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Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E. G. (Ernst Gideon), 1895-  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37e032ce2-12b4-4c64-83be-ec51796c4bd6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

John Victor Murra papers

Correspondent:
Zalinger, Alvin D.  Search this
Swift, Arthur L.  Search this
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Yanez Perez, Luis  Search this
Wolf, Eric R.  Search this
Service, Elman R. (Elman Rogers), 1915-1996  Search this
Seda Bonilla, Eduardo, 1927-  Search this
Steward, Julian Haynes, 1902-1972  Search this
Reining, Priscilla  Search this
Steinbert, Arthur  Search this
Reining, Conrad Copeland, 1918-1984  Search this
Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo  Search this
Rouse, Irving, 1913-2006  Search this
Nnoke Grant, Barbara S.  Search this
O'Brien, Denise A.  Search this
Padeilla, Elena  Search this
Reichel-Dolmatoff, Alicia  Search this
Dancer, Clifford C.  Search this
Diamond, Stanley, 1922-1991  Search this
Diskin, Martin  Search this
Douglas, Richard M.  Search this
Brown, Jennifer  Search this
Caro, Isabel Sklow  Search this
Codere, Helen F., 1917-2009  Search this
Comhaire, Jean L.  Search this
Ascher, Robert  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Bott, Elizabeth  Search this
Brant, Charles Sanford  Search this
Armstrong, Robert Geiston  Search this
Drake, St. Clair  Search this
Drucker, Susana  Search this
Dubreiul, Guy  Search this
Griffith, Sanford  Search this
Harris, J.S.  Search this
Heath, Dwight Braley  Search this
Leslie, Charles  Search this
Manners, Robert A. (Robert Alan), 1913-1996  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Mintz, Sidney W. (Sidney Wilfred), 1922-2015  Search this
Creator:
Murra, John V. (John Victor), 1916-2006  Search this
Extent:
42.5 Linear feet ((88 boxes and 1 map case folder) )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Correspondence
Notes
Date:
1927-1998
Summary:
The Papers of John Victor Murra document his personal and professional life through audiovisual materials, correspondence, diaries, graduate school notes, lectures, photocopies of archival materials, photographs, published materials collected by Murra, reading and research notes and his own writings. The materials span more than 70 years. The collection includes materials relating to Murra's immigration to the United States and later lawsuit for naturalization, his undergraduate and graduate studies at the University of Chicago, his experiences in the Spanish Civil War and in Ecuador during the Second World War as Don Collier's assistant, his teaching career at a number of colleges and universities in the United States and abroad including the University of Puerto Rico, Vassar College, Yale University, and Cornell University, and his research interests such as the fieldwork projects he directed at Hunuco and Lake Titicaca. The bulk of his correspondence may be found in Series I - Correspondence which mostly consists of his communications with former classmates from the University of Chicago, colleagues in the United States and abroad, and former students. Series IV - Biographical and Series VII - Graduate School and Teaching contain a significant amount of material pertaining to Murra's studies at the University of Chicago and his lawsuit for naturalization. Correspondence and newspaper editorials from F. C. Cole and Robert Redfield as well as oral history transcripts of Murra's personal reminiscences are among the items found in these series. For many years, Murra also kept personal diaries, originally intended as records of his dreams, which form Series III - Dream Archives. Although this collection is primarily textual in nature, there are also a photograph and an audio-visual series. The later includes recordings of Murra's Lewis Henry Morgan lectures. The occasional photograph also appears throughout other series.
Scope and Contents:
The Papers of John Victor Murra document his personal and professional life through audiovisual materials, correspondence, diaries, graduate school notes, lectures, photocopies of archival materials, photographs, published materials collected by Murra, reading and research notes and his own writings. The materials span more than 70 years.

The collection includes materials relating to Murra's immigration to the United States and later lawsuit for naturalization, his undergraduate and graduate studies at the University of Chicago, his experiences in the Spanish Civil War and in Ecuador during the Second World War as Don Collier's assistant, his teaching career at a number of colleges and universities in the United States and abroad including the University of Puerto Rico, Vassar College, Yale University, and Cornell University, and his research interests such as the fieldwork projects he directed at Huánuco and Lake Titicaca.

Murra is a polyglot and a prolific correspondent, two elements which are reflected throughout the collection. English, French, Spanish and Romanian are the predominant languages used in his correspondence, but there are also letters in German, Italian and Russian. The bulk of his correspondence may be found in Series I --Correspondence which mostly consists of his communications with former classmates from the University of Chicago, colleagues in the United States and abroad, and former students. Series IV --Biographical and Series VII --Graduate School and Teaching contain a significant amount of material pertaining to Murra's studies at the University of Chicago and his lawsuit for naturalization. Correspondence and newspaper editorials from F. C. Cole and Robert Redfield as well as oral history transcripts of Murra's personal reminiscences are among the items found in these series. For many years, Murra also kept personal diaries, originally intended as records of his dreams, which form Series III --Dream Archives. Although this collection is primarily textual in nature, there are also a photograph and an audio-visual series. The later includes recordings of Murra's Lewis Henry Morgan lectures. The occasional photograph also appears throughout other series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged in 12 series and 1 accretion: (I) Correspondence (1927-1998, 2004) [Bulk 1950-1990], (II) Chronological Correspondence (1953-1991), (III) Dream Archives [Diaries] (1951-1996) [Bulk: 1951-1983], (IV) Biographical (1937-1995), (V) Subject and Publications (1922-1996), (VI) Archival Documents, (VII) Graduate School and Teaching (1936-1992) [Bulk: 1936-1982], (VIII) J. V. M. Publications (1959-1993), (IX) Photographs (1937-1988), (X) Audio Visual Materials (1964-1998), (XI) Maps, (XII) Artwork, Accretions.
Biographical Note:
John Victor Murra was born Isak Lipschitz on August 24, 1916 in Odessa, Ukraine. He spent his childhood and adolescence in Bucharest, Romania where he passed his baccalaureate examinations in 1933. Following high school, he worked as an apprentice in paper factories in Romania and Croatia.

In December 1934, Murra immigrated to Chicago, Illinois, where his uncle lived, to escape the worsening political turmoil in Romania. Shortly after his arrival in the United States, Murra enrolled at the University of Chicago where he completed a Bachelor of Arts in sociology in 1936. He then enlisted in the International Brigade and served as an infantry corporal in the 58th battalion, 15th brigade in the Spanish Republican Army. At the end of the Spanish Civil War, he spent almost six months (February-June 1939) in refugee internment camps, most notably the camp at Argèles-sur-Mer, France. In 1939, Murra returned to Chicago to continue his studies and it was about this time that he started to use the name Murra in official documents. He completed his Master of Arts degree in Anthropology at the University of Chicago in 1942.

The war injuries sustained by Murra during the Spanish Civil War exempted him from military service during the Second World War. Between 1941 and 1942, Murra traveled to Ecuador as the assistant to Donald Collier, Conservator at the Field Museum of Chicago, on an archaeological project sponsored by the Institute of Andean Research. His work with Collier ultimately led him to contribute to the Handbook of South American Indians. Between 1942 and 1943, he worked as an interviewer for John Dollard and Ruth Benedict in their work for the United States Department of War to survey Abraham Lincoln Brigade veterans. In 1943, Murra was appointed Instructor in Anthropology at the University of Chicago to fill in for Fred Eggan, who entered military service. In addition to instructing at the University of Chicago during the mid-1940s, Murra also served as editor on the topic of anthropology for the Encyclopedia Britannica (1945-1946).

The decade or so following the Second World War was often extremely frustrating for Murra as he pursued his quest for American citizenship. In 1946, the U.S. government denied his applications for naturalization and travel papers on the grounds that he had served in the Spanish Republican Army. Consequently, Murra was unable to accept a fellowship from the Social Science Research Council that would have funded his travel to Ecuador to pursue his doctoral research. Although he finally won his lawsuit for citizenship in 1950, Murra did not receive a passport until 1956 and was ultimately forced to change thesis topics in order to continue his doctoral studies without field work. To support himself during this difficult period, Murra taught at several American institutions—most notably at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (1947-1950) and Vassar College (1950-1961), and supervised a number of field work programs in the Caribbean for Columbia University, Vassar College, Yale University and the University of Montreal. He also served briefly as a regional specialist on African land tenure for the United Nations.

In 1955, Murra defended his Ph.D. dissertation, The Economic Organization of the Inca State and he was awarded a Ph.D. in Anthropology the following year from the University of Chicago. Shortly thereafter he took a sabbatical from Vassar College to teach in Peru (1958-1960) at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima and pursue research at the archives of Cuzco.

In the 1960s, Murra turned his attention towards pursuing research interests and cultivating the anthropological training of South American graduate students. He left Vassar College in 1961 and spent time teaching as a visiting professor, first for the Organization of American States at the Escuela Nacional de Antropología y Historia, Mexico (1961) and then at Yale University (1962). Murra received in 1963 a three-year National Science Foundation grant for his well known study of Huánuco, Peru. During his fieldwork for this project, he continued to teach at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Peru (1965-1966) and the Universidad de Chile (1965). He also worked to improve the educational opportunities for South American students by supporting efforts to establish a graduate school at the Universidad de La Plata. Upon returning to the United States, Murra was a National Academy of Sciences postdoctoral associate at the Smithsonian Institution (1966-1967).

From 1968 to 1982, Murra served as Professor of Anthropology at Cornell University. He continued to travel extensively to archives in Spain and South America during this period and held a number of academic posts at other institutions including Yale University (1970-1971), the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University (1974-1975), l'Université Paris X Nanterre (1975-1976), the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia in Mexico (1977) and John Hopkins University (1981). He also served as the president of the American Society of Ethnohistory (1970-1971), the American Ethnological Society (1972-1973), and the Institute of Andean Research (1977-1983). Murra's efforts to cultivate educational opportunities for South American graduate students and promote international dialogue among students from different nationalities produced three well known programs: the comparative seminar on the Andes and Mesoamerica that he organized with Angel Palerm (1972), the Lake Titicaca field project he ran with Luis G. Lumbrebas (1973) and the Otoño Andino held at Cornell University (1977). In 1969, he received the honor of being the Lewis Henry Morgan Lecturer at the University of Rochester.

