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John A. Roebling Collection

Creator:
Roebling, Charles Gustavus, 1849-1918  Search this
Roebling, Ferdinand W. (Ferdinand William), 1842-1917  Search this
John A. Roebling's Sons Company  Search this
Roebling, John Augustus, 1806-1869  Search this
Roebling, Washington Augustus, 1837-1926.  Search this
Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
18.5 Cubic feet (62 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Specifications
Reports
Price lists
Photographs
Newsletters
Letterpress books
Correspondence
Blueprints
Ledgers (account books)
Genealogies
Notebooks
Patents
Date:
1836-1975
bulk 1930-1950
Summary:
Collection documents the work of the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, builders of bridges. The materials consist primarily of photograph albums documenting some of the bridges, tramways, ski lifts and chair lifts that Roebling's Sons Company was involved with. The documentation also includes specifications, patents, and reference materials about the engineering process of building bridges and bridges in general.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, builders of bridges. The materials consist primarily of photograph albums documenting a variety of bridges, mostly in the United States. The documentation also includes specifications, patents, and reference materials about the engineering process of building bridges and bridges in general.

Series 1, Historical background materials, 1895-1958, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949 and Subseries 2, Newsletters, 1929-1931.

Subseries 1, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949, contains a variety of items related to the company such as historical narratives, correspondence, price lists, testing data, and a ledger with cost estimates. The correspondence is partially bound (pages 1 to 104) from a letter press book (handwritten and typescript) belonging to John A. Roebling's and Sons Company. William Hildebrand and Charles G. Roebling are the chief correspondents. The correspondence documents daily activities related to the design and erection of bridges as well as finances and supplies. Charles G. Roebling's notebook, undated, contains calculations and notes about various bridge projects.

Subseries 2, Newsletters, 1929-1931, contain copies of Blue Center and Wire Engineering, which were John A. Roebling's and Sons Company publications intended for employees. The newsletters were apparently used as scrapbooks, with black-and-white photographs pasted into the pages. Found among the pages of Blue Center are photographs of the Hudson River Bridge and in Wire Engineering, there are photographs of the Maysville, Kentucky Bridge.

Series 2, Photographs, 1926-1975, comprises the largest series in the collection. The photographs are primarily black-and-white and document aerial tramways, tramways for logging or mining, chair lifts, ski lifts, floods, and bridge construction projects. The latter makes up the majority. Most photographs were assembled into albums with corresponding captions and dates, and almost all of the photographs document bridges in the United States. There is one exception, the Yauricocha Tramway in Peru. In some instances, the captions are recorded on the back of the photographs, and others were recorded on album pages. The series is arranged alphabetically by name of bridge and/or project.

Series 3, Specifications, 1855-1962, consists of printed textual documents (both bound and loose) that contain information for bidders, proposals, contracts, and bonds, and the detailed specifications. This series is arranged alphabetically by bridge name.

Series 4, Reports, 1928-1938, contains bound reports (both progress and final) detailing problems, requirements, research, manufacture, plant installation, cable equipment, strand adjustments, and Roebling Company developments. This series is arranged alphabetically by bridge/and/or project.

Series 5, Patent materials, 1849-1952, consists of issued patents (to a variety of individuals) for cable and cable appliances, cables, and cable apparatus, cableways and tramways, and grips. The patents are arranged by subject area, then by patent number.

Series 6, Reference materials, 1836-1964, contains a wide range of materials—articles, biographical files, drawings, photographs, newspaper clippings, advertising, correspondence, notes—documenting all aspects of bridges. This series is arranged alphabetically by topic.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Historical background materials, 1895-1958, undated

Subseries 1, Biographical, 1900-1958, undated

Subseries 2, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949

Subseries 3, Newsletters, 1929-1931

Series 2, Photographs, 1926-1975

Series 3, Specifications, 1855-1962

Series 4, Reports, 1928-1938

Series 5, Patent materials, 1849-1952

Series 6, Reference materials, 1836-1964
Biographical / Historical:
John Augustus Roebling (1806-1869) was the founder and proprietor of John A. Roebling's Sons Company. Born in Mühlhausen, Germany, he was a civil engineer famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge. Roebling married Johana Herting in 1836 and they had nine children: Washington A. Roebling (1837-1926); Laura R. Methfessel (1840-1873); Ferdinand W. Roebling (1842-1917); Elvira R. Stewart (1844-1871); Josephine R. Jarvis (b. 1847); Charles Gustavus Roebling (1849-1918); Edmund Roebling (1854-1930); William Roebling (b. 1856, d. 1860); and Hannah Roebling (died in infancy). Roebling's three sons, Washington Augustus Roebling; Ferdinand William Roebling and Charles Gustavus Roebling, worked for the company.

