Reverend James Owen Dorsey (1848-1895) was a missionary and Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist who conducted extensive research on Siouan tribes and languages.The papers of James Owen Dorsey comprise mostly ethnographic and linguistic materials on various tribes of the Siouan language family as well as tribes from Siletz Reservation in Oregon. These materials include texts and letters with interlineal translations; grammar notes; dictionaries; drawings; and his manuscripts. In addition, the collection contains Dorsey's correspondence, newspaper clippings, his obituaries, and reprints.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains James O. Dorsey's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist, as well as his earlier work as a missionary among the Ponca. The vast majority of the collection pertains to his research on Siouan-Catawban languages, including the Dakota and Dhegiha languages, Chiwere, Winnebago, Mandan, Hidatsa, Tutelo, Biloxi, and Catawba. His research on Athapascan, Kusan, Takilman, and Yakonan languages from his field work at Siletz Reservation are also present, as well as some notes on the Caddoan languages. Dorsey's research files include linguistic and ethnological field notes, reading notes, stories and myths, vocabularies, drawings, and unpublished and published manuscripts. The collection also contains Omaha, Ponca, Quapaw, and Biloxi dictionaries that he compiled and materials relating to his work editing Steven Riggs' Dakota-English Dictionary. Additional noteworthy materials in the collection are Teton texts and drawings from George Bushotter and drawings by Stephen Stubbs (Kansa), Pahaule-gagli (Kansa), and George Miller (Omaha). The collection also contains Dorsey's correspondence, newspaper clippings, obituaries, and his collection of reprints.
The collection is organized into 6 series: 1) Siouan; 2) Siletz Reservation; 3) Caddoan; 4) General Correspondence; 5) Personal Papers; 6) Miscellaneous & Reprints.
Reverend James Owen Dorsey (1848-1895) was a missionary and Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist who conducted extensive research on Siouan tribes and languages.
Dorsey was born on October 31, 1848 in Baltimore, Maryland. He exhibited a talent for languages at an early age. At age 6 he learned the Hebrew alphabet and was able to read the language at age 10. In 1867 Dorsey attended the Theological Seminary of Virginia and was ordained a deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1871. In May of that year, Dorsey traveled to the Dakota Territory to serve as a missionary among the Ponca. Plagued by ill health, Dorsey was forced to end his missionary work in August 1873. By that time, however, he had learned the Ponca language well enough to converse with members of the tribe without an interpreter.
Dorsey returned to Maryland and engaged in parish work while continuing his studies of Siouan languages. His linguistic talents and knowledge of these languages attracted the attention of Major John Wesley Powell. Powell arranged for Dorsey to work among the Omaha in Nebraska from 1878 to 1880 to collect linguistic and ethnological notes. When the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was established in 1879, Powell recruited Dorsey to join the staff.
As an ethnologist for the BAE, Dorsey continued his research on Siouan tribes. His studies focused on languages but also included Siouan personal names, folklore, social organization, religion, beliefs, and customs. He conducted fieldwork among the Tutelo at Six Nations on Grand River in Upper Canada (1882); the Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw in Indian Territory (1883-1884); the Biloxi at Lecompte, Rapides Parish, Louisiana (1892); and again with the Quapaw at the Quapaw Mission (1894). He also worked with Native Americans that visited DC, including George Bushotter (Teton), Philip Longtail (Winnebago), Samuel Fremont (Omaha), and Little Standing Buffalo (Ponca). He also spent time at Siletz Reservation in 1884 to collect linguistic notes on the Athapascan, Kusan, Takilman, and Yakonan stocks.
In addition to his research, Dorsey helped found the American Folklore Society and served as the first vice-president of the association. He also served as vice-president of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
At the age of 47, Dorsey died of typhoid fever on February 4, 1895.
1st-16th Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 1881-1897.
Hewitt, J.N.B. 1895. "James Owen Dorsey" American Anthropologist A8, 180-183.
McGee, W.J. 1895. "In Memoriam." Journal of American Folklore 8(28): 79-80.
1848 -- Born on October 31 in Baltimore, Maryland.
1871 -- Ordained a deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
1871-1873 -- Served as a missionary among the Ponca in Dakota Territory.
1878-1880 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Omaha in Nebraska.
1879 -- Joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
1882 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Tutelo at Six Nations on Grand River in Upper Canada.
1883-1884 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw in Indian Territory.
1887 -- Worked with George Bushotter to record information regarding the language and culture of the Dakota.
1884 -- Conducted fieldwork at Siletz Reservation.
1892 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Biloxi at Lecompte, Rapides Parish, Louisiana.
1894 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Quapaw at the Quapaw Mission in Indian Territory.
1895 -- Died of typhoid fever on February 4th at the age of 47.
The James O. Dorsey Papers are open for research. Access to the James O. Dorsey Papers requires an appointment
Manuscript 4800 James O. Dorsey papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Creation of this finding aid was funded through support from the Arcadia Fund.
Digitization and preparation of additional materials for online access has been funded also by the National Science Foundation under BCS Grant No. 1561167 and the Recovering Voices initiative at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.
Indians of North America -- Southern States Search this
Scope and Contents:
Catawba linguistic notes and texts collected by Truman Michelson in South Carolina. The purpose of Michelson's research on Cawtaba was to determine the resemblance between the Siouan and Muskhogean stocks. He compiled notes on the Catawba language through his work with John Brown, Margaret Brown, Robert Lee Harris, Ben Harris, Sarah Harris, Billy Harris, Ep Harris, and Taylor George. The notes include card slips of Catawba vocabulary with English translations. The texts included stories of the rabbit and terrapin; the ground squirrel and terrapin fight; and the deer and opposum in Catawba and English.
