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MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers

Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Bushotter, George, 1864-1892  Search this
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Riggs, Stephen Return, 1812-1883  Search this
Extent:
30 Linear feet (70 boxes, 1 oversized box, 20 manuscript envelopes, 4 rolled maps, and 23 map folders)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Catawba Indians  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Tutelo  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Chiwere  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Osage  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Dhegiha Indians  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Tututni (Tutuni)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Siletz  Search this
Coos (Kusan)  Search this
Yaquina (Yakwina)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Takelma (Rogue River Indians)  Search this
Klikitat  Search this
Chasta Costa (Chastacosta)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Drawings
Vocabulary
Folklore
Sermons
Manuscripts
Obituaries
Correspondence
Newspaper clippings
Place:
Siletz Indian Reservation (Or.)
Date:
circa 1870-1956
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Reverend James Owen Dorsey (1848-1895) was a missionary and Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist who conducted extensive research on Siouan tribes and languages.The papers of James Owen Dorsey comprise mostly ethnographic and linguistic materials on various tribes of the Siouan language family as well as tribes from Siletz Reservation in Oregon. These materials include texts and letters with interlineal translations; grammar notes; dictionaries; drawings; and his manuscripts. In addition, the collection contains Dorsey's correspondence, newspaper clippings, his obituaries, and reprints.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains James O. Dorsey's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist, as well as his earlier work as a missionary among the Ponca. The vast majority of the collection pertains to his research on Siouan-Catawban languages, including the Dakota and Dhegiha languages, Chiwere, Winnebago, Mandan, Hidatsa, Tutelo, Biloxi, and Catawba. His research on Athapascan, Kusan, Takilman, and Yakonan languages from his field work at Siletz Reservation are also present, as well as some notes on the Caddoan languages. Dorsey's research files include linguistic and ethnological field notes, reading notes, stories and myths, vocabularies, drawings, and unpublished and published manuscripts. The collection also contains Omaha, Ponca, Quapaw, and Biloxi dictionaries that he compiled and materials relating to his work editing Steven Riggs' Dakota-English Dictionary. Additional noteworthy materials in the collection are Teton texts and drawings from George Bushotter and drawings by Stephen Stubbs (Kansa), Pahaule-gagli (Kansa), and George Miller (Omaha). The collection also contains Dorsey's correspondence, newspaper clippings, obituaries, and his collection of reprints.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: 1) Siouan; 2) Siletz Reservation; 3) Caddoan; 4) General Correspondence; 5) Personal Papers; 6) Miscellaneous & Reprints.
Biographical Note:
Reverend James Owen Dorsey (1848-1895) was a missionary and Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist who conducted extensive research on Siouan tribes and languages.

Dorsey was born on October 31, 1848 in Baltimore, Maryland. He exhibited a talent for languages at an early age. At age 6 he learned the Hebrew alphabet and was able to read the language at age 10. In 1867 Dorsey attended the Theological Seminary of Virginia and was ordained a deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1871. In May of that year, Dorsey traveled to the Dakota Territory to serve as a missionary among the Ponca. Plagued by ill health, Dorsey was forced to end his missionary work in August 1873. By that time, however, he had learned the Ponca language well enough to converse with members of the tribe without an interpreter.

Dorsey returned to Maryland and engaged in parish work while continuing his studies of Siouan languages. His linguistic talents and knowledge of these languages attracted the attention of Major John Wesley Powell. Powell arranged for Dorsey to work among the Omaha in Nebraska from 1878 to 1880 to collect linguistic and ethnological notes. When the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was established in 1879, Powell recruited Dorsey to join the staff.

As an ethnologist for the BAE, Dorsey continued his research on Siouan tribes. His studies focused on languages but also included Siouan personal names, folklore, social organization, religion, beliefs, and customs. He conducted fieldwork among the Tutelo at Six Nations on Grand River in Upper Canada (1882); the Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw in Indian Territory (1883-1884); the Biloxi at Lecompte, Rapides Parish, Louisiana (1892); and again with the Quapaw at the Quapaw Mission (1894). He also worked with Native Americans that visited DC, including George Bushotter (Teton), Philip Longtail (Winnebago), Samuel Fremont (Omaha), and Little Standing Buffalo (Ponca). He also spent time at Siletz Reservation in 1884 to collect linguistic notes on the Athapascan, Kusan, Takilman, and Yakonan stocks.

In addition to his research, Dorsey helped found the American Folklore Society and served as the first vice-president of the association. He also served as vice-president of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

At the age of 47, Dorsey died of typhoid fever on February 4, 1895.

Sources Consulted

1st-16th Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 1881-1897.

Hewitt, J.N.B. 1895. "James Owen Dorsey" American Anthropologist A8, 180-183.

McGee, W.J. 1895. "In Memoriam." Journal of American Folklore 8(28): 79-80.

1848 -- Born on October 31 in Baltimore, Maryland.

1871 -- Ordained a deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church.

1871-1873 -- Served as a missionary among the Ponca in Dakota Territory.

1878-1880 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Omaha in Nebraska.

1879 -- Joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

1882 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Tutelo at Six Nations on Grand River in Upper Canada.

1883-1884 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Kansa, Osage, and Quapaw in Indian Territory.

1887 -- Worked with George Bushotter to record information regarding the language and culture of the Dakota.

1884 -- Conducted fieldwork at Siletz Reservation.

1892 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Biloxi at Lecompte, Rapides Parish, Louisiana.

1894 -- Conducted fieldwork among the Quapaw at the Quapaw Mission in Indian Territory.

1895 -- Died of typhoid fever on February 4th at the age of 47.
Restrictions:
The James O. Dorsey Papers are open for research. Access to the James O. Dorsey Papers requires an appointment
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Social structure  Search this
Kinship  Search this
Manners and customs  Search this
Shahaptian languages  Search this
Yakonan languages  Search this
Athapascan languages  Search this
Kusan languages  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Siouan languages  Search this
Dhegiha language  Search this
Siuslaw Indians  Search this
Hidatsa language  Search this
Omaha language  Search this
Dakota language  Search this
Catawba language  Search this
Biloxi language  Search this
Caddoan languages  Search this
Osage language  Search this
Alsea language  Search this
Kansa language  Search this
Mandan language  Search this
Chastacosta language  Search this
Coquille language  Search this
Tutelo language  Search this
Winnebago language  Search this
Siuslaw language  Search this
Takelma language  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Drawings
Vocabulary
Folklore
Sermons
Manuscripts
Obituaries
Correspondence
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Manuscript 4800 James O. Dorsey papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4800
See more items in:
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3261ab492-5f9d-4be7-b1f4-c24d3f5da29b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4800
Online Media:

Little Gallery records

Creator:
Little Gallery (Birmingham, Mich.)  Search this
Names:
De Erdely, Francis, 1904-1959  Search this
DeSalle, Albert  Search this
DeSalle, Peggy  Search this
Lamouroux, Jean  Search this
Sepeshy, Zoltan, 1898-1974  Search this
Extent:
11.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Drawings
Sound recordings
Date:
1918-1985
Summary:
The Little Gallery records measure 11.5 linear feet and date from 1918 to 1985. The collection documents Little Gallery's operations through artist, exhibition, and subject files, printed material, photographs, and one sound recording. The collection also includes personal and professional papers, photographs, and some printed material related to Marguerite (Peggy) and Albert deSalle.
Scope and Contents:
The Little Gallery records measure 11.5 linear feet and date from 1918 to 1985. The collection documents Little Gallery's operations through artist, exhibition, and subject files, printed material, photographs, and one sound recording. The collection also includes personal and professional papers, photographs, and some printed material related to Marguerite (Peggy) and Albert deSalle.

Artist files consist of photographs of artwork, correspondence, price lists, shipping information, biographical summaries, and some printed material pertaining to various artists represented at the Little Gallery. Two artists particularly documented in these records are Francis De Erdely and Jean Lamouroux, who were both friends of Peggy deSalle and her husband Albert.

Exhibition files contain correspondence, shipping information, price lists, inventories, publicity material, and several pieces of posterboard signage. Little Gallery's subject files consist of correspondence, photographs, financial information, printed material, and other items that relate to advertising, other galleries and museums, contributions of artwork, collectors, and more.

Peggy and Albert deSalle's personal and professional papers include papers related to Peggy's career as an artwork photographer, writings, correspondence with artists, price lists, inventories, artist biographies, and photographs that document Peggy deSalle's transition into selling the art of European craftsmen.

Printed material documents Little Gallery exhibitions and events, as well as activities of Peggy and Albert deSalle outside the gallery, artists, and events at other galleries and organizations. Also found is a deSalle family scrapbook.

Photographs are primarily of Peggy and Albert deSalle, gatherings with friends, and professional events, including interior and exterior photos of the Little Gallery.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as six series.

Series 1: Artist Files, 1950-1982 (Box 1-4; 4 linear feet)

Series 2: Exhibition Files, 1956-1975 (Box 5; .4 linear feet)

Series 3: Subject Files,1950-1988 (Box 5-9; 4 linear feet)

Series 4: Peggy and Albert deSalle Personal and Professional Papers, 1918-1985 (Box 9-11; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1922-1984 (Box 11, 13; .5 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, 1920s-1980s (Box 11-13, .4 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Established in 1950 by Marguerite (Peggy) deSalle, the Little Gallery in Birmingham, Michigan was the first gallery in the region to deal in and exhibit contemporary art. Initially deSalle primarily handled the work of local artists starting out in their careers, and the work of faculty from the Cranbrook Academy of Art. deSalle's ex-husband and close friend, artist Zoltan Sepeshy, assisted her in meeting local artists to show at the gallery. Over time, Little Gallery added the works of artists from Europe, Africa, and other parts of the United States. deSalle also established a framing gallery in the basement, and showed jewelry and pottery in addition to paintings and sculptures.

Peggy deSalle (1903-1985) was born in Hungary where she lived until her family emigrated to New York when she was six years old. As a young woman she frequented the studio of Michigan painter Paul Honore, where she met Albert deSalle and Zoltan Sepeshy. In the 1920s she worked as a photographer for William Suhr, a restorer of paintings, at the Detroit Institute of Arts. While working there, she was offered the opportunity to learn photography at various museums in Europe, particularly Germany.

In the 1940s, prior to opening the Little Gallery, deSalle worked out of her home selling art, antiques, silver, goblets, bowls, and paintings brought to the United States by German political refugees. At one point her inventory was approximately 200 works of art.

Albert deSalle served in the U.S. army and was honorably discharged in 1918. In the 1920s and 1930s, deSalle performed in the theatre and worked in a secretarial and managerial capacity for artist Paul Honore. Not long after Peggy began Little Gallery, Albert joined the gallery's staff and remained there until his death in 1964.