Following his retirement from Cornell University (1982), Murra served as a consultant to the Banco Nacional de Bolivia at the Museo Nacional de Etnografía, La Paz (1982-1983). He received a Guggenheim Fellowship (1983-1984), that enabled him to pursue research at the Archivo Nacional and the Academia de la Historia in Madrid and the Archivo General de Indias in Seville. During his time in Spain, he also taught at the Universities of Madrid and Seville and at the Institut Catalá d'Antropologi in Barcelonia (1985-1986). The following year, he was a Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun, Peru. He then pursued research at the Instituto de Antropologia de Buenos Aires (1988-1989) and then returned to Spain, where he was a fellow at the Archivo de Indias (1990-1991). In 1993, the Universidad de Barcelona awarded him the honor of Doctor Honoris Causa.

Murra was married and divorced twice; neither marriage produced any children. He first married Virginia Miller in 1936; the date of their divorce is unknown. His second marriage to Elizabeth "Tommy" Sawyer lasted thirteen years (1945-1958).

Bibliography of Selected Publications

1943 -- Survey and Excavations in Southern Ecuador. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, Publication 528, Anthropological series volume 35, May 15, 1943. Co-authored with Donald Collier.

1948 -- "The Cayapa and Colorado" in the Handbook of South American Indians. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office

1951 -- Soviet Linguistic Controversy, translated from the Soviet Press. New York: King's Crown Press. Co-authored with Robert M. Hankin and Fred Holling.

1956 -- The Economic Organization of the Inca State. Chicago: University of Chicago.

1962 -- Cloth and its Functions in the Inca State.

1964 -- Visita hecha a la Provincia de Chucuito por Garci Diez de San Miguel en el año 1567. Lima: Casa de la Cultura del Perú. Co-authored with Waldemar Espinoza Soriano and Frey Pedro Gutiérrez Flores.

1966 -- New Data on Retainer and Servile Populations in Tawantinsuyu.

1967 -- Visita de la provincia de León de Huánuco en 1562. Iñigo Ortiz de Zúñiga, visitador. Huánuco, Peru: Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán, Facultad de Letras y Educación. Contains articles by several authors.

1970 -- Current Research and Prospects in Andean Ethnohistory. Ithaca: Cornell University.

1975 -- Formaciones económicas y políticas del mundo andino. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

1976 -- American Anthropology, the Early Years. St. Paul: West Publishing Co. Edited for the American Ethnological Society

1978 -- La organización económica del Estado inca. México: Siglo Veintiuno. Murra's Ph.D. thesis translated from English to Spanish by Daniel R. Wagner.

1980 -- Formazioni economiche e politiche nel mondo andino: saggi di etnostoria. Torino: Giulio Einaudi. Primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno Guamán Poma de Ayala (Waman Puma). Co-authored with Rolena Adorno and Jorge L. Urioste. Republished in 1987. The Economic Organization of the Inca State. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.

1981 -- The "Vertical Control" of a Maximum of Ecologic Tiers in the Economies of Andean Societies. The Mit'a Obligations of Ethnic groups to the Inka State. Las etnocategorías de un Khipu estatal.

1983 -- Los Olleros del Inka: Hacia una Historia y Arqueología del Qollasuyu. La Paz: Centrol de Investigaciones Históricas.

1986 -- Anthropological History of Andean Polities. New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited with Nathan Wachtel and Jacques Revel. Originally published in French in 1978 as Anthropologie historique des sociétés andines by Editions de la Maison des science de l'homme in Paris.

1987 -- La teoría de la complementariedad vertical eco-simbiótica. La Paz: Hisbol. Co-authored with Ramiro Condarco Morales. Civilizatie inca: organizarea economica a statului incas. Bucharest: Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica. Murra's Ph.D. thesis translated from English to Romanian by Murra's sister, Ata Iosifescu.

1991 -- Visita de los valles de Sonqo en los yunka de coca de La Paz (1568-1570). Madrid: Instituto de Cooperación Iberoamericana: Quinto Centenario: Instituo de Estudios Fiscales.

1996 -- Las cartas de Arguedas. Lima: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Fondo Editorial. Co-authored with Mercedes López-Baralt.

1999 -- Historia general de América Latina / 1. Las sociedades originales. Madrid: Editorial Trotta. Co-authored with Teresa Rojas Rabiela.

2002 -- El mundo andino: población, medio ambiente y economía. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peuanos: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

2000 -- Nispa ninchis/decimos diciendo : conversaciones con John Murra. Lima: IEP –Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and IAR – Institute of Andean Research. Edited by Victoria Castro, Carlos Aldunate and Jorge Hidalgo Los esfuerzos de Sísifo, coversaciones sobre las ciencias sociales en América Latina. Heredia, Costa Rica: EUNA. A collection of interviews of John Victor Murra and others conducted by Fernando Calderón.
Related Materials:
National Anthropological Archives holds additional materials related to Murra in the American Ethnological Society records, the American Society for Ethnohistory records, and the Handbook of South American Indians records.

The New York University Libraries, Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives holds materials related to Murra in Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archive (ALBA), John Dollard Research Files for Fear and Courage under Battle Conditions, and James Lardner Papers.

The Truman Presidential Museum and Library holds Records on the President's Committee on Civil Rights Record Group 220.
\:
In 2008, the VHS videos in the collection were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives. Additional videotapes were sent to the NAA and transferred to HSFA.
Provenance:
The John Victor Murra papers came to the National Anthropological Archives in several installments over three decades. David Block of Cornell University assisted Murra in selecting and identifying materials for the installment of the collection which arrived at the Smithsonian Institution in September 2003.
Restrictions:
The John Victor Murra papers are open for research. Some materials are restricted for privacy reasons.

Access to the John Victor Murra papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Correspondence -- 1927-1998
Notes
Citation:
John Victor Murra papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1982-59
See more items in:
John Victor Murra papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f075cb2e-bf8e-40c9-8fea-e0aae2701d3c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1982-59

James Henri Howard Papers

Creator:
Howard, James H., 1925-1982 (James Henri)  Search this
Correspondent:
Woolworth, Alan R.  Search this
Weslager, C.A.  Search this
Witthoft, John, 1921-1993  Search this
Swauger, James Lee  Search this
Turnbull, Colin  Search this
Horn, Frances L.  Search this
Garcia, Louis  Search this
Fogelson, Raymond D.  Search this
Hodge, William  Search this
Hayink, J.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Ervin, Sam J. Jr  Search this
Feraca, Stephen E., 1934-  Search this
Feest, Christian F.  Search this
Cree, Charlie  Search this
Davis, Edward Mott  Search this
De Busk, Charles R.  Search this
Iadarola, Angelo  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
Bunge, Gene  Search this
Cavendish, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Blake, Leonard W.  Search this
Dean, Nora Thompson  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Smith, John L.  Search this
Swanton, John Robert  Search this
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Peterson, John H.  Search this
Paredes, J. Anthony, 1939- (James Anthony)  Search this
Schleisser, Karl H.  Search this
Reed, Nelson A.  Search this
Medford, Claude W.  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Opler, Morris Edward  Search this
Nettl, Bruno, 1930-  Search this
Kraft, Herbert C.  Search this
Johnson, Michael G.  Search this
Lindsey-Levine, Victoria  Search this
Kurath, Gertrude  Search this
Adams, Richard N. (Richard Newbold), 1924-  Search this
Allen, James H.  Search this
Barksdale, Mary Lee  Search this
Battise, Jack  Search this
Names:
Lone Star Steel Company  Search this
Extent:
10.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Euchee (Yuchi)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Oklahoma -- Archeology
Date:
1824-1992
bulk 1950-1982
Summary:
To a considerable degree, the James H. Howard papers consist of manuscript copies of articles, book, speeches, and reviews that document his professional work in anthropology, ethnology, ethnohistory, archeology, linguistics, musicology, and folklore between 1950 and 1982. Among these are a few unpublished items. Notes are relatively scant, there being somewhat appreciable materials for the Chippewa, Choctaw, Creek, Dakota, Omaha, Ponca, Seminole, and Shawnee. The chief field materials represented in the collection are sound recordings and photographs, but many of the latter are yet to be unidentified. A series of color photographs of Indian artifacts in folders are mostly identified and represent the extensive American Indian Cultural collection of costumes and artifacts that Howard acquired and created. Other documents include copies of papers and other research materials of colleagues. There is very little original material related to archeological work in the collection and that which is present concerns contract work for the Lone State Steel Company.
Scope and Contents:
The James Henri Howard papers document his research and professional activities from 1949-1982 and primarily deal with his work as an anthropologist, archeologist, and ethnologist, studying Native American languages & cultures. The collection consists of Series 1 correspondence; Series 2 writings and research, which consists of subject files (language and culture research materials), manuscripts, research proposals, Indian claim case materials, Howard's publications, publications of others, and bibliographical materials; Series 3 sound recordings of Native American music and dance; Series 4 photographs; and Series 5 drawings and artwork.

Howard was also a linguist, musicologist, and folklorist, as well as an informed and able practitioner in the fields of dance and handicrafts. His notable books include Choctaw Music and Dance; Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic, and Religion; and Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and its Cultural Background.

Some materials are oversize, specifically these three Winter Count items: 1. a Dakota Winter Count made of cloth in 1953 at the request of James H. Howard, 2. a drawing of British Museum Winter Count on 4 sheets of paper, and 3. Photographs of a Winter Count.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 5 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1960-1982, undated; Series 2. Writings and Research, 1824-1992; Series 3. Sound Recordings, 1960-1979; Series 4. Photographs, 1879-1985; Series 5. Drawings and Artwork, 1928-1982.
Chronology:
1925 -- James Henri Howard was born on September 10 in Redfield, South Dakota.

1949 -- Received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Nebraska.

1950 -- Received his Master of Arts from the University of Nebraska and began a prolific record of publishing.

1950-1953 -- Began his first professional employment as an archaeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum in Bismarck.

1955-1957 -- Was a museum lecturer at the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum.

1957 -- James H. Howard received his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan. Joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys in the summer.

1957-1963 -- Taught anthropology at the University of North Dakota.

1962 -- Chief archeologist at the Fortress of Louisberg Archeological Project in Nova Scotia.

