifton, Arizona

Pablo Trujillo, 1916-, New Mexico

Florentino Urias, Presidio, Texas

Jose Urias, Texas, Presidio, Texas

Maria Velasquez, California

Ossie White, California

Roscoe White, California

Jesse Wright, California

Jimmy Wright, singer, Fresno, California

Walter Wright, singer, Fresno, California

William Wright, 1914-1982, singer, Selma, California
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1976 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1976, Series 8
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1976 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5e6d5564d-8ee8-4e59-abed-91eff3382797
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1976-ref57

Native Americans

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The focus for the 1975 Native Americans program was the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: the Mohawk, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora, tribal groups whose government had been in effect for hundreds of years and served as a model for our federal system. The Grand Council of the Iroquois Confederacy directly influenced the creation of the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of the U.S. Never before had the Native American Festival presentation been so closely interrelated to American history.

The Grand Council was discussed in workshops in the Learning Center where a history in photographs was on display. Members of the Iroquois are a major force in the lacrosse industry - from creating sticks to providing the athletes. Lacrosse was played in competition in the Native Americans area daily, and lacrosse stick making was part of the craft demonstrations along with silversmithing, wood and bone carving, basketry, and beadwork. Iroquois singing and dancing took place daily. Friday evenings, visitors were invited to participate in social dancing. The friendship dance, round dance, rabbit dance and stomp dance were demonstrated.

Native American food that was demonstrated and sampled included fry bread, corn and sassafras tea. Festival presentations traced the role of maize from crop through harvest; from food preparation in soups and breads, to the use of husks by craftspeople in toys, dolls and ceremonial masks.

In the Learning Center participants from various other Eastern Indian tribes recounted their influence on European settlers, beginning in 1620 when the Wampanoag tribe welcomed the Pilgrims (greeting them in English), provided food for them during the first difficult winter on the New England coast, and then shared the first Thanksgiving. Narragansett representatives spoke about the architectural contributions and history of their people. The Passamaquoddy from Maine, known for their intricate quill work and importance to the early settlers as trappers and fishers, also discussed their role in American history.

Other Native Americans who participated in discussions were from the Shinnecock tribe of Long Island, New York; Indian Mountain Lookout Intertribal Native Americans, New York; the Lumbee, Haliwa and Coharie from North Carolina; Catawba from South Carolina; Tunica-Biloxi of Louisiana; Chippewa of Wisconsin; and Potowatomi of Michigan. These participants were all members of the Coalition of Eastern Native Americans (CENA), an organization whose purpose is to identify and assist in the socio-economic and organizational development of Eastern Native Americans. CENA includes non-reservation, urban and federally recognized tribes and groups.

Lucille Dawson served as program coordinator, assisted by Thomas Kavanagh. The multi-year program was shaped by the Native Americans Advisory Group, including Alfonso Ortiz, Louis Bruce, Dell Hymes, Rayna Green, Clydia Nahwooksy, William Sturtevant, and Barre Toelken.
Participants:
Six Nations, Iroquois participants