In 1983, Peggy donated funds for the founding of the Peggy and Albert deSalle Gallery of Photography at the Detroit Institute of Art.
Provenance:
The papers were donated in 1985 by William E. Woolfenden as personal representative of the estate of Marguerite L. deSalle.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Women art dealers  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Michigan
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Drawings
Sound recordings
Citation:
Little Gallery records, 1918-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.littgall
See more items in:
Little Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94ddb4b0d-eac8-4ac1-bdcd-bff3ca52dd12
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-littgall

Printed Material

Collection Creator:
Little Gallery (Birmingham, Mich.)  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Linear feet (Boxes 11, 13)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1922-1984
Scope and Contents:
Found here are Little Gallery announcements for exhibitions and other events; newspaper clippings and articles concerning the Little Gallery, Peggy and Albert deSalle, the deSalle Gallery of Photography at the Detroit Institute of Art, artists, and other art-related topics. Also found here are bulletins, newsletters, exhibition ephemera from other museums and galleries, three scrapbooks, and an edition of Time in the Wastebasket: Poems, Collages, Parables, and Dreams by Paul Wescher. In addition to clippings, photographs, and other printed ephemera in the deSalle family scrapbook, there is a sketch by Zoltan Sepeshy.
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Little Gallery records, 1918-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.littgall, Series 5
See more items in:
Little Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9be048801-89ed-46b7-8434-223d33e58c62
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-littgall-ref199

Photographs

Collection Creator:
Little Gallery (Birmingham, Mich.)  Search this
Extent:
.4 Linear feet (Boxes 11-13)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1920s-1980s
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of this series is comprised of photographs of Peggy and Albert deSalle. Images of Peggy deSalle include snapshots and portraits of her from the 1930s to 1980s. Photographs of Albert deSalle include portraits and snapshots of him dating from his service in the first World War until his death in 1964, including snapshots taken of him acting onstage in the 1920s. Other images of the deSalles depict them with friends and family, at social gatherings, and travelling. Also found in this series are some photographs of the Little Gallery's exterior and interior, photos of artwork, exhibitions, and events, and two photographs of Willard Ayer Nash painting in his Santa Fe studio.
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Little Gallery records, 1918-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.littgall, Series 6
See more items in:
Little Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9acb30549-2638-472c-9a07-d7014c948790
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-littgall-ref210

The deSalles, Family, and Friends

Collection Creator:
Little Gallery (Birmingham, Mich.)  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1930s-1980s
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Little Gallery records, 1918-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Little Gallery records
Little Gallery records / Series 6: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9789f58f2-d1f1-4caa-b0af-33ab614e76b1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-littgall-ref217

Edmund C. Tarbell papers

Creator:
Tarbell, Edmund Charles, 1862-1938  Search this
Extent:
7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1855-circa 2000
bulk 1885-1938
Summary:
The papers of Boston painter Edmund Charles Tarbell measure 7 linear feet and date from circa 1855-circa 2000, bulk 1885-1938. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, writings, diaries, personal business records, printed material, photographs, albums, glass plate negatives, and a scrapbook.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Boston painter Edmund Charles Tarbell measure 7 linear feet and date from circa 1855-circa 2000, bulk 1885-1938. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, writings, diaries, personal business records, printed material, photographs, albums, glass plate negatives, and a scrapbook.

Biographical material includes a detailed timeline, honorary degree, award certificates, business cards, lists of awards and paintings, sketches, handbooks for organizations, and other documents.

There are three subseries of correspondence: Edmund Charles Tarbell's correspondence, his wife Emeline Tarbell's correspondence, and his daughter Josephine Tarbell Ferrell's correspondence. The first subseries includes Edmund Tarbell's correspondence with artists, museums and arts organizations. Notable correspondents include Frank W. Benson, William Merritt Chase, Henry Clay Frick, Philip Leslie Hale, August F. Jaccaci, Lilla Cabot Perry, and many others. The letters to his brother-in-law Augustus "Gus" Nickerson and sister Nellie Sophia are also significant for their information about his time studying abroad. The bulk of Emeline Tarbell's correspondence consists of letters from her husband regarding his time as a student in Paris. There are letters from her mother and siblings as well. Josephine Tarbell Ferrell's correspondence with people concerns her efforts to preserve the Tarbell house in New Hampshire as a memorial to her father.

Writings include a small amount of material by Edmund C. Tarbell, such as annotated appointment calendars, a notebook, assorted lists and notes, but most of the material in the series consists of other people's writings about the artist. Writing by others include drafts of a biography about Tarbell by his daughter Josephine Tarbell Ferrell and a typescript draft of "About the Artist Edmund C. Tarbell: Recollections of a Daughter" by Mercie Tarbell Clay. There is also a cookbook that was probably Emeline Souther's, before her marriage to Tarbell.

There are four diaries: two diaries by Emeline Tarbell, one diary by Josephine Tarbell Ferrell and another by Mercie Tarbell Clay.

Personal business records consist of account books, bills, receipts, checkbooks, estate papers, a ledger, and a deed. Some of the material belonged to Emeline Tarbell.

Printed material includes exhibition catalogs, announcements, event invitations, magazines, books, and newspaper clippings, mostly about Edmund Charles Tarbell.

There is one scrapbook of clippings of artwork and articles on Tarbell.

Photographic material consists of albums, photographs, glass plate negatives, and nitrate negatives of Edmund Charles Tarbell, his studio, family, friends, exhibition installations, and artwork. There are extensive photographs of the Tarbell family and the house in New Castle, New Hampshire.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 8 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1862-circa 1980, bulk 1884-1938 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 1, 8, 18, OV 9)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1877-circa 1993, bulk 1883-1930 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1880-circa 2000 (0.2 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 4: Diaries, 1887-1938 (0.3 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, 1889-circa 1951 (0.3 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1877-1979 (1.7 linear feet; Boxes 3-4, 8, OV 10-15)

Series 7: Scrapbook, circa 1902-circa 1916 (0.2 linear feet; Box 8)

Series 8: Photographic Material, circa 1845-circa 1990 (2.7 linear feet; Boxes 4-8, 16-17, MGP 1, MGP 5)
Biographical / Historical:
Edmund Charles Tarbell (1862-1938) was a painter and educator based in Boston, Massachusetts and New Hampshire.

Edmund Charles Tarbell was born in West Groton, Massachusetts. His parents were Mary Sophia and Edmund Whitney Tarbell. His father died from typhoid fever during the Civil War. After his father's death and his mother's remarriage, Tarbell and his sister Nellie Sophia are raised by his paternal grandparents. Tarbell studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (the Museum School), where he studied under the painter Otto Grundmann, and the Académie Julian in Paris, France, where he studied under Gustave-Rodolphe Boulanger and Jules-Joseph Lefebvre. Tarbell was in Europe from 1884 to 1886. In addition to his time at the Académie in Paris, he studied the Old Master paintings and Impressionism. He also traveled to London, Brussels, Frankfurt, Venice, and Munich, among other places.

After returning from Europe, Tarbell settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts and worked as a painter and illustrator. Tarbell married Emeline Souther in 1888. They had four children together and his family members were often the models for his paintings. Tarbell bought a summer house in New Castle, New Hampshire in 1905, where he and his wife would eventually retire.

Tarbell taught at the Museum School in Boston from 1889-1913 and later became the head of the Corcoran School of Art from 1918 to 1926. Tarbell and his close friend Frank W. Benson were both members of the Ten American Painters, a group of American Impressionist painters who held exhibitions together. He was considered the leader of the Boston Impressionists and had tremendous influence on his students, who were referred to as "Tarbellites." Tarbell was also the president of The Guild of Boston Artists from 1914 to 1924.

Tarbell exhibited frequently and his paintings are often in the American Impressionist style. While his wife and children were often the subject of his paintings, he also made numerous portraits of men of prestige, such as noted industrialists and presidents. He won numerous awards and received an honorary doctorate for painting from Dartmouth College. Tarbell was a juror in several important international exhibitions and world fairs such as the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904) and the Panama–Pacific International Exposition (1915). Furthermore, Tarbell was a member of various arts organizations such as the Tavern Club, the Players Club, and the National Academy of Design.

Tarbell died in New Castle, New Hampshire in 1938.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel N68-103) including circa 75 unidentified and undated photographs, mostly of Tarbell's work and exhibitions, six exhibition catalogs in which his work appears, clippings, a sketch by Tarbell dated 1883, and a letter from Edward Redfield to "Mary." Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Mrs. John Schaffer (Mary Tarbell), daughter of Edmund Tarbell, lent material for microfilming in 1968. Tarbell's granddaughter, Mary Josephine Ferrell Cannon donated papers in 1989 and William P. Tarbell, Tarbell's great-grandson, donated several additions to the papers in 2017 and 2018.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Citation:
Edmund Charles Tarbell papers, circa 1855-circa 2000, bulk 1885-1938. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tarbedmu
See more items in:
Edmund C. Tarbell papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9244d9c02-17eb-4928-9603-a14bcf8266e4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tarbedmu
Online Media:

William Page and Page Family papers

Creator:
Page, William, 1811-1885  Search this
Names:
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1887  Search this
Beecher, Thomas Kinnicut, 1824-1900  Search this
Briggs, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1804-1877  Search this
Curtis, George William, 1824-1892  Search this
Cushman, Charlotte, 1816-1876  Search this
Fenton, Rueben  Search this
Garrison, William Lloyd, 1805-1879  Search this
Hicks, Thomas, 1823-1890  Search this
Lowell, James Russell, 1819-1891  Search this
O'Donovan, William Rudolph, 1844-1920  Search this
Olmstead, Bertha  Search this
Olmstead, Mary  Search this
Page, Sophia Stevens, 1827-1892  Search this
Page, William, 1811-1885  Search this
Perry, E. W. (Enoch Wood), 1831-1915  Search this
Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884  Search this
Scranton, William Walker  Search this
Shaw, Francis George, 1809-1882  Search this
Stark, William, 1825-1873  Search this
Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874  Search this
Tilton, Theodore, 1835-1907  Search this
Wilmarth, Lemuel Everett, 1835-1918  Search this
Extent:
11.06 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Poems
Drawings
Diaries
Date:
1815-1947
bulk 1843-1892
Summary:
The papers of the portraitist and art theorist William Page and the Page family measure 11.06 linear feet and date from 1815 to 1947, bulk 1843-1892. In addition to the papers of William Page, the papers include documents related to Page's wife's career as a writer and records documenting their personal lives and the lives of their family members. Types of documents found include personal documents and artifacts, correspondence, essays, lectures, diaries, poems, notes and notebooks, financial records, legal records, published works, clippings, catalogs, photographs, and artwork.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of the painter William Page and the Page family measure 11.06 linear feet and date from 1815 to 1947, with the bulk of papers dating from 1843 to 1892. Papers contain records related to the life and career of William Page, president of the National Academy of Design from 1871 to 1873 and prominent portraitist and art theorist of his day. Also found are records related to his wife's career as a writer and records documenting their personal lives and the lives of their family members. Types of documents found include personal documents and artifacts, correspondence, essays, lectures, diaries, poems, notes and notebooks, financial records, legal records, published works, clippings, catalogs, photographs, and artwork.