NAA MS 2714
Title changed from "Catawba linguistic notes, texts, vocabularies and miscellaneous notes" 4/16/2014.
Indians of North America -- Southern States Search this
Alaska -- Names, place
Alaska -- Names, tribal
Scope and Contents:
Contains vocabularies and other linguistic notes on a variety of American Indian languages. Mainly transcripts by Gatschet from other sources; includes some material recorded by Gatschet, and a few original manuscripts sent to him by others.
Contents: Alaska: Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 49-52. Petroff, Ivan. "Aliaskan Names, Ivan Petroff." 2 pages, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. List of Alaskan place and tribal names with notes on each. Apalachee: Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 103-104. [Gatschet, A. S.] Apalachee [vocabulary], with Pl[easant] Porter [Creek inft.]." 2 pages, in Gatschet's handwriting. Comparison of Apalachee words with Creek. Gatschet indicates: "(Copied in Apal. book, July 1889)." Beothuk: Ms. Vocabulary 1449, pages 27-41. [Gatschet, A. S.] Beothuk vocabularies, notes, and bibliographic references. 14 1/2 pages, mostly in Gatschet's handwriting. (pages 27-28 and 35-36 are in R. G. Latham's hand.) Working notes for Gatschet's published article on Beothuk -- comment by M. R. Haas, 11/58. California (Yuman ?): Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 122-123; 124 (?) Brown, J. Ross Extract from "J. Ross Brown. Sketch of the exploration of lower Cal. San Franc[isco ?], 1869. H. H. Bancroft & Co., 177 pp." 2 pages, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Miscellaneous notes on lower California tribes and languages, with list of some of the tribes in the area and their approximate locations. California: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 148. [Gatschet, A. S.] Bibliographic references relating to California. 1 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Furman, McDonald Ms Vocabulary 1449 file: Catawba. Page 159 "An Indian's Petition." No date. Newsclipping. 1 slip. Ms Vocabulary 1449 Woccon and Catawba comparative vocabulary No date. Autograph document. 6 pages. Pages 87-89 and 93-94. Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 186a and ff. Eells, M. Comparison of numerals in Chemakum, Quileute, and Hoh, 1 page and accompanying letter to A. S. Gatschet, August 24, 1883, from M. Eells, Skokomish, Mason Co., Wash., 2 pages, handwritten. Ms Vocabulary pages 108-110. [Gatschet, A. S.] "Mtn. Cherokee's names (topographical). Nimrod Tom Smith [inft ?], 1/2 breed, in Swain Co., North Car., P. O. Quallatown...April 18, '82." 3 pages, in Gatschet's handwriting. List of Cherokee place names and locations. Chippewa: Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 178-80. [Gatschet, A. S.] "Odjibwe - Local and tribal names. Ign. Tomazin [inft.], Jan. 31, '83." 3 pages, in Gatschet's handwriting. Also (page 180) short extract from Dorman, Primitive Superstitions, page 148, on Ojibwa cannibalism, in Gatschet's handwriting.
Chitimacha: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 85 (top). [Gatschet, A. S.] "Shetimasha" vocabulary of 8 words, translated into French. 1/2 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Eskimo: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 45. Hoffman, Dr W. J. "Eskimo text obtained by Dr W. J. Hoffman, at San Francisco, Cal., from Naumoff, an Eskimo from Kadiak..." No date. 1 page in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Includes text and inter-linear translation, plus translation of same story from sign language. Note by Gatschet indicates that text is not in Kodiak dialect. Eskimo (Chugach) Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 53-66. Petroff, Ivan "Vocabulary of Tchugatch-Inuit. Taken by Ivan Petroff, in June, 1881, at various places, chiefly at Nu'tchik or Port Etches, abt. 60 1/2 N. Lat. From full bloods. 14 pages, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Also contains comparison with "Tchiglit" (Kopagmiut), in Gatschet's handwriting. "Partly entered in Mscr. vocab. Vol. 3." Eskimo (Kuskwogmiut): Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 76-84; 85-86; 95-96. [Petroff, Ivan ?] "Kuskokvog-miut (Inuit) [vocabulary], from Nicolai Kamilkoishin [?] native of the tribe educated at the Russian Mission, Yukon R., at Ikomiut." 13 pages, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Partly entered in Mscr. vocabulary, Volume IIId (note in Gatschet's handwriting.) Eskimo: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 249. W--, H. D. "A curious race. The Mutes of northern Alaska. Their manner of living. Peculiar family relations - superstitions and queer customs." From the San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday November 14, 1886. 1 page, newsclipping. Hitchiti: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 203 (bottom), 204 (bottom), 205. Robertson, Mrs A. E. "Acts. VIV, ii in Hitchiti" (page 203); "Hitchiti words from Mrs Robertson" (204); "Hitchiti verbs, by Mrs Robertson" (205). 3 pages, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Kiowa: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 26. Gatschet, A. S. "Phonetics of the Kayowe Language, by Albert S. Gatschet. Read before the A.A.A.S., Cincinnati, 1881." 1 page, clipping from published article. Note in margin in Gatschet's handwriting reads: "Science of Sept. 17, 1881. By John Michels, New York."
