Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
3,187 documents - page 1 of 160

MS 7225 Cliff Evans letter to Edwin Wilmsen

Creator:
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Addressee:
Wilmsen, Edwin N.  Search this
Names:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Extent:
2 Pages
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1971
Scope and Contents:
Letter concerns errors made in publications regarding Aleš Hrdlička's affiliation with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7225
Topic:
Anthropology -- History  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 7225, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7225
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7225

Copies of portraits of Smithsonian anthropologists

Depicted:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Allen, R. A.  Search this
Allen, Richard A.  Search this
Andrews, Andreas Joseph, d. 1992  Search this
Anglim, John E.  Search this
Blaker, Margaret Contant  Search this
Bray, William H.  Search this
Casanowicz, Immanuel M.  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Egberts, William H.  Search this
Elder, Robert A.  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Gibson, Gordon D. (Gordon Davis), 1915-2007  Search this
Hawley, Edwin H.  Search this
Hendley, H. W.  Search this
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Jenkins, Richard C.  Search this
Jenkins, Robert C.  Search this
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Knez, Eugene I. (Eugene Irving), 1916-2010  Search this
Krieger, Herbert W. (Herbert William), 1889-1970  Search this
Lewis, G. Robert  Search this
Mason, Otis T., 1838-1908  Search this
Maynard, G. C.  Search this
McBryde, George  Search this
McCoy, George D.  Search this
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Metcalf, George, 1900-1975  Search this
Newman, Marshall T. (Marshall Thornton), 1911-1994  Search this
Paine, Richard G.  Search this
Pelham, Willie Mae  Search this
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Riesenberg, Saul H.  Search this
Semple, Caroline I.  Search this
Setzler, Frank M. (Frank Maryl), 1902-1975  Search this
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
Sweeney, Thomas W.  Search this
Upham, E. P. (Edwin Porter), 1845-1918  Search this
Van Beek, Gus W. (Gus Willard), 1922-  Search this
Watkins, C. Malcolm, 1911-  Search this
Wedel, Waldo R. (Waldo Rudolph), 1908-1996  Search this
Whitmore, Jeraldine M.  Search this
Names:
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Extent:
1 Copy negative
9 Copy prints
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Date:
1898-1962
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of copy prints depicting Smithsonian anthropologists, including group portraits of the staff of the United States National Museum Department of Anthropology and mounted individual portraits of department heads in 1904, 1931, 1952, 1959, and 1962. The photographs were possibly made as part of a 1969 event, "The Anthropology of Anthropology, or Everything You Wanted to Know About the Anthropology Department but Didn't Know What to Ask." The announcement for this event is available with the collection.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 39
Reproduction Note:
Copy prints made by the Smithsonian Institution, 1969.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for some images are held in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Records of the Department of Anthropology.
Additional photographs of Department of Anthropology staff can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 136, Photo Lot 76-127, Photo Lot 77-52, Photo Lot 77-80, Photo Lot 79-51, Photo Lot 80-17, Photo Lot 83-15, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Photo lot 39, Copies of portraits of Smithsonian anthropologists, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.39
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-39

MS 2011-29 Oral history interview of Waldo R. Wedel

Interviewee:
Wedel, Waldo R. (Waldo Rudolph), 1908-1996  Search this
Interviewer:
Banks, Larry D.  Search this
Givens, Douglas R.  Search this
Names:
River Basin Surveys  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Bushnell, David I., Jr. (David Ives), 1875-1941  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Haury, Emil W. (Emil Walter), 1904-1992  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Lehmer, Donald Jayne, 1918-1975  Search this
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Stephenson, Robert L. (Robert Lloyd), 1919-  Search this
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Wedel, Mildred Mott  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound cassettes (analog)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1996 June 17
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Waldo R. Wedel conducted by Larry D. Banks and Douglas Givens on June 17, 1996 in Boulder, Colorado. The interview was conducted at Wedel's nursing home, a couple of months before he died.This interview is part of a series of oral histories of archaeologists recorded by Givens. Topics include Wedel's youth, career, fieldwork, colleagues, the Smithsonian Institution, and the River Basin Surveys.
Biographical / Historical:
Waldo R. Wedel was an archaeologist, best known for his contributions to Plains archaeology. He worked at the Smithsonian Institution from 1936 to 1977. He began his career at the Smithsonian as an assistant curator under Neil M. Judd in the Division of Archeology in the United States National Museum. He later became curator of archeology in 1950, and in 1962, he became head curator of the Department of Anthropology. In 1964-1965, he was acting head of the newly organized Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. Wedel also established and directed the Missouri Basin Project (1946-50) of the Bureau of American Ethnology's River Basin Surveys.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2011-29
General:
Date on box insert incorrectly listed as July 18, 1996.
Other Archival Materials:
See also Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel Papers
Provenance:
Received from Dennis Stanford.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Manuscript 2011-29, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.MS2011-29
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2011-29