Correspondence includes the personal and professional correspondence of William and Sophia Page, and their parents, siblings, and children. Significant correspondents include Thomas Hicks, Enoch Wood Perry, William Stark, Theodore Tilton, Lemuel Wilmarth, Wendell Phillips, William Walker Scranton, Francis G. Shaw; James Russell Lowell, Charles Frederick Briggs, George W. Curtis, Charlotte Cushman, Thomas K. Beecher, Mary Olmsted, and Bertha Olmsted.

Writings include the essays and lectures of William Page, as written by him and revised by Sophia Page in the late 1870s, as well as Sophia's writings as a columnist in Europe in the 1850s. Notes, notebooks, diaries, and poems are also found. Personal Business Records include business records related to the sale and exhibition of artwork as well as financial and legal documents. A small number of memoranda and documents related to Page's work at the National Academy of Design are also found. Printed Materials include exhibition catalogs, published works by William and Sophia Page, and clippings and articles about Page.

Photographs consist mainly of portraits, most of them mounted cabinet photographs or cartes-des-visites, some of which appear to have been used as studies for Page's painted portraits. Among those pictured are William Page, James Russell Lowell, Henry Ward Beecher, Reuben Fenton, Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, William R. O'Donovan, and William Lloyd Garrison. Many of the photographic portraits are unidentified. Artwork includes sketches, drawings, prints, and a small number of notes made by Page in the course of painting portraits.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials and Artifacts, 1847-1917 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1815-1942 (Boxes 1-4, 9-10; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, 1839-1888, 1949 (Boxes 4-5, OV 10; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1848-1932 (Boxes 5 and 9; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Materials, 1845-1938 (Boxes 5-7, 9, OV 11; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, 1845-1947 (Boxes 7-9, OV 12, MGP 1-6; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1856-1874 (Box 8, OV 13-16, rolled documents 17-19; 0.6 linear feet and 3 rolled documents)
Biographical Note:
The painter William Page was born in 1811 in Albany, NY. He attended public schools in New York City, and after working briefly in the law firm of Frederick de Peyster, was placed in the studio of the painter/engraver James Herring in 1825, where he received his first formal art training. He took classes at the National Academy of Design the year it was formed, in 1826, under Samuel F.B. Morse, and in 1827 he was awarded one of the National Academy's first annual student prizes.

Page joined the Presbyterian church and attended Phillips Academy and Amherst with the intention of becoming a minister, but his artistic ability won out, and by 1830 he was painting commissioned portraits in Albany, Rochester, and New York. He married Lavinia Twibill in 1833, and they had three daughters between 1834 and 1839. He joined the American Academy and served on its board of directors in 1835. He exhibited at the American Academy, the National Academy of Design, the Boston Athenaeum, and other venues throughout the 1830s. Favorable reviews brought steady portrait commissions, including John Quincy Adams and the New York governor William L. Marcy. He was made a full member of the National Academy in 1837.

In the 1840s, Page's reputation and maturity as a painter grew. His first wife left him around 1840, and in 1843 he married Sarah Dougherty. The couple moved to Albany, Boston, and back to New York seeking portrait commissions and patronage. He became friends with the poet James Russell Lowell and the writer and publisher Charles Frederick Briggs, two writers and editors who helped to promote his artwork in Boston and New York and published his theoretical writings. In 1844, Lowell dedicated his first published book of poetry to Page, and the following year, Briggs published a series of articles by Page in the Broadway Journal, entitled "The Art of the Use of Color in Imitation in Painting." The series described Page's arduous experiments with color and glazes, and his ideas about correspondences between spirituality and the natural world as expressed in art.

In 1850, Page traveled to Florence, Italy, where he painted several copies of the works of Titian in the galleries of the Uffizi and Pitti palaces, studying his use of color and further developing his own experimental techniques. He became friends with the sculptor Hiram Powers, who introduced him to the writings of Emmanuel Swedenborg, a Christian metaphysician whose ideas fueled Page's interest in the spiritual aspects of art. In 1852, Page moved to Rome, a city with an international artists' community and a strong market for art. Page found a loyal following in Rome's large circle of American ex-patriates, including the sculptors Thomas Crawford and Harriet Hosmer, the actress Charlotte Cushman, and the poets Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, all of whom sat for portraits by Page.

In 1854, Page's second wife left him amidst public scandal, and he sank deep in debt to his bankers at Packenham and Hooker, an English firm that by 1856 had a lien on all the paintings in his studio. That same year Page met Sophia Stevens Hitchcock, an American widow traveling in Rome with Bertha Olmsted, Frederick Law Olmsted's sister. Hitchcock was from Barnet, Vermont and came to Europe after her first husband died in 1852 after only a year of marriage. She traveled to England and Paris, where she wrote regular columns on local customs and events for the New York Tribune that were published under the by-line "An American Woman in Paris." She and Page met in Rome in 1856, and in October 1857, after Page traveled back the United States to obtain a divorce from Sarah Dougherty, he and Sophia married.

The couple stayed in Rome until 1860. His wife's three brothers, all businessmen, helped to promote his artwork in Europe and America. Page's paintings of this period include several Venus subjects, one of which was championed by his most loyal patrons, who raised $3000 by subscription to buy the painting for the Boston Athenaeum. A later Venus painting was rejected from the Paris salon for indecency, a controversy that was later leveraged for publicity in a touring exhibition in the United States.

The Pages returned to the United States in 1860 and settled in Tottenville, New York. They had six children between 1858 and 1870. Page had a studio at Eagleswood, NJ, and later in the Studio Building on 10th Street in Manhattan, where he held a large exhibition in 1867. In the 1860s, he painted a self-portrait and a companion portrait of Sophia set in Rome, as well as a series of civil war heroes including Robert Gould Shaw, Winfield Scott, and David Farragut. Photographs played a consistent part in Page's technique of portraiture, and he is known to have worked with the photographer Matthew Brady, who attended art classes early on with Page, as well as the photographers Sarony and Charles Williamson, who taught classes on drawing from enlarged photo-transparencies. Brady photographs taken for Page include David Farragut and Reuben Fenton.

Page lectured frequently on Titian and Venetian art, a subject in which he was considered an expert, and on painting technique and his philosophical ideas about nature, art, and spirituality. In 1871, Page was elected the president of the National Academy of Design, a post he held until 1873, but his poor health following a collapse in 1872 limited his accomplishments in office. Despite these limitations, he continued to paint, including portraits of General Grant, an idealized portrait of the president based on early photographs and Charles Sumner. He also became interested in portraiture of William Shakespeare around this time, and his studies resulted in a book, Shakespeare's Portraits, a bust based on existing portraiture, and a full-length portrait entitled "Shakespeare Reading," based on Page's measurements of a supposed death mask in Darmstadt, Germany, which he went to inspect against the advice of his doctor in 1874.

In 1877, another collapse left Page incapacitated for the remainder of his life. Sophia Page tried editing and publishing his writings and lectures, but with little success. Page died in 1885. A life marked by personal scandal ended the same, when two of his daughters from his first marriage contested his will, tying up his estate in a lengthy and public probate trial. Their suit was dismissed in 1889, and Sophia Page died in 1892.

This biography relies heavily on Joshua Taylor's William Page: The American Titian (1957).
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds materials lent for microfilming (reel 1091) including letters from Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning, Lydia Maria Child, Charlotte Cushman, James Russell Lowell, Charles A. Dana, and others. Lent material was returned to the donor and is This material is not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
A portion of the collection was donated to the Archives of American Art by Mrs. Lesslie S. (Pauline Page) Howell, William Page's grandaughter, in 1963. William S. Page, Pauline Page Howell's nephew, donated additional papers in 1964 and 1973. Pauline Page Howell and William S. Page also loaned a group of letters to the Archives in 1964 which were microfilmed on reel 1091 and then returned to the donors. Mrs. Howell's son, William Page Howell, donated material in 1980.

Letters of Charles F. Briggs to James Russell Lowell (Series 2.2) were a part of Pauline Page Howell's 1963 donation to the Archives of American Art. They had been given to Mrs. Howell by Charlotte Briggs, daughter of Charles F. Briggs, because of her father's lifelong friendship with William Page. Letters from Lowell to Briggs are in the James Russell Lowell papers in Houghton Library at Harvard University.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painting -- 19th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Poems
Drawings
Diaries
Citation:
William Page and Page Family papers, 1815-1947, bulk 1843-1892. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.pagewill
See more items in:
William Page and Page Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw98de7b472-afbe-4b16-bbf1-c573fb9dcac6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-pagewill
Online Media:

Glass Plate Negatives

Collection Creator:
Page, William, 1811-1885  Search this
Extent:
5 Glass negatives
Container:
Box MGP 5
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives [31027000557633]
Glass negatives
Collection Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
William Page and Page Family papers, 1815-1947, bulk 1843-1892. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
William Page and Page Family papers
William Page and Page Family papers / Series 6: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9733432c6-40a0-48d4-bea2-c73dce72a5d2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pagewill-ref460

Glass Plate Negative

Collection Creator:
Page, William, 1811-1885  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative
Container:
Box MGP 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives [31027000557294]
Glass negatives
Collection Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
William Page and Page Family papers, 1815-1947, bulk 1843-1892. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
William Page and Page Family papers
William Page and Page Family papers / Series 6: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b3857879-d4ea-42b8-adea-5ac0bb3d4942
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pagewill-ref461

Family standing in garden

Collection Donor:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Collection Manufacturer:
Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Container:
Box 95
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
circa 1920s
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials / Series 2: Photographs / 2.3: Glass Plate and Film Negatives / 2.3.28: Miscellaneous / Groups Scenes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d118d1ff-bf43-4ee6-b93d-073339c775d8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1007-ref4082

Erwin Panofsky papers

Creator:
Panofsky, Erwin, 1892-1968  Search this
Extent:
19.8 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1904-1990
bulk 1920-1968
Summary:
The papers of Erwin Panofsky measure 19.8 linear feet and are dated 1904-1990 (bulk dates 1920-1968). They consist of correspondence, writings, biographical material, and printed material documenting Panofsky's career as an art historian, teacher, and writer. The Panofsky papers are comprised mainly of correspondence with colleagues, scholars, students, art dealers, galleries and museums, libraries, colleges and universities, organizations, and periodicals.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Erwin Panofsky measure 19.8 linear feet and are dated 1904-1990 (bulk dates 1920-1968). They consist of correspondence, writings, biographical material, and printed material documenting Panofsky's career as an art historian, teacher, and writer.