Klamath: Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 133-136; 143-147. [Gatschet, A. S.] Queries relating to the Klamath language by Gatschet, with answers written in by various Indians from the Klamath Agency, Oregon (cf. letter of J. G. Dennison, page 142 of this manuscript). 9 pages, partially in Gatschet's handwriting. Klamath: Ms 1449, pages 137-142. Denison, James D. "Story of the birth of Aisis," a Klamath legend, and accompanying letter from J. G. Dennison to A. S. Gatschet, August 29, 1880, Klamath Agency, Oregon. 6 pages, handwritten. Klamath: Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 149-152. McCain, Frank Letter to A. S. Gatschet, January 30, 1880, from Frank McCain, Klamath Indian Agency, Lake Co., Oregon, containing 22 word Klamath vocabulary. 4 pages, handwritten. Koasati: Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 102; 204. Robertson, Mrs A. E. [and A. S. Gatschet] "Koassadi. Supplement to words by Mrs A. E. Robertson, copied in Vocab. No. 2, obtained from [---illeg.]"; short vocabulary of verbs "from vocab. Vol 2, Koassati of Mrs Robertson"; and passage from "Actorum XIV, 11, in Koasata." 2 pages, in A S. Gatschet's handwriting. Page 102 contains a short list of Koasati words (probably from Mrs Robertson) with corresponding Choctaw equivalents (supplied by Gatschet [?] from the "Ch. grammar"; passage from Acts XIV, ii in Koasati with inter-linear translation, presumably by Gatschet; and list of Koasati verbs, no source mentioned. Page 204 contains the same bible passage in Koasati, with slightly different English translation, and list of same verbs, identified as being from "vocab. Vol 2...of Mrs Robertson." Pamunkey: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 46. Dalrymple, Rev Mr 17 word Pamunkey vocabulary collected by Rev Dalrymple in 1844 at King William County, Virginia. (Hist Mag., N. Y. II, page 182) and short note from J. G. Shea. 1 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. See National Anthropological Archives Manuscript 4069, referring to the original of the Dalrymple Manuscript in Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
Seminole: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 182. [Buckingham-Smith, etc. ?] "Seminole Local Names. Buck. Smith, Beach, p. 125 (with Stidham)." 1 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. South America (Mojo): Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 187. Marban, M. P. P. Pedro "Moxo 6 Mojo. M.P.P. Pedro Marban, de la Compania de Jesus, Superior [ ]. Arte de la Lengua Moxa, con su vacabulario y cathecismo. Colegio de San Pablo (Lima), 1701. pages 664, etc." 1 page, in Gatschet's handwriting. Notes on Mojo language. South America (Miscellaneous): Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 128. Rohde, [ ] "Rohde on Sudamerika"...(1883-84)." 1 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Miscellaneous extracts relating to South American Indian tribes. South America (Miscellaneous): Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 97-101. Miscellaneous notes on South America copied by Gatschet from various published sources. 5 pages, in Gatschet's handwriting. South America Peru: (Quechua): Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 239. Bruhl, -- "Inquiries by Bruhl on Kechua. Oct. 1885." 1 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. 9 word Quechua vocabulary. Yokuts (Cholovone): Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 231-236. Pinart, Alph. L. "Yatchikumne [Cholovone, in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30], near Stockton, Cal. Alp. L. Pinart, 1880." 6 pages, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Notes (written in French) on the various Cholovone dialects, and vocabulary with some words translated into English and some into Spanish. Yuchi and Natchez: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 106 Pike, Gen Albert "Elements of Inflection [of the verb to have]. Yuchi (Pike, p.--) & Naktche." 1 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Yuchi and Natchez: Ms Vocabulary 1449, page 107 Pike, Gen. Albert "Albert Pike's Vocabularies, 18.... Yuchi & Naktche." 1 page, in A. S. Gatschet's handwriting. Comparison of 33 words in Yuchi and Natchez. Yuchi: Ms Vocabulary 1449, pages 201-203. Robertson, Mrs A. E. "Yutchi [vocabulary] transliterated from mscr. of Mrs. Robertson, 1873 ?." 3 pages, in Gatschet's handwriting. Also contains passage from bible (Acts XIV, ii) apparently in Yuchi, with interlinear translation.
Photographs used to illustrate John Reed Swanton's "The Indians of the Southeastern United States" depicting American Indians of the Southeast and their dwellings, food preparation, and ceremonies.
John Reed Swanton (1873-1958) was an ethnologist and ethnohistorian with the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) from 1900 until his retirement in 1944. Swanton spent his first few years at the BAE studying the Haida and Tlingit groups of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, and published a number of significant articles on the language, ethnography, and folklore of Northwest Coast Indians. His focus then shifted to the American Indians of the Southeastern United States, where his interest remained for the rest of his career. In addition to conducting ethnographic fieldwork in the Southeast, Swanton studied extensively the history of the area in order to better understand its indigenous cultures and is considered a pioneer in the field of ethnohistory. During his career Swanton published numerous articles and several major works on Southeastern American Indians, including the reference work The Indians of the Southeastern United States (1946), a Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin (No. 137).
NAA Photo Lot R87-2Q
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs published in BAE Bulletin 137 can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 80-39.
Photographs made by Swanton can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 76 and the BAE historical negatives.
The National Anthropological Archives hold more than 200 manuscripts created or collected by Swanton, in the Numbered Manuscripts.
Objects collected by Swanton, including potsherds from various sites in Southeastern United States can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accessions 111748, 113252, 122679, 129788, 165802, and 062577.
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collections, undated
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Copy prints in this collection that represent photographs not held by the National Anthropological Archives are for reference only.
Photographs of Southeastern Native American people, homes, ceremonial grounds, and events made circa 1900s-1910s by John Reed Swanton. The lantern slides include images of southeastern rivers and bayous and historical maps. Additionally, there are a number of slides with notes and charts relating to linguistic comparisons.
Swanton's original order has been maintained. The photographs are in alphabetical order by language group or tribe. Lantern slides are listed at the end.
John Reed Swanton (1873-1958) was an ethnologist and ethnohistorian with the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) from 1900 until his retirement in 1944. Swanton spent his first few years at the BAE conducting research among the Haida and Tlingit communities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, and published a number of significant articles on the language, ethnography, and folklore of Northwest Coast Tribes. His focus then shifted to Native Americans of the Southeastern United States.