Roebling's Sons Company was active in the design and manufacture of wire rope used in the erection of suspension bridges since the 1840s. Roebling devised a system of spinning the wires together where weights and swivels turned the wire coils in the opposite direction from the twisting, thereby removing kinks. Method of and Machine for Manufacturing Wire Rope (US Patent # 2,720) issued on July 16, 1842. Roebling would adapt this wire rope to his suspension bridge principle. In 1848, he established a company—John Roebling's Sons Company—in Trenton, New Jersey, to manufacture his wire rope. Roebling manufacturing plants were sold in 1952 to the Colorado Fuel and Iron (CF&I) Company of Pueblo, Colorado. In 1968, the Crane Company purchased the CF& I.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

George S. Morison Collection (AC0978)

Modjeski and Masters Company Records (AC0976)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Rutgers University, Special Collections and University Archives

Papers of Mary G. Roebling and Roebling Family Papers, 1821-1960 (MC 654.1).
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Blair Birdsall, former chief engineer at John A. Roebling's Sons Company in 1981.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Iron industry and trade -- United States  Search this
Iron industry and trade -- Colorado  Search this
Wire industry -- New Jersey  Search this
Suspension bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Ski lifts  Search this
Wire-rope industry -- New Jersey  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Specifications
Reports
Price lists
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 1920-1940
Letterpress books
Correspondence
Blueprints
Ledgers (account books)
Genealogies
Notebooks
Patents
Citation:
John A. Roebling Collection, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0981
See more items in:
John A. Roebling Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0981
Online Media:

Joseph Miller Collection

Creator:
Miller, J. & D. (Bronx, New York)  Search this
Miller, Joseph (cutlery dealer)  Search this
Donor:
Galdston, Irene  Search this
Galdston, Irene  Search this
Collector:
Cultural History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Cultural History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Family papers
Photographs
Ledgers (account books)
Business records
Correspondence
Trade catalogs
Certificates
Date:
1895-1992
Summary:
Letters, envelopes and other business records relating to the cutlery business of J & D Miller, Bronx, New York.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into three series. The first series consists of personal documents relating to Joseph Miller's life and his family history. The second series consists of business records from the cutlery shop; this series contains four subseries, including purchase orders from the United States, purchase orders from foreign countries, photographs, and miscellaneous business records. The third series contains materials relating to the collection itself and how it came to the Smithsonian Institution.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into 4 series.

Series 1: Personal, circa 1885-1971

Series 2: Business, circa 1950-1992
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Miller (1885-1971) was born in Russia, a second son in a Jewish family of seven children. All nine Millers emigrated to the United States in the early twentieth century, bringing with them the family cutlery business. Joseph became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1912, and in 1917, he joined his brother David in business, forming J & D Miller. The shop specialized in fashioning circumcision knives and kosher knives, like the schochet, for rabbis and mohels. In addition, the company also made knives for surgeons, circus performers, and industrial uses, sold sharpening stones, and accepted dull or broken knives for repair. The company of J & D Miller, communicating in English and Yiddish, shipped its merchandise all over the United States and to foreign countries as remote as Afghanistan, Argentina, and Algeria.

Joseph had two children, Irving and Irene, by his first wife, Essie. In 1961, Joseph lost an adult son, possibly a child from his second marriage, to Gertie. Although Joseph retired from J & D Miller in 1955 at the age of 70, he continued fashioning knives in a basement workshop of his Laurelton home. At his death at 86, Joseph was still receiving international requests for his knives. Joseph was committed to keeping the Miller clan together in America; his poems and family correspondence reveal a man devoted to his family.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds a knifemakers shop sign in Yiddish. See accession 1992.0391.

This 1920s free-standing, wood–framed oilcloth window sign from the knife shop of Russian–immigrants Joseph and David Miller in the Lower East Side of New York City uses four implements and a legend in Yiddish to advertise their commercial offerings.

The sign reads:Do iz Millers a brentsh [Here are Miller's forgings]Di Miller halafim un mohel messer [The Miller ritual slaughter blades and circumcision knives]zaynen di beste un sheynste [are the best and most beautiful]in der gantser velt [in the whole world]garantirt keyn mol nit tsu rosten [Guaranteed never to rust]

The Miller shop, at 25 Canal Street, made ritual Jewish cutlery for the shochet (butcher) and for the mohel (circumcisionist), using extreme care in the hand fabrication of each instrument. The large rectangular knife (gasos halef) on the sign was used to slaughter cattle, the small rectangular knife (ofos halef) was for poultry; the curved implement is a circumcision clamp (mohel mashinke); and the double sided knife is a circumcision knife (mohel messer). In compliance with Jewish tradition, great emphasis is placed upon cleanliness, speed, efficiency, and the minimization of pain in the use of these instruments.
Provenance:
Donated by Irene Galdston in 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is ope for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Cutlery trade  Search this
Circumcision  Search this
Judaism -- Customs and practices  Search this
Genre/Form:
Family papers
Photographs -- 20th century
Ledgers (account books)
Business records
Correspondence -- 20th century
Trade catalogs
Certificates
Citation:
Joseph Miller Collection, 1895-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0514
See more items in:
Joseph Miller Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0514
Online Media:

Nelson Dickerman Papers

Creator:
Dickerman, Nelson, 1881-1952  Search this
Urbanski, Pauline  Search this
Source:
Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Former owner:
Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Maps
Family papers
Clippings
Diaries
Baby books
Photograph albums
Christmas cards
Photographs
Date:
1880-1965.
Summary:
Papers relating to the career and life of mining engineer Nelson Dickerman: letters, photographs, clippings and diaries kept during his mining career. Much of the material is personal, rather than professional, relating to Dickerman's family and children. Family photographs include baby books.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection documents Nelson Dickerman, a mining engineer and his immediate family members, Hallie Dickerman (wife) and three daughters, Delight, Rhoda and Doris. The majority of documentation pertains to the Dickerman Family and is best represented through the black and white and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series. Series 1: Biographical Materiall Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Diaries

Series 4: Photographs

Series 5: Maps

Series 6: Miscellaneous
Biographical/Historical note:
Nelson Dickerman was born in 1881 in Denver, CO to Charles O. and Louise Haage Dickerman. He began mining as an assistant surveyor at Tomboy gold mines in Colorado in 1900 and in 1903, worked underground at Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mine, Idaho. Dickerman would later take a position as a metallurgist at the Ladd Metal's Company's copper smelter in Idaho. He graduated from the University of California in 1905 earning a B.S. and later that year joined the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields in Hammonton, California. Dickerman worked for a number of mining companies throughout his career as a general manager, superintendent, and vice president—Natomas Consolidated (1910); Kirtley Creek Gold Dredging Company (1911-1913); Pato Mines (Columbia), Ltd. and Nechi (Columbia), Ltd (1913-1916); Guiana Development Company and Liberty Development Company in Dutch and French Guiana (1916-1921); Cornwall, Anglo-Oriental Mining Corporation (1928-1932); and Amiranian Oil Company (1937-1938). During his career Dickerman made examinations in Chile, Argentina, British Guiana, Columbia and the United States. He worked for the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, War Production Board from 1939 to 1944 and in 1945, he joined the U.S. Bureau of Mines serving in the far east unit, foreign minerals division until 1948. He then went to work for the Central Intelligence Agency where he served until his death in February 1952.

Nelson Dickerman married Hallie Ferron on May 12, 1909; they had three daughters, Delight Dickerman, Doris Dickerman, and Rhoda Dickerman John.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources by Pauline Urbanski on April 28, 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Infants  Search this
Mining engineers  Search this
Mining engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 1900-1950
Maps
Family papers -- 20th century
Clippings
Diaries
Baby books
Photograph albums
Christmas cards
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Nelson Dickerman Papers, 1880-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0542
See more items in:
Nelson Dickerman Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0542

Sohmer & Co. Records

Author:
Falcone Custom Grand Pianos  Search this
Collector:
Musical Instruments, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Musical Instruments, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Donor:
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Creator:
Sohmer & Company  Search this
Names:
Sohmer & Company  Search this
Kuder, Joseph  Search this
Sohmer, Harry J.  Search this
Sohmer, Harry J., Jr.  Search this
Sohmer, Hugo  Search this
Sohmer, William  Search this
Extent:
43 Cubic feet (82 boxes and 11 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sales catalogs
Photographic prints
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Journals (accounts)
Ledgers (account books)
Place:
Ivoryton (Conn.)
New York (N.Y.) -- Musical instruments industry
Date:
1872-1989
Scope and Contents:
The records of Sohmer & Co., date from 1872 through 1989. They fall into fourteen series based primarily on function. Legal, financial, inventory & appraisal, manufacturing, marketing, advertising, and sales are the major series. Photographs, awards, family papers, publications about Sohmer, general publications, "miscellaneous" and correspondence are the remaining series. The records are especially strong in the areas of advertising, finances, and marketing. The collection does not contain corporate records, articles of incorporation, executive records, minutes, annual reports, or personnel records such as payrolls or job descriptions.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 14 series.