1963-1968 -- Taught anthropology at the University of South Dakota; State Archeologist of South Dakota; Director of the W. H. Over Dakota Museum.

1963-1966 -- Director of the Institute of Indian Studies, University of South Dakota.

1968-1982 -- Associate professor of anthropology at Oklahoma State University at Stillwater (became a full professor in 1971).

1979 -- Consulted for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.

1982 -- Died October 1 after a brief illness.
Biographical/Historical note:
James H. Howard was trained in anthropology at the University of Nebraska (B.A., 1949; M.A., 1950) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1957). In 1950-1953, he served as archeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum; and, in 1955-1957, he was on the staff of the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum. During the summer of 1957, he joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys. Between 1957 and 1963, he taught anthropology at the Universtity of North Dakota. Between 1963 and 1968, he served in several capacities with the University of South Dakota including assistant and associate professor, director of the Institute of Indian Studies (1963-1966), and Director of the W.H. Over Museum (1963-1968). In 1968, he joined the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University, where he achieved the rank of professor in 1970. In 1979, he was a consultant for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.

Howard's abiding interest were the people of North America, whom he studied both as an ethnologist and archeologist. Between 1949 and 1982, he worked with the Ponca, Omaha, Yankton and Yaktonai Dakota, Yamasee, Plains Ojibwa (or Bungi), Delaware, Seneca-Cayuga, Prairie Potatwatomi of Kansas, Mississipi and Oklahoma Choctaw, Oklahoma Seminole, and Pawnee. His interest in these people varied from group to group. With some he carried out general culture studies; with other, special studies of such phenomena as ceremonies, art, dance, and music. For some, he was interest in environmental adaptation and land use, the latter particularly for the Pawnee, Yankton Dakota, Plains Ojibwa, Turtle Mountain Chippewa, and Ponca, for which he served as consultant and expert witness in suits brought before the United Stated Indian Claims Commisssion. A long-time museum man, Howard was also interested in items of Indian dress, articles associated with ceremonies, and other artifacts. He was "a thoroughgoing participant-observer and was a member of the Ponca Hethuska Society, a sharer in ceremonial activities of many Plains tribes, and a first-rate 'powwow man'." (American Anthropologist 1986, 88:692).

As an archeologist, Howard worked at Like-a-Fishhook Village in North Dakota, Spawn Mound and other sites in South Dakota, Gavin Point in Nebraska and South Dakota, Weston and Hogshooter sites in Oklahoma, and the Fortess of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia. He also conducted surveys for the Lone Star Steel Company in Haskall, Latimer, Le Flore and Pittsburg counties in Oklahoma.
Related Materials:
Howard's American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts, that he acquired and created during his lifetime, is currently located at the Milwaukee Public Museum. In Boxes 19-21 of the James Henri Howard Papers, there are photographs with accompanying captions and descriptions in binders of his American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts that his widow, Elfriede Heinze Howard, created in order to sell the collection to a museum.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by James Henri Howard's wife, Elfriede Heinz Howard, in 1988-1990, 1992, & 1994.
Restrictions:
The James Henri Howard papers are open for research. Access to the James Henri Howard papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnology -- United States  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Folklore -- American Indian  Search this
Powwows  Search this
Citation:
James Henri Howard Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1994-30
See more items in:
James Henri Howard Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30379c657-37d6-4c9e-99c4-eb8f7be76c10
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1994-30
Online Media:

Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers

Creator:
Wedel, Mildred Mott  Search this
Wedel, Waldo R. (Waldo Rudolph), 1908-1996  Search this
Names:
American Antiquity  Search this
Extent:
13 Items (2 oversize boxes, 7 printing blocks, and 4 map drawers. )
51 Linear feet (115 document boxes, 2 card file boxes, 1 5x6x2.5" box, and 1 record storage box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1893-1994
bulk 1930-1993
Scope and Contents:
While these papers primarily consist of Waldo's archeological work in the field and his many publications, the collection also contains Mildred's correspondence and manuscripts, most of which concern her ethnohistorical and archeological work, conferences in which she participated, and her publications, particularly those on La Harpe. Most of the material dates between 1930 and 1990.

A useful way to consider these materials is to conceptualize them as a continuum from project proposals to funding, into fieldwork materials, and ultimately toward manuscripts and publications. These texts generate reputations in academic and museum circles, in this case, drawing Waldo into various organizations and conferences throughout his career. As he rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian, his responsibilities and visibility within the museum also increased. This gradual transformation is reflected in the correspondence, organizational and administrative, and research and field work series. Because these and other facets of Waldo's career both constantly and consistently interfaced, the boundaries between the various series and types of materials contained in this collection are highly permeable. This should be kept in mind when reviewing them.

Among Waldo's correspondence are letters from A.T. Hill, F.M. Setzler, and W.D. Strong. The Organizational and Administrative Material contains material from the Department of Anthropology, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Foundation, the River Basin Survey, and Tulumniu research. Also included is material from the 5th through the 44th Plains conferences, as well as material from Society for American Archaeology meetings and seminars. Writings include both published and unpublished works. The published works are mainly those by Waldo, however, there are several publications from Mildred. Many of the publications are articles from journals, such as the American Anthropologist and American Antiquity. Drafts and writing notes of both Waldo and Mildred make up the bulk of the writings series. The Research and Fieldwork Materials contains papers relating to Waldo's fieldwork on the River Basin Surveys, as well as his work in Kansas, Missouri and Michigan. In addition, there is material relating to his expert testimony in claims cases brought by the Missouri and Oto, Pawnee, and Kansa Indians (which also involved Mildred) during the 1940s and 1950s. The series of Photographs consists of lantern slides, prints, and negatives. There are extensive photographs of Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska, including field sites, artifacts, bones and landscape. The Personal series contains a miscellany of Waldo's materials, such as his business card and materials from his days as a study at UC Berkeley. Finally, there are several drawers of site maps, topographic maps, aeronautical maps and county maps of Kansas, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Missouri.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The papers of Waldo Wedel and Mildred Wedel are organized into the following series: Correspondence; Organizational and Administrative Material; Writings; Research and Fieldwork Materials; Personal; Photographs; Printing Blocks; and Maps.
Biographical Note:
Waldo R. Wedel was born in Newton, Kansas in 1908. He grew up in and around Newton with Emil Haury. He graduated from Bethel Academy in 1928 and earned his B.A. at the University of Arizona in 1930. It was at Arizona that Waldo began his development as a field archeologist, working under Dean Cummings and Haury. He continued his education at University of Nebraska, where he was a student of William Duncan Strong, who trained him in Plains archeology and introduced him to the direct historical approach. Through an apprenticeship under Strong, Waldo conducted fieldwork in Signal Butte, Loup River Valley, and in eastern Nebraska during 1930-1933. After earning his M.A. in 1931, he enrolled in the doctoral program at University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1936). During his education at Berkeley, although his chief mentor was Alfred Kroeber, he was strongly influenced by the ecological ideas of geographer Carl Sauer. In the late 1930's, Wedel began to concentrate on a survey of his native Kansas, a region little known archeologically. The Kansas survey began during the field seasons of 1937 and 1938. 1n 1938, he also excavated at a Hopewell site in Platte County, Missouri. In the summer of 1946, Wedel was detailed to establish and direct the Missouri Basin Project (MBP) of the Bureau of American Ethnology's River Basin Surveys (RBS). He continued as the MBP director until 1950 and was detailed each summer to the MBP headquarters in Lincoln, Nebraska. He also worked at sites in South Dakota, Colorado, and the Texas Panhandle from the 1950s to the 1970s.

Except for early work for the Nebraska Historical Society and Gila Pueblo Foundation, Waldo's institutional affiliation was with the Smithsonian Institution. In 1936, he was appointed assistant curator under Neil M. Judd in the Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (USNM). He was made associate curator in 1942. During World War II, he was detailed for a brief period to the Military Planning Division of the Quartermaster Corps, charged with analysis of captured foreign material. In 1950, he was named curator of archeology at the USNM. In 1962, he became head curator of the Department of Anthropology, and in 1964-1965, he was acting head of the newly organized Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. He became Senior Archeologist in 1965. In 1977, he retired from what had become the Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History and became curator emeritus. He continued activity with the department until 1990 when he moved to Boulder, Colorado. He died in 1996.

Mildred Mott was born in Marengo, Iowa on September 7, 1912. She was trained in history at the University of Iowa (A.B. 1934) and in anthropology with an emphasis on archeology at the University of Chicago (M.A., 1938). She also attended University of New Mexico Jemez Field School in the summer of 1933. She conducted fieldwork under Ellison Orr at Hill Mound Group (13AM105) and Brazell's Island Bear Effigy Mound (13AM81) in Allamakee County in 1936. In the following year, she worked at the Kincaid site in Illinois. She also assisted Florence Hawley in the University of Chicago Dendrochronology Laboratory (1937-38). In 1938, she served as field director for Charles Keyes' archaeological excavation near Webster City, Iowa.

In 1939, Mildred married Waldo Wedel and afterwards accompanied him on many trips to the field. In addition, she pursued an interest in ethnohistory that she developed in school. In particular, she worked on the ethnohistory of regions where her husband was working, often taking advantage of field seasons to retrace routes of early European explorers. Thus, she carried out intensive work on French explorations in the Plains areas (particularly Jean-Baptiste Bénard, Sieur de la Harpe; Pierre-Charles Le Sueur; Claude-Charles Dutisne; and Jean-Baptiste Teuteau). She also published on Plains Caddoan origins and on the Iowa and the Wichita. In 1978-1979, under contract with the Corps of Engineers, she studied the ethnohistory of a Wichita village and French post at the Deer Creek site, Kay County, Oklahoma.

In 1974, Mildred was appointed a Smithsonian Institution research associate in anthropology. In 1985, she was one of several women honored by the American Anthropological Association for their long-time involvement in anthropology. She died in 1995.