The Panofsky papers are comprised mainly of correspondence with colleagues, scholars, students, art dealers, galleries and museums, libraries, colleges and universities, organizations, and periodicals. Among the correspondents are colleagues, scholars, students, art dealers, galleries and museums, libraries, colleges and universities, organizations, and periodicals. Correspondents include: Udo von Alvensleben, Walter William Spencer Cook, Paul Coremans, Walter Friedländer, William S. Heckscher, Ludwig H. Heydenreich, Horst Janson, Adolf Katzenellenbogen, Richard Krauatheimer, Edward E. Lowinsky, Millard Meiss, Gert van Osten, Richard Salomon, Craig Smyth, Wolfgang Stechow, Booth and Betty Tarkington, Egon Verheyen, and Wilhelm Vöge.

Writings by Panofsky include drafts, notes, and manuscripts of articles, book reviews, books, and lectures. Biographical material consists of awards and certificates, diplomas (including many honorary degrees), and membership certificates. Among the printed material are articles and clippings about or mentioning Panofsky, programs for graduation ceremonies at which Panofsky was awarded honorary degrees, reviews of Panofsky's books, obituaries, and memorial programs and tributes.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 4 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1921-1978, undated (Boxes 1-16; 16 linear ft.; Reels 2108- 2128)

Series 2: Writings, 1915-1968, undated (Boxes 17-19; 2.3 linear ft.)

Series 3: Biographical Information, 1905-1967 (Boxes 19-21; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1904-1990, undated (Box 19; 0.5 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968), a native of Hannover, Germany, grew up in Berlin where he received a classical education at the Joachimsthalsches Gymnasium. He then studied at the universities of Berlin, Munich and Freiburg/Breslau. After earning a Ph. D. in 1914 from the University of Freiburg, Panofsky spent three years on post-doctoral study in Berlin, and during this period, married fellow student and art historian Dorothea (Dora) Mosse.

Although primarily a scholar of Gothic and Renaissance art, Panofsky had wide interests. Erwin Panofsky was a highly respected and influential scholar who was a much loved, generous, and encouraging teacher of several generations of productive scholars. Many students became his life long friends, and quite a few of them considered Panofsky the greatest teacher they had ever encountered.

He taught at the University of Hamburg from 1920 to1933, and during this period began to develop iconographic approaches to interpreting art through analysis of its subject matter's symbols, themes, and history. His work in this area eventually had international influence in the development of art history as a discipline.

Beginning in 1931, Panofsky taught at New York University, spending alternate semesters at the University of Hamburg until the Nazis dismissed all Jewish officials. He and his family fled Germany and came to the United States in 1933. During the academic year 1934/35, Panofsky held concurrent appointments at both New York University and Princeton University. He joined the faculty of the newly formed Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, in 1935, where he remained until his retirement in 1962. In addition, he continued to teach graduate seminars at New York University and Princeton Universtiy.

He was a prolific writer, and his many books and articles represent some of the 20th century's most important writings in the field of art history, particularly in the realm of iconography. Among his books are: "Idea": Ein Beitrag zur Begriffsgeschichte der älteren Kunstheorie (1924) [translated later as Idea, The History of a Concept], Studies in Iconology (1939), Codex Huygens and Leonardo da Vinci's Art Theory (1940), The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer (1943), Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St. Denis and Its Art Treasures (1946), Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism (1951), Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character (1953), Meaning and the Visual Arts (1950), Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art (1960), The Iconography of Correggio's Camera di San Paolo (1961), and Problems in Titian, Mostly Iconographic (1964).

Panofsky wrote on subjects other than art history. He was an authority on Mozart, and also wrote about the history of cinema. His 1934 article "On Movies" (originally published in Princeton University's Bulletin of the Department of Art and Archaeology), remains a highly regarded work on the subject.

The recipient of numerous honorary degrees, Panofsky most prized the first from the University of Utrecht, 1936, as it brought great satisfaction at a time when he was still coping with the trauma of expatriation. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the British Academy, and several other foreign academies. In 1962, Panofsky received the Haskins Medal awarded by The Medieval Academy of America for a distinguished book in medieval history.

His wife Dora Mosse Panofsky died in 1965; in 1966, he married Gerda Soergel, also an art historian. Erwin Panofsky died in Princeton, New Jersey, March 14, 1968.
Related Material:
Among the Archives' holdings is a collection of letters from Erwin Panofsky to art historians Wolfgang Stechow (1930-1931) and Lili Fröhlich-Bum (1931), and to Brooklyn Museum art librarian William B. Walker (1960) which is available on 35-mm microfilm reel 5136, frames 812-824. The letters to Stechow were written as he was preparing a review of Panofsky's book, Hercules am Scheidewege und andere antike Bildstoffe inder neueren Kunst, and provide additional information not found in the book itself. The letter to Mr. Walke is in Englishe, and the remainder are in German. The originals are still in the possession of Irving Lavin, who found them in Stechow's copy of Hercules am Scsheidewege given him by Mrs. Stechow.
Provenance:
The Erwin Panofsky papers were donated by his widow, Dr. Gerda Soergel Panofsky, in 1979 and 1990.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy. Use of the unmicrofilmed portion requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. research facility.
Rights:
The donor has retained all intellectual property rights, including copyright, that they may own.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art historians -- New Jersey -- Princeton  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Citation:
Erwin Panofsky papers, 1904-1990 (bulk dates 1920-1968). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.panoerwi
See more items in:
Erwin Panofsky papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94904cfed-7a77-4bd2-9cb9-e364496f4ceb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-panoerwi

Gregory Battcock papers

Creator:
Battcock, Gregory, 1937-1980  Search this
Names:
Bronx Museum of the Arts  Search this
International Association of Art Critics  Search this
Trylon & perisphere  Search this
William Paterson College of New Jersey -- Faculty  Search this
Battcock, Elizabeth  Search this
Beker, Gisela  Search this
Brown, Cee  Search this
Burton, Scott  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
Carsman, Jon, 1944-  Search this
Christo, 1935-  Search this
Dalí, Salvador, 1904-1989  Search this
Dreva, Jerry, 1945-1997  Search this
Frank, Peter, 1950-  Search this
George, John  Search this
Glusberg, Jorge  Search this
Goldstein, Al  Search this
Halbert, Jacques  Search this
Hess, Emil, 1889-1945  Search this
Levine, Les, 1935-  Search this
Livingston, Braniff  Search this
McGeehan, Robert, 1933-  Search this
Morley, Malcolm, 1931-  Search this
Nakagawa, Naoto, 1944-  Search this
Neri, Julio  Search this
Paik, Nam June, 1932-2006  Search this
Partch, Harry, 1901-1974  Search this
Peña, Rolando, 1942-  Search this
Picard, Lil  Search this
Pocock, Philip  Search this
Schult, Ha, 1939-  Search this
Van Baron, Judith  Search this
Varble, Stephen  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-  Search this
Wechter, Vivienne Thaul  Search this
Whyte, Ron  Search this
Extent:
10.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Photographs
Interviews
Date:
1952-circa 1980
Summary:
The papers of New York art critic, writer, educator, and painter, Gregory Battcock, measure 10.6 linear feet and date from 1952 to circa 1980. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, published and unpublished writings, artists' files, personal business records, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographic materials, and artifacts that detail his involvement in both the mainstream and fringe art scenes of the 1970s.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York art critic, writer, educator, and painter, Gregory Battcock, measure 10.6 linear feet and date from 1952 to circa 1980. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, published and unpublished writings, artists' files, personal business records, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographic materials, and artifacts that detail his involvement in both the mainstream and fringe art scenes of the 1970s.

Biographical materials contain address lists, six appointment books, a diploma and certificate, family history, identification documents, interviews, resumes, obituaries, a William Paterson College of New Jersey teaching file, and membership files for The Bronx Museum, International Association of Art Critics, and other organizations. Correspondence is with Battcock's mother, Elizabeth; friends and colleagues Peter Frank, John George, Al Goldstein, Braniff Livingston, Robert McGeehan, Julio Neri, Judith Van Baron, Ron Whyte, and others regarding social events, reprint permissions, book projects, travel arrangements, real estate, and freelance work.

Writings and notes include personal journal entries, drafts for articles and essays, manuscripts for published and unpublished works including "The Story of Film" and Breaking the Sound Barrier: A Critical Anthology of the New Music, his dissertation titled "Constructivism and Minimal Art: Some Critical, Theoretical and Aesthetic Correlations," book proposals, lectures, limericks, restaurant reviews, notes and writings by Jorge Glusberg and Vivienne Thaul Wechter.

Files for artists contain mostly printed material on Gisela Beker, Cee Brown, Jon Carsman, Christo, Jerry Dreva, Jacques Halbert, Emil Hess, Les Levine, Naoto Nakagawa, Nam Jun Paik, Harry Partch, Lil Picard, Philip Pocock, HA Schult, Andy Warhol, and others. The file for Salvador Dalí contains one video recording. Battcock's personal business records include contracts and payments for his writing, real estate papers, business agreements, papers regarding his father's estate, a loan agreement for Andy Warhol's "Self Portrait," and files detailing the theft of two painting by Malcom Morley from Battcock's residence.

Found in printed materials are clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, flyers, post cards, magazines, press releases, issues of Trylon & Perisphere and Gay magazines, and other material that features Battcock's writings. Additional clippings of Battcock's writings that appeared in the New York Free Press, New York Review of Sex and Politics, Domus, The Soho Weekly News, New York Arts Journal, Gay, and other publications are contained in ten scrapbooks.

Photographs are of Battcock, colleagues and friends, works of art from his personal collection, travel, and artists Alexander Calder, Andy Warhol, Nam Jun Paik, Julio Neri, Rolando Peña, Stephen Varble, and Scott Burton. Several keys with a detached keychain labeled 'studio' are in artifacts.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 9 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1958-1980 (0.4 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1960s-circa 1980 (2.7 linear feet; Boxes 1-3, 12)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1966-1980 (2.7 linear feet; Boxes 4-6)

Series 4: Artists' Files, 1960s-1980 (0.6 linear feet; Box 6)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, 1966-1980 (0.5 linear feet; Box 6-7)

Series 6: Printed Materials, 1952-1980 (1.4 linear feet; Boxes 7-8, 12-13)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1959-1980 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 8-9, 12)

Series 8: Photographic Materials, 1960s-1980 (1.0 linear feet; Boxes 9-11)

Series 9: Artifacts, circa 1970s (0.1 linear feet; Box 11)
Biographical / Historical:
Gregory Battcock (1937-1980) was an art critic, writer, educator, and painter from New York, N.Y. He attended Michigan State University, the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome, and Hunter College for his undergraduate and graduate studies before receiving his Ph.D. from New York University in 1978. His dissertation was titled "Constructivism and Minimal Art: Some Aesthetic, Theoretical and Critical Correlations."