Series 1: Stock and Legal Records, 1882-1985

Series 2: Financial Records, 1887-1962

Series 3: Inventory & Appraisal Records, 1891-1980

Series 4: Manufacturing Records, 1872-1967

Series 5: Marketing, 1901-1989

Series 6: Advertising Records, 1880-1983

Series 7: Sales Records, 1923-1982

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1920-1964

Series 9: Awards, 1876-1976

Serioes 10: Sohmer Family Papers, 1945-1970

Series 11: Publications about Sohmer, 1883-1986

Series 12: General Publications, 1912-1985

Series 13: Miscellaneous Records, 1894-1983

Series 14: Correspondence, 1892-1987
Historical:
When Sohmer & Co. was founded in 1872 by Hugo Sohmer and his partner Joseph Kuder, it became one of 171 piano manufacturers in New York City. Over the next 110 years, Sohmer & Co. was one of the few active and successful family-owned and operated piano-making ventures in the United States. Nationally known for tonal quality and fine craftmanship, the firm's product, in the music trade, came to be referred to as "The Piano-Maker's Piano."
Biographical:
Born to an eminent physician in Dunningen, Wurtemberg, Germany on November 11, 1846, Hugo Sohmer enjoyed a first class education. Riding the last major wave of German immigration, which had brought piano makers such as Albert Weber, George Steck, John and Charles Fischer, and Henry E. Steinway to America, Hugo arrived in New York City in 1862. He became an apprentice in the piano making house of Schuetze & Ludolf. To learn more about European piano making, Hugo returned to Germany in 1868 and travelled extensively throughout Europe. In 1870 he returned to New York and by 1872 the 26 year old Sohmer and his partner, Josef Kuder, began manufacturing pianos in the 149 East 14th Street factory previously utilized by J.H. Boernhoeft and most recently by Marschall & Mittauer.

Josef Kuder, originally from Bohemia, Austria Hungary, learned piano making in Vienna between 1847 and 1854. Kuder arrived in New York in 1854 and became a pianomaker with Steinway & Sons which had been founded in 1853. In 1861 he returned to Vienna; he worked there until returning to New York in 1864, where he worked for Marschall & Mittauer until joining Sohmer.

Concentrating on tonal quality and response, Sohmer & Co. began producing pianos which were recognized in 1876 by an award from the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. In the waning years of the nineteenth century Sohmer & Co. received other awards including a diploma from the Exposition Provinciale in Montreal, Quebec in 1881, the gold medal at the Great New England Fair in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1889, and an award from the World's Columbian Commission in 1893 in Chicago.

By 1883 additional factory space, located on East 23rd Street and formerly used by Carhart & Needham, was occupied to accomodate increased production. In three years this space proved inadequate and forced the renting of an extension to the original factory. The main office and salesrooms were located at 31 West 57th Street in New York City. Meanwhile, in 1884 Sohmer invented the first five foot "baby" grand piano which was applauded for its musical brilliance and depth of tone. In the early 1900's Sohmer produced grand pianos in four sizes: Concert, Parlor, Baby & Cupid.

Limited space and increased production soon became issues again, and in 1887 the company moved its factory and special machinery to Astoria, Long Island. This factory, located at 31st Avenue and Vernon Boulevard, remained in continuous operation until 1982, when the Adirondack Chair Co. bought the building and Pratt Read acquired the company.

During the 1880s a number of letters patent were granted to Sohmer for such piano improvements as the agraffe bar for tone augmentation, and the aliquot string, which were auxiliary strings "arranged in conjunction with the regular strings for the purpose of giving forth reverberatory or sympathetic waves of sound, thus augmenting the general tone results of each unison." (Spillane, History, 256.)

In 1894 Hugo Sohmer took competitor Sebastian Sommer to court for stenciling the name "Sommer" on the fallboard of his pianos. Sohmer declared that "Sohmer" was a trademark used as an emblem to distinguish the piano from others, especially the Sommer piano which he considered inferior. The court in this equity case dismissed the case on the grounds that Sohmer had not proven damages accruing from the advertising and sale of the Sommer piano.

By 1907 Sohmer & Co. was producing 2,000 pianos per year. Additionally, with Farrand & Co. of Detroit, Sohmer was making the Sohmer Cecilian player piano. On June 8, 1913 Hugo Sohmer died in Scarsdale, N.Y.; 20 days later, Josef Kuder died as well. Hugo was survived by his wife, Elizabeth; a daughter, Adelaide S. Weber; and a son, Harry J. Sohmer, born in 1886. Company leadership was assumed by Harry J. Sohmer after Hugo's death.

During the 1920s Sohmer began a special department in its plant for the manufacture of period pianos. According to Harry Sohmer, the 1930s were difficult. He recalled that, once only one piano in 29 days was shipped. The number of American piano manufacturers dropped from 140 to 22 during this time. It was during this time that Harry's cousins, Frank and Paul Sohmer joined the company as consultants. However, through its pioneering efforts in the introduction of a console vertical piano known as a "Spinet," Sohmer revitalized the industry. (Taylor, "Piano Family.") This console vertical piano has been called "The Musicians' Console.