Clifford Evans photograph collection relating to exhibits at the Museo de Arqueologia in Trujillo, Peru

Collector:
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
7 Prints (silver gelatin)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Peru -- Antiquities
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Images of exhibits and individual ceramics at the Museo de Arqueologia at the Universidad de Trujillo in Peru. Ceramics, most of which are Mochica, include pottery and figurines.
Biographical/Historical note:
Clifford Evans (1920-1981) was curator of Latin American archeology for the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History. Born in Dallas, Dr. Evans grew up in California and graduated from the University of Southern California in 1941. He served in the Army Air Force in World War II and later earned a doctorate at Columbia University. A former instructor in archeology and anthropology, Dr. Evans joined the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History as a curator in 1951. A pioneer in studies of the prehistoric past of the Amazonian forest and lowlands, he conducted archeological field work throughout South America and in the Pacific Islands. He and his wife, anthropologist Betty Meggers, collaborated on more than 100 scientific articles and monographs. Dr. Evans was honored with the Washington Academy of Sciences Award for Scientific Achievement, the 37th International Congress of Americanists Gold Medal and the Order of Merit from the Government of Ecuador.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 93-15D
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds the Clifford Evans Papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ceramics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 93-15D, Clifford Evans photograph collection relating to exhibits at the Museo de Arqueologia in Trujillo, Peru, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.93-15D
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-93-15d

Photographs of Saul Riesenberg's retirement party

Names:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Challinor, David, 1920-2008  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Fitzhugh, William W., 1943-  Search this
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Riesenberg, Saul H.  Search this
Van Beek, Gus W. (Gus Willard), 1922-  Search this
Extent:
20 Prints (silver gelatin)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1979
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs documenting people and gifts at Saul Riesenberg's retirement party in the Department of Anthropology chairman's office in 1979. Pictured attendees, mostly Department of Anthropology staff, include William Fitzhugh, David Challinor, Steve Porter, Gus Van Beek, Betty Meggers, Clifford Evans, Judith Luskey, Riesenberg and his wife.
Biographical/Historical note:
Saul Herbert Riesenberg took part in the first American anthropological studies in Micronesia and was the first curator of Pacific ethnology at the Smithsonian in 1957. He later served as department chairman and retired as senior ethnologist.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 80-17
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds Saul Herbert Riesenberg's papers.
Correspondence from Riesenberg can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Saul Herbert Riesenberg Correspondence 1962-1967 and Correspondence, 1967-1972, Records of the Department of Anthropology.
Additional photographs of Riesenberg can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 80-17, Photographs of Saul Riesenberg's retirement party, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.80-17
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-80-17

National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology photographs of Processing Lab and staff

Collector:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Names:
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Flannery, Kent V.  Search this
Gibson, Gordon D. (Gordon Davis), 1915-2007  Search this
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Metcalf, George, 1900-1975  Search this
Van Beek, Gus W. (Gus Willard), 1922-  Search this
Woodbury, Richard B. (Richard Benjamin), 1917-2009  Search this
Extent:
11 Prints (silver gelatin)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1965
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting the Department of Anthropology Processing Lab layout and collections, as well as images of staff cleaning collections and performing other laboratory activities. Depicted individuals include Edgar Dodd, Clifford Evans, Bethune Gibson, Gordon Davis Gibson, Betty Jane Meggers, George Metcalf, Gus Willard Van Beek, Richard Benjamin Woodbury, Pedro Porras, Harold Huscher, Bob Jenkins, Kent Flannery, George Metcalf, and Willie Mae Pelham. The photographs were probably made by a Smithsonian photographer.
Biographical/Historical note:
The photographs were made for Department of Anthropology section of "Research and Publications," documented in the 1965 Smithsonian Institution Annual Report called "Smithsonian Year."
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 83-15
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of Department of Anthropology staff can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 39, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 136, Photo Lot 76-127, Photo Lot 77-52, Photo Lot 77-80, Photo Lot 79-51, Photo Lot 80-17, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 83-15, National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology photographs of Processing Lab and staff, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.83-15
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-83-15