Battcock was a prolific writer and wrote numerous articles as a correspondent for Art & Artists and Domus magazines. His column, "The Last Estate," appeared in Gay magazine as well as other publications. In 1977, Battcock co-founded the short-lived magazine, Trylon & Perisphere, with his close friend, playwright Ron Whyte. Even though only three issues were printed, the magazine exhibited Battcock's predilection for art society gossip, and provocative imagery and prose. E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc. published several of Battcock's books including Why Art: Casual Notes on the Aesthetics of the Immediate Past, Breaking the Sound Barrier: A Critical Anthology of the New Music, and Idea Art: A Critical Anthology. In addition to his writing career, Battcock taught fine art at William Paterson College of New Jersey, was art critic for New York Free Press from 1967 to 1970, Editor-in-Chief of Arts Magazine from 1973 to 1975, and appeared in the Andy Warhol films The Illiac Passion, Horse, and Batman Dracula.

Battcock was murdered in Puerto Rico on December 25, 1980. At the time of his death he was working on "The Story of Film," which remains unpublished, and The Art of Performance: A Critical Anthology, which was published posthumously in 1984.
Related Materials:
Also found at the Archives of American Art is an audio interview recorded on December 11, 1969 with Gregory Battcock for the University Roundtable radio series. The recording forms part of the WFUV radio interviews relating to art, 1969-1973 collection.
Provenance:
The Gregory Battcock papers were donated in 1992 by Nancy Mahl, an artist who occupied a studio in Jersey City, N.J. that had formerly been leased by a moving and storage company, and who came upon Battcock's papers in the building. The papers had been shipped to the Jersey City building without the knowledge of Ron Whyte (executor of Battcock's estate) and the Rev. Paul William Bradley, who had arranged to have Battcock's papers stored after his death. Additional papers were donated 2003 by Rev. Paul W. Bradley, who inherited the papers after the death of his partner Ron Whyte.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Constructivism (Art)  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art thefts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Photographs
Interviews
Citation:
Gregory Battcock Papers, 1952-circa 1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.battgreg
See more items in:
Gregory Battcock papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9173ed1ab-2aac-4e20-85fe-1a96e7acf785
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-battgreg
Online Media:

Allan Randall Freelon papers

Creator:
Freelon, Allan Randall, 1895-1960  Search this
Extent:
4.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Drawings
Date:
1830-2018
Summary:
The papers of African American painter and educator Allan Randall Freelon, who was based in Pennsylvania, measure 4.4 linear feet and date from 1830 to 2018. The collection contains biographical material, including appointment books and family history material; correspondence; writings; material related to professional activities, including exhibitions and school visits; personal business records, including estate records; printed material; scrapbooks; photographic material; and artwork and artifacts.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of African American painter and educator Allan Randall Freelon, who was based in Pennsylvania, measure 4.4 linear feet and date from 1830 to 2018. The collection contains biographical material, including appointment books and family history material; correspondence; writings; material related to professional activities, including exhibitions and school visits; personal business records, including estate records; printed material; scrapbooks; photographic material; and artwork and artifacts.

Biographical material include address lists, certificates, appointment books, and family history material.

Correspondence includes a mixture of personal and professional correspondence with families, friends, galleries, museusm, and and Philadelphia area schools.

Writings consist of Freelon's MFA thesis, notes and notecards. There is also a fair amount of writings by others, such as essays, poems, reports, and even a travel diary from 1879-1880 by someone with the initials "I. J. G."

Materials related to professional activities include exhibition, project, and committee files. There are also assorted materials related to Freelon's work as the Art Director for Philadelphia public schools.

Also included are personal business records, which contain estate records (which includes a audiovisual recording), auction records, condition reports, inventories, property records, and sale records.

Printed material consists of clippings, magazines, newsletters, and exhibition catalogs and announcements.

There are three scrapbooks, which primarily contains a mixture of photographic material, correspondence, and printed material.

Photographic materials include slides, photographs, and negatives of Freelon, his paintings, studio, friends and family, and various other location.

Artwork and artifacts include sketchbooks, sketches, and one souvenir spoon from the Sesqui-Centennial Exposition of 1926.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as nine series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1919, circa 1938-2001 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1878-2010 (Box 1; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1879-1880, 1922-1959 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Professional Activities, circa 1935-1957, 2000-2005 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, 1856-1957, 1995-2018 (Boxes 1-2, OV 6; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1849-2015 (Box 2, Box 4; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1923-1960 (Box 2, Boxes 4-5; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographic Material, circa 1880-circa 2006 (Boxes 2-3, Box 5, OV 6, MGP 6, Box 7; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 9: Artwork and Artifacts, circa 1912-circa 1960 (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Allan Randall Freelon Sr. (1895-1960) was painter and educator in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania known for his impressionist paintings.

Freelon studied at the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art (now the University of the Arts), the University of Pennsylvania, and the Tyler School of Art of Temple University. He also spent summers studying painting with Hugh Breckenridge in Gloucester, Massachusetts.

His work was included in exhibitions at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, traveling exhibitions with the William E. Harmon Foundation, the Albright-Knox Gallery, the National Gallery of Art, the Howard University Gallery of Art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art. He was also one of seven Black artists included in the exhibition Art Commentary on Lynching, organized by the NAACP.

Freelon married Marie Cuyjet in 1918 and they had one son Allan Randall Freelon Jr. Freelon and Cuyjet eventually divorced and Freelon married Mary Kouzmanoff.

Freelon taught art in the Philadelphia public school system and in 1921 was appointed as assistant director of art education. In 1939 he was named the special assistant to the director of art in the Philadelphia public schools. Freelon also taught painting at Windy Crest, his studio in Telford, Pennsylvania, where he passed away in 1960.
Provenance:
The Allan Randall Freelon papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in 2019 by Nnenna and Maya Freelon as part of the Archives' African American Collecting Initiative funded by the Henry Luce Foundation. Nnenna is the widow of Phil Freelon, Allan Randall Freelon's grandson. Maya Freelon is Nnenna and Phil's daughter.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Access to nitrate negatives is restricted. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Educators -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
African American painters  Search this
African American educators  Search this
Impressionism (Art)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Drawings
Citation:
Allan Randall Freelon papers, 1830-2018. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.freealla
See more items in:
Allan Randall Freelon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97f25a9d8-30fc-4ede-a04a-ff439b2e418d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-freealla
Online Media:

Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection

Artist:
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Names:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Extent:
196.8 Linear feet
186 Nitrate negatives
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Photographic photoprints
Photographs
Place:
New York, New York
Date:
1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972
Summary:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.
Scope and Contents:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.

Correspondence is with collectors, museums, galleries, artists, friends, family, charity organizations, admirers and those admired by Cornell, and World War II European pen pals. Discussions about the appreciation, donation, sale, purchase, and exhibition of Cornell's works are frequent, with the inclusion of shipping and loan documentation or notices of payment installments. Galleries and museums frequently request that Cornell agree to an exhibition, which he often declines, and fans request free works be mailed or affordable works be sold to them. With friends, artists, and those he admired, Cornell discussed topics that fascinate him, included bits of poetry or philosophical musings, sent clippings or a collaged letter, and occasionally discussed a project or work in process. After World War II, when so many were displaced by the war in Europe, Cornell answered ads for pen pals in the "Christian Science Monitor," often responding to requests for clothing or other goods, and sometimes exchanging many letters over several years. Family correspondence is with his mother, sisters, brother, and others, and often notes activities of the day, foods eaten, and general musings, as well as occasionally mentioning a project or artwork. Correspondents of note include Stan Brakhage, Betty Freeman, Charles Henri Ford, Allegra Kent, Yayoi Kusama, Roberto Matta, Marianne Moore, Octavio Paz, Sonia Sekula, Pavel Tchelitchew, Parker Tyler, Dorothea Tanning, and Betsy von Furstenberg, among others.

Cornell was often preoccupied with his thoughts, feelings, memories, a project or thematic "exploration," and jotted notes on seemingly any surface available. Notes and musings are on napkins, the backs of envelopes, newspaper clippings, and paper bags from record and magazine stores. Frequently, an observation would trigger a lengthy nostalgic moment, or a "feé," fairy-like child or girl, would capture his imagination and lead him to thoughts of 18th-century ballerinas and silent film stars. Cornell wrote longer diary notes, sometimes expanding on an earlier notation or emotion, and often wrote when he experienced trouble sleeping or woke early. Drafted letters to imaginary muses or admired individuals are interspersed among diaries, often revealing Cornell's yearnings to find emotional intimacy and human connection. Over time, Cornell revisited his notes and occasionally made further notations about renewed thoughts on a topic, dating the note with "revisited" or "reviewed." Notes are often written in a stream-of-consciousness style, for example, jumping from the mention of a record album or composer, to a ballerina of the same period, a note about a French poet, the memory of childhood, or an observation made earlier in the day, all in the space of a few lines. Notes about artistic processes or meanings behind works or images do occasionally emerge from the tangled, poetic notations. Notes also often provide insights into Cornell's internal emotional state and give clues about his intentions behind an artwork or a particular thematic fixation.

Financial materials document Cornell's professional and personal business activities, including the sale of artworks, annual expenses for supplies and household incidentals, payments and schedules for personal assistants, receipts for donations to charities and nonprofits, and tax documents. There is also information about who worked as assistants, or "helpers," in his later years and where Cornell purchased art supplies. Additionally, specific details are documented through receipts and invoices, such as what kind of paint he purchased. Estate records include preparations made for Cornell's artworks after his death, and clippings about other deceased artist's estates show that he thought often about such arrangements in his later years.

Exhibition files highlight several select solo exhibitions for Cornell, as well as preparations and planning for the "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" in honor of his brother in 1966. Also included are several early exhibition catalogs and announcements, including "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932) and "Exhibition of Objects (Bibloquet) by Joseph Cornell" (December 6-31, 1939) at the Julien Levy Gallery, and "Romantic Museum: Portraits of Women, Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946) at the Hugo Gallery.

Film projects and collected film materials consist of files related to Cornell's various experimental film projects: "Aviary," "Cappuccino," "Centuries of June," "Fable for Fountains," "Nymphlight," "Serafina's Garden," and unrealized film scenario "Monsieur Phot." Files include film-making notes, correspondence, and photographs. Cornell's interest in film also led him to collect film-related materials, such as film stills, film posters, and screening programs. Scattered correspondence documents the interest other institutions and individuals had in purchasing and viewing his collection. Though most of his collected film stills and movie posters were donated to the Anthology Film Archives, film stills from "Escape Me Never" (1935) and "The Passion of Joan of Arc" (1928) are still within the collection, as well as film-screening programs for Cornell's collection of films.