Waldo R. Wedel (see also Appendix A: Fieldwork of Waldo R. Wedel)

1908 -- Born in Newton, Kansas

1930 -- B.A. from University of Arizona

1930-1933 -- Apprenticeship under William Duncan Strong at Signal Butte, Loup River Valley, Nebraska

1931 -- M. A. from University of Nebraska

1936 -- Assistant Curator under Neil M. Judd, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (USNM) Ph.D. from University of California at Berkeley

1937-1938 -- Field work in Kansas

1938 -- Excavation at a Hopewell site in Platte County, Missouri

1939 -- Married Mildred Mott Wedel

1942 -- Associate Curator, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (USNM)

1946 -- Established Missouri Basin Project (MBP) of the Bureau of American Ethnology's River Basin Surveys (RBS), serves as Director

1946-1950 -- Served with Military Planning Division of the Quartermaster Corps

1950 -- Curator of Archeology, United States National Museum (USNM)

1962 -- Head Curator of the Department of Anthropology

1964-1965 -- Acting Head of newly organized Smithsonian Office of Anthropology

1965 -- Senior Archeologist, Smithsonian Office of Anthropology

1977 -- Curator Emeritus, retired from Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History

1977-1990 -- Continued involvement with Department of Anthropology

1990 -- Moved to Boulder, Colorado

1996 -- Died

Mildred Mott Wedel

1912 -- Born in Marengo, Iowa

1933 -- Attended University of New Mexico Jemez Field School during the summer

1934 -- A.B. from University of Iowa

1936 -- Fieldwork under Ellison Orr at Hill Mound Group (13AM105) and Brazell's Island Bear Effigy Mound (13AM81) in Allamakee County

1937 -- Fieldwork at Kincaid Site in Illinois Assisted Florence Hawley in the University of Chicago Dendrochronology Laboratory

1938 -- M.A. from University of Chicago Field director for Charles Keyes' archaeological excavation near Webster City, Iowa

1939 -- Married Waldo R. Wedel

1974 -- Research associate, Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History

1978-1979 -- Studied the ethnohistory of a Wichita village and French post at the Deer Creek site, Kay County, Oklahoma

1990 -- Moved to Boulder, Colorado

1995 -- Died
Appendix A: Fieldwork of Waldo R. Wedel:
This timeline was created by Waldo R. Wedel in the 1990s.

1929 -- Place: Arizona (Turkey Hill Pueblo, near Flagstaff)Organizational Affiliation: University of Arizona field party (BC)

1930 -- Place: Nebraska, eastern and southern (Rock Bluffs, Gates, Dooley, Hill sites)Organizational Affiliation: University of Nebraska field party (WDS)Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1935. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. SMC 93:10.

1931 -- Place: Nebraska, Loup valley (Burkett, Gray‑Wolfe, Sweetwater sites)Organizational Affiliation: University of Nebraska field party leaderReported in: Dunlevy, M. L. 1936. A Comparison of the Cultural Manifestations of the Burkett (Nance County) and Gray‑Wolfe (Colfax County) sites.Reported in: Chapters in Nebraska Archeology, pp. 147‑247.Reported in: Champe, J. L. 1936. The Sweetwater Culture Complex. Chapters in Nebraska Archeology, pp. 249‑299.

1932 -- Place: Nebraska (Signal Butte) and South Dakota (Leavenworth)Organizational Affiliation: Bureau of American Ethnology (WDS)Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1935. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. SMC 93:10.Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1933. Studying the Arikara and their Neighbors on the Upper Missouri. Explor. and Field­ Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1932.

1933 -- Place: Nebraska (Medicine Creek)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska State Historical Society (ATH)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1934. Preliminary Notes on the Archeology of Medicine Valley in Southwestern Nebraska. Nebraska History Magazine, 14:3:144-166. Place: Oklahoma (Comanche ethnography near Layton)Organizational Affiliation: Laboratory of Anthropology Fellow (R Linton)

1933-1934 -- Place: California (Buena Vista Lake)Organizational Affiliation: CWA relief expedition (WDS)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1941. Archeological Investigations at Buena Vista Lake, BAE Bulletin 130.

1934 -- Place: Nebraska and Kansas (Republican Valley; Minneapolis, Paint Creek)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska State Historical Society (ATH)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1935. Reports on Field Work by the Archeological Survey of the Nebraska State Historical Society, May 1 to July 23, 1934. Nebraska History Magazine, 15:3:130-256.

1935 -- Place: California (Sacramento Valley: Howells Point, Redding; San Francisco Bay shellmounds)Organizational Affiliation: University of California field party leader

1936 -- Place: Nebraska (survey in Loup River drainage)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska Historical Society and Gila Pueblo

1937 -- Place: Missouri and Kansas (Renner, Doniphan, Manhattan)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1943. Archeological Investigations in Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri. U.S.N.M., Bulletin 183.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An IntroductionReported in: To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.

1938 -- Place: Missouri, Colorado (Steed-Kisker, vault mounds; Purgatoire survey)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1943. Archeological Investigations in Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri. U.S.N.M., Bulletin 183.

1939 -- Place: Kansas (Scott and Lane Counties)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An Introduction To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.

1940 -- Place: Kansas (Rice and Cowley Counties)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An Introduction To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.

1943 -- Place: Mexico (La Venta)Organizational Affiliation: Smithsonian‑National Geographic Society expedition under MWSReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1952. Structural Investigations in 1943. In: La Venta, Tabasco, a Study of Olmec Ceramics and Art, by P. Drucker, BAE ‑ Bull. 153, pp. 34-79.

1946-1949 -- Place: Missouri River BasinOrganizational Affiliation: Field director Missouri Basin Project, River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian InstitutionReported in: Wedel, W. R., 1947. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program: Summary Report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1946. SMC. 107:6:1‑17.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1948. SMC 111:2.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1953. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 1; BAE ‑ Bull. 154, pp. 1‑59.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1953. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 2; BAE ‑ Bull. 154, pp. 61‑101.

1951 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1952 -- Place: Wyoming (Horner site)Organizational Affiliation: Archeologist on Smithsonian-Princeton expedition.Reported in: Frison, Geo. C. and L. C. Todd, eds. I987 The Horner Site: Type Site of the Cody Cultural Complex. Ch. 2 History of the Princeton and Smithsonian Investigations. Academic Press, Orlando, Fla.

1955 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1956 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1957 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST203)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief

1961-1962 -- Place: Littleton, Colo. (5DO201)Organizational Affiliation: Smithsonian archeological & paleont. exped. (NSF G‑17609: Lamb Spring)

1964 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Southwestern KansasOrganizational Affiliation: NSF grant GS-556

1965 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co)Organizational Affiliation: NSF grant GS-556

1966-1967 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co)Organizational Affiliation: NSF grant 05-556; Smithsonian Res. Award. 3301

1971 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co.)

1972-1973 -- Place: Archeological investigations at Chalk Hollow, Palo Duro Canyon, TexasOrganizational Affiliation: Smithsonian Research AwardReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1975. Chalk Hollow: Culture sequence and chronology in the Texas panhandle. Proceedings, XLI International Congress of Americanists, Mexico, Sept. 2-7, 1974, pp270-278.
Related Materials:
Additional correspondence from Waldo Wedel can be found in various collections at the National Anthropological Archives, including the William Duncan Strong papers, Albert Clanton Spaulding papers, Donald Lehmer papers, Frederick Johnson papers, Manuscript 4846, Manuscript 4192, Department of Anthropology records, River Basin Surveys records, Society for American Archaeology records, Central States Anthropological Society records, and Anthropological Society of Washington records. Photographs of Waldo can be found in Photo lot 33, Photo 83-13, Photo 58, Photo Lot 85-12, Manuscript 4261(1), Negative MHT 65124, Negative 728413, and the Source Print Collection. Manuscript 7450 is a recording of Waldo and others giving a talk on the history of anthropology at the Smithsonian. See Manuscript 2011-29 for an oral history interview with Waldo, conducted by Larry Banks.

Correspondence from Mildred can be found in the Robert King Harris papers and the William Duncan Strong papers. Manuscript 7293 is a recording of the Ewers-Wedel symposium, at which Mildred was a speaker.

At the Smithsonian Institution Archives, photos of Waldo can be found in the Kjell Bloch Sandved Photographic Files and the Smithsonian Institution Office of Public Information, Productions records.
Separated Materials:
The following films were separated from the collection and transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives:

6 reels of 16MM kodachrome film-original reversal 5 reels of Medicine Creek...1947-48 (includes Boysen Camp (1947) and Brule Flat site) 1 reel of Bison Kill (Powder River) Ghost Cave near Billings, MT., 1947

The following artifacts were separated from the collection and transferred to the ethnology and archaeology collections of the Department of Anthropology:

Sherds from Peppiatt-Lyons Metal ice shoe cleats Glass beads
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel in 1990. Additional materials were donated by their son, Waldo M. Wedel in 2011.
Restrictions:
The Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers are open for research. Personnel files and grant proposals sent to Waldo Wedel to review are restricted. Waldo and Mildred Wedel's monographs are stored at an off-site facility.

Access to the Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Citation:
NAA.1990-20, Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1990-20
See more items in:
Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d7ca58ad-ffbf-4771-96eb-ae42ae40ae03
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1990-20

William C. Sturtevant papers

Topic:
Handbook of North American Indians
Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Names:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Extent:
220 Linear feet (The total extent of the collection is 191.41 linear feet (consisting of 473 document boxes and 2 record boxes) plus 254 sound recordings, 94 computer disks, 42 card file boxes, 85 oversize folders, 9 rolled items, 18 binder boxes, and 3 oversize boxes. Of the total extent, 4.79 linear feet (14 boxes) are restricted.)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Realia
Research
Notes
Office files
Theses
Slides (photographs)
Sound recordings
Exhibition catalogs
Field notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Microfilms
Newsletters
Manuscripts
Memorandums
Articles
Card files
Books
Artifacts
Negatives
Date:
1952-2007
Summary:
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and other professional activities. The collection is comprised of books, sound recordings, research and field notes, realia, artifacts, clippings, microfilm, negatives, slides, photographs, manuscripts, correspondence, memorandums, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, and bibliographies.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and his involvement in various professional activities. The collection is comprised of research and field notes, sound recordings, realia, clippings, negatives, slides, prints, published and unpublished writings, correspondence, memorandums, conference papers and meeting notes, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, bibliographies, student files such as class notes and papers from Sturtevant's years as an anthropology student, teaching materials including lecture notes and exams, daily planners, passports, military records, artwork including prints and lithographs, maps, and computer files.