Primarily because of its concentration on the console vertical pianos Sohmer & Co. never cultivated famous performers in the way that Steinway and Baldwin did. While publicly acknowledging that it never entered into the competition for artistic endorsement (an acknowledgement which perhaps worked to its favor), Sohmer & Co. relied upon a most comprehensive and innovative advertising strategy stressing integrity, quality and craftsmanship in the pursuit of the ideal tone and touch.

In 1940 Harry incorporated the company as Sohmer & Co. and led it, with his sons Harry J. Sohmer, Jr., (born 1917) as production manager and Robert H. Sohmer (born 1920), as process engineer. By 1969 Harry Jr. was vice president in charge of production and Robert was production engineer/ treasurer. In 1971 Harry Sr. died and Harry Jr. became president.

In 1982 Pratt Read Corporation, a long established manufacturer of piano keyboards, acquired Sohmer & Co. for an undisclosed amount, and moved the operations to its Ivoryton, Connecticut factory, while retaining the Sohmer name. The Sohmer brothers retained their positions in the company. At the time of its purchase Sohmer & Co. employed 120 people, produced 2500 pianos yearly, and grossed $5 million in sales. Harry J. Sohmer, Jr., grandson of the founder, in expressing his feelings about the move and the Sohmer piano, compared his piano to old New York beers saying that "they were strictly New York products and in a way so were we." He concluded by saying, "We were always identified with this city. Sohmer was a New York piano." (Prial, "Sohmer Piano.")

By July 1983 under Pratt Read's management Sohmer was producing 6 pianos per day, only 50% of the expected capacity according to H.B. Comstock, president of Pratt Read. In 1986 the Ivoryton factory was sold to a group of investors organized as Sohmer Holding Co., who continued to make pianos there until a lack of skilled workers and financial losses forced its closing in December 1988. In an effort to fill the backlog of orders, Sohmer president Tom Bradshaw opened a new facility in Elysburg, Pennsylvania. A retail showroom was maintained in Ivoryton. In 1989, the Sohmer company was sold to the Falcone Custom Grand Piano Company of Haverhill, Massachusetts.

References

Cox, Erin. "Labor Woes a Main Factor in Sohmer Closing," The Pictorial Gazette West, 3 (December 8, 1988), 1, 22.

Dolge, Alfred. Piano and their Makers. 1911; rpt. New York: Dover Publications, 1973.

Loesser, Arthur. Men, Women and Pianos: A Social History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1954.

Musical Merchandise Review. "Sohmer Pianos Underway at Conn. Pratt Read," July 1983, 91.

The Music Trades. "Pratt, Read Acquires Sohmer & Co. Piano Maker,"August 1982, 18.

Piano and Organ Purchaser's Guide, 1907, 1930. Prial, Frank J. "Sohmer Piano, and 110 Years of Craft, will leave Astoria," New York Times, August 13, 1982, B1, B4.

Purchaser's Guide to the Music Industries. 1956, New York: The Music Trades, 1956, 58 60.

Spillane, Daniel. History of the American Pianoforte: Its Technical Development, and the Trade. 1890; rpt. New York: Da Capo Press, 1969.

Taylor, Carol. "Piano Family Stays in Tune," New York World Telegram & Sun, August 15, 1958.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Pratt Read Corp. Records (AC0320)

Chickering & Sons Records (AC0264)

Steinway Piano Co. Collection (AC0178)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Pratt Read Corporation, August 11, 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Musical instrument manufacturing  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Keyboard instruments  Search this
Piano  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Sales catalogs
Photographic prints
Advertisements
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Journals (accounts)
Ledgers (account books)
Citation:
Sohmer & Co. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0349
See more items in:
Sohmer & Co. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0349
Online Media:

Norcross Greeting Card Collection

Collector:
Norcross, Arthur Dickinson, d. 1968  Search this
Extractive Industries, Division of.  Search this
Rust, Fred Winslow, 1877?-1949  Search this
Rust Craft Greeting Card Company (Dedham (Mass.))  Search this
Extractive Industries, Division of.  Search this
Designer:
Tuck, Raphael, fl. 1880s  Search this
Prang, Louis, fl. 1880-1900  Search this
Chase, Ernest Dudley, fl. 1920s  Search this
Manufacturer:
Norcross Greeting Card Company (New York (N.Y.))  Search this
Rust Craft Publishers (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Extent:
202 Cubic feet (179 boxes, 362 volumes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lithographs
Business records
Chromolithographs
Color slides
Greeting cards
Valentines
Trade cards
Postcards
Motion pictures (visual works)
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Boston (Mass.) -- 1910-1950
Date:
1800-1981
bulk 1880-1881
Summary:
Collections consists of the records of both the Norcross Greeting Card Company founded in New York City in the 1920s and The Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, founded in Kansas City, Missouri, 1906. Both the Norcross and Rust Craft companies collected antique greeting cards. Also includes a small number of modern cards by other manufacturers, circa 1930-1980. Collection represents development of the greeting card industry, social trends in the United States and technology of the printing industry from 1924 through 1978.
Scope and Contents:
The Norcross Greeting Card Collection consists of cards and a few records of both the Norcross Greeting Card Company and the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, circa 1911 1981; antique greeting cards, circa 1800 1930 (bulk 1880 1900) collected by both these companies and their executives; and a small number of modern cards by other manufacturers, circa 1939 1960. According to Norcross Company officials in 1978, this collection represents "not only a history of the development of the greeting card industry but also a history of social trends in the United States" and gives "an indication of the quality and technology of the [printing] industry from 1924 through 1978."
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Norcross Company Records, 1920-1981