Writing and design projects document Cornell's work authoring articles and designing issues of specialty dance magazine "Dance Index," and his layouts for popular magazines like "Good Housekeeping," "House and Garden," and "Mademoiselle." Other writing projects include brochures dedicated to opera singers Maria Malibran and Giulia Grisi, "Maria" and "Bel Canto Pet." Materials used for these brochures, such as copper photo engraving plates, are also found. Design work includes a series of Christmas cards created with The Museum of Modern Art as well as traced patterns ("textile tracings") and design clippings from Cornell's time working as a "textile designer" for Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio.

Cornell acquired troves of source material from bookstalls, antique stores, sporting good and department stores, hardware stores, and magazine and record shops. He kept boxes and files of material on admired individuals, such as actresses, artists, dancers, and singers, as well as on art projects or thematic "explorations." Files are on general topics such as American history, scientific phenomena, animals, plants, and humankind, as well as on series of artworks, such as "Castles," "Homage to the Romantic Ballet," and "Medici Slot Machines." Focused "exploration" projects include "Celestial Theatre," "Colombier," "GC 44," and "Switzerland," among others. Materials include photographs, photostats, maps, book fragments, autographed letters, notes, collage clippings and cutouts, collected prints and engravings, box and collage fragments, and scattered artifacts.

Collected ephemera includes large amounts of blank postcards and greeting cards, stamps, collected bus and train tickets, food labels and packaging, decals, and other materials. Artifacts are three-dimensional collected objects and source objects, which include found objects from the streets, dried flowers, and pieces of nature gathered from walks around his neighborhood. Cornell may have gathered materials because they inspired a memory or nostalgic feeling, or because they fit with a bin of other similar objects to select from for an artwork in progress.

Photographs found within the collection are of Cornell at work and as a child with family. Also found are assorted personal and family photographs, photographs of Cornell's attic and garage storage, and photographs of his Utopia Parkway house. Photographs of artwork include few installation photographs, in addition to photographs of Cornell's boxes and collages. Collected photographic materials include vintage photographs, such as tintypes, a cyanotype, stereoscopic glass slides, albumen prints, cabinet cards, and cartes-de-visite. Cornell also collected cased photographs, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and one opalotype. Negatives and photostats were often produced from various prints and even other photographs and used in Cornell's boxes and collages. Images are of men and women, actors, authors, dancers, performers, well-known men and women, royalty, places, and artwork. Photographs of note include those by Hans Namuth of Willem and Lisa de Kooning and of Edward Hopper's bedroom; photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson; a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron; photographs by Brassai; and a photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz from "Camerawork."

Also found in the collection are works of art by others, including a sketch by Pavel Tchelitchew, as well as artwork by Cornell, such as unfinished collages, Rorschach drawings or ink blots, and childhood artwork. Printed material includes assorted bulletins, flyers, exhibition materials for other artists, journals, and sent printed membership and charity materials. Magazines, including "View," are also included, and often have annotations by Cornell or a note to "cut" or "review" with page numbers. A large amount of magazine and newspaper clippings are in the collection, sometimes collected with a group of like material by Cornell, and at other times simply gathered in heaps. Occasional annotations are also found on the clippings.

Cornell's personal library and book collection includes over 2500 titles, ranging from fiction, poetry, and cinema, to history, science, and travel. Notable among the titles are "Baedeker's" travel guides that Cornell often sourced for his "Hotel" box series, as well as an influential publication by Max Ernst, "La Femme 100 têtes," which includes a typed letter and exhibition flyer tucked within. Books often have annotations, some fairly extensive, by Cornell, and assorted collected items, notes, and correspondence tucked between pages. Pages were often cut by Cornell, either to make photostats and use in a box, or to file with other thematic "explorations." A wide range of authors and topics provide insight into Cornell's interests and to ideas behind artwork and diary notes. Cornell's collection of record albums includes over 145 records. These contain inserted notes and clippings and are often referenced in diary notes Cornell made, noting a recent album or song listened to while at work in his studio.

The papers of Cornell's mother, Helen Storms Cornell, and his brother, Robert Cornell, are also included in the collection. Both lived with Cornell his whole life, spending the most time with him at their home at 3708 Utopia Parkway. Financial materials document shared responsibilities for billing, utilities, household fixes and chores, and expenditures, and Helen kept detailed financial records in a series of ledgers. Robert notes when he borrowed money from Cornell, or when he means to pay Cornell back for the purchase of a typewriter. Activities documented in diaries also occasionally cross paths with Cornell, noting his visitors or an exchange of letters continued after introductions through Cornell. Personal activities, such as Robert's interest in his train collection and his drawing projects and cartoon series, are also documented.
Arrangement:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection is arranged into 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1972 (Boxes 1, 98, OV118; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1813, 1934-circa 1973 (Boxes 1-8, 86; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Notes, 1940-1976 (Boxes 8-10, 98-99, 135, OV108, OV119; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business and Estate Records, 1950-1978 (Boxes 10-14; 4.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1932-1973 (Box 14; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Film Projects and Collected Film Materials, circa 1924-1972 (Boxes 14-16, 100, 133; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Writing and Design Projects, circa 1910s, 1936-1962 (Boxes 16-18, 86, 100, 131-132, OV109-OV111, OV120-OV122; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Source Material, 1750-circa 1911, 1926-1972 (Boxes 19-49, 86-92, 96, 100-105, 126-130, 132-137, OV112-OV115, OV125; 42.2 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, 1768, circa 1839-1972 (Boxes 49-52; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1800s-1972 (Boxes 52-56, 80-86, 93, 106, 128, 133, OV116, OV123-OV124; 7.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1810-1972 (Boxes 56-57, 107, OV117; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1855-1972 (Boxes 57-76, 94-96, 107; 16 linear feet)

Series 13: Book Collection and Personal Library, 1722-1980 (99.8 linear feet)

Series 14: Record Album Collection, circa 1925-1974 (3.2 linear feet)

Series 15: Cornell Family Papers, 1910-1980 (Boxes 77-79, 97, 107; 3.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) was a self-taught assemblage and collage artist, and filmmaker, active in New York City. He was born in Nyack, New York on December 24, 1903, and died of heart failure at his home in Queens, New York on December 29, 1972. The oldest of four children, he was born Joseph I. Cornell to his mother, Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), and his father, Joseph I. Cornell (1875-1917). Cornell had two younger sisters, Elizabeth ("Betty") Cornell Benton (1905-2000) and Helen ("Sissy") Cornell Jagger (1906-2001), as well as one brother, Robert Cornell (1910-1965), who had cerebral palsy.

Cornell attended the Phillips Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, beginning shortly after his father's death in 1917. He attended for four years but did not receive a diploma, and soon began work as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in Manhattan. His work took him, by foot, through the city, visiting secondhand bookshops on Fourth Avenue, browsing music stores and magazine shops, and catching early shows at the Metropolitan Opera House. He would occasionally wait outside the stage doors for favorite singers and dancers to emerge, requesting signatures on photographs or bits of costumes.

Around 1926, Cornell joined the Christian Science Church, joined by his brother Robert shortly thereafter, and both continued to be lifelong members. Cornell kept a number of books in his personal library on Christian Science teachings and regularly subscribed to "The Christian Science Monitor."

After living in several rental houses in Bayside, New York, Cornell's mother purchased a house for the family in 1929 in Flushing, Queens. Cornell, along with his mother and brother, would live at 3708 Utopia Parkway, for the rest of their lives. His two sisters soon married and moved away, eventually settling in Westhampton, Long Island and in the poultry-farming business.

With no formal art training to speak of, Cornell's first work was a Max Ernst-inspired collage, "Untitled (Schooner)," created in 1931. He was especially inspired by Ernst's collage novel, "La Femme 100 têtes," published in 1929. French artist Odilon Redon was also among the few artists Cornell named as an influence on his art. His first sculptural works were small, cardboard pill boxes with bits of ephemera, costume adornments, and nature hidden inside. Cornell also created a series of glass bell jar works, placing small trinkets and Victorian-era-like compositions within. It was these early collages and bell jar works that were included in Cornell's debut exhibition, "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932), a group show at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell designed the announcement for the show and exhibited alongside Max Ernst, Man Ray, Pierre Roy, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Atget, George Platt Lynes, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dalí. Months later, Cornell was invited to have his first solo show, "Objects by Joseph Cornell: Minutiae, Glass Bells, Shadow Boxes, Coups d'Oeil, Jouets Surréalistes" (November 26-December 30, 1932), also at the Julien Levy Gallery.

In 1932, after eleven years of work, Cornell was laid off from the William Whitman Company due to the Great Depression. Soon after, he took on more responsibility in the church, working part-time as an attendant in the Christian Science Reading Room in Great Neck, New York. Beginning in 1933, he taught Sunday school classes for three years and in 1935, became the Sunday school librarian. However, his religious activities and artistic ventures continued to remain separate.

In the early 1930s, Cornell progressed from movie lover to filmmaker. When Julien Levy began his New York Film Society in 1933, holding screenings of various experimental films in the gallery, Cornell began buying and collecting films and film stills in earnest. He set up a 16-millimeter projector in his home to screen favorites, such as those by Georges Méliès, D.W. Griffith, and Louis Feuillade. His collection quickly grew to over 2,500 film stills and several hundred films, and included silent era films, such as nature documentaries, goofy newsreels, travelogues, early cartoons, and slapstick comedies, as well as several feature films. In 1933, Cornell wrote a screenplay, or "scenario," entitled "Monsieur Phot." Between 1935 and 1937, Cornell also occasionally created publicity photomontages for Universal and Columbia studios. Of the nearly thirty films Cornell created, periods of activity can generally be separated into two areas: collage films of the late 1930s, consisting of combined elements from films in his own collection, and films he directed in the 1950s, which were collaborations with other filmmakers set in New York City. "Rose Hobart," Cornell's most celebrated collage film, was created and shown in the Julien Levy Gallery in 1936 and includes clipped footage from "East of Borneo." Later films were directed and filmed with cinematographers Stan Brakhage, Rudy Burckhardt, and Larry Jordan.

In 1934, Cornell began a job at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio as a "textile designer," a job he held for six years. Continuing to work at his kitchen table in the evenings, Cornell completed his first assemblage box construction, "Untitled (Soap Bubble Set)," in 1936. It was first exhibited at The Museum of Modern Art's show, "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" (December 9, 1936-January 17, 1937). This work was also the first to be acquired by a museum, purchased for $60.00 by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut in 1938. Cornell's European debut was also in 1938, as one of three Americans represented in the "Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" (January 17-Febuary 24, 1938) at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris, alongside Man Ray and Anne Clark.