The materials in this collection document Sturtevant's career as a preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, university professor, his role as General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, and his contributions to the field of Anthropology. From his early work with the Seminole Indians of Florida to his forays into Burma, and his decades-long study of how Native Americans have been depicted in artistic and popular culture, Sturtevant's diverse intellectual interests are represented in his research files. A copious note taker, Sturtevant captured his observations and opinions of everything from meetings with colleagues to museum exhibits. Sturtevant's commitment to the anthropological profession can be found in the notes and programs of the many conferences, symposiums, and lecture series he attended and at which he presented. He also held numerous leadership positions in various professional associations and sat on the board of directors/trustees for several cultural organizations including Survival International and the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation. Sturtevant was respected for his vast knowledge of indigenous peoples and he received a voluminous amount of correspondence from colleagues who often included copies of their papers and grant proposals. He kept many of these works, which, it appears he used as reference material. Sturtevant's own work is reflected in his writings; he published over 200 scholarly papers, articles, and books.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized in 14 series: 1. Correspondence, 1951-2008; 2. Research Files, 1851, 1860s, 1880s, 1890, 1939-2006; 3. Writings, 1952-2006; 4. Professional Activities, 1952-2006; 5. Smithsonian, 1954-2008; 6. Handbook of North American Indians, 1971-2007; 7. Biographical Files, 1933-2007; 8. Student Files, 1944-1985; 9. Subject Files, 1902-2002; 10. Photographs, 1927-2004; 11. Artwork, 1699-1998; 12. Maps, 1949-1975; 13. Sound Recordings, 1950-2000; 14. Computer Files, 1987-2006.
Biographical/Historical note:
William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007), preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, and university professor, was best known for his contributions to Seminole ethnology, as curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, and for his work as the general editor of the Handbook of North American Indians.

Sturtevant's passion for studying Native peoples began at a young age. In third grade "after a class on American Indians, he asked his father what kind of people study Indians, and his father replied, 'Anthropologists.' Sturtevant decided then that he would make anthropology his career" (Merrill 11). After graduating with honors from the University of California at Berkeley in 1949, Sturtevant went on to Yale University to complete his graduate work in anthropology. When it came time to decide on what area of North America he should focus his research, one of his faculty members at Yale, Irving Rouse, "suggested he consider the Seminoles of south Florida. By the end of his first fieldwork season, Sturtevant was convinced that the dearth of ethnographic information about these Seminoles and their status as one of the least acculturated of all North American Indian societies justified ethnographic research among them and offered the possibility of making an important contribution to North American ethnology" (Merrill 13). Sturtevant spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 conducting preliminary fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole and in 1952 he took up temporary residence at Big Cypress Reservation to undertake research for his dissertation, "The Mikasuki Seminole: Medical Beliefs and Practices." This work focused on Seminole medicine, but also included Sturtevant's analysis of Seminole worldview, religion, history, inter-ethnic relations, material culture, economy, kinship, language, and social organization.

In 1954, while he was finishing his dissertation, Sturtevant made the transition from student of anthropology to professional anthropologist. He was hired as an instructor in Yale's Anthropology Department and began his career in museum work as an assistant curator of anthropology at the Yale Peabody Museum. After receiving his PhD from Yale in 1955, Sturtevant moved on to the Smithsonian Institution, where he accepted a position as a research anthropologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE). This position afforded Sturtevant the chance to continue to explore his many research interests in ways that a full time professorship or museum curatorship could not. Over the next ten years he studied the Catawba in South Carolina; the Seneca and Cayuga nations of the Iroquois League in New York, Oklahoma, and Ontario; continued his work with the Seminole; visited European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture; and spent a year in Burma. In 1963, Sturtevant and his wife, Theda Maw, the daughter of a prominent Burmese family, took their three young children to Burma so that they could visit with Maw's family. Sturtevant took this as an opportunity to branch out from his Native American research and spent the year visiting neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examining archival materials, studying the Burmese language, learning about Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, and taking photographs. He also collected 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian.

When Sturtevant returned from Burma, he found the BAE had been dissolved. In 1965, he was transferred from the now-defunct BAE to the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), where he became curator of North American Ethnology, a position he held for the next forty-two years. During his tenure at NMNH Sturtevant oversaw all the North American ethnology collections, planned exhibitions, served on committees, and sponsored interns and fellows. One of Sturtevant's primary duties at NMNH was serving as the General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, "a major multi-volume reference work summarizing anthropological, linguistic, and historical knowledge about native peoples north of Mexico" (Jackson). Each volume was designed to represent a geographic or topical area of Americanist study. As General Editor, Sturtevant selected volume editors, chapter authors, oversaw office staff, and proofread manuscripts over the course of production.

Besides focusing on the Handbook, much of Sturtevant's time was taken up by responsibilities he held outside the Institution. Sturtevant was extremely involved in professional anthropological associations and held many leadership positions. Fresh out of graduate school, he began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1957. He later became a member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society, served as book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist from 1962-1968, was a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums and was both vice president and president of the committee once it became the Council for Museum Anthropology, was on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives, served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation from 1976-1982 and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986, and sat on the Board of Directors of Survival International from 1982-1988. He was President of the American Society for Ethnohistory, the American Ethnological Society, the American Anthropological Association, and the Anthropological Society of Washington. Sturtevant also taught classes at Johns Hopkins University as an adjunct professor in the Department of Anthropology, served as a consultant on exhibits at other museums, and reviewed manuscripts for scholarly publications.

Sturtevant remained active in the profession throughout his later years. After divorcing Theda Maw in 1986, he married Sally McLendon, a fellow anthropologist, in 1990 and they undertook several research projects together. Sturtevant was recognized for his dedication and contributions to the field of anthropology in 1996 when he was awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters by Brown University, and in 2002 when his colleagues published a festschrift in his honor, Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant.

Sturtevant died on March 2, 2007 at the Collingswood Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Rockville, MD after suffering from emphysema.

Sources Consulted

Estrada, Louie. 2007. William C. Sturtevant; Expert on Indians. Washington Post, March 17. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/16/AR2007031602273.html, accessed August 31, 2012.

Jackson, Jason Baird. 2007. William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007). http://museumanthropology.blogspot.com/2007/03/william-c-sturtevant-1926-2007.html, accessed August 31, 2012.

Merrill, William L. 2002. William Curtis Sturtevant, Anthropologist. In Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant. William L. Merrill and Ives Goddard, eds. Pp. 11-36. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

1926 -- Born July 26 in Morristown, NJ

1944 -- Entered the University of California at Berkeley as a second-semester freshman

1944 -- Attended summer school at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico in Mexico City where he took courses on Mexican archaeology and South American ethnology

1945 -- Drafted into the United States Navy

1946 -- Received an honorable discharge from the Navy with the rank of pharmacist's mate third class and returned to UC Berkeley

1947 -- Attended the University of New Mexico's summer field school in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

1949 -- January: Received his Bachelor's degree with honors in anthropology from UC Berkeley

1949 -- Began graduate studies at Yale University

1950-1951 -- Spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 in Florida conducting fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole

1951 -- Conducted his first research study of the Iroquois, a classification of Seneca musical instruments, their construction and use, with Harold Conklin

1952 -- May: Moved to Big Cypress Reservation in Florida to conduct research for his dissertation. He focused on Seminole medicine, but also collected physical anthropological data such as blood-type frequencies, handedness, and color blindness

1952 -- July 26: Married Theda Maw

1954 -- Hired by Yale University as an instructor in the Department of Anthropology and as an assistant curator of anthropology in the Yale Peabody Museum

1955 -- Received PhD in anthropology from Yale University

1956 -- Joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) as a research anthropologist

1957 -- Began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1957 -- Traveled to Rock Hill, South Carolina to collect linguistic data from Sam Blue, the last member of the Catawba tribe to have maintained some proficiency in the Catawba language. While there, he made a small collection of Catawba pottery for the United States National Museum

1957-1958 -- Spent seven weeks continuing his research among the New York Seneca

1959 -- Returned to Florida to study Seminole ethnobotany. He also collected ethnographic materials, especially objects made for the tourist market, which he deposited in the United States National Museum

1959-1960 -- Member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society

1960 -- July and August: Visited 17 European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture

1961-1962 -- Spent the summers of these years conducting ethnographic fieldwork among the Seneca-Cayuga in Oklahoma

1962 -- October: Visited the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, Canada to conduct fieldwork among the Seneca and Cayuga there

1962-1968 -- Book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist

1963 -- October: Spent the year in Burma; visited neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examined photographs in several archives, studied the Burmese language, and read extensively about the country's history and culture. Assembled notes on Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, took hundreds of photographs, and made a collection of 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian

1964 -- Visited Inle Lake in the Southern Shan States southeast of Mandalay, where he examined local approaches to artificial island agriculture

1964-1981 -- Became a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums, which became the Council for Museum Anthropology in 1974. Sturtevant was the Council's first vice president, serving two terms between 1974 and 1978, and was its president from 1978 to 1981

1965 -- Became curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History after the dissolution of the BAE

1965-1966 -- President of the American Society for Ethnohistory

1966 -- Named the editor of the Handbook of North American Indians

1967-1968 -- Fulbright scholar and lecturer at Oxford University's Institute of Social Anthropology

1969 -- Began serving on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives

1974-1989 -- Adjunct Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Johns Hopkins University

1976-1982 -- Served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986

1977 -- President of the American Ethnological Society

1980-1981 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1981 -- Spent part of the spring semester at the University of California Berkeley as a Regents Lecturer

1982-1988 -- Board of Directors of Survival International

1986 -- Divorced Theda Maw

1986-1987 -- Smithsonian Fellow at Oxford University's Worcester College

1990 -- Married Sally McLendon

1992 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1996 -- Awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters at Brown University

2007 -- Died March 2 in Rockville, MD
Related Materials:
Other materials relating to William C. Sturtevant at the National Anthropological Archives are included in the following collections:

Manuscript 4504

Manuscript 4595

Manuscript 4806

Manuscript 4821

Manuscript 4972

Manuscript 7045

Photo Lot 59

Photo Lot 79-51

Photo Lot 80-3

Photo Lot 81R

Photo Lot 86-68 (6)

Photo Lot 86-68 (7)