In addition to conducting ethnographic fieldwork in the Southeast, Swanton studied the history of the area in order to better understand its indigenous cultures and is considered a pioneer in the field of ethnohistory. During his career Swanton published numerous articles and several major works on Southeastern Native Americans, including the reference work The Indians of the Southeastern United States, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 137, 1946.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds more than 200 manuscripts created or collected by Swanton.
Photographs relating to Swanton's work with the Tlingit are held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24.
The anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History hold objects collected by Swanton, including potsherds from various sites in Southeastern United States (accessions 111748, 113252, 122679, 129788, 165802, and 062577).
The original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Indians of North America -- Southern States Search this
Scope and Contents:
1. Myths and customs of the Cherokee, Catawba, and Choctaw, from "Adventures in the Wilds of the United States and British Provinces," by Charles Lanman, 2 volumes, Philadelphia, 1856- 60 pages.
2. Legends of Caddo Paintings by J. M. Stanley, from "Portraits of North American Indians, with sketches of scenery, etc., Washington, 1852. 1 page".
3. Corrections of McNutt's translations of the section on Chicora in Peter Martyr's "De Orbe Novo," by Dr John M. Cooper. 1 page and letter.
4. Memoirs of Berenger, La Harpe's captain on his exploration of the Texas coast. Copied from manuscript in Newberry Library, Chicago. (Linguistic sections omitted but published by Du Terrage and Rivet in Journal de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris. 34 pages.
5. Excerpts from Barcia's "Ensayo Cronologico a la Historia de la Florida." 23 pages.
6. Excerpts from Serrano y Sanz, "Documentos Historicos de la Florida y la Luisiana." 14 pages with additional slips.
7. Excerpts from Eugenio y Caravia, "La Florida." 2 volumes, 12 pages.
8. Extract from the Journal of the Reverend William Capers, printed in the Methodist Magazine for June, 1822, pages 232-236. 4 pages.
9. Extract from Captain Basil Hall's "Travels in North America in the years 1827 and 1828, Philadelphia, 1929. 18 pages (in duplicate.)
10. Notes from Dr Gideon Lincecum's manuscript entitled "Traditional History of the Chahta Nation", owned by the University of Texas, and never published in its entirety though the Choctaw migration legend was primted by the Mississippi Historical Commission. 21 pages.
11. Three pages of Manuscript material from the library of Col. William Preston, in Virginia State Library. 3 pages. Re Cherokee ca. 1780. Cf.Manuscript # 1912, transcript by Mooney, Same ?
12. Notes from Library of Congress copy of French documents by Regis de Roullet; printed also in Journal de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris. 6 pages.
13. Notes on sewan (Wampum) from "Original Narratives of New Netherlands". 2 pages.
14. Notes on Creek Indians from Manuscripts afterward printed by Grant Foreman in "A Traveler in Indian Territory." 23 pages.
15. Excerpts from a Memoir printed at Luxemberg, a copy of which is in the Library of Congress. 5 pages.
16. Excerpts from the "Letters" of Benjamin Hawkins, printed by the Georgia Historical Society. 23 pages.
17. Excerpts from the Narrative of Jean de Ribault from French's Historical Collections of Louisiana, 1875, 159-190. 4 pages.
18. Excerpts from Narrative of Jacques le Moyne translated and printed in Boston, 1875. 3 pages.
19. Excerpt from Oviedo, "Historia General y Natural," volume 3, 630-631. 3 pages.
20. Excerpt from Relation of Penicaut in Margry, V, page 457. 5 pages.
21. Miscellaneous extracts from Barcia's Ensayo (see Number 5). 44 pages and additional slips.
22. Extracts from Rene Gourlaine de Laudonniere, Paris, 1853, "L'Histoire Notable de la Florida." 44 pages.
23. A page on the Natchez language from Le Page du Pratz, "La Louisiane," Paris, 1758; and lists of Natchez and Taensa villages from Margry. 1 page.
24. Relation of Captain Penalosa's voyage to Florida, from Ruidiaz, "La Florida," volume II, pages 473-476. 4 pages.
25. Excerpt from Iberville's Journal in Margry, volume IV, pages 512-514. 2 pages.
26. Excerpt from de Kerelec's Report in Compte Rendu du Congres Internacional des Americanistes, Quebec, 1907. 1 page.
27. Excerpts from Pope's "Tour". 1 page.
28. Excerpt from Journal of Pere du Ru in Journal de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris (N.S.), Volume XVII, pages 119-135. 6 pages.
29. John Smith's version of the "Huskanaw" ceremony, Tyler ed., pages 112-113. 2 pages.
30. Corrections of translations of Fontaneda by an unknown writer and of doubtful value. 23 slips.
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Search this
Today's Virginians include people whose ancestors have always been here, descendants of the original Jamestown settlers, the progeny of the first West Africans, and more recent immigrants from Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central America. They live and work from Virginia's Atlantic coast to its Appalachian Mountains, from remote coal-mining towns in the southwest to bustling suburbs in the north. But no matter how deep their roots, Virginians strive with dedication and innovation to document and present their cultural heritage, adapting tradition to change and using the past to inform the present and future.
The 2007 Festival explored three "roots" of Virginia's culture: Native American, English, and African American. These groups supported the growth of a diverse, yet unified society in what would become Virginia. At the Festival, present-day Virginians were joined by delegations from Kent County, England (one of the counties from which the original settlers came and the burial place of Pocahontas) and West Africa (an area from which many enslaved Africans came to Virginia). By demonstrating and performing many parallel cultural traditions side by side, craftspeople, musicians, cooks, agriculturalists, and maritime experts demonstrated that different cultures can have much in common and can borrow from each other to forge a nation. Festival presentations were organized around three themes:
Continuing the Past. -- Many traditions in Virginia; Kent County, England; and West Africa remain "unbroken" within families and communities. A number of crafts, such as pottery, blacksmithing, wood carving, and needlework, span the generations; craftspeople interpret and produce them according to their own tastes and market demand. Festival visitors could interact with contemporary adherents of these ancient traditions.