Cayuga

Sam Crogan, lacrosse player

Alisa Mike, dancer

Nancy Poodry, bead worker

Bill Printup, lacrosse player

Dean Printup, lacrosse player

Elwood Printup, lacrosse player

Gene Printup, lacrosse player

Elizabeth Silversmith, cook

Mohawk

Mary Adams, basket maker

Mike Adams, basket maker

Elwood Greene, silversmith

David Hill, lacrosse player

Stanley Hill, bone carver

Woody Hill, dancer

Allan Jock, dancer

Marshall Joseph, wood carver

Isabelle Skye, cornhusk worker

Beatrice Thomas, dancer

Russell Thomas, dancer

Margaret Terrence, basket maker

Cam Wilson, bone carver

Marge Wilson, cook

Wanda Wilson, dancer

Oneida

Irving Chrisjohn, cornhusk worker

Mrs. Chrisjohn, cornhusk worker

Onondaga

Paula Babcock, dancer

Kevin Hill, lacrosse player

Martin Jimmerson, dancer

Angie Miller, dancer

Huron Miller, singer, discussant, Buffalo, New York

Barry Powless, dancer

Irving Powless, Sr., 1906-1985, discussant

Irving Powless, Jr., discussant

Nancy Powless, dancer

Jacob Skye, dancer

Perry Williams, dancer

Debbie Williams, dancer

Ruby Williams, dancer

Guy Williams, dancer

Tim Williams, dancer

Seneca

Herbert Buck, singer

Lydia Buck, dancer

Sadie Buck, dancer

Herb Dowdy, 1919-1990, singer

Fidelia George, dancer

Helen Harris, dancer

Linda Harris, dancer

Steve Harris, dancer

Elijah Harris, dancer

Diosa Hill, dancer

Marty Jamerson, dancer

Darwin John, dancer

Edith John, cook

Coleen Johnny John, dancer

Kevin Johnny John, dancer

Mike Johnny John, dancer

Richard Johnny John, singer

Vera Miller, cook, bead worker

Ken Poodry, cradleboard maker

Eddie Scott, dancer

Elmer Shongo, 1929-1985, dancer, cook

Corbett Sundown, 1909-1992, discussant

Lloyd Thomas, 1946-, dancer

Marlene Thomas, dancer

Hazel Thompson, dancer

Phillip Thompson, dancer

Tuscarora

Joe Chrysler, lacrosse player

Orzey Cusick, lacrosse stick maker

Emma Greene, cook

Alvis Hewitt, 1931-1999, cook manager

Rick Hill, discussant

Nina Jacobs, dancer

Phillip Jacobs, lacrosse player

Bob Patterson, lacrosse player

Kevin Patterson, lacrosse stick maker

John Patterson, lacrosse stick maker

Helen Printup, cook

Mary Rickard, lacrosse stick maker

Ellene Rickard, lacrosse stick maker

Noreen Shongo, cook

Ron Smith, lacrosse player

Wilmer Wilson, 1925-2002, discussant

Coalition of Eastern Native Americans Participants

Aroostook Association

Terry Polchies, discussant

Catawba

Roger Trimnal, discussant

Chippewa

Dalores Baimbridge, discussant

Elizabeth Cadotte, discussant

Haliwa

Linda Lynch, discussant

Archibald Lynch, discussant

Hassanamisco

Louise Wilcox, discussant

Indian Mountain Lookout Inter-Tribal Native Americans

Asenith D. Vogt, discussant

Lumbee

Arlene Locklear, 1952-1979, discussant

June Sampson, discussant

W.J. Strickland, discussant

Micmac

Tom Battiste

Mohegan

Virginia Daamon, discussant

Narragansett

Alberta Wilcox, discussant

Mary Brown, discussant

Potawatomi

Joe Winchester, discussant

Leroy Wesaw, 1925-1994, discussant

Shinnecock

Eva Smith, discussant

Alice Franklin, discussant

Tunica Biloxi

Rose Marie Pierite, 1900-1987

Wampanoag

Komi Oweant Haynes, 1958-, discussant
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1975 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1975, Series 6
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1975 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk512b5c4dc-6be5-47cb-809b-74a908534241
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1975-ref549

Melemchi Village, Nepal

Collection Creator:
Bishop, Naomi Hawes  Search this
Bishop, John Melville  Search this
Extent:
10 Film reels (5 hours, color sound; 10,800 feet, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1986
Scope and Contents:
Full film record documents the cultural ecology of a Sherpa village at the head of the Helembu Valley, Nepal.

Footage begins with shots of Rhesus monkeys at the Buddhist shrine of Swayambanath in Kathmandu valley as part of research project observing the behavior of temple monkeys. Footage in the Melemchi village focuses on both subsistence and religious aspects of Helembu Sherpa culture. Documentation of subsistence includes herding and domestic activities of the Sherpa patrilineal households; harvesting changa, the high altitude barley from which the staple food, thombu is made; women threshing wheat in fields; women dairying in family pastures; spinnig lambs wool; weaving jackets; grindng grain and flour on the grindstone; women making yoghurt, butter and cheese; weaving bamboo mats. Documentation of religious and ritual depicts the coexistence of Buddhist and local Bon animist practices; a Nyin Lo ceremony conducted by a bombo (shaman) to exorcise bad spirits; the the torma (a ritual object representing a temporary house for the gods); man in trance drumming and calling spirits; chicken sacrifice; beating a woman with steamed branches to expunge the evil spirits from her; a Mikha Kyurgen puja done to reverse the negative effects of gossiping; the TupuTsezchu Festival, one of four festivals held annually in Melemchi to commemorate the work of Guru Rempeche, the Bodhisattva who brought Buddhism to Tibet; the Nara festival which honors the founding of the gomba(local Buddhist temple); the decapitation ofa yak as an offering. Also documented is the funerary practice composed of the procession where the deceased is carried in a chair to the funeral ground for cremation. Sequences also depict men carving decorations for the woodwork adorning houses; an arranged marriage; Sherpa man teaching a class to young students; playing the "adorje," a trumpet made out of a human thigh bone; lama reading Tibetan texts.