Series 2: Antique Greeting Card Collection, circa 1800-1930 (bulk 1880-1990)

Series 3: Rust Craft Company Records, circa 1920-1980

Series 4: Greeting Cards by Other Manufacturers, 1939-1960

Series 5: Norcross Company Permanent Files, 1911-1981

Series 6: Rust Craft Company Permanent Files, 1927-1981
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur D. Norcross founded the Norcross Greeting Card Company in New York City in the nineteen twenties. From the start Norcross cards had a "look" which contributed to their selling success although, through the years, the company commanded only a small share of the greeting card market. In 1974 the company relocated to West Chester and Exton, Pennsylvania, where in 1981 Norcross and the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company merged to form divisions of a parent company.

At some point, Norcross executives realized the value of collecting and preserving antique greeting cards. The company built a large collection of antique cards, a number of which traveled in shows around the country bringing attention not only to the cards themselves but also to the Norcross Company.

Arthur Norcross died in 1968, and the company had four owners from then until 1982. One of the owners, the Ziff Corporation, a New York publisher, picked up the Norcross Company to augment the floundering Rust Craft Greeting Card Company that it had purchased primarily for its television holdings. Finally the Norcross and Rust Craft combination was acquired by Windsor Communications, Inc., a privately held company. In August 1981 Windsor entered into Chapter 11 proceedings under the Federal bankruptcy law and ceased producing greeting cards. Factors leading to bankruptcy included the expensive consolidation of Norcross and Rust Craft, a doubtful marketing strategy, and unsuccessful efforts to continue producing two distinct lines of greeting cards.

The Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, some of whose records are contained in this collection, was begun as a little bookshop by Fred Rust, (1877? 1949) in Kansas City in 1906. Later that year he created a plain Christmas folder which he called a "letter," perhaps a forerunner of the greeting card. These "letters" proved successful sellers prompting Rust to increase his publications over the years and expand his line to include post cards, greeting cards with envelopes, calendars, and blotters, in addition to lines of cards for New Year's and birthdays. Donald Rust, his brother, soon joined him to take over manufacturing, and in 1908, Fred Rust, seeking to increase distribution, carried his line to Boston while Donald carried his to California. The original bookshop was retained until 1910 when all retailing was discontinued. After building a considerable volume of business, the firm was consolidated in Boston in 1914 and became known as Rust Craft Publishers.

Sales mounted as the company issued cards for various seasons. Many of the sentiments were written by Fred Rust himself. Around 1927 Ernest Dudley Chase joined the firm as an associate in charge of creation and advertising. In the 1950s the company relocated to Dedham, Massachusetts and finally in 1981 merged with the Norcross Company in West Chester and Exton, Pennsylvania.

A popular innovation of the Rust Craft Company was a card bearing the sentiment printed on the card itself with four or five extra sentiments tucked in as part of the message and design. This card was so popular that it was patented with the name Tukkin. The Rust Craft Company also collected some antique greeting cards.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

AC0109 Division of Domestic Life Greeting Card Collection, circa 1854-1975

AC0126 Burris and Byrd Family Card Sample Case, circa 1920

AC0263 Susie Paige Afro-American Greeting Card Collection, 1900-1984

AC0376 Olive Leavister 19th Century Handmade Valentine Collection, 1830-1880

AC0404 Archives Center Business Americana Collection, circa 1900-present

AC0530 Beatrice Litzinger Postcard Collection, 1900-1990

AC0468Archives Center Scrapbook Collection, circa 1880-circa 1960

AC0579 Greeting Card Collection, 1920s-1970s

AC0886 Ernest Dudley Chase Papers, 1930s-1940s

AC1198 Beatrice Morgan Steyskal Collection of Greeting Cards, 1958-1970

AC0060 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

AC1251 L.F. Pease Greeting Card Company Collection, circa 1908-1913

AC 1252 Sandford Greeting Card Company and Family Papers, circa 1840-1990

AC 0062 Hoffmania (or Hoffman Collection

AC0295 Rocky Herosian Collection, 1910-1943

AC0674 Jean Clairmook Radio Scrapbook, 1930-1932

AC0136 Celia K. Erskine Scrapbook of Valentines, Advertising Cards, and Postcards, circa 1882-1884