Transforming the Past. -- While tracing the roots of Virginia culture, historians find many tradition bearers who, by necessity or desire, refashion their skills. For example, in Virginia, as well as in Kent County, England, fruit farmers find it hard to keep their businesses profitable because of cheaper imports; many have quit farming and have sold their land to developers. Growers have responded and now gourmet cooks can find heirloom varieties of Virginia apples at farmers' markets. The growers bring the taste of Virginia's past to the present and make it profitable and sustainable.
Researching and Interpreting the Past. -- The ability to research and interpret the past requires years of study, determination, and "learning by doing." Digging up the past is the professional passion of archaeologists at sites such as Historic Jamestowne. Family and community researchers collect oral histories and search for clues in archives and databases. Festival visitors could listen as they explained their work, and could pose questions about adapting such skills to their own lives.
Betty J. Belanus was Curator of the program, and Diana N'Diaye was Curator of African/African American Roots. Dorey Butter was Program Coordinator and Beverly Simons was Program Assistant. For Jamestown 2007, Jeanne Zeidler was Executive Director and Amy Ritchie was Manager of Statewide Programs and Smithsonian Project Manager. For Kent, England, Rebecca Casson was Head of Kent Virginia Development; Hollie Snelson was Smithsonian Project Manager; and Leila Maggs was Smithsonian Project Coordinator.
The program was produced in partnership with Jamestown 2007: America's 400th Anniversary and the Kent County Council. The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African American History and Culture was the Smithsonian Institution partner. Lead supporters of Jamestown 2007 included the Norfolk Southern Corporation, the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Verizon, and Anheuser-Busch Companies. Other supporters included AirTran Airways, Dominion, James City County, Philip Morris USA, SunTrust, and Wolseley PLC/Ferguson Enterprises Inc.
Howard Bass, Ann Bay, Mary Briggs, Lonnie Bunch, George Carter, Rex Ellis, Anthony Gualtieri, Portia James, Gail Lowe, Helen Schierbeck, Gabriella Tayac, Esther Washington, C. Brian Williams, Chris Williams, CiCi Williamson
Harold Anderson, Olivia Cadaval, Mary Eckstein, Roland Freeman, Ywonne Edwards Ingram, Jon Lohman, Kip Lornell, Roddy Moore, Jennifer Neely, Vanessa Thaxton-Ward, Richard Vidutis, Vaughan Webb, Karenne Wood
Abdoulaye Camera, Gorgui N'Diaye
Kent, England fieldworkers
Teri Brewer, Paul Cowdell, Hannah McNorton, George Monger
Harold Anderson, Olivia Cadaval, Paul Cowdell, Marjorie Hunt, Paula Johnson, Jon Lohman, Kip Lornell, Hannah McNorton, George Monger, Roddy Moore, Jeff Place, Mark Puryear, Gabriella Tayac, Vaughan Webb, Chris Williams, CiCi Williamson, Karenne Wood
AGRICULTURE AND ENTERPRISE
Tom Burford, 1935-, Monroe, Amherst County, Virginia
Margaret Burns, 1941-, Herne Bay, Kent, England
Philip Johnson "PJ" Haynie III, 1977-, Hague, Northumberland County, Virginia
Paul Saunder, Piney River, Nelson County, Virginia
Saunders Brothers, Piney River, Nelson County, Virginia
Charlotte Shelton, 1936-, Vintage Virginia Apples, Charlottesville, Albemarle County, Virginia
Virginia Wineries Association, Alexandria, Virginia
Ham, Peanuts, and Cattle
Babacar Bâ, Ndjilasséme, Senegal
Ciré Bâ, Ndjilasséme, Senegal
Dee Dee Darden, Smithfield, Isle of Wight County, Virginia
Tommy Darden, Smithfield, Isle of Wight County, Virginia
Sam Edwards, 1956-, Edwards and Sons, Surry, Surry County, Virginia
Stuart Gibbons, 1952-, Canterbury, Kent, England
Henry Goodrich, 1965-, Wakefield, Suffolk County, Virginia
Virginia-Carolina Peanut Promotions, Nashville, Nash County, North Carolina -- Virginia-Carolina Peanut Promotions, Nashville, Nash County, North CarolinaWilliam Bain, Wayne Barnes, Dell Cotton, Melissa Everett, Natalie Everett, Randy Everett, Fred Felts, Martha Felts, Linda Hass, Gail Moody Milteer, Brad Monahan, Drew Monahan, Janet Monahan, Kevin Monahan, Betsy Owens, Donna Pittman, John Pittman
Marc Stevenson, rocking horse maker, Bethersden, Kent, England
Tony Stevenson, 1956-, rocking horse maker, Bethersden, Kent, England
Theresa Trussell, 1952-, horse trainer, Kent, England
Danny Wingate, 1951-, saddle & harness maker, Elk Creek, Grayson County, Virginia
Norman Amos, 1925-, snake cane carver, Callands, Pittsylvania County, Virginia
Susan Bridges, 1954-, forager, food processor, Meadows of Dan, Patrick County, Virginia