Legacy Keywords: Language and culture ; Temples prayer wheels Nepal ; Harvests barley Nepal ; Barley method of harvest Nepal ; Animal husbandry milking cows Nepal ; Seances spirit mediums ritual Nepal ; Mediums ritual spirit communication Nepal ; Spirits mediums communication with Nepal ; Ritual spirit mediums seances Nepal ; Chanting as part of ritual Nepal ; Musical instruments drums cymbals horns bells Nepal ; Agriculture corn barley grains Nepal ; Food preparation churning butter cheese Nepal ; Altars seances Nepal ; Animal sacrifice as part of ritual Nepal ; Purification ritual Nepal ; Mills grinding flour water driven Nepal ; Weaving wool looms Nepal ; Pastoral activities herding miling grazing Nepal ; Bells for keeping birds from crops Nepal ; Quarrying boulders for building stones Nepal ; Mortuary practices pallequin procession cremation Nepal ; Funerals cremation Nepal ; Priest lama chanting Nepal ; Temple gompa ceremony Nepal ; Bread ceremonial Nara bread gompa Nepal ; Dancing ritual social Nepal ; Woodworking carving Nepal ; Altars gompa Nepal ; Flags prayer flags raising of Nepal ; Potatoes cultivation of Nepal ; Shrines gompa Nepal
Local Numbers:
HSFA 1987.7.1
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
John and Naomi Bishop collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution 
See more items in:
John and Naomi Bishop collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc97fb4afb1-7335-4356-a052-3d4f950b5c1f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-1987-07-ref1

Melemchi Village, Nepal

Collection Creator:
Bishop, Naomi Hawes  Search this
Bishop, John Melville  Search this
Extent:
Film reels (6 hours 5 minutes, color silent sound; 13,000 feet, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1989
Scope and Contents:
Full film record depicting life in the Sherpa village of Melemchi at the head of the Helembu Valley, Nepal. Footage complements Melemchi Village, 1986.

Filmed in the winter of 1989, the project was conceived to document the cultural ecology of Melemchi with the focus on the interactions between herd management, Sherpa cyclical wage labor and migration to India. Footage featuring holidays and religious ceremonies include: preparations made for Losar, Tibetan New Year which include pounding rice for rice flour (samba), baking "gipattis," (fried bread), the mounting of a new prayer flag, burning incense, villagers receiving blessings from their elders, gambling and cardplaying activities traditionally played on Losar; Yung,Buddhist ceremony where lamas read sacred texts in honor of Buddha's birthday; prostrations at Buddhist shrine. Footage of subsistance activities include: digging compost; the "Lari" system of farming where family and friends exchange help in reaping the crops; various kinds of work associated with transhumant zomo herds including the collection of fodder, milking and cheese making; building a new roof on a cow shed; women using sheeps wool to weave material for Sherpa jackets; men plowing fields using two bulls; cutting firewood and stockpiling for upcoming year. Footage relating to the seasons and climate include: snowball fights, children building snowmen, the seasonal migration to to lower winter pastures. ; Landscape and wildlife shots include the Yangrigang mountain where goddess Amachabriagi dwells across from Helembu valley, scenes of Ganesh Himal on the edge of Kathmandu valley, plateau farming, Rhesus monkeys around village temple, scenes of village fields in snow. Other events featured included: men congretating at a village forum to discuss issues such as the coming of electricity to Melemchi; picnic for the dedication of a new school; the distilling of Sherpa beer (chang) to make liquor (rakshi); rope handmade from nettle fibers; male sheep sold at Dasain festival; men using two-man saw to cut planks for new house. Also featured is a traditional Sherpa marriage "gapte kyungen" involving symbolic bride capture followed by the wedding celebration. Various interviews with Melemchi men and women with different social experiences and generational backgrounds included.

Collection is annotated by John Bishop, documentary filmmaker, Naomi Bishop, anthropologist, John Homiak, Human Studies Film Archives, and Nogabu, cultural informant from Melemchi.

