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Oral history interview with Edith Gregor Halpert, 1962-1963

Interviewee:
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Interviewer:
Phillips, Harlan B. (Harlan Buddington),, 1920-  Search this
Subject:
Steichen, Edward  Search this
Knox, Seymour H.  Search this
Kroll, Leon  Search this
Kuhn, Walt  Search this
Stein, Gertrude  Search this
Field, Hamilton Easter  Search this
Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Fergusson, John Duncan  Search this
LÔeger, Fernand  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Pascin, Jules  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu  Search this
Saarinen, Aline B. (Aline Bernstein)  Search this
Sandburg, Carl  Search this
Wittenberg, Philip  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster),  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Hirsch, Stefan  Search this
Barrie, Erwin S.  Search this
Locke, Charles  Search this
Demuth, Charles  Search this
Cary, Elisabeth Luther  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Chase, William Merritt  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Saklatwalla, Beram K.  Search this
Greenberg, Clement  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
Bacon, Peggy  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Force, Juliana  Search this
Shahn, Ben  Search this
Brackman, Robert  Search this
Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Frost, Robert  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Halpert, Samuel  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Soutine, Chaim  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Goodyear, A. Conger (Anson Conger),  Search this
Levine, Jack  Search this
Dudensing, F. Valentine  Search this
Williams, William Carlos  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Vollard, Ambroise  Search this
Deskey, Donald  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Robinson, Edward G.  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell  Search this
Daniel, Charles  Search this
Hopkinson, Charles  Search this
Ford, Ford Madox  Search this
Barr, Alfred H.  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin  Search this
Mellon, Paul  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O.  Search this
Bridgman, George Brant  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Dove, Arthur Garfield  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Brixey, Richard de Wolfe  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Pound, Ezra  Search this
Montross, N. E. (Newman E.),  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Mercer, Henry Chapman  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Johns, Jasper  Search this
Crowninshield, Frank  Search this
Stern, Louis E.  Search this
Laurent, Robert  Search this
McBride, Henry  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Tannahill, Robert Hudson  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Montross Gallery  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries  Search this
New Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Downtown Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Daniel Gallery  Search this
Ferargil Galleries  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Camouflage  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13220
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214627
AAA_collcode_halper62
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214627
Online Media:

Martyl Langsdorf papers, 1918-1977

Creator:
Martyl, 1917-2013  Search this
Subject:
Hawthorne, Charles Webster  Search this
Sequieros  Search this
Henle, Fritz  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty  Search this
Blanch, Arnold  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
Martyl  Search this
Curry, John Steuart  Search this
Dehn, Adolf Arthur  Search this
Robinson, Boardman  Search this
Janson, H. W. (Horst Woldemar),  Search this
Lee, Doris  Search this
Holty, Carl  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
ACA Galleries  Search this
Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center  Search this
University of Chicago. Renaissance Society  Search this
United States. Public Buildings Administration. Section of Fine Arts  Search this
Feingarten Galleries  Search this
Kovlar Gallery (Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
St. Genevieve School of Art  Search this
University of Chicago.Oriental Institute  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9115
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211309
AAA_collcode_martyl
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211309

George Constant papers, 1912-2007, bulk 1932-1978

Creator:
Constant, George, 1892-1978  Search this
Subject:
Gecan, Vilko  Search this
Burliuk, David  Search this
Davidson, Morris  Search this
Avery, Sally Michel  Search this
Caparn, Rhys  Search this
Kanaga, Consuelo  Search this
Eaton, Charles Warren  Search this
Preston, Georgette  Search this
Avery, Milton  Search this
Landgren, Marchal E.  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Putnam, Wallace  Search this
Neuberger, Roy R. (Roy Rothschild)  Search this
Carnell, Julia Shaw Patterson  Search this
Perret, Nell Foster  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Works Progress Administration  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Brooklyn Museum  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Audubon Artists  Search this
Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors  Search this
Ferargil Galleries  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
Dayton Art Institute  Search this
Heckscher Museum  Search this
Parrish Art Museum  Search this
Spanish Refugee Aid (Organization)  Search this
Lyman Allyn Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Video recordings
Topic:
Painters  Search this
Art  Search this
Painting, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9389
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211586
AAA_collcode_consgeor
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211586
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Marek Cecula, 2009 May 19-20