American Society for Ethnohistory records

Committee on Anthropological Research in Museum Records

Handbook of North American Indians records

Records of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History

Gordon Davis Gibson Papers, Sound Recordings

SPC Se Powhatan Confederacy Mattapony BAE No # 01790700

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913800

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913900

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04914000

Negative MNH 1530

Negative MNH 1530 B

Sturtevant is listed as a correspondent in the following NAA collections:

Administrative file, 1949-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology

John Lawrence Angel Papers

James Henri Howard Papers

Donald Jayne Lehmer Papers

John Victor Murra Papers

Records of the Society for American Archaeology

Albert Clanton Spaulding Papers

Waldo Rudolph Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel Papers

Copies of sound recordings made by William C. Sturtevant can be found at The California Language Archive at UC Berkeley in two collections, The William Sturtevant collection of Creek/Seminole sound recordings, which includes 31 minutes of Northern Muskogean linguistic field recordings from 1951, and The William Sturtevant collection of Mikasuki sound recordings, which includes 33 minutes of Mikasuki linguistic field recordings from 1951. Two sound tape reels of Seminole music Sturtevant recorded in Florida in 1951 can be found at Wesleyan University's World Music Archives. Folk songs on these recordings include "Scalping Sickness," "Bear Sickness with blowing," "Bear sickness without blowing," "Lullaby," "Feather Dance," "Snake Dance," and "Crazy Dance." Performers include Josie Billie, Lee Cypress, Harvey Jumper, Boy Jim, Charlie (Johnny?) Cypress, Little Tiger Tail, Billy Ossiola, and Charlie Billy Boy.
Separated Materials:
One video tape, "Seminole History and Tradition", was transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives. Series 2.2, Tukabahchee Plate: Glass negative of spectrogram from FBI (Box 135), removed for storage with other glass plate negatives.
Provenance:
These papers were transferred to the National Anthropological Archives by the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History.
Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
History  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Realia
Research
Notes
Office files
Theses
Slides (photographs)
Sound recordings
Exhibition catalogs
Field notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Microfilms
Newsletters
Manuscripts
Memorandums
Articles
Card files
Books
Artifacts
Negatives
Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2008-24
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3b2223e72-e872-41c5-ae7b-abd0b27eaf6a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2008-24
Online Media:

John Reed Swanton photograph collection of illustrations for "The Indians of the Southeastern United States"

Creator:
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Artist:
McKenney & Hall  Search this
De Batz, A.  Search this
Le Moyne de Morgues, Jacques, 1533?-1588  Search this
Tidball, J. C.  Search this
Trumbull, John, 1756-1843  Search this
Names:
Catlin, George, 1796-1872  Search this
Le Page du Pratz, -1775  Search this
Romans, Bernard  Search this
Verelst, Willem (painter)  Search this
White, John (painter)  Search this
Extent:
80 Copy prints (circa)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Alabama Indians  Search this
Atakapa  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Chitimacha  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Coushatta (Koasati)  Search this
Houma  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Natchez  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Timucua (archaeological)  Search this
Tunica  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Paintings
Sketches
Photographs
Illustrations
Drawings
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Photographs used to illustrate John Reed Swanton's "The Indians of the Southeastern United States" depicting American Indians of the Southeast and their dwellings, food preparation, and ceremonies.
Biographical note:
John Reed Swanton (1873-1958) was an ethnologist and ethnohistorian with the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) from 1900 until his retirement in 1944. Swanton spent his first few years at the BAE studying the Haida and Tlingit groups of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, and published a number of significant articles on the language, ethnography, and folklore of Northwest Coast Indians. His focus then shifted to the American Indians of the Southeastern United States, where his interest remained for the rest of his career. In addition to conducting ethnographic fieldwork in the Southeast, Swanton studied extensively the history of the area in order to better understand its indigenous cultures and is considered a pioneer in the field of ethnohistory. During his career Swanton published numerous articles and several major works on Southeastern American Indians, including the reference work The Indians of the Southeastern United States (1946), a Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin (No. 137).
Local Numbers:
NAA Photo Lot R87-2Q
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs published in BAE Bulletin 137 can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 80-39.

Photographs made by Swanton can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 76 and the BAE historical negatives.

The National Anthropological Archives hold more than 200 manuscripts created or collected by Swanton, in the Numbered Manuscripts.

Objects collected by Swanton, including potsherds from various sites in Southeastern United States can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accessions 111748, 113252, 122679, 129788, 165802, and 062577.
Contained in:
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collections, undated
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Copy prints in this collection that represent photographs not held by the National Anthropological Archives are for reference only.
Topic:
Dwellings  Search this
Catawba Indians  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Paintings
Sketches
Photographs
Illustrations
Drawings
Citation:
Photo Lot R87-2Q, John Reed Swanton photograph collection of illustrations for "The Indians of the Southeastern United States", National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R87-2Q
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3cf240fa7-fc87-4519-af13-9b6fe4253942
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r87-2q

MS 7188 The Northern and Kaigani Haida: A Study in Photographic Ethnohistory

Creator:
Blackman, Margaret B. (Margaret Berlin)  Search this
Extent:
336 Pages
Culture:
Kaigani Haida  Search this
Haida  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1973
Scope and Contents:
See finding aid to records of the American Ethnological Society for additional information.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7188
Topic:
Ethnohistory -- photographic  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 7188, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7188
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3910f2f63-d0da-4936-a16f-53d007c24bf5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7188

John Canfield Ewers Papers

Correspondent:
Hanson, James A.  Search this
Conner, Stuart W.  Search this
Dempsey, Hugh A.  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Schaeffer, Claude E.  Search this
Taylor, Colin F.  Search this
Creator:
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Names:
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
United States. National Park Service  Search this
Catlin, George, 1796-1872  Search this
Denig, Edwin Thompson, 1812-1858  Search this
Taylor, James E. (Artist)  Search this
Extent:
97 Linear feet
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cree  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1945-1993
Scope and Contents:
The John Canfield Ewers Papers document his wide ranging anthropological interests from early White depictions of Native Americans to the material culture of the Plains tribes through correspondence, exhibit catalogs, field notes, illustrations, lectures, maps, photocopies of archival materials, photographs, and writings. The collection includes materials relating to his numerous research projects and publications such as his books on plains sculpture and Jean Louis Berlandier as well as his field research among the Assiniboin and Blackfoot tribes. Ewers' career as an ethnologist based in a museum is amply documented through correspondence, exhibit plans and scripts, notes, and reports showcasing his work for the National Park Service and his fifty plus years at the Smithsonian. The voluminous correspondence file highlights his close collaboration with individuals such as Stu Conner, Hugh Dempsey, Claude Schaeffer, and Colin Taylor. Ewers' graduate studies and his family are featured in Series XI. One special category of materials in this collection is Series XIV, the card files. Ewers pulled information from his field notes and other sources, classified them, and typed or wrote them up on 3x5 or 5x7 inch index cards. He then organized these files alphabetically by subject within large categories such as "Collecting Alpha by Collectors Name" or "Fur Trade and Trade Goods." The card files include correspondence and photographs and closely relate to materials throughout the rest of the collection. Though Ewers' papers are primarily textual in nature, there are graphic materials throughout his files. Series XIII features the graphic materials that Ewers kept separate from his files such as the contents of his slide cabinets. There is overlap within this series as Ewers kept multiple copies of his slides in various locations. This series also includes audiotapes of conferences and symposia at which Ewers spoke and three scrapbooks. Of note are original pencil and ink drawings from his book, The Horse in Blackfoot Culture, in Series XV. Transcripts of oral history interviews with John Canfield Ewers are also available at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Arrangement note:
This collection was organized into 15 series - Correspondence, Research & Subject Files, Research Projects, Trips and Presentations, Artists of the Old West, North American Indian Art, Plains Sculpture Book, Berlandier Project, Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service, Personal, Writings by Ewers, Audiovisual Materials, Card Files, and Art Work.
Biographical/Historical note:
John Canfield Ewers (1909-1997) earned a B.A. from Dartmouth College in 1931 and an M.A. in Anthropology from Yale University in 1934. Ewers began his career in museums as a Field Curator for the National Park Service. He helped design exhibits at Vicksburg National Battlefield and Ocmulgee National Monument among others. In 1941, the Bureau of Indian Affairs hired Ewers to design and establish the Museum of the Plains Indian in Browning, Montana. After a short stint in the Navy during World War II, Ewers joined the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution. He worked at the Smithsonian for over fifty years in numerous capacities including Director of the National Museum of History and Technology (now called the National Museum of American History). Ewers' research dealt with the Plains Indians and the Blackfoot tribe in particular. Ewers wrote several books on a wide variety of topics including White artists depictions of Native Americans, Plains Indian sculpture, and the horse in Blackfoot Indian culture.
Restrictions:
The John Canfield Ewers papers are open for research.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Occupation:
Artists  Search this
Topic:
Ethnohistory  Search this
Carving  Search this
American Indians -- Plains  Search this
Artists -- United States -- West -- Biography  Search this
American Indians -- Clothing  Search this
American Indians -- arts and crafts  Search this
Museums -- History -- Exhibitions  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Repatriation  Search this
Citation:
John Canfield Ewers papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1998-35
See more items in:
John Canfield Ewers Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a79ed527-de46-4681-a92d-bd23575f45f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1998-35

Wooden Female Figure

Collector:
Titian R. Peale  Search this
Donor Name:
United States Exploring Expedition  Search this
Length - Object:
14 cm
Height - Object:
39 cm
Width - Object:
10 cm
Culture:
Fijian  Search this
Object Type:
Figure
Place:
Mbua (Bua) Bay, Vanua Levu Island, Fiji, Melanesia
Accession Date:
1858
Collection Date:
1840
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
66A00050
USNM Number:
E2998-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3f56f9cca-75aa-49c6-9817-e13118322b25
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8386869

Luiseño/Juaneño

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Harrington, Arthur  Search this
Names:
Mission San Juan Capistrano  Search this
Boscana, Gerónimo, 1776-1831  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
37 Boxes
Culture:
Luiseño Indians  Search this
Juaneño Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Maps
Place:
California -- Languages
California -- History
Date:
1919-1947
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Luiseno and Juaneno.