Grayson Chesser, 1942-, decoy carver, Sanford, Accomack County, Virginia
Pat Harrison, 1957-, birdcall maker, Covington, Alleghany County, Virginia
John Arthur Leonard, 1964-, decoy carver, Chincoteague, Accomack County, Virginia
Mbaye Fall, blacksmith, Ndjilasseme, Senegal
Billy Phelps, 1950-, blacksmith, Woodlawn, Carroll County, Virginia
Kelly Smyth, 1953-, marine blacksmith, Chadds Ford, Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Godfrey South, 1960-, blacksmith, Eynsford, Kent, England
Clyde Jenkins, 1954-, split-oak basket maker, Stanley, Page County, Virginia
Yoro Kébé, woodcarver, Ndjilasseme, Senegal
John Waller, 1971-, woodcarver, basket weaver, Blackham, Kent, England
Robert M. Watson, Jr., woodworker, Williamsburg, Virginia
Tobacco and Hops
Bob Cage, 1923-, tobacco auctioneer, South Boston, Halifax County, Virginia
Jim Crawford, 1951-, tobacco auctioneer, Roanoke, Virginia
Colin Felton, 1945-, hop picker, Kent, England
Derek Hitcham, 1942-, beer brewer, Kent, England
Kevin Owen, 1970-, tobacco farmer, Chatham, Pittsylvania County, Virginia
Bobby Wilkerson, 1941-, tobacco farmer, Ringgold, Pittsylvania County, Virginia
Debbie Johnson, 1956-, dog trainer, Gladys, Campbell County, Virginia
Roy Johnson, 1935-, dog trainer, Gladys, Campbell County, Virginia
Jimmy Price, 1952-, mason, restorer, Monroe, Amherst County, Virginia
Peter Massey, master carpenter, house mover, Ashford, Kent, England
Colin McGhee, thatcher, Staunton, Virginia
Charles McRaven, 1935-, restorer, Free Union, Virginia
Linda McRaven, 1945-, restorer, Free Union, Virginia
Judy Hill, glass painter, Rochester, Kent, England
Keith Hill, stained glass conservator, Rochester, Kent, England
Larry Rathburn, 1948-, car builder, Catawba, Roanoke County, Virginia
Tom Van Nortwick, 1955-, designer, pinstriper, Ferrum, Franklin County, Virginia
Fatou Wade, potter, Ndjilasséme, Senegal
54-40 African American Quilters Guild, Hampton, Virginia
Virginia Quilt Museum, Harrisonburg, Virginia -- Virginia Quilt Museum, Harrisonburg, VirginiaJoan Knight, 1945-, Harrisonburg, VirginiaJulia Renken, 1951-, Fairfax, VirginiaLoretta Shinol, 1940-, Springfield, VirginiaHelen L. Spittle, 1942-, Springfield, Virginia
Virginia Tribal Crafts
Lee Lovelace, 1987-, tribal artist, Mechanicsville, Hanover County, Virginia
Mildred Gentle Rain Moore, 1934-, blackware potter, Pamunkey Indian Reservation, King William County, Virginia
Debora Littlewing Moore, 1967-, blackware potter, dancer, West Point, King William County, Virginia
Randy Robinson, 1982-, scratchboard artist, Southampton County, Virginia
George Whitewolf, 1942-, basket weaver, Lynchburg, Virginia
Karenne Wood, 1960-, linguist, beader, poet, dancer, Charles City, Charles City County, Virginia
FOODWAYS AND GARDENS
Janice Canaday, 1957-, cook, caterer, Williamsburg, Virginia
Dawn Chesser, 1947-, cook, Saxis, Accomack County, Virginia
Amanda Cottrell, 1941-, cook, Ashford, Kent, England
Frances Davis, 1949-, cook, Rocky Mount, Franklin County, Virginia
Maïmouna Diène, cook, Ndjilasséme, Senegal
Mo Joslin, 1948-, cook, Tilmanstone, Kent, England
Patrice Olivon, 1957-, cook, Arlington County, Virginia
Clevie H. Wingate, 1951-, cook, Elk Creek, Grayson County, Virginia
John D. Clary and The Proclamation Stew Crew, Lawrenceville, Brunswick County, Virginia -- John D. Clary and The Proclamation Stew Crew, Lawrenceville, Brunswick County, VirginiaJames P. Batchelor, Lawrenceville, VirginiaTim Bendall, Petersburg, VirginiaChiles Cridlin, Richmond, VirginiaRodney Elmore, Bracey, VirginiaLonnie Moore, Lawrenceville, Virginia
George Carter, formal gardener, North Elmham, Norfolk, England
Sophia Sidney, formal gardener, Tonbridge, Kent, England
Michael Twitty, 1977-, provision gardener, Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland
Tyrone Mangum, 1983-, school gardener, Hampton, Virginia
Raynell Smith, 1948-, Deltaville Boat Builders, Deltaville, Middlesex County, Virginia
Steve Smith, 1945-, Deltaville Boat Builders, Deltaville, Middlesex County, Virginia
Jamie Smith, Smith's Marine Railway, Dare, York County, Virginia
Tim Smith, 1954-, Smith's Marine Railway, Dare, York County, Virginia
Alan Staley, 1945-, wooden boat builder, Faversham, Kent, England
Harbor Crafts and Activities
Ted Boscana, carpenter, Williamsburg, Virginia
Linda Benson, rope maker, Chatham Historic Dockyard, Chatham, Kent, England
Brenda O'Donovan, 1954-, rope maker, Chatham Historic Dockyard, Chatham, Kent, England
Marshall Scheetz, cooper, Williamsburg, Virginia
Historic Maritime Projects
Alexandria Seaport/Thomas Jefferson High School Project, Alexandria, Virginia