Clifford Evans collection of photographs of Smithsonian anthropologists

Collector:
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Photographer:
Harris & Ewing  Search this
Tolman, Ruel P. (Ruel Pardee), 1878-1954  Search this
Names:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Newman, Marshall T. (Marshall Thornton), 1911-1994  Search this
St. Hoyme, Lucile Eleanor  Search this
Stephenson, Robert L. (Robert Lloyd), 1919-  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Wetmore, Alexander, 1886-1978  Search this
Extent:
6 Prints (silver gelatin)
1 Print (halftone or collotype)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1933-1952
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting members of the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology and Department of Anthropology. The collection includes photographs of William Duncan Strong, Robert Stephenson, and M.T. Newman in the field (1933, 1938, and 1952); a photograph of Walter Hough and Neil M. Judd (1935); a group portrait of the Department of Anthropology staff on the steps of the Natural History Building (1952); and winners at an award presentation for the department (1952). The collection also includes a photomechanical print with a portrait of William Henry Holmes, made by Harris & Ewing.
Biographical/Historical note:
Clifford Evans (1920-1981) was curator of Latin American archeology for the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History. Born in Dallas, Dr. Evans grew up in California and graduated from the University of Southern California in 1941. He served in the Army Air Force in World War II and later earned a doctorate at Columbia University.

A former instructor in archeology and anthropology, Dr. Evans joined the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History as a curator in 1951. A pioneer in studies of the prehistoric past of the Amazonian forest and lowlands, he conducted archeological field work throughout South America and in the Pacific Islands. He and his wife, anthropologist Betty Meggers, collaborated on more than 100 scientific articles and monographs. Dr. Evans was honored with the Washington Academy of Sciences Award for Scientific Achievement, the 37th International Congress of Americanists Gold Medal and the Order of Merit from the Government of Ecuador.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 77-80
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of Smithsonian anthropologists can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 4822, Photo Lot 7A, Photo Lot 7D, Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 39, Photo Lot 77-52, and Photo Lot 92-35.
Additional photographs by Harris & Ewing can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 33, and Photo Lot 78-20.
The Library of Congress holds the Harris & Ewing Collection of glass and film negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 77-80, Clifford Evans collection of photographs of Smithsonian anthropologists, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.77-80
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-77-80

Photographs collected for an Inca archeology exhibit

Photographer:
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Tschopik, Harry, 1915-1956  Search this
Ubbelohde-Doering, Heinrich, 1889-1972  Search this
Extent:
40 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Incas  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Cuzco (Peru) -- depicted
Pachacamac (Peru) -- depicted
Tiahuanacu (Bolivia) -- depicted
Ollantaytambo (Peru) -- depicted
Machu Picchu Site (Peru) -- depicted
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of enlargements that were made as part of a United States National Museum exhibit on Latin American archeology (opened in 1954). It includes photographs made at Machu Picchu, Ollantaytambo, Tiahuanaco, Cuzco, Sacahuaman, Urcos, Viru Valley, and Pachacamac. Photograpers include anthropologists Harry S. Tschopik, Jr., Clifford Evans, and Heinrich Ubbelohde-Doering.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 66A
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Clifford Evans papers and Clifford Evans photograph collection of exhibits at the Museo de Arqueologia in Trujillo, Peru (Photo Lot 93-15D).
South American music recordings with notes by Harry Tschopik held in the Center for Folklife and Culutral Heritage, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections in the Moses and Frances Asch Collection.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 66A, Photographs collected for an Inca archeology exhibit, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.66A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-66a

J. Lajournade photographs of the International Congress of Americanists in Paris

Creator:
J. Lajournade studio  Search this
Depicted:
Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969  Search this
Chard, Chester S.  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Collector:
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Extent:
6 Prints (silver gelatin)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1960
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of attendees at a meeting of the International Congress of Americanists in Paris, 1960. The photographs are of Henry B. Collins and his wife, Betty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans, Chester S. Chard and his wife, and Marius Barbeau.
Biographical/Historical note:
The International Congress of Americanists was organized in Paris in 1874 as an outgrowth of the Societe Americaine de France. Its purpose was "to contribute to the progress of ethnographic, linguistic and historic studies relative to North and South America, especially for the period before Christopher Columbus, and to report to those who are interested in these studies." The congress' official meeting for 1960 was held in Vienna.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 134C
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds material relating to the International Congress of Americanists (MS 7068, Photo Lot R76-139, Photo Lot 77-48, and MS 4372).
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. Papers.
Provenance:
Probably donated by Henry B. Collins and his wife.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 134C, J. Lajournade photographs of International Congress of Americanists in Paris, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.134C
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-134c