The Luiseno linguistic and ethnographic notes consist mainly of notes elicited from Maria Jesusa Omish and Maria Jesusa Soto in 1933 and from Bernardo Cuevas in 1934. The material is a random rehearing of the information which Harrington assembled for Chinigchinich ... with continued refinements of terms from DuBois and Kroeber. Substantial amounts of ethnographic information were recorded. A Gabrielino Indian, Jose Juan Jauro, was credited with an occasional Juaneno and Ventureno term. A group of Sparkman terms was reheard in 1934 with Micaela Calec and with Juan S. Calac, Willie [Calac], and Victor Meza. Jesus Jauro provided a few Gabrielino and Serrano terms.

A large section of the Luiseno vocabulary is arranged semantically; the notes were accumulated between 1932 and 1934 with elicitations from more than fifteen informants. Juaneno, Diegueno, Cahuilla, and Gabrielino terms were also recorded. Animals, ceremonies, placenames, and plant names contain the largest amounts of material. Included among the notes are first-hand recollections of events which the informants witnessed or participated in, bits of local biography, and ethnographic miscellany. There is also an earlier vocabulary, possibly from Cecilia Tortes, dated May 17, 1919.

Records of his placename trips cover information recorded in 1925, 1932, 1933, and 1934 from his trips to Corona, Elsinore, Hemet, Mesa Grande, Murietta rancheria, San Jacinto, San Juan Capistrano, Santa Ana, Soboba, Warner Springs, and many smaller sites between these points. He traveled with many Luiseno speakers and interviewed local residents along the way, noting the mileage between sites, and often sketching rough maps of the area. The result is a journal of linguistic, ethnographic, and geographic material, which is unfortunately somewhat difficult to read. Some Cupeno and Diego terms were recorded.

The Luiseno texts contains Chinigchinich songs composed by Jose Luis Albanez in the 1870s and 1880s. A small group of songs sung by Encarnaciona and Juan Calac were recorded for Harrington by Josephine Porter Cook in 1934 and 1935. No corresponding discs have been located in N.A.A. The related notes comprise linguistic annotations and often an English precis of the song text. A typescript titled "Notes for the Use of Miss Roberts" refers to the ethnomusicologist Helen H. Roberts. The document covers topics of an instructive nature such as the linguistics of song, the ethnography of song, musical accompaniment, dances, etc. Three Luiseno texts from Adan Castillo contain interlinear English or Spanish translations. Also present is the beginning of a possible paper titled "Southern California Indian Legends for Children" and dated 1947. Some of the stories are in English only.

The Juaneno vocabulary is limited to plant names elicited from Anastacia de Majel, with a few Luiseno equivalences from Jose Albanez. There are some incidental ethnographic observations.

The Juaneno linguistic and ethnographic notes section contains notes copied from the notebooks of Father St. John O'Sullivan of the Mission San Juan Capistrano. Most of the information is of an ethnographic nature from a number of informants, although some original linguistic data was supplied to O'Sullivan by Jose de la Gracia Cruz, known as Acu. Acu's reliability, unfortunately, was questionable. There is a mixture of anecdotes, reminiscences, stories, folklore, hymns, ethnohistory, and related miscellany. Some stories may be Luiseno rather than Juaneno.The linguistic content was reheard with Anastacia de Majel. Eustaquio Lugo added some Juaneno and Luiseno terms. There are also notes copied from San Juan Capistrano Mission records. A file of fieldwork with de Majel, which probably took place in 1933, resulted in substantial amounts of both linguistic and ethnographic information, with some Luiseno input from Albanez.

The rehearings of Sparkman data section contains Juaneno and Luiseno data. Some of the rehearings were conducted by Harrington's nephew, Arthur E. Harrington, who worked with de Majel.

Among the drafts and notes for Chingchinich are Luiseno annotations of Robinson's 1846 translation of Boscana's account. There are also incomplete, initial drafts of translations of Boscana's account into Catalonian and literary Spanish by E. Vigo Mestres and into Luiseno by Albanez.

Rehearings of notes used for Chinigchinch include information on material culture, names of persons, placenames, and more stories and anecdotes. Vocabulary and especially orthography were accorded detailed attention. Rehearings of terms from DuBois are included and some Luiseno equivalences.

Notes and drafts for Boscana's original manuscript contains the results of his fieldwork among Luiseno and Juaneno speakers in 1934 as part of his plan to publish annotations of the manuscript. Harrington worked with many of the same people, particularly Anastacia de Majel and Jose Olivas Albanez. Adan Castillo gave a number of Luiseno and Cahuilla terms for the phonetic section. Harrington worked from a numbered typescript of the original Spanish manuscript. This triple-spaced material is interfiled with related ethnographic and linguistic handwritten notes. A second complete typed copy of the Spanish manuscript is filed separately.
Biographical / Historical:
Aside from a continuing effort to record the languages of the "Mission Indians of California," John P. Harrington's study of Luiseno and Juaneno sprang from two main roots. The first was his interest in providing a linguistic treatment of Alfred Robinson's 1846 translation of Father Geronimo Boscana's account of the Indians of San Juan Capistrano Mission. The second involved plans for extensive rehearings of Philip Stedman Sparkman's Luiseno vocabulary collected between 1899 and 1906. The Bancroft Library in Berkeley, California, holds this manuscript, the title page of which reads as follows: "The Luiseno Language, Being the language spoken by the San Luis Rey, San Luis, or Luiseno Indians of Southern California. A Shoshonean dialect. Written by P. S. Sparkman, at the Rincon, San Diego County, California, 1899 to 1906." It consists of 713 leaves of typescript, with annotations and revisions by Alfred L. Kroeber.

Harrington began serious and thorough work on the annotations for Boscana's historical account in March of 1932. His interest continued until at least, and probably past, April 1936 and resulted in two publications and extensive notes on a proposed third publication. Harrington was convinced that Boscana's account, probably written between 1820 and 1822, stood alone as an early ethnological document on the Spanish Missionary period in California and was therefore an ideal subject for major ethnographic and linguistic amplifications. The work proceeded in three general phases.

The first phase culminated in the publication early in 1933 of Harrington's book titled Chinigchinich: A Revised and Annotated Version of Alfred Robinson's Translation of Father Geronimo Boscana's Historical Account of the Belief, Usages, Customs and Extravagencies [sic] of the Indians of This Mission of San Juan Capistrano called the Acagchemem Tribe. The linguistic material is chiefly Luiseno.

In 1933 while Chinigchinich ... was still in the printing process, Harrington began a second round of rehearings, this time focusing mainly on the Juaneno language. This period forms the second cohesive phase.

Meanwhile a search initiated in 1932 for Boscana's original manuscript was completed. Abel Doysie wrote from Paris that he had discovered the original document in the Bibliotheque Nationale. M. Doysie photographed the sixty-page manuscript and sent it to Harrington on January 3, 1933. Harrington's translation, A New Original Version of Boscana's Historical Account of the San Juan Capistrano Indians of Southern California, appeared in June 1934. In the introduction, Harrington stated that "it is an 1822 variant of the Historical Account that Robinson translated, each version containing certain important data that the other omits. " The new manuscript contained fifteen chapters; the Robinson translation had sixteen.

On page 3, Harrington mentioned "exhaustive notes" for a later volume of annotations to the translation and although in 1936 he received a {dollar}500 grant from the Social Research Council to carry through this plan, the annotations were not published. Phase three, however, centers around this endeavor. In 1935 and 1936, Harrington copied and reorganized hundreds of pages of notes and added new data preparatory to the proposed third publication.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Luiseño language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
manuscripts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Songs
Narratives
Maps
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 3.8
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers
John Peabody Harrington papers / Series 3: Papers relating to the Native American history, language and culture of southern California and Basin
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34d37f113-9a8f-464c-8e6a-ee8aca796295
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14310

Mahican/Stockbridge

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
8 Boxes
Culture:
Mahican  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Place:
Stockbridge-Munsee Reservation (Wis.)
Date:
1930-1952
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northeast/Southeast series contains Harrington's Mahican/Stockbridge research. The materials consist of comparative vocabulary, comparative grammar, comparative linguistic notes, and writings.

The vocabulary is arranged according to numerous semantic categories designated by Harrington. The basic source is Truman Michelson's Stockbridge Manuscript 2734, information from which was reheard with Mahican speakers, and compared with secondary sources and with Abenaki material rewritten or removed from his own field notes. Harrington interfiled Menominee information secured later in Washington from Al Dodge. The "Persons" category is quite rich in biographical information. Webb Miller apparently identified for Harrington the subjects of some of his old photographs, although the prints were not found with the notes. There are two pages taken from an old family record listing the names Pye, Bennett, Moon, and Turkey, the dates ranging from 1845 to 1865. Harrington evidently began another (possibly later) semantic organization of the Michelson notes. Other secondary sources used as a basis for comparison are Brinton and Anthony (1888), James Trumbull's Natick Dictionary (1903), and Frederic Baraga's A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language (1853).

A set of grammatical notes is also based on MS 2734 but it is not as well developed as the vocabulary material. Only a few notes deal with phonetics. There is more information on verbs and numerals than on any other morphological category.

The comparative linguistic notes are from Harrington's two 1949 interviews with Bernice Robinson Huntington and encompass vocabulary, grammar, ethnography, ethnohistory, and some miscellaneous information on Stockbridge persons, including something of her own background. One group is arranged alphabetically by main entry in Mahican, with Delaware, St. Francis Abenaki, Natick, Ojibwa, and Cree equivalences (if any) placed immediately following the related Mahican term. The unmarked main entries are apparently Huntington's original terms; those in ink marked Brinton and Anthony are from their 1888 dictionary; the pencil notes are St. Francis Abenaki obtained in the field and are identified by informant "codes" Am. (Alfred Miller), Den. (George Dennis); Watso (John Watso); (Oliver Obomsawin). The significance of the numbered divider pages was not documented. Another group designated "B2" probably refers to the fall rehearing with Bernice Huntington and is confined chiefly to St. Francis Abenaki and Menominee equivalences. Some new information from Huntington, especially changes in orthography, may have been interfiled. A third group contains Huntington's comments on Mathew S. Henry's Vocabulary. ... It represents an attempt to organize Henry's material according to a semantically arranged vocabulary and a brief grammar touching on phonetics and morphology. Harrington crossed out St. Francis Abnaki comparisons and, according to a field note, copied them for use elsewhere. He also incorporated some of Huntington's (B2) terms.