Reedville Fishermen's Museum/John Smith Boat Project, Reedville, Northumberland County, Virginia -- Reedville Fishermen's Museum/John Smith Boat Project, Reedville, Northumberland County, VirginiaRichard W. Bradt, Midlothian, VirginiaGordon Burgess, Reedville, VirginiaBill Rogers, Heathsville, VirginiaLionel Whitcomb, Reedville, Virginia
Sultana Shipyard/John Smith Boat Project, Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland
Working the Water
Danny K. Bowden, 1956-, gill-netter, crabber, guide, Chincoteague, Accomack County, Virginia
Marie Hill, oystering, Hobson Village, Suffolk County, Virginia
Mary Hill, 1960-, oystering, Hobson Village, Suffolk County, Virginia
Andy Riches, oystering, Whitstable, Kent, England
Ken Thomas, 1952-, gill-netter, fisher, Dungeness, Kent, England
Virginia Institute for Marine Science (VIMS), Gloucester Point, Gloucester County, Virginia -- Virginia Institute for Marine Science (VIMS), Gloucester Point, Gloucester County, VirginiaWyatt Vaughan, Farmville, VirginiaLester Vincent Williams, Prospect, Virginia
Gerald Anderson, 1953-, instrument-maker, Troutdale, Grayson County, Virginia
Dave Arthur, 1942-, musician, singer, Towbridge Wells, Kent, England
Husnu Aydogdu, 1948-, instrument maker, singer, Arlington County, Virginia
"Big Day Out" Powwow
Gretchen Bulova and dancers, Gadsby's Tavern Museum, Alexandria, Virginia
John Cephas, 1930-, guitarist, singer, Bowling Green, Caroline County, Virginia
La Chanchona de los Hermanos Lobo, Northern Virginia -- La Chanchona de los Hermanos Lobo, Northern VirginiaEfrain Lobo, 1967-, violin, Leesburg, VirginiaEliseo Lobo, vihuelaOsmar Lobo, conga, guïroOsmin Lobo, bassTrinidad Lobo, violin, Arlington, Virginia
The Church of God and Saints of Christ, Alexandria, Virginia
Cheikh Hamala Diabaté and Ensemble, Bambare, Mali -- Cheikh Hamala Diabaté and Ensemble, Bambare, MaliCheick Hamala Diabate, ngoni, Adelphi, MarylandFamouro Diabate, New York, New YorkMakany Kouyate, New York, New YorkBala Tounkara, New York, New York
Rex M. Ellis, 1951-, historian, Williamsburg, Virginia
Brien Fain, singer, banjoist, Stuart, Patrick County, Virginia
Scott Fore, guitarist, Radford, Virginia
Gospel Traveliers, Junior Traveliers, and Gospel Travelettes, Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia
Wayne Henderson and Friends, 1947-, Mouth of Wilson, Grayson County, Virginia
Lined-out Hymn Singers, Dillwyn, Buckingham County, Virginia
Linda Lay and Springfield Exit -- Linda Lay and Springfield ExitDavid Lay, Winchester, VirginiaLinda Lay, 1962-, Winchester, VirginiaSammy ShelorRicky Simpkins, Laurel, Maryland
Madison Hummingbirds, shout band, Portsmouth, Virginia
Jim Marshall, singer-songwriter, Hillsville, Carroll County, Virginia
The Midnight Ramblers, bluegrass band -- The Midnight Ramblers, bluegrass bandCherise Bates, 1990-, Wise, VirginiaPaula Bates, 1961-, Wise, VirginiaTony Bates, 1947-, Wise, VirginiaAustin Boggs, 1989-, Wise, VirginiaMarcus Johnson, 1989-, St. Paul, VirginiaAbe Mullins, 1988-, Dungannon, Virginia
The Millen Family, glee club harmony -- The Millen Family, glee club harmonyDonald Brian Levett, 1936-, Smarden, Ashford, Kent County, EnglandGerald Millen, 1926-, Bethersden, Ashford, Kent County, EnglandHilary David Millen, 1955-, Bethersden, Ashford, Kent County, EnglandHoward Batt Millen, 1928-, Bethersden, Ashford, Kent County, EnglandNeil Barrington Thrift Ridley, 1948-, Bethersden, Ashford, Kent County, England
Lucky Moyo, 1966-, Music for Change, Canterbury, Kent, England
Lonesome Will Mullins & The Virginia Playboys, Clintwood, Dickenson County, Virginia -- Lonesome Will Mullins & The Virginia Playboys, Clintwood, Dickenson County, VirginiaJarrod ChurchDuran DuttonRandy DuttonTom IsaacsWill Mullins, Clintwood, VirginiaKody Norris
Bou Counta Ndiaye Ensemble, Senegal -- Bou Counta Ndiaye Ensemble, SenegalBou Counta Ndiaye, Pikine, Daker, SenegalMamadou Ngoma Ndiaye, Pikine, Dakar, SenegalSidy Ndiaye, Department of Thies, SenegalBassirou Seck, Department of Diourbel, Senegal
New Ballard's Branch Bogtrotters, Galax, Virginia -- New Ballard's Branch Bogtrotters, Galax, VirginiaEddie Bond, 1971-, fiddle, Fries, VirginiaJosh Eller, mandolin, Galax, VirginiaLeon Frost, banjo, Galax, VirginiaDennis Hall, guitar, Galax, VirginiaJesse Morris, bass, Abingdon, Virginia
Reverend Frank Newsome, 1942-, Regular Baptist hymn-singer, Haysi, Dickenson County, Virginia
No Speed Limit, Galax, Virginia -- No Speed Limit, Galax, VirginiaStevie Barr, Galax, VirginiaRyan BlevinsAmber CollinsJacob Eller, Galax, VirginiaJosh Pickett
Vera Oye Yaa-Anna, 1949-, storyteller, Washington, D.C.