The Valentine & Expressions of Love [videocassette], 2000 within the Archives Center Miscellaneous Film and Videotape Collection, (AC0358)
Provenance:
Norcross Greeting Card Company, West Chester, Pennsylvania, 1982-1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Lithographs
Business records -- 20th century
Chromolithographs -- 1880-1900
Color slides
Greeting cards -- ca. 1800-1980
Valentines
Trade cards
Postcards
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1960-1980
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0058
See more items in:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0058
Online Media:

Thomas Tucker and Tucker family papers, 1823-1877

Creator:
Tucker, Thomas  Search this
Tucker, Thomas  Search this
Subject:
Tucker, William Ellis  Search this
Topic:
Porcelain -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Porcelain industry -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Theme:
Art Materials, Techniques, and Studio Art Education  Search this
Craft  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10613
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214132
AAA_collcode_tuckthom
Theme:
Art Materials, Techniques, and Studio Art Education
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214132

Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972

Creator:
Cornell, Joseph, 1903-1972  Search this
Cornell, Joseph, 1903-1972  Search this
Subject:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Celebrities  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5790
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208629
AAA_collcode_cornjose
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208629
Online Media:

Onderdonk family papers, 1840-1980

Creator:
Onderdonk family  Search this
Onderdonk family  Search this
Subject:
Onderdonk, Robert Jenkins  Search this
Onderdonk, Julian  Search this
Onderdonk, Eleanor  Search this
Topic:
Artists' studios -- Texas -- Photographs  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 19th century -- Texas -- San Antonio  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Texas -- San Antonio  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6982
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209111
AAA_collcode_ondeonde
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209111

Felicia Meyer Marsh and Meyer Family papers, circa 1880-1977

Creator:
Marsh, Felicia Meyer, 1912-1978  Search this
Meyer, Herbert W. (Herbert William)  Search this
Marsh, Felicia Meyer, 1912-1978  Search this
Subject:
Marsh, Reginald  Search this
Goodrich, Lloyd  Search this
Bacon, Peggy  Search this
Evergood, Philip  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7850
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210017
AAA_collcode_marsfeli
Theme:
Diaries
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210017
Online Media:

Pitts family papers, 1885-1958

Creator:
Pitts family  Search this
Pitts family  Search this
Subject:
Pitts, Lendall  Search this
Pitts, Elizabeth McCord  Search this
Pitts, James  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8785
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210968
AAA_collcode_pittpitt
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210968

Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Subject:
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Quinn, John  Search this
Rainford, Percy  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen)  Search this
Oldfield, Otis  Search this
Kuhn, Vera  Search this
Kuhn, Brenda  Search this
Weston, Edward  Search this
Penguin Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Kit Kat Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
International Exhibition of Modern Art  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Armory Show  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Communities, Organizations, Museums  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9172
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211367
AAA_collcode_kuhnwalt
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211367
Online Media:

Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, 1899-circa 2013, bulk 1912-1916

Creator:
MacRae, Elmer Livingston, 1875-1953  Search this
MacRae, Elmer Livingston, 1875-1953  Search this
Subject:
Pach, Walter  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen)  Search this
Kuhn, Walt  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Armory Show  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Exhibitions  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- societies, etc  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Communities, Organizations, Museums  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9534
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211733
AAA_collcode_macrelme
Theme:
Diaries
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211733
Online Media:

Biesel family papers, 1859-1983, bulk 1915-1983

Creator:
Biesel, family  Search this
Biesel, family  Search this
Subject:
Armin, Emil  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Foy, Frances M.  Search this
Richards, William Trost  Search this
Biesel, Charles  Search this
Biesel, Fred  Search this
Biesel, Frances Strain  Search this
United States  Search this
Artists Equity Association  Search this
Chicago No-Jury Society of Artists  Search this
Index of American Design  Search this
University of Chicago  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Women painters -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Government Sponsorship of the Arts  Search this
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9617
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211824
AAA_collcode_biesfami
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Government Sponsorship of the Arts
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211824

John Warner Norton and Norton family papers, 1893-1954

Creator:
Norton, John Warner, 1876-1934  Search this
Norton, John Warner, 1876-1934  Search this
Topic:
Artists' writings  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Painting, American -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10080
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212951
AAA_collcode_nortjohn
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212951

