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Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Crispus Attucks, American, 1723 - 1770  Search this
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Harriet Tubman, American, 1822 - 1913  Search this
Sarah C. Roberts, American, born 1844  Search this
Susan McKinney Steward, American, 1847 - 1918  Search this
Dred Scott, American, ca 1800 - 1858  Search this
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Booker T. Washington, American, 1856 - 1915  Search this
George Washington Carver, American, 1860s - 1943  Search this
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Scott Joplin, American, 1867 - 1917  Search this
Marcus Garvey, Jamaican, 1887 - 1940  Search this
James Weldon Johnson, American, 1871 - 1938  Search this
Father Divine, American, ca. 1876 - 1965  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
Rosa Parks, American, 1913 - 2005  Search this
Medgar Evers, American, 1925 - 1963  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Mary McLeod Bethune, American, 1875 - 1955  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Langston Hughes, American, 1902 - 1967  Search this
Paul Robeson, American, 1898 - 1976  Search this
Ezzard Mack Charles, American, 1921 - 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1976
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Caricature and cartoons  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
U.S. History, Colonial period, 1600-1775  Search this
United States History  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e57ffdd9-2ab1-46da-b6e7-10757007351f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.10
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The Negro Worker Vol.4 No. 4

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
Charles Woodson  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 7/8 x 5 11/16 in. (20 x 14.5 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Russia, Europe
West Africa, Africa
Haiti, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
Date:
1934
Topic:
African American  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1933-1945  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.36
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Pan Africanism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b0c580a5-0bd9-4266-bb12-d022604b0ebc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.36
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The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 4

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 6 in. (21.9 x 15.2 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
China, Asia
South Africa, Africa
Scottsboro, Jackson County, Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Australia, Oceania
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Justice  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1919-1933  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.37
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Pan Africanism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd53754633a-9141-40b3-ab5c-edc94ee2671a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.37
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  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 4</I> digital asset number 1

The Negro Worker Vol. 1 No. 10-11

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 5 7/8 in. (21.9 x 15 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Liberia, West Africa, Africa
Cuba, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central Africa, Africa
Russia, Europe
Belgium, Europe
Date:
1931
Topic:
African American  Search this
Belgian colonialism  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
U.S. History, 1919-1933  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.38
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Pan Africanism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd53043c35d-3a95-4798-b47f-ff5637765af5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.38
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  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 1 No. 10-11</I> digital asset number 1

Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939

Published by:
Unidentified  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 9/16 x 5 1/2 in. (21.8 x 14 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Spain, Europe
Date:
ca. 1979
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Politics  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.54
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd54eda99fd-529b-4a3c-b30d-87d5d08624a9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.54
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  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 3
  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 4
  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 5
  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 6
  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 7
  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 8
  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 9
  • View <I>Black Americans in the Spanish People's War Against Fascism 1936-1939</I> digital asset number 10

Lift Every Voice - For Victory

Published by:
New Age Publishers, American  Search this
Written by:
Claudia Jones, American, 1915 - 1964  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 11/16 x 5 5/16 in. (19.5 x 13.5 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1942
Topic:
African American  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Military  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1933-1945  Search this
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.7
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b64ccab3-0a90-4ab3-8679-6e9fb151a251
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.7
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  • View <I>Lift Every Voice - For Victory</I> digital asset number 3
Online Media:

The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment

Published by:
The Communist, American, 1927 - 1944  Search this
Edited by:
Max Bedacht, 1883 - 1972  Search this
Subject of:
Communist Party of the United States of America, American, founded 1919  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 x 6 1/8 in. (22.8 x 15.5 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1930
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.83
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d03fce46-2818-4775-90e7-aa22a9ab61e1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.83
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  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 3
  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 4
  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 5
  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 6
  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 7
  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 8
  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 9
  • View <I>The Communist Vol IX. No. 4: Unity in Struggle Against Unemployment</I> digital asset number 10

This Is My Husband: Fighter for His People, Political Refugee

Published by:
National Committee to Defend Negro Leadership, American  Search this
Written by:
Esther Cooper Jackson, American, born 1917  Search this
Subject of:
James E. Jackson, American, 1914 - 2007  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 7/16 x 5 3/8 in. (21.5 x 13.7 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1953
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Families  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.88
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd570dda389-fb6a-4fb3-b24b-e4ad04aeb598
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.88
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Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?