The Paschall Brothers, a cappella religious singers, Chesapeake, Virginia -- The Paschall Brothers, a cappella religious singers, Chesapeake, VirginiaTarrence Paschall, Sr., 1959-, Chesapeake, VirginiaTarrence Paschall, Jr., 1984-, Chesapeake, VirginiaFrank Paschall, Jr., 1953-, Chesapeake, VirginiaWilliam Paschall, 1963-, Norfolk, VirginiaRenard Freeman Sr., 1964-, Chesapeake, VirginiaRenard Freeman, Jr., 1987-, Chesapeake, VirginiaJohnny Lewis, 1949-, Virginia Beach, Virginia
Buddy Pendleton, 1935-, fiddle, Basset, Henry County, Virginia -- Buddy Pendleton, 1935-, fiddle, Basset, Henry County, VirginiaRobin Kauffman, 1979-, fiddle, Basset, Henry County, Virginia
Tim Laycock, 1952-, playwright, Kent, England
Sonia Ritter, 1958-, playwright, Kent, England
Kinney Rorrer and The New North Carolina Ramblers, old-time string band, Danville, Virginia -- Kinney Rorrer and The New North Carolina Ramblers, old-time string band, Danville, VirginiaDarren Moore, 1976-, guitar, autoharp, Keeling, VirginiaKinney Rorrer, 1946-, banjo, Danville, VirginiaJeremy Stephens, 1984-, guitar, fiddle, Danville, VirginiaKirk Sutphin, 1968-, fiddle, Walkertown, North Carolina
The Sama Ensemble, Persian music, Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia -- The Sama Ensemble, Persian music, Vienna, Fairfax County, VirginiaGiti AbrishamiBahman AmeenAli Analouei, 1954-, drumsSofi BastaniBehzan BibizadehSteve BloomAudrey ElizabethHayedeh EradatArjan GanjiNeda HosseiniPuneh HosseiniNaser KhorasaniMohsen SalehiNeema ShabestariNazanin Zolriyasatein
Jeffrey Scott, 1965-, Piedmont blues guitarist, Culpeper, Culpeper County, Virginia
La Sensual, salsa band, Northern Virginia -- La Sensual, salsa band, Northern VirginiaBrenda Lee Bonano, maracas, Woodbridge, VirginiaRolando Marcos, keyboards,Woodbridge, Virginia
Ron Short, 1965-, guitar, singer-songwriter, Big Stone Gap, Wise County, Virginia
Spencer Strickland, mandolin maker, Troutdale, Grayson County, Virginia
Los Tecuanis, tiger dancer, Manassas, Virginia
Speedy Tolliver, fiddler, Arlington County, Virginia -- Speedy Tolliver, fiddler, Arlington County, VirginiaAndrew Acosta, Falls Church, VirginiaJohn Kaparakis, Arlington, VirginiaWilliam Patrick McCauley, Front Royal, Virginia
Larnell Starkey and the Spiritual Seven, gospel singers, Wirtz, Franklin County, Virginia -- Larnell Starkey and the Spiritual Seven, gospel singers, Wirtz, Franklin County, VirginiaDarledia Alexander, 1959-, Wirtz, VirginiaTravis Moore, 1996-Danny Starkey, 1954-Eric Starkey, 1980-Larnell Starkey, 1948-Tim Starkey, 1970-Walter Starkey, 1951-, Wirtz, VirginiaOtario Wells, 1995-Coleman Wright, 1956-
Virginia Tribal Dancers -- Virginia Tribal DancersPowhatan Red Cloud-Owen, 1948-, dancer, Charles City, Charles City County, VirginiaTara Danielle Bradby, 1984-, Providence Forge, VirginiaRufus Elliott, 1984-, Monroe, VirginiaDebora Littlewing Moore, 1967-, West Point, VirginiaQuinton Talbott, 1995-, Big Island, VirginiaKarenne Wood, 1960-, Charles City, Virginia
Whitetop Mountain Band -- Whitetop Mountain BandThornton Spencer, fiddle, Mouth of Wilson, Grayson County, VirginiaEmily Spencer, 1952-, banjo, Mouth of Wilson, Grayson County, VirginiaMartha Spencer, 1985-, guitar, fiddle, banjo, Mouth of Wilson, Grayson County, VirginiaDeborah Bramer, bass, Fancy Gap, VirginiaJackson Cunningham, 1977-, mandolin, Christiansburg, VirginiaSpencer Pennington, 1934-, guitar, Warrensville, North Carolina
Phil Wiggins, 1954-, harmonica player, Takoma Park, Montgomery County, Maryland
Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, Virginia -- Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, VirginiaTed Boscana, Williamsburg, VirginiaMarshall Scheetz, Williamsburg, VirginiaTerry ThonRobert Watson, Williamsburg, Virginia
Liz Finn, archivist, Kent Archives, Canterbury, Kent, England
Julius Fuller, fraternity historian, Hampton, Virginia
Historic Jamestowne, Jamestown, James City County, Virginia
Jamestown Settlement, Jamestown, James City County, Virginia
Pamplin Historical Park and The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier, Petersburg, Virginia -- Pamplin Historical Park and The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier, Petersburg, VirginiaDaniel Beasley, 1978-, Petersburg, VirginiaAaron Bradford, 1983-, Petersburg, VirginiaJeffrey Dean, 1950-, Petersburg, VirginiaBrian Musselwhite, 1972-, Petersburg, VirginiaAl Neale, Petersburg, VirginiaWisteria Perry, 1975-, Petersburg, VirginiaAndrew Talkov, 1972-, Petersburg, Virginia
Virginia Raye, 1974-, sorority historian, Alexandria, Virginia
Paula Royster, 1966-, genealogist, Fredericksburg, Virginia
Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum, Sperryville and Richmond Virginia Projects
Enid Allison, 1957-, environmental archaeologist, Kent, England
Amanda Danning, sculptor, painter, woodcarver, Bay City, Texas
Marion Green, 1952-, archaeologist, Kent, England
Jamestown 2007 Community Program, Jamestown, James City County, Virginia
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2007 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.