Emmet family papers, 1792-1989, bulk 1851-1989

Creator:
Emmet family  Search this
Emmet family  Search this
Subject:
Emmet, Lydia Field  Search this
Emmet, Robert  Search this
Emmet, Julia Colt Pierson  Search this
De Glehn, Jane Erin Emmet  Search this
De Glehn, Wilfrid-Gabriel  Search this
Morgan, Elizabeth Emmet  Search this
Rand, Ellen Emmet  Search this
MacMonnies, Frederick William  Search this
Millay, Edna St. Vincent  Search this
James, Henry  Search this
Lunt, Alfred  Search this
Fontanne, Lynn  Search this
Casals, Pablo  Search this
La Farge, Bancel  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia  Search this
Metcalfe, Susy  Search this
Doyle, Nancy  Search this
Ormond, Violet Sargent  Search this
Monod, Lucien  Search this
White, Stanford  Search this
Quilter, Roger  Search this
Sargent, Emily  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus  Search this
Sargent, John Singer  Search this
Sherwood, Robert E. (Robert Emmet)  Search this
Sherwood, Rosina Emmet  Search this
Sherwood, Rosamond  Search this
Berkshire Museum  Search this
World's Columbian Exposition  Search this
Danforth Museum  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Video recordings
Drawings
Diaries
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching -- France -- Paris  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Women painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Painting, American -- New York (State)  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State)  Search this
Playwrights  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Singers  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10250
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213367
AAA_collcode_emmefami
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213367
Online Media:

Parrish family papers, 1915-1953

Creator:
Parrish fam, Parrish family  Search this
Parrish fam, Parrish family  Search this
Subject:
Parrish, Maxfield  Search this
Parrish, Stephen  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New Mexico -- Santa Fe  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10446
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213851
AAA_collcode_parrparr
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213851

Lilla Cabot Perry and Perry family papers [microfilm], 1861-[ca. 1943]

Creator:
Perry, Lilla Cabot, 1848-1933  Search this
Perry, Lilla Cabot, 1848-1933  Search this
Subject:
Davis, Charles H. (Charles Harold)  Search this
James, Henry  Search this
Lowell, James Russell  Search this
Monet, Claude  Search this
Robinson, Edwin Arlington  Search this
Tarbell, Edmund Charles  Search this
Berenson, Bernard  Search this
Perry, Thomas Sergeant  Search this
Perry, Margaret  Search this
Topic:
Women painters -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Women painters -- New Hampshire -- Hancock  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Impressionism (Art)  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10933
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214710
AAA_collcode_perrlill
Theme:
Diaries
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214710

Otto Lambert Grever and Grever family papers, 1907-1991

Creator:
Grever, Otto Lambert, 1878-1936  Search this
Grever, Otto Lambert, 1878-1936  Search this
Subject:
Grever, Barbara Ann  Search this
H.C. Miner Lithographic Co.  Search this
Topic:
Theater -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Theatrical posters  Search this
Lithography  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6427
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215549
AAA_collcode_grevotto
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215549

Dorothy C. Miller papers, 1853-2013, bulk 1920-1996

Creator:
Miller, Dorothy Canning, 1904-2003  Search this
Miller, Dorothy Canning, 1904-2003  Search this
Subject:
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich)  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Coggeshall, Calvert  Search this
Hicks, Edward  Search this
Still, Clyfford  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Charlton, Maryette  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel  Search this
Pereira, I. Rice (Irene Rice)  Search this
Johns, Jasper  Search this
Horwitt, Will  Search this
DeFeo, Jay  Search this
Christo  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert  Search this
Karpel, Bernard  Search this
Copley, Alfred L.  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
Newman, Barnett  Search this
Sage, Kay  Search this
Byars, James Lee  Search this
Mather, Eleanore Price  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr.  Search this
Feitelson, Lorser  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu  Search this
Chryssa  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Asher, Elise  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad  Search this
Scharf, William  Search this
Matisse, Pierre  Search this
Bontecou, Lee  Search this
Canady, John  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Guggenheim, Peggy  Search this
Sterne, Hedda  Search this
World Trade Center (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Rockefeller University  Search this
Smith College. Museum of Art  Search this
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey  Search this
Chase Manhattan Bank  Search this
Municipal Art Exhibition  Search this
Mark Rothko Foundation  Search this
Smith College  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
PepsiCo, Inc.  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketches
Christmas cards
Drawings
Topic:
Artists -- United States  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Exhibitions  Search this
Art museum curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Corporations -- Private collections  Search this
Art -- Private collections  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography  Search this
Women  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6469
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215653
AAA_collcode_milldoro
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215653
Online Media:

Edward Gay and Gay family papers, 1852-1983

Creator:
Gay, Edward, 1837-1928  Search this
Gay, Duncan, 1865-1948  Search this
Gay, Edward, 1837-1928  Search this
Subject:
Learned, Helen Gay  Search this
Gay, Ingovar  Search this
Gay, Martha Feary  Search this
Artists' Fund Society  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Landscape painting -- 20th century -- New York (State)  Search this
Landscape painting -- 19th century -- New York (State)  Search this
Landscape painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6597
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215901
AAA_collcode_gayedwap
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215901
Online Media:

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