Published by:
Workers Library Publishers, Inc., American, founded 1930  Search this
Written by:
Theodore Bassett  Search this
A. W. Berry  Search this
Cyril Briggs, Nevisian, 1888 - 1966  Search this
James W. Ford, American, 1893 - 1957  Search this
Harry Haywood, American, 1898 - 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Harlem Section of the Communist Party, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 11/16 x 5 1/8 in. (19.5 x 13 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Japan, Asia
China, Asia
Rome, Italy, Europe
Berlin, Germany, Europe
Date:
1938
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.9
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52dff215a-6d61-43f5-ad96-e6a991f2e2cf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.9
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  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 2
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 3
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 4
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 5
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 6
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 7
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 8
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 9
  • View <I>Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races?</I> digital asset number 10

Anti-Semitism and the Struggle for Democracy

Published by:
National Council of Jewish Communists, American  Search this
Written by:
James W. Ford, American, 1893 - 1957  Search this
Subject of:
Theodore Bassett  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 9/16 x 4 15/16 in. (19.2 x 12.5 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1938
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Religion  Search this
U.S. History, 1933-1945  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.96
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd561dbabf2-a682-40d5-b0ff-dc91c39168a2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.96
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  • View <I>Anti-Semitism and the Struggle for Democracy</I> digital asset number 3
  • View <I>Anti-Semitism and the Struggle for Democracy</I> digital asset number 4
  • View <I>Anti-Semitism and the Struggle for Democracy</I> digital asset number 5
  • View <I>Anti-Semitism and the Struggle for Democracy</I> digital asset number 6
  • View <I>Anti-Semitism and the Struggle for Democracy</I> digital asset number 7

The Fight to Free Angela Davis: Its Importance for the Working Class

Published by:
New Outlook Publishers, American  Search this
Written by:
Charlene Mitchell, American, born 1930  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 1/2 x 5 1/16 in. (19 x 12.8 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1972
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Justice  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.101
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58862d861-0b8f-49dc-a045-b883c627d851
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.101
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Online Media:

Life Begins with Freedom

Published by:
New Age Publishers, American  Search this
Written by:
Henry Winston, American, 1911 - 1986  Search this
Subject of:
Communist Party of the United States of America, American, founded 1919  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 1/2 x 5 1/8 in. (19 x 13 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1937
Topic:
African American  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Freedom  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.14
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd561a63c2c-bb95-496e-aae8-c30d736c636d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.14
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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The War and the Negro People

Published by:
Workers Library Publishers, Inc., American, founded 1930  Search this
Written by:
James W. Ford, American, 1893 - 1957  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 7/8 x 5 1/8 in. (20 x 13 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1942
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Politics  Search this
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.15
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd578746410-b864-47a6-9a01-6239440f9399
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.15
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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  • View <I>The War and the Negro People</I> digital asset number 2
  • View <I>The War and the Negro People</I> digital asset number 3
Online Media:

A Negro Looks at War

Published by:
Workers Library Publishers, Inc., American, founded 1930  Search this
Written by:
John Henry Williams  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 7/8 x 5 1/8 in. (20 x 13 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1940
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Politics  Search this
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.16
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd56b3d5597-635c-4d77-ac8b-cd32f3ebc0c3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.16
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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  • View <I>A Negro Looks at War</I> digital asset number 3

The Road to Negro Liberation

Published by:
Workers Library Publishers, Inc., American, founded 1930  Search this
Written by:
Harry Haywood, American, 1898 - 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Communist Party of the United States of America, American, founded 1919  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 1/16 x 4 15/16 in. (18 x 12.5 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1934
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1933-1945  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.22
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Colonization movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52fc77e90-db9c-4454-99d4-ab8888c4a046
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.22
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The Cruel and Unusual Punishment of Henry Winston