This subseries also contains a draft and notes relating to his unpublished manuscript, "Seven Mahican Texts Recorded by Truman Michelson". Harrington excerpted the texts verbatim from the Michelson MS 2734, including Michelson's interlinear Mahican translations and free English versions. The draft contains a short vocabulary culled from the texts which Harrington arranged semantically. He provided some Mahican historical background and explained certain orthographic changes made to update Michelson's spelling and to facilitate pronunciation. An eighth text in English only was given to Michelson by Sterling Peters. There is informative bibliographical material both in the body of the draft and in the separate section devoted to this category.
Biographical / Historical:
The first evidence of John P. Harrington's interest in studying the Mahican language surfaced in January 1930 correspondence. (At this time, he used the names Mahican and Mohegan interchangeably.) In September 1930 he tried to interest Bernard Hoffmann of Santa Barbara, California, to fund a Wisconsin field trip in a search for Stockbridge vocabulary, legends, songs, placenames, tribenames, history, etc. He hoped to find native speakers who could rehear terms from early manuscripts and publications.

Between 1930 and 1949, Harrington secured copies of or made reading notes from some of these manuscripts, most of which are clearly identified in the field notes. The most exhaustively reheard and reorganized body of material consists of terms and text copied from the Stockbridge linguistic notes and texts recorded by Truman Michelson in 1914 (B.A.E. MS 2734). Harrington's notes and correspondence reveal a diligent search for those informants of Michelson who might still be living in the Stockbridge, Wisconsin, area in the hope that they would be willing to work with him.

In 1949, Harrington arrived at the Stockbridge Reservation on April 16 and remained there until April 23. Mr. Arvid E. Miller drove him around the area and introduced him to numerous other Millers, most of whom supplied linguistic and ethnohistoric information. His first introduction to Bernice Metoxen Robinson Huntington (sometimes erroneously spelled Robertson) took place at this time. In 1914, at the age of about thirty-seven, she had been one of Michelson's informants. She had also worked with Frank T. Siebert,Jr., in 1935 and 1936. She was a black adopted by the Mahicans with whom she lived from earliest childhood; she learned Menominee in school. Harrington's first meeting with her was unsuccessful, the second more cordial and fruitful, and about the last week of October 1949, on a subsequent trip to Wisconsin, he was able to hear and rehear with her a substantial amount of Mahican linguistics. He found another excellent informant in Webb Miller. Most of the notes are of a comparative nature, particularly comparisons with the two Abenaki dialects and with Delaware. This fell into place rather easily as Harrington was in various cities of Maine, in Quebec, and in Albany, N.Y., between April 24 and October 24 taking notes from St. Francis and Penobscot Abenaki speakers. He extracted Delaware terms from Daniel G. Brinton and Albert S. Anthony's A Lenape-English Dictionary (1888), and from the unpublished manuscript of Mathew S. Henry, Vocabulary of Words in Various Indian Dialects of the United States (ca. 1861). In November and December while traveling between New York and Washington for other reasons, he carried most of these notes with him and began the work of sorting and rearranging, which continued on and off in Washington at least until 1952. Other equivalent terms are in Menominee and were supplied by interviews in Washington with Al Dodge, an employee of the Interior Department. Ojibwa and Pequot terms are mainly from secondary sources.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Mahican language  Search this
Menominee language  Search this
Ojibwa language  Search this
Mohegan language  Search this
Massachuset language  Search this
Delaware language  Search this
Abenaki language  Search this
Cree language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Phonetics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 6.5
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers
John Peabody Harrington papers / Series 6: Native American History, Language, and Culture of the Northeast & Southeast
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3dab14dc9-d14e-4ac2-b02d-2bed09dbe1a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14955
Online Media:

John Reed Swanton photographs relating to Southeastern Native Americans

Creator:
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Extent:
175 Lantern slides
415 Prints (duplicates not counted, silver gelatin)
601 Negatives (nitrate)
Culture:
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Chitimacha  Search this
Creoles  Search this
Houma  Search this
Natchez  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Tunica  Search this
Taensa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Pascagoula Indians  Search this
Coushatta (Koasati)  Search this
Alabama Indians  Search this
Atakapa  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Euchee (Yuchi)  Search this
Coosa Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Prints
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1900s-1910s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of Southeastern Native American people, homes, ceremonial grounds, and events made circa 1900s-1910s by John Reed Swanton. The lantern slides include images of southeastern rivers and bayous and historical maps. Additionally, there are a number of slides with notes and charts relating to linguistic comparisons.
Arrangement:
Swanton's original order has been maintained. The photographs are in alphabetical order by language group or tribe. Lantern slides are listed at the end.
Biographical/Historical note:
John Reed Swanton (1873-1958) was an ethnologist and ethnohistorian with the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) from 1900 until his retirement in 1944. Swanton spent his first few years at the BAE conducting research among the Haida and Tlingit communities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, and published a number of significant articles on the language, ethnography, and folklore of Northwest Coast Tribes. His focus then shifted to Native Americans of the Southeastern United States.

In addition to conducting ethnographic fieldwork in the Southeast, Swanton studied the history of the area in order to better understand its indigenous cultures and is considered a pioneer in the field of ethnohistory. During his career Swanton published numerous articles and several major works on Southeastern Native Americans, including the reference work The Indians of the Southeastern United States, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 137, 1946.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds more than 200 manuscripts created or collected by Swanton.

Photographs relating to Swanton's work with the Tlingit are held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24.

The anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History hold objects collected by Swanton, including potsherds from various sites in Southeastern United States (accessions 111748, 113252, 122679, 129788, 165802, and 062577).
Restrictions:
The original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Catawba Indians  Search this
Dance  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Games  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Lantern slides
Citation:
Photo Lot 76, John Reed Swanton photographs relating to Southeastern Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.76
See more items in:
John Reed Swanton photographs relating to Southeastern Native Americans
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3bd54b9ba-90dd-4c40-ad8d-b106af9d3278
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-76
Online Media:

[Dincauze - Ethnohistory of New England Native Peoples]

Collection Creator:
Kerewsky-Halpern, Barbara  Search this
Halpern, Joel Martin  Search this
Container:
Box 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1984
Collection Restrictions:
All except Series 9. Photographs is stored off-site. Advance notice must be given to view off-site materials.

Access to materials containing social security numbers; Halpern's students' graded materials; and manuscripts and grant applications sent to Halpern for review is restricted. Additional materials have also been restricted at Halpern's request.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.

Please note that some of the materials in the collection are copies made by Joel M. Halpern; the originals are most likely deposited at other archives. For these materials, permission will need to be obtained from the repositories where the originals are held. See Related Collections for a list of repositories.
See more items in:
Joel Martin Halpern and Barbara Kerewsky-Halpern papers
Joel Martin Halpern and Barbara Kerewsky-Halpern papers / Series 6: Teaching Files / 6.2: Syllabi
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw322a53c1a-0638-47dd-a212-65d0e71e538f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1986-17-ref1246

A 20th-century portrait of Lake Clark, Alaska, 1900-2000 / John B. Branson

Author:
Branson, John B  Search this
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (Agency : U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 264 p. : ill., maps, ports. ; 21 x 30 cm. + 1 videodisc (4 3/4 in.)
Type:
Video recordings
History
Place:
Alaska
Clark, Lake
Clark, Lake (Alaska)
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (Alaska)
Date:
2014
Topic:
Ethnohistory  Search this
Indians of North America--Antiquities  Search this
Dena'ina Indians--History  Search this
History  Search this
Discovery and exploration  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1050080

Mills, Barbara - "A Photographic Ethnohistory of the Zuni . . .," 1983

Collection Creator::
National Museum of the American Indian. Curatorial Office  Search this
Container:
Box 10 of 17
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 08-029, National Museum of the American Indian. Curatorial Office, Curatorial Records
See more items in:
Curatorial Records
Curatorial Records / Box 10
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa08-029-refidd1e5027

An introduction to the history of Bornu

Author:
Hallam, W. K. R. 1927-1996  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Nigeria
Borno State
Chad, Lake
Borno State (Nigeria)
Kanem-Bornu Empire
Date:
1970
Topic:
Ethnohistory  Search this
History  Search this
Papyrus boats  Search this
Kings and rulers  Search this
Call number:
QH195.N5 A15X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_756144

Die Sala / von W. Schulz-Weidner

Author:
Schulz-Weidner, Willy  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Ethiopia
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region
Zala
Zala (Ethiopia)
Date:
1963
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Material culture  Search this
Vernacular architecture  Search this
Cushitic languages  Search this
Ethnohistory  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
DT380 .S77 1963
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1027273

The Development and Aplication of Guidelines for the Research, Use and Interpretation of Ethnohistoric Photographs

Author:
O'Hagan, Heather  Search this
Type:
Citations
Date:
1990
Topic:
Museum techniques  Search this
Ethnohistory  Search this
Photography  Search this
Data Source:
Museum Studies Bibliography
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_bib_13475

Window on the past : the photographic ethnohistory of the Northern and Kaigani Haida / Margaret B. Blackman

Author:
Blackman, Margaret B  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 236 pages : illustrations, maps ; 28 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Date:
1981
Topic:
Haida Indians  Search this
Photography in ethnology  Search this
Call number:
E99.H2 B62
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_148080

Sharing Our Knowledge [videorecording] : a conference of Tlingit tribes and clans, March 25-28, 2009 = Wooshteen Kanax̲tulaneegí Haa At Wuskóowu

Title:
Wooshteen Kanax̲tulaneegí Haa At Wuskóowu
Author:
Sharing Our Knowledge: a Conference of Tlingit Tribes and Clans (2009 : Juneau, Alaska)  Search this
Hope, Gerry  Search this
Northstar Television Network  Search this
Tlingit Readers, Inc  Search this
Alaska Humanities Forum  Search this
Physical description:
37 discs : sd., col. ; 4 3/4 in
Type:
Videorecordings
Congresses
Place:
Alaska
Date:
2009
C2009
Topic:
Alaska Natives  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Alaska Natives--Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
E78.A3 S44 2009
video 001264
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_994480

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