At the end of 1939, Cornell began corresponding with poet Charles Henri Ford, founder of avant-garde magazine "View," Pavel Tchelitchew, and Parker Tyler. After his "Soap Bubble Sets," this period saw the development of Cornell's homages to singers and actresses, including "Untitled (Fortune-Telling Parrot for Carmen Miranda)," the destroyed "Garbo (Greta Garbo in the Legendary Film 'The Crystal Mask,' c. 1845)," and "Dressing Room for Gilles." He also began using photostats of art reproduction prints, as with the print of Jean Antoine-Watteau's painting, "Pierrot" (circa 1719), used in his "Gilles" box.

In the 1940s, the Romantic ballet emerged as Cornell's new topic of interest. Through his friend Pavel Tchelitchew, Cornell was introduced to the School of American Ballet and New York City Ballet founders, Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine. Cornell collected dance memorabilia and had a great love of the Romantic ballet. His favorite dancers were primarily ballerinas of the nineteenth century, including Fanny Cerrito, Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Lucille Grahn, and Carlotta Grisi. Cornell's "Homage to the Romantic Ballet" works largely took the shape of jewel-box style wooden boxes with glass overlays and included bits of velvet, tulle, sequins, crystals, and chiffon, occasionally collected from dancers themselves. His most well-known work of this series is "Taglioni's Jewel Casket" (1940). Cornell also admired several living ballet dancers, including Tamara Toumanova, Zizi Jeanmaire, and Allegra Kent, who would all make their way into Cornell's box works and/or collages. Collecting for the "exploration," "Portrait of Ondine," Cornell's cased portfolio dedication to Fanny Cerrito and her role in the ballet "Ondine," began in the 1940s, though not completed until around 1960.

In late 1940, Cornell quit his job at Traphagen to concentrate on freelance commercial magazine design and editorial work during the day and his artwork at night. That same year, Charles Henri Ford started "View" magazine to promote Surrealists and Neo-Romantics in New York City and often asked Cornell to contribute. Published in the December 1941-January 1942 issue, one of his early contributions was a collage dedication to stage actress Hedy Lamarr: "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (1941). Along with writing the accompanying text, he created a photomontage of Lamarr with her face overlaying the painted portrait of a Renaissance boy by Italian painter Giorgione. Peggy Guggenheim, at the advice of Marcel Duchamp, purchased multiple Cornell works prior to opening her new gallery, Art of This Century. Cornell also befriended Roberto Matta Echaurren, another Surrealist living in exile, who introduced him to Robert Motherwell.

After deciding to fully dedicate his time to his art in early 1940, he set up a studio in his basement. Complete with floor-to-ceiling wooden shelving, he kept his large collection of boxed source material stacked with handwritten labels in cardboard boxes. Themed folders of materials such as "Stamps" or "Maps" were kept in stacks and works in progress and finished works were stored in the basement, garage, and attic. Entering a renewed period of productivity, Cornell embarked on many new and important box projects in 1942. One of the first boxes created in his new basement studio, and the first of the "Penny Arcade" or "Medici Slot Machine" series, was "Medici Slot Machine" (1942), which includes a photostat of "Portrait of Marquess Massimiliano Stampa" (1557) by Sofonisba Anguissola. Another work from this time is the first of his "Castle" or "Palace" series, "Setting for a Fairy Tale" (1942), which uses a photostat of a French building from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's book, "Les Plus excellents bastiments de France" (1576). "Untitled (Pharmacy)" (circa 1942) was the first of his "Pharmacy" series and included twenty-two apothecary jars. Cornell tended to work in series and created thirteen "Palace" boxes between 1942 and 1951, and ultimately created six "Pharmacy" works.

In 1943, Cornell began working at an electronics company, the Allied Control Company, Inc., to do his part to contribute to the defense effort during the war. He also sent correspondence and care packages to displaced Europeans, who listed their needs in "The Christian Science Monitor." Influenced by World War II, one of his strongest works to emerge in 1943 was "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery." Another notable work to come out of this period, "The Crystal Cage (Portrait of Berenice)," was an excerpt from one of his album "explorations" that was published in the January 1943 issue of "View."

Cornell left his job at Allied Control in 1944, but soon began working at the Garden Centre in Flushing, owned by a fellow Christian Scientist. Cornell was often nostalgic for this time in his life, devoting an entire "exploration" of material fondly remembered as "GC 44." He rode a bicycle to work and enjoyed collecting trips gathering dried grasses, driftwood, shells, and other relics of nature on the same bicycle as he rode through the streets of Queens. During this time, he continued to tend to his projects for "Dance Index," a magazine founded in 1942 by Lincoln Kirstein, but taken over by Donald Windham in 1944. Cornell designed several covers for the magazine and was given control of the entire summer 1944 issue, which he devoted to the Romantic ballet. He also devoted a special 1945 issue to Hans Christian Andersen, making great use of the New York Public Library Picture Collection.

Throughout the 1940s, Cornell continued to support himself with commercial design work for magazines like "Vogue," "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar," "Town & Country," and "Mademoiselle." In 1946, after thirteen years at the Julien Levy Gallery, he joined the Hugo Gallery. In December 1946, Cornell's solo exhibition, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell," celebrated his favorite movie stars, singers, and ballet dancers, and included his work created for the show, "Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall)." Cornell's "Greta Garbo" box, as well as "Souvenir for Singleton," an homage to Jennifer Jones and her role in the film "Love Letters," were also included in the show. In late 1948, his West Coast debut was in the exhibition, "Objects by Joseph Cornell," held at the Copley Gallery. The end of the 1940s saw the final issue of "View" magazine in 1947, the closure of the Julien Levy Gallery in April 1949, and Cornell's departure from the Hugo Gallery after his last show in November 1949.

In late 1949, Cornell joined the Charles Egan Gallery, known primarily for showing Abstract Expressionists. At this time, Cornell was working on a new series of boxes known as his "Aviary" works, most of which include a white-painted box with cutouts of birds mounted on wood. Though he had worked on bird-related boxes before, including an "Owl" series in the mid-1940s, his "Fortune Telling Parrot" (1939), and "Object 1941" (1941), these newer works were stripped of French elements and left "clean and abstract" by design. His first show at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 7, 1949-January 7, 1950), included twenty-six "Aviary" works, nearly all created in 1949. Donald Windham agreed to write the foreword for the exhibition catalog, a single folded sheet, and Cornell gave him one of the boxes in the show, "Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet," in appreciation. Through the Egan Gallery, Cornell became friends with a new group of artists, including Franz Kline, Jack Tworkov, and Willem de Kooning. Cornell also held two screenings of a selection of his collected films at Subjects of the Artist, an art school founded by Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, David Hare, and William Baziotes.

In 1950, Cornell's second show at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other New Work" (December 1, 1950-January 13, 1951), introduced his new "Observatory" series. These works are largely defined by stark, whitewashed spaces with astronomical charts and constellations replacing colorful birds. The Museum of Modern Art purchased its first Cornell work from this show in early 1951, "Central Park Carrousel, in Memoriam" (1950).

For three months in 1951, Cornell was beset by various ailments and had trouble finding the energy to create new work. He worried more for his aging mother and the health of his brother. After a monthlong vacation with his sisters in Westhampton, he returned with renewed interest in Emily Dickinson's poetry. His whitewashed boxes took on a new form in his newest "Dovecote" series, using grids and circular cutouts. The works then transformed into homages to Dickinson, notably "Toward the Blue Peninsula: For Emily Dickinson" (circa 1953), and then to his "Hotel" series. Cornell's "Hotel" boxes include photostats of vintage European ads for hotels collected from vintage travel guides, especially "Baedeker's," adhered to the back walls of the boxes. Another new series of work, his "Juan Gris" series, was dedicated to Cubist artist Juan Gris. Between 1953 and the mid-1960s, Cornell created at least fifteen "Juan Gris" boxes, which often include a cutout of a white cockatoo in a Cubist-collage habitat. Cornell's third and last show at Egan Gallery, "Night Voyage" (February 10-March 28, 1953), included some of these newest works. After leaving Egan Gallery, his work was introduced to Chicago collectors in a solo show at the Frumkin Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: 10 Years of His Art" (April 10-May 7, 1953), which included nearly thirty pieces. Cornell's first museum retrospective was this same show held at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis (July 12-August 30, 1953).

As New York City continued to change, Cornell grew more nostalgic for the city he had explored since the 1920s. The impending closure of the Third Avenue El train prompted him to dream up a film project to capture its last days, resulting in "Gnir Rednow," a reworking of Stan Brakhage's 1955, "Wonder Ring." During this time, Cornell joined the Stable Gallery, run by Eleanor Ward, interacting often with Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Joan Mitchell, remaining there until the end of the 1950s. His astronomy-themed exhibition, "Winter Night Skies" (December 12, 1955-January 13, 1956), included his "Night Skies" series of work with celestial chart fragments, Greek mythological figures, and paint-splattered "windows" representative of star-filled night skies. In 1956, he became aware of ballerina Allegra Kent, and began a series of work devoted to her, the first of which was "Via Parmigianino (Villa Allegra)" (1956), which included a photostat of a painting by Parmigianino, "The Madonna of the Long Neck" (circa 1540). In late 1957, after two years, Cornell had his last show at Stable Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: Selected Works" (December 2-31, 1957), consisting of a series of "Sand Fountain" boxes and "Space Object" or "Celestial Navigation" works. The "Sand Fountain" boxes included different colors of sand meant to flow within, often from the tops into cordial glasses. His "Celestial Navigations" included galaxy-like compositions set within the boxes, with rolling, painted cork balls, metal rings, and constellation charts, sometimes hovering over cordial glasses or clay pipes. This last Stable Gallery show earned him his first published profile, written by Howard Griffin for the December 1957 issue of "Art News." Also in 1957, he won the Kohnstamm Prize for Construction at the Art Institute of Chicago's 62rd Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture.

Towards the end of the 1950s, Cornell spent less time creating new bodies of work, and focused more on revisiting previous series and reviewing piles of collected source material. In 1959, Cornell returned to making collages, frequently sourcing popular magazines. In December 1959, Cornell was awarded $1,500 for his "Orion" collage, entered in the Art Institute of Chicago's "63rd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture." Also in December, he was offered a show at Bennington College in Vermont, which he titled, "Bonitas Solstitialis: Selected Works by Joseph Cornell and an exploration of the Colombier" (November 20-December 15, 1959). The show included one of his newest "explorations" of collected material related to "colombier," or pigeon houses.