Legacy Keywords: Language and culture ; Temples prayer wheels Nepal ; Harvests barley Nepal ; Barley method of harvest Nepal ; Animal husbandry milking cows Nepal ; Seances spirit mediums ritual Nepal ; Mediums ritual spirit communication Nepal ; Spirits mediums communication with Nepal ; Ritual spirit mediums seances Nepal ; Chanting as part of ritual Nepal ; Musical instruments drums cymbals horns bells Nepal ; Agriculture corn barley grains Nepal ; Food preparation churning butter cheese Nepal ; Altars seances Nepal ; Animal sacrifice as part of ritual Nepal ; Purification ritual Nepal ; Mills grinding flour water driven Nepal ; Weaving wool looms Nepal ; Pastoral activities herding miling grazing Nepal ; Bells for keeping birds from crops Nepal ; Quarrying boulders for building stones Nepal ; Mortuary practices pallequin procession cremation Nepal ; Funerals cremation Nepal ; Priest lama chanting Nepal ; Temple gompa ceremony Nepal ; Bread ceremonial Nara bread gompa Nepal ; Dancing ritual social Nepal ; Woodworking carving Nepal ; Altars gompa Nepal ; Flags prayer flags raising of Nepal ; Potatoes cultivation of Nepal ; Shrines gompa Nepal
Local Numbers:
HSFA 1990.5.1
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
John and Naomi Bishop collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution 
See more items in:
John and Naomi Bishop collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc9e73fe0a3-9e72-4fe4-9ab9-190f04d91788
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-1987-07-ref2

M.R. Harrington: Correspondence, General

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Container:
Box 231, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1926 - 1928
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv498f228e6-217f-4343-afdc-5cd2945335c9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref6545

Maragoli (Outtakes, RF 21)

Collection Creator:
Nichols, Sandra  Search this
Extent:
Film reels (16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
1976
Scope and Contents:
Outtakes from edited film shows women engaged in a number of domestic and subsistence activities including drawing and carrying water, winnowing maize, washing clothes, carrying firewood. Also shots of man having his maize machine ground at a local mill in the village. Woman is shown with the rabbits she raises for sale. Interview with a father about the future he anticipates for his children and those of his brothers.

Credits: Ssennyonga, Joseph (Social Anthropologist) Strasburg, Ivan (Cameraman) McDuffie, Michael (Soundman)

Legacy Keywords: Division of labor by sex carrying water ; Firewood gathering of ; Basketry winnowing ; Food preparation winnowing grinding maize ; Mills corn flour ; Milling machines ; Animal husbandry rabbits ; Children family size ideas about ; Language and culture
General:
Local Numbers: HSFA 1978.2.1 (RF 21)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Sandra Nichols collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Sandra Nichols collection
Sandra Nichols collection / Maragoli (Outtakes)
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc941195e1d-9d14-453a-9b59-1d3a0f9b865e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-2012-05-ref21

Mexican Kitchen

Title (Spanish):
Cocina Mexicana
Graphic artist:
Charlot, Jean  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 42.6 cm x 32.2 cm; 16 3/4 in x 12 11/16 in
Object Name:
print
Object Type:
Lithograph
Other Terms:
print; Lithograph
Place made:
United States: Colorado, Colorado Springs
Mexico
Date made:
1948
Subject:
Food Culture  Search this
Latino  Search this
Immigration  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
Credit Line:
Anonymous
ID Number:
GA.23377
Catalog number:
23377
Accession number:
299563
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Cultures & Communities
Work
Mexican America
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-a836-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_798133

Feast or famine : food and drink in American westward expansion / Reginald Horsman

Author:
Horsman, Reginald  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 356 p. : ill ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
West (U.S.)
United States
Date:
2008
C2008
19th century
Topic:
Drinking customs--History  Search this
Food habits--History  Search this
Frontier and pioneer life  Search this
Cooking, American--Western style--History  Search this
Overland journeys to the Pacific  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Discovery and exploration  Search this
Territorial expansion  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_948313

Zora Neale Hurston on Florida food : recipes, remedies and simple pleasures / Fred Opie

Author:
Opie, Frederick Douglass  Search this
Subject:
Hurston, Zora Neale  Search this
Physical description:
139 pages : black and white illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Florida
Date:
2015
20th century
Topic:
Food preferences  Search this
Food--Psychological aspects  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1065728

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