Interviewee:
Cecula, Marek, 1944-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
Shire, Peter Anton  Search this
Spurey, Kurt  Search this
Koplos, Janet  Search this
Spurey, Gerda  Search this
Veiteberg, Jorunn  Search this
Cecula, Lanie  Search this
Nagle, Ron  Search this
Ogen, Gdula  Search this
Mayer, Jean  Search this
De Waal, Edmund  Search this
Earl, Jack Eugene  Search this
Kottler, Howard  Search this
Price, Kenneth Martin  Search this
Garth Clark Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Parsons School of Design  Search this
Tiffany and Company  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
George R. Gardiner Museum of Ceramic Art  Search this
Barneys New York  Search this
Memphis (Group)  Search this
Kunst- og designhögskolen i Bergen  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Brazil  Search this
Ceramics  Search this
Ceramicists  Search this
SoHo (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Kibbutzim  Search this
Israel  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Designers  Search this
Poland  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15681
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)282772
AAA_collcode_cecula09
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_282772
Online Media:

Mitchell Siporin papers, 1913-1990

Creator:
Siporin, Mitchell, 1910-1976  Search this
Subject:
Millman, Edward  Search this
Nordness, Lee  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor  Search this
Cheney, Sheldon  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Topic:
War in art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Documentary photography  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Painting, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9408
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211606
AAA_collcode_sipomitc
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Photography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211606

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
de Hauke, César  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L.  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Arenberg  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 9
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Online Media:

OBPC 2016: Second Prize Winner - Cynthia Henebry Artist Interview

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-05-18T16:15:39Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Xxa2Ti8zZHg

#FSEmpresses: Portrait of Empress Dowager Cixi

Creator:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2019-06-03T19:48:09Z
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
FreerSackler
YouTube Channel:
FreerSackler
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_eONkEL23ezg

Evan J. Parker Scrapbook

Creator:
Parker, Evan Jenkins, 1885-1966  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Strobel Dirigible Co.  Search this
Parker, Evan Jenkins, 1885-1966  Search this
Extent:
328 Cubic feet (1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Programs
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1908-1966
Summary:
This collection consists of a red scrapbook, with the following title: "Pioneer Dirigible Flights 1908, 1910, 1911." The scrapbook contains photographs, newspaper articles and programs documenting Evan Jenkins Parker's dirigible career and his involvement in the Early Birds.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a red scrapbook, with the following title: "Pioneer Dirigible Flights 1908, 1910, 1911." The scrapbook contains photographs, newspaper articles and programs documenting Evan Jenkins Parker's dirigible career and his involvement in the Early Birds including views of flights made at numerous events in Kansas, Missouri, Washington, Utah, Idaho, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maryland, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Virginia, as well as Canada and Puerto Rico. The scrapbook also contains a chronology of Parker's career which includes descriptions of the airships he worked on and piloted and a list of the flights he made as well as a biographical statement chronicling his life. There are also event invitations and programs pertaining to the donation of an Early Birds plaque to the Smithsonian Institution, the dedication of the Early Birds Monument on Governor's Island, New York, and a booklet about an Early Birds mural painted by Justin C. Gruelle.
Arrangement:
This collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Evan Jenkins Parker (1885-1966), a pioneer dirigible pilot, made his first solo flight in a dirigible at Hutchinson, Kansas in 1908 and until 1911 he flew at county fairs and other exhibitions in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Parker worked for Charles J. Strobel, a designer and manufacturer of airships, who also scheduled their appearance at various events. During his work with Strobel, Parker both constructed and flew dirigibles. He had several close calls, including when the airship crashed into a roller coaster and electrical wires. When he was 27, Parker ended his professional flying career and went to work for the Eastman Kodak Company. Parker was a member of the Early Birds.
Provenance:
Evan Parker, through the Early Birds, Gift, 1966?, NASM.XXXX.0348.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airships  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Programs
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Evan J. Parker Scrapbook, NASM.XXXX.0348, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0348
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0348
Online Media:

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

OBPC 2016: John Valadez Juror Interview

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-05-18T16:17:21Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_PVCXnImLNns

OBPC 2016: Jerry Saltz Juror Interview

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-05-18T16:16:46Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_QqzWh8L6jwQ

OBPC 2016: Dawoud Bey Juror Interview

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-05-18T16:16:29Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_SlnROeDgqCk

The Outwin 2016: American Portraiture Today (clip)

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-06-20T15:44:19Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_fBf5Kfdvbg0

The Outwin 2016: American Portraiture Today

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-05-18T16:14:50Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_hHt5Stw2rps

OBPC 2016: Helen Molesworth Juror Interview

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-05-18T16:17:04Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_hK_gwaawxgQ

Wright EX Vin Fiz

Manufacturer:
Wright Company (Dayton, Ohio)  Search this
Materials:
Airframe: Wood
Covering: Fabric
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Length: 6.5 m (21 ft 5 in)
Height: 2.2 m (7 ft 4 in)
Weight: Empty, 408 kg (900 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1911
Credit Line:
Gift of Carnegie Museum.
Inventory Number:
A19340060000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv95c5db081-9785-4a9d-b7f3-1047e88f62d1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19340060000

Daniel Putnam Brinley and Kathrine Sanger Brinley papers, 1879-1984

Creator:
Brinley, Putnam, 1879-1963  Search this
Brinley, Katherine Sanger, 1879-1966  Search this
Subject:
Meiere, M. Hildreth (Marie Hildreth)  Search this
Davis, Charles H. (Charles Harold)  Search this
Euwer, Anthony  Search this
Blashfield, Edwin Howland  Search this
Henri, Robert  Search this
Erskine, John  Search this
Peixotto, Ernest  Search this
Troy, Hugh  Search this
Coffin, William A. (William Anderson)  Search this
Bruce, Edward  Search this
Gabay, Esperanza  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6830
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208957
AAA_collcode_brindani
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Audio - Visual
Craft
Architecture & Design
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208957
Online Media:

Mushroom Rock on Alum Creek, Kansas, 211 miles west of Missouri River

Alternate Title:
Three men at Mushroom Rock on Alum Creek; Kansas-Pacific series
Mushroom Rock on Alum Creek, Kansas, 211 miles west of the Missouri River.
Artist:
Alexander Gardner, 17 Oct 1821 - 10 Dec 1882  Search this
Sitter:
Unidentified Group  Search this
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 30.2 × 45.1cm (11 7/8 × 17 3/4")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1867
Topic:
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution
Website: www.nmai.si.edu/
Object number:
P10132
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm41bc2acee-bc0e-4f58-a61e-0aabbe937ca6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_P10132

United States Overland Stage starting for Denver from Hays City, 289 miles west of Missouri River

Alternate Title:
Stagecoach in front of building with African-American soldiers; Kansas-Pacific series
United States Overland Stage starting for Denver from Hays City, 289 miles west of Missouri River.
Artist:
Alexander Gardner, 17 Oct 1821 - 10 Dec 1882  Search this
Sitter:
(Group Portrait)  Search this
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 31.4 × 46.8cm (12 3/8 × 18 7/16")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1867
Topic:
Exterior\Landscape\Plains  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Horse  Search this
Vehicle\Carriage  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution
Website: www.nmai.si.edu/
Object number:
P10133
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a56b3420-84d8-424a-8f92-0c01e24fadcc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_P10133

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