By 1962, Cornell was working diligently on new collages, using Masonite boards and colorful magazine clippings. He also began creating collages using nude images interspersed with constellation clippings or hazy blue dyes. As in previous decades and art movements, Cornell became acquainted with new artists, spending less time in the city and more time hosting visitors at his Utopia Parkway home. Visitors included artists Walter De Maria, Robert Whitman, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and Robert Indiana. Tony Curtis also became a frequent visitor and friend, introduced by Richard Feigen in 1964. The early 1960s was also the first time Cornell put out an advertisement for assistants in the "Long Island Star-Journal," employing a number of young men and women who helped organize clippings and run errands. Cornell also met Joyce Hunter, a young runaway waitress at a city coffee shop, who would occupy his thoughts and diary notes for the next several years. When she was murdered at the end of 1964, Cornell paid for her funeral. He went on to make several "Penny Arcade" collages in memoriam to her, including, "Penny Arcade (re-autumnal)" (1964).

In 1964, Cornell began friendships with several women including artist Carolee Schneeman, who was his first assistant in the early 1960s. He also met artist Yayoi Kusama through art dealer Gertrude Stein. After becoming friends, she visited him often and they exchanged letters and notes. As he did with other artist friends, Cornell supported her by purchasing several of her early watercolor paintings, and they stayed connected until his death in 1972.

Cornell's life greatly changed in 1965 with the death of his brother, Robert. By this time, his mother lived with his sister in Long Island, and Cornell was alone in the Utopia Parkway house for the first time. He exchanged frequent letters and phone calls with his mother and devoted much time to thinking about Robert and Joyce, often aligning them in his diary notations. Cornell also created a series of collages dedicated to his brother's memory, incorporating photostats of Robert's hundreds of drawings into Cornell's work, as with the later collage, "The Heart on the Sleeve" (1972). Cornell's "Time Transfixed" series of collages were also dedications to Robert's memory, referencing Magritte and Robert's love of trains. He mounted an exhibition, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" (January 4-29, 1966), at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, where he showed Robert's artwork alongside his newly created collage dedications.

After Robert's death, Cornell relied more heavily on assistants, going through many part-time "helpers." In October 1966, Cornell's mother died, adding her to his constant thoughts and diaries. Though he was still grieving, he was given two major retrospectives in 1967. The first was at the Pasadena Art Museum, put on by James Demetrion and Walter Hopps, "An Exhibiton of Works by Joseph Cornell" (January 9-February 11, 1967). The second retrospective was at the Guggenheim Museum just three months later, "Joseph Cornell" (May 4-June 35, 1967), organized by Diane Waldman. After these shows, he was highlighted in the December 15, 1967 issue of "Life" in the article, "The Enigmatic Bachelor of Utopia Parkway."

In 1968, Cornell was given an "award of merit," which included a medal and $1,000, by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also given a medal and $1,000 by the Brandeis University Creative Arts Awards in the painting category, along with an exhibition. Days later, "The New York Times" announced Cornell the winner, along with Donald Judd, of India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art. The Brandeis exhibition, "Boxes and Collages by Joseph Cornell" (May 20-June 23, 1968), was organized by William Seitz and concentrated on Cornell's more recent 1960s collages. Cornell was also included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's hundredth anniversary show, "New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940 to 1970" (October 18, 1969-February 1, 1970), where twenty-two of Cornell's boxes were shown in their own gallery. At the end of 1970, Cornell was given a solo show at the Metropolitan, "Collages by Joseph Cornell" (December 10, 1970-January 24, 1971), which included forty-five of his newest collages.

Now preferring to stay closer to his home in Flushing, Cornell was more interested in sharing his art with young adults and children, than an adult audience. He hosted a group of high school students, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art's education department, at his home in conjunction with his collage show (1970-1971). He also showed his work in the art department of Queens College of the City University of New York. Cornell still hosted visitors on occasion, having Yoko Ono and John Lennon at his home at least once. Leila Hadley, Betsy von Furstenberg, and Anne Jackson also made frequent visits. With his deteriorating health, Cornell worried about what would happen to his work after his death and hired lawyer Harry Torczyner to help him plan his estate and get his affairs in order.

In 1972, Cornell had a show at the Cooper Union, a college in New York, specifically for children. He displayed his boxes and collages at child-height and had cherry soda and brownies at the opening reception on February 10. He then held a show at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, also for children: "Children's Preview of the Exhibition of Joseph Cornell – Collages and Boxes (April 18-June 17, 1972). In the winter of 1972, at the request of the Phoenix House drug treatment and prevention program, Cornell contributed to a charity project compiling limited-edition lithographic prints for a portfolio, which included artists like David Hockney, James Rosenquist, and Ellsworth Kelly.

On December 29, 1972, a week after turning sixty-nine, Cornell died of heart failure at his home. He was cremated and interred near the graves of his mother, father, and brother, overlooking the Hudson River in Nyack, New York.

Works Cited:

1. Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination." New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press, 2007. Exhibition Catalog.

2. McShine, Kynaston. "Joseph Cornell." New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.

3. San Francisco Cinematheque and The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Joseph Cornell: Films." 2007. Exhibition Program. (Presented in conjunction with SFMOMA's exhibition of "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination").

4. Schaffner, Ingrid and Lisa Jacobs. "Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery." Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1998.

5. Solomon, Deborah. "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell." New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
Separated Materials:
The Smithsonian Archives of American Art houses the Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972.
Provenance:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection was donated to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by Joseph Cornell's sister and brother-in-law, Elizabeth Cornell Benton and John A. Benton, in 1978, which prompted the creation of the Joseph Cornell Study Center. Additional materials were donated in installments by the artist's estate, the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation, from 1985 to 1997. Elizabeth and John A. Benton originally donated 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books to the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, which were subsequently transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Joseph Cornell Study Center in 1994 and 1995.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection requires an advanced appointment. Contact collection staff at least two weeks prior to preferred date, at AmericanArtCornellStudy@si.edu.

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, Series 13: Personal Library and Book Collection, and Series 14: Record Album Collection, are still undergoing processing and preservation and may not be available for research use. Record albums are unavailable for playback. Contact collection staff for full lists of publications and record albums.
Rights:
Unpublished materials are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.
Occupation:
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1860-1870 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Cartes-de-visite
Photographs -- Daguerreotypes -- 1840-1860
Citation:
Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Identifier:
SAAM.JCSC.1
See more items in:
Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Research and Scholars Center
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ih7d97fc249-474d-41bf-953d-5305df1e4c06
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-saam-jcsc-1

Gerald Mast papers

Creator:
Mast, Gerald, 1908-1971  Search this
Names:
Society of Arts and Crafts (Detroit, Mich.)  Search this
Carroll, John, 1892-1959  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Date:
[ca. 1928-1971]
Scope and Contents:
Biographical sketches; correspondence with Mast's family and others; photographs of Mast, his family, John Carroll's art class at the Society of Arts and Crafts in Detroit and other art classes, WPA murals, and other works of art; three sketchbooks, 1935-1952; ca. 50 loose sketches; writings, including manuscripts of "Egg Tempera" and "Philosophy of Art"; exhibition catalogues; clippings; and printed materials.
ADDITION: Correspondence, photographs, a sketchbook, 1928, and drawings from the 1930's and 1940's, including a sketch for the mural, "Nature's Kin" for the Children's Section of the Herrick Public Library, Holland, Mich.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, mural painter, mosaicist, and educator, Grand Rapids, Mich./Providence, R.I.
Provenance:
Donated 1978-1982 by Gerald Mast's daughter, Mrs. Gordon V.K. (Betsey M.) Reid.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Art teachers -- Michigan  Search this
Mosaicists -- Michigan  Search this
Muralists -- Michigan  Search this
Painters -- Michigan  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.mastgera
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9ef26bf3a-ae1c-4bc5-afc7-0fec3c73148d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mastgera

Pendant in the form of a dragon

Medium:
Jade (nephrite)
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 6.8 x 2.6 x 0.5 cm (2 11/16 x 1 x 3/16 in)
Type:
Jewelry and Ornament
Origin:
Reputedly Shouzhou, Anhui Province, probably Jincun, Henan province, China
Date:
475-221 BCE
Period:
Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period
Topic:
carving  Search this
jade  Search this
nephrite  Search this
dragon  Search this
Eastern Zhou dynasty (770 - 221 BCE)  Search this
Warring States period (475 - 221 BCE)  Search this
cat  Search this
China  Search this
Chinese Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1939.18
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3d8fcb7b5-d262-4a14-bfb0-e42f858d61d6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1939.18
Online Media:

Pendant in the form of an archer’s thumbring with raised linked curls

Medium:
Jade (nephrite)
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 4.6 × 2.7 × 1.5 cm (1 13/16 × 1 1/16 × 9/16 in)
Type:
Jewelry and Ornament
Date:
475-221 BCE
Period:
Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period
Topic:
carving  Search this
incising  Search this
jade  Search this
nephrite  Search this
bird  Search this
Eastern Zhou dynasty (770 - 221 BCE)  Search this
Warring States period (475 - 221 BCE)  Search this
China  Search this
Chinese Art  Search this
pendant  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1939.24
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye35c880741-0f92-4aa2-840f-25a9f5b0fcf1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1939.24
Online Media:

Ornament with dragon heads and raised uniform curls arranged in a grid

Medium:
Jade (nephrite)
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 2.1 x 4.9 x 0.3 cm (13/16 x 1 15/16 x 1/8 in)
Type:
Jewelry and Ornament
Origin:
Shou xian, purportedly found at Anhui province, China
Date:
475-221 BCE
Period:
Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period
Topic:
carving  Search this
jade  Search this
nephrite  Search this
dragon  Search this
Eastern Zhou dynasty (770 - 221 BCE)  Search this
Warring States period (475 - 221 BCE)  Search this
China  Search this
Chinese Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Arthur M. Sackler
Accession Number:
S1987.557
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3053f14a8-31ae-4a59-9e9e-b68598a50159
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_S1987.557
Online Media:

Japanese family crests and designs

Type:
Books
Date:
2023
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1167772

Stories the Lenape told their grandchildren

Editor:
Townsend, Camilla 1965-  Search this
Michael, Nicky Kay  Search this
Physical description:
x, 255 pages, 12 unnumbered pages of plates illustrations, maps 23 cm
Type:
Texts
Biography
Textes
Biographies
Place:
Oklahoma
Date:
2023
Topic:
Delaware Indians--Folklore  Search this
Indians of North America--Folklore  Search this
Delaware language  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Delaware (Langue)  Search this
Peuples autochtones--Mœurs et coutumes  Search this
Delaware Indians  Search this
Delaware Indians--Social life and customs  Search this
Indians of North America--Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1163497

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