Published by:
Harlem Committee to Free Henry Winston, American, 1958 - 1961  Search this
Written by:
Mike Newberry, American  Search this
Subject of:
Henry Winston, American, 1911 - 1986  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 11/16 x 5 1/8 in. (19.5 x 13 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1958-1961
Topic:
African American  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Justice  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.25.1-.2
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5128b2846-1c1b-41cc-b546-b77f16059cbc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.25.1-.2
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Acceptance Speeches: Communist Candidates in Presidential Elections

Published by:
Workers Library Publishers, Inc., American, founded 1930  Search this
Written by:
Earl Russell Browder, American, 1891 - 1973  Search this
James W. Ford, American, 1893 - 1957  Search this
Subject of:
Communist Party of the United States of America, American, founded 1919  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 x 5 1/16 in. (17.8 x 12.8 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
speeches
Place made:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1936
Topic:
African American  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Oratory  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1933-1945  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.31
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e1ad6294-c058-4c7b-8063-dbf8a9ba49b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.31
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The Negro Worker Vol. 4 No. 5

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
Charles Woodson  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 15/16 x 5 7/8 in. (20.2 x 15 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Africa
Japan, Asia
Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, Africa
Ethiopia, Africa
Date:
1934
Topic:
African American  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.34
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Pan Africanism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b2ac91e6-97e3-4b5b-99c4-17b0b2c8f9ac
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.34
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Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art museums -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Leslie Cheek papers

Topic:
House beautiful
Architectural forum
Creator:
Cheek, Leslie, 1908-  Search this
Names:
Baltimore Museum of Art  Search this
For us the living (1940-1942 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
United States. Army. Camouflage Training Unit  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 1902-1981  Search this
Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990  Search this
Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich), 1908-1979  Search this
Extent:
4.2 Linear feet ((partially microfilmed on 1 reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1940-1983
bulk 1940-1942
Scope and Contents:
Papers, ca. 1938-1988, including files kept during Cheek's tenure as director at the Baltimore Museum of Art, 1939-1942, as editor at "Architectural Forum" magazine, 1945-1947, "House Beautiful" magazine, 1947-1942, and as head of the U.S. Army Camouflage Training Unit, 1942-1945. Also included are files related to projects he undertook from 1968 to 1988, following his tenure as Director of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.
Biographical / Historical:
Leslie Cheek (1908-1992) was a museum director and editor in Virginia. Cheek studied Fine Arts and was trained in architecture and stage design. His work as director of the Baltimore Museum of Art was marked by innovative and theatrical exhibitions, and led to his selection by the trustees of the Museum of Modern Art as curator for a planned exhibit "For Us The Living," regarding the rise of Nazism and fascism in Europe.
Related Materials:
Also in the Archives are papers lent for microfilming on reel 4885 including material concerning the proposed exhibition, "For Us the Living," designed by Cheek with text written by Lewis Mumford for the Trustees of the Museum of Modern Art. The exhibit was never installed. Included are correspondence with Mumford, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, Nelson Rockefeller, Alfred Barr, and others; draft "scenarios" or exhibition narratives; sketches; and blueprints, 1940-1942. Also included is Cheek's 1983 correspondence with American Heritage magazine regarding a proposed article about the exhibition.
Provenance:
Material on reel 4885 was lent for microfilming in 1993 by Mary Tyler Cheek, widow of Leslie Cheek. She donated the unmicrofilmed material, 1993. Mrs. Cheek deposited additional papers in the College of William and Mary (where Cheek had founded the Fine Arts Department in 1936), the Virginia State Library, and the Museum of Modern Art.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm.
Occupation:
Museum directors  Search this
Editors  Search this
Designers  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Periodicals  Search this
Exhibitions -- Design  Search this
Function:
Art museums
Identifier:
AAA.cheelesl
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cheelesl

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