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers

Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
129 Linear feet
Culture:
American Indian -- South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Place:
Venezuela -- archeology
Peru -- Archeology
Date:
1893-2012
Summary:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. Their work at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and their frequent collaboration with other researchers and professional organizations is also represented. In addition, this collection contains detailed records on South American research conducted by the Smithsonian Institution from the 1950s through the 2010s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. There is also significant material detailing research conducted in South America by the National Museum of Natural History (particularly the Department of Anthropology). Material documenting their publication and collaboration efforts with researchers and other colleagues is represented as well. There is also limited material related to Meggers and Evans time in graduate school at Columbia University and their brief careers before starting at the Smithsonian Institution in the early 1950s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 12 series: Series 1. Personal, 1893-2012, undated; Series 2. Writings, 1944-2011, undated; Series 3. Research, 1930-2011, undated; Series 4. Correspondence, 1922-2012; Series 5. Conferences and Seminars, 1949-2010, undated; Series 6. Museum and Institute Subject Files, 1973-2011, undated; Series 7. Smithsonian Institution Amazon Ecosystem Program, 1962-2008, undated. Series 8. National Program of Archeological Research in Brazil, 1961-1989, undated; Series 9. Paleoindian Research: Paleoclimatology and Paleofauna Programs, 1960-1992, undated; Series 10. Latin American Archaeology Fund, 1971-1991, undated; Series 11. Photographs, 1937-2008, undated; Series 12. Maps and Charts, 1957- circa 2009, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Clifford Evans Chronology

1920 -- Born in Dallas, Texas.

1941 -- Bachelors degree in anthropology from the University of Southern California.

1946 -- Married Betty Meggers.

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Betty Meggers.

1950 -- Ph.D., Columbia University.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, University of Virginia.

1951-1962 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Betty Meggers.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Betty Meggers.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1962-1964 -- Curator of the Division of Archaeology.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Betty Meggers.

1964-1970, 1975-1981 -- Supervising Curator of the Department of Anthropological Research.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1970-1975 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology.

1971 -- Creates the Latin American Archaeology Fund with Betty Meggers.

1972 -- Creates the Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program.

1974 -- Creates the Amazon Ecosystems Research Program.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Betty Meggers and Dennis Stanford.

1981 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty Meggers Chronology

1921 -- Born December 5 in Washington, D.C.

1943 -- A.B. in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1944 -- M.A., University of Michigan

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Clifford Evans.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, American University

1952 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Clifford Evans.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1954-2012 -- Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, national Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Clifford Evans.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Clifford Evans.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Clifford Evans and Dennis Stanford.

1976-1996 -- Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society

1982-1985 -- Consultant, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil

2012 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans were anthropologists specializing in the archeology of lowland South America. Their combined careers at the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology totaled over 100 years. Evans was born in 1920 in Texas. He received his bachelor's degree in anthropology and archaeology from the University of Southern California in 1941. Following his service as a bombardier during World War II, he enrolled in the anthropology doctoral program at Columbia University where he met Meggers, a fellow student in the department. Meggers was born in 1921 in Washington, D.C., and was the daughter of well-known archaeologist William Frederick Meggers. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a bachelors degree in anthropology in 1943 and from the University of Michigan with a masters in anthropology in 1944 before being admitted to Columbia.

Meggers and Evans did their dissertation research together in South America— Meggers worked on the island of Marajo at the mouth of the Amazon River while Evans did archaeological research in the Amapa territory of Brazil. The two were married on September 13, 1946.

After Evans received his Ph.D. in 1950, he was hired by the Smithsonian Institution as an associate curator in the Department of Anthropology in 1951. After graduating in 1952, Meggers worked as an anthropology instructor at American University for one year before being hired as a research associate in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology in 1954.

Evans was named Curator of the Division of Archaeology in 1962, and Supervising Curator of the newly created Office of Anthropological Research in 1964. Under his leadership, standardized operating procedures were created that centralized accessioning, cataloging, storing, and lending of objects. This freed curators from many complicated and routine activities. In 1970, Evans was appointed the Chairman of Anthropology for a five year term, where he initiated many large-scale research programs with Meggers that continued to operate many years after his chairmanship ended.

The first program that Evans and Meggers created was the "Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program" in 1972, which was designed to study prehistoric peoples in the Western Hemisphere. The second program, implemented in 1974 was the "Amazon Ecosystems Research Program," which organized Brazilian scientists and Smithsonian staff members interested in environmental studies of the Amazon region.

Meggers and Evans conducted much of their field work together, which resulted in hundreds of articles, essays, presentations, and books. The majority of their work was done in the Amazon and Andean regions of South America, particularly Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Aside from these publications, they were also able to collect many archaeological specimens that are still part of the Smithsonian's holdings.

The conclusions that Meggers and Evans drew from their research and field work, while ground-breaking, were often controversial. In the early 1960s local businessman and amateur archaeologist Emilio Estrada excavated pottery from the Valdivia area in Ecuador and shared his results with Meggers and Evans. After finding significant similarities between Valdivian artifacts and those from Japan's ancient Jomon culture, they theorized that there was transpacific contact between Japan and South America around the beginning of the third millennium B.C. Their theory remains controversial.

Meggers and Evans also argued that despite the rich forests of the Amazon region, the river basin's thin, poor soil could not hold enough nutrients to sustain intensive agriculture. As a result, they argued, large and complex societies could not have existed in the Amazon River basin as other archaeologists and anthropologists have suggested.

After finishing his tenure as chairman of the Department of Anthropology, Clifford Evans died in 1981 of a heart attack at the age of 60. Following his death, Meggers continued in her position as research associate in the Department of Anthropology for another 30 years. Though she did not conduct additional fieldwork after her husband's death, Meggers wrote prolifically and was heavily involved in analyzing field work data and collaborating with colleagues working throughout South America. She made it possible for many researchers to study and conduct research at the National Museum of Natural History, and presented in many conferences and seminars locally and internationally. In addition, Meggers advocated on the behalf of colleagues to the National Geographic Society and other organizations to procure funding for archaeological and anthropological expeditions all over the world. Betty Meggers died in 2012 at the age of 90.
Related Materials:
There are about 25 slide cases, each containing about 200 to 300 kodachrome slides, that are currently stored at the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. These were created in the late 1940s and early 1950s and contain images of field work and other trips to South American locations such as Peru, British Guiana, the Peru Highlands, Ecuador, Brazil, Chile, Hondouras, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Mexico. Contact repository for more information.
Separated Materials:
2 rolls of 16mm film, 22 audio cassettes, and 1 VHS of South and Central American research were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives in 2015.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the estate of Betty J. Meggers in 2013.
Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Paleoindian  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Archeology -- Meso-America  Search this
Archaeology -- Ponape, Nan Matol  Search this
Archeology -- British Guiana  Search this
Archaeology -- Ecuador  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Paleo-Indians -- North America  Search this
Names, place -- geographic -- South America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2013-01
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2013-01

An Experimental Formulation of Horizon Styles in the Tropical Forest Area of South America

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Container:
Box 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1973
1959-1961
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 2: Writings / 2.1: Books, Articles, and Conference Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref10

Working Group on the Sustainability of Tropical Societies

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989
1987
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 5: Conferences and Seminars
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1000

National Geographic Society Research Committee trip to New Zealand and Australia

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
2 Folders
Container:
Box 25-26
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1987
Scope and Contents:
Includes photgraph prints and negatives.
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 3: Research / 3.1: Fieldwork
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1001

Americans Before Columbus: Prehistoric South America symposium, Washington, DC

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1987-1988
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 5: Conferences and Seminars
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1003

Dibujos Animado seminar, Madrid, Spain

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 5: Conferences and Seminars
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1004

Circum-Pacific Prehistory conference, Seattle,Washington

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 5: Conferences and Seminars
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1005

Smithsonian Associates Orinoco and Amazon rivers cruise

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
2 Folders
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 3: Research / 3.1: Fieldwork
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1006

Caribbean National Forest workshop

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
2 Folders
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989-1994
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 5: Conferences and Seminars
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1007

United States Forest Service: Contribuciones a la Arqueologia Tropical

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1993
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 5: Conferences and Seminars
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1008

Ecuador

Collection Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1990
Collection Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers / Series 3: Research / 3.1: Fieldwork
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-01-